SAGIR Report 2009-2010

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SAGIR Report 2009-2010
October 2011
SAGIR
Report 2009-2010
Decors A., Moinet M., Mastain O.
SHEETS PER SPECIES :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
General points
Mallard
Red deer
Roe deer
Columbids
European rabbit
European brown hare
Mountain ungulates
Grey partridge
Red fox
Wild boar
Other birds
Other health news
SAGIR NETWORK
October 2011
SAGIR REPORT 2009-2010
(Decors A., Moinet M, Mastain O.)
GENERAL POINTS
Introduction
daver and good case histories, are a facilitated diagnosis.
The method used is that described in the
previous report 2006-2008 (Decors
2010)
Indication of symptoms or TTT
treatment
Indication of discovery environment
% of cases
The SAGIR network is a collaborative network for the epidemiological surveillance of
wild bird and terrestrial
mammal mortality, which
relies at the departement
level on agents of the Departemental hunting federations, the departemental
services of the National hunting and wildlife agency, and
the departemental veterinary
laboratoires. The observation
and collection work carried
out by agents in the field is
the foundation of this surveillance. Accordingly, we studied first the case history
recording and the collection
aspects, to target avenues
for improvement, an essential prerequisite for progress
in the diagnosis. A good ca-
Physiological state specified
Mention of the sex
Mention of age class
Precise species
Certainty on date of discovery
Municipality specified
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Fields of the sagir sheet
Figure 1 : Filling in of the SAGIR form
In this issue
SAGIR Form
1
Freshness of cada- 2
Number of alerts
2
SAGIR sample
2
Species richness
3
Box PNP
3
Filling in of the old SAGIR form
Figure 1 shows a high level
of information reported on
the SAGIR form, with values
close to 100% as regards the
municipality, the date of discovery, the precise species,
the environment of discovery
and the bodily condition.
Some information such as
age or sex is sometimes difficult to determine in the field,
some information such as
sex dermination for example
can be completed at the moment of necropsy by the laboratory.
Information on clinical signs,
biological indices or pesticide treatments is filled in in
45% of cases, this figure can
be explained on the one
hand by the fact that only
30% of animals are found
alive (for which one can des-
cribe clinical signs) and on
the other hand by the difficulty of obtaining information on pesticide treatments,
when one is in a surveillance
and not in a survey process.
GENERAL POINTS
Freshness of the cadavers according to the species’ family
Partridge cadaver
(Source : Stéphane Bégon)
PASSERIFORMES
Species family
Waterbirds and small sized
birds are collected « fresh»
in only 30% of cases. Passeriformes for example, are
indeed less easy to detect
and are less easily conserved than larger sized species. Besides, birds in a
damp environment remain
longer available in the environment but are generally
discovered only when they
are on the banks, and they
have sometimes remained
for a period of time in the
water before their discovery.
GALLIFORMES
COLUMBIFORMES
ANSