The Sliding Hertzian Point Contact in Tribotesting

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The Sliding Hertzian Point Contact in Tribotesting
The Sliding Hertzian Point Contact in Tribotesting: Understanding its Limitations
as a Model of Real Systems
TRACK OR CATEGORY
Tribotesting
AUTHORS AND INSTITUTIONS
G. Plint, Phoenix Tribology Ltd, Kingsclere, United Kingdom
INTRODUCTION
The most important criterion for correlation between model test and actual application is that the test should
reproduce the wear and/or failure mechanisms of the application. We can be confident that if the wear and/or
failure mechanism in the laboratory emulation is not the same as the wear and/or failure mechanism in the real
system, the test model is probably wrong.
We start with the position that, in the real world:
1.
There are no macro-scale engineering applications involving sliding hertzian point contacts. The
only real system hertzian point contacts involve sliding and rolling (toroidal transmission) and pure rolling
(ball bearings), where the point of contact moves on both surfaces.
2.
There are very few engineering applications where the same material is used on both sides of a
pure sliding tribological contact. This is to avoid poor tribological compatibility.
3.
Most practical engineering surfaces, for sliding or sliding/rolling lubricated applications, are much
rougher than most standard, sliding point contact test surfaces, where many test standards call for highly
polished specimens.
4.
Most practical engineering surfaces are designed to wear, not fail. Many sliding hertzian point
contact tests start by failing the surface and running on a failed surface, or, to be more precise, subsurface.
However, there are many tribological tests using sliding hertzian point contacts; it should be apparent that these
tests do not model anything in the real world. It therefore begs the question as to why we use so many sliding
hertzian point contact tests, for lubricant and material evaluation.
MAIN BODY
Contact Pressure and Wear
With sliding hertzian point contact tests of all types, the contact pressure starts unrealistically high and then falls
substantially in the first few minutes of motion. As an example of this, in the ISO fuel lubricity test, the contact
pressure with the low lubricity reference fluid falls from about 820 MPa to less than 20 MPa in the first fifteen
minutes. The difference in wear scar width between candidate samples is established within the first few minutes.
Subsequently, tests continue to run at very much lower contact pressures, but at different contact pressures,
depending on the fluid. There would be no such differences in contact pressure in a real machine: the contact
pressure in a gear, cam or ring liner contact does not alter, just because we decide to test two different additives.
Hard Ball on Soft Plate
Few attempts have been made to explain what is happening with wear scar generation in the sliding point contact
tests. For a ball sliding in a conforming groove, we would expect an elliptical contact patch. However, with
reciprocating motion, at stroke end, we would expect the ball to conform to the formed end of the wear track,
increasing the dimensions of the contact patch in the direction of motion. Exactly this effect is evident with tests
using the high lubricity (good) reference fuel, with wear scars showing an elliptical wear scar with grooving in the
direction of motion, plus end of stroke witness marks, which lack directionality. ISO 12156 both mentions and
illustrates this type of wear scar, but makes no attempt to explain it, simply limiting comment to “In these cases it can be more difficult to see or measure the true scar shape” [1].
It is apparent that the ball wear scar for the high lubricity reference fluid involves two different wear mechanisms:
an elliptically shaped central area subject to severe adhesive wear and end of stroke witness marks with the
appearance of three body abrasive wear, perhaps caused by the accumulation of wear debris at the end of the
stroke. An alternative explanation for the witness marks could be a form of impact fretting; the relative motion of
the ball against the end of the plate wear scar must involve surfaces coming into contact and then sliding with
very small amplitude motion.
With the low lubricity (bad) reference fuel, the main wear scar and the stroke end witness marks merge into one
larger scar, with much less obvious directionality. The wear scar with the low lubricity fluid has the appearance of
seizure or galling. This would appear to be an example of “junction growth”, with the actual area of contact
approaching the nominal area of contact.
The difference between the wear scars appears primarily to be a difference of wear mechanism, that being, for
the high lubricity fluid, severe adhesive wear, plus something indeterminate on either side of the wear scar, in the
direction of motion, and, for the low lubricity fluid, seizure. Why bother measuring the scar dimensions and not just
report whether the fluid produces seizure or not?
Soft Ball on Hard Plate
By way of comparison, if we run on a hardened plate, we end up with a near perfectly round wear scar on the ball
and no plastic deformation on the plate, with both lower friction and much lower friction noise, in other words,
much smoother sliding. Of course, by hardening the plate, we have significantly increased the yield stress of the
material, thus preventing plastic deformation.
Wear Scar or Witness Mark?
The conventional method of measuring the wear scar on a ball sample is to measure the wear scar diameter in
the direction of sliding and transverse to the direction of sliding, but how do we know, in a low wear situation, that
what we are measuring is wear and not simply a sort of witness mark, as one would get on the ball in a Brinell
hardness test?
One approach is to normalize the nominal scar measurement by dividing it by the calculated initial Hertzian
contact area. This way we can determine if the measured wear area is larger than the Herztian contact. Although
we cannot assume that a normalized wear scar area of 1 indicates no wear, we can assume that a value of 1
indicates a well performing lubricant compared with a lubricant that produces a value well in excess of 1.
Additive Sensitivity
Sliding point contact tests are insensitive to increased additive concentration, once a complete, coherent, additive
film has been formed. This is because there are only a finite number of absorption sites for additives to latch
on/adhere to, applying Langmuir adsorption theory [2]. By way of contrast, data can be found to demonstrate
sensitivity to additive concentration, when using a line contact configuration. The issue is this:
1. with the ball, the contact pressure falls much faster and much further than with the cylinder.
2. with the cylinder, a much larger surface area is sampled than with a ball.
With regard to the wear generated, with mild wear, we expect the surfaces to get smoother and for severe wear
we would expect the surfaces to get rougher. Obliteration of the original surface topography indicates severe
adhesive wear or seizure. We can generate mild wear with a line contact, but find it very difficult with a point
contact test to operate in any regime other than severe wear or seizure.
Stop/Start Tests with a Line Contact
It will be apparent that if we choose to run tests with a line contact, in a mild wear regime, we produces a better
model of real systems, however it will take much longer to generate a measurable amount of wear, compared with
a sliding point contact test. We need to devise a method to stress the lubricant additives without inducing failure in
the material samples. The answer is to run with a precisely controlled lubricant charge and a repeated stop/start
cycle [3]. With this method, we can significantly increase the sensitivity of the test, but we still reach a saturation
point, when it comes to increasing additive concentration and the measurement of wear scar width. However,
other measurements, including electrical contact potential and instantaneous friction, can be used to indicate
progressive, controlled, smoothing of the surfaces, with increasing additive concentration. This indicates that the
wear is taking place at an asperity level, as happens in many, real, lubricated engineering contacts, but this does
not necessarily result in an increase in the measured wear scar width.
Exploring parameters other than simple wear scar dimensions, as a measure of additive concentration is perhaps
the way forward. The real challenge is to explore whether it is possible to measure changes in surface topography
on the plate sample, in situ, in the test machine. With a stop/start cycle, this could of course be attempted, on an
exposed part of the plate sample, during stop events.
Conclusions
In this paper we have attempted to explain what it is that is generated in a sliding hertzian point contact test. For
the most part, the only justification for running a sliding point contact test is that it allows rapid generation of a
wear scar that can be measured, at best, with a degree of uncertainty as to the resulting wear mechanism or
mechanisms involved and what to measure. Whether this is a meaningful measurement is open to question,
bearing in mind that there are no real engineering applications involving a sliding point contact. We have
proposed a sliding line contact configuration as a better model of mild wear in real systems and have suggested
current and future methods of detecting progressive smoothing of engineering surfaces, to address the difficulty of
measuring mild wear, in a test machine.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Professor John Williams:
Professor Malcolm Fox:
Dr Peter Lee:
Dr Dirk Drees:
Carl Hagar:
Tim Kamps:
University of Cambridge
University of Leeds
SouthWest Research
Falex Tribology NV
The Timken Company
University of Southampton
REFERENCES
[1]. ISO 12156 Diesel Fuel -- Assessment of lubricity using the high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR).
[2]. Fox, M.F. Development of the diesel fuel additive lubricity model. Proceedings of the Institution of
Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, February 1, 2007; vol. 221, 2: pp. 161164.
[3]. Walker, J.C., Kamps, T. J., Wood, R.J.K., The influence of start–stop transient velocity on the friction
and wear behaviour of a hyper-eutectic Al–Si automotive alloy. Wear Volume 306, Issues 1–2, 30 August
2013, Pages 209–218.
KEYWORDS
Wear:
Wear/Failure
Testing Devices, Wear: Equipment Wear Tests
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George Plint
Phoenix Tribology Ltd
[email protected]
A G PLINT © 2015
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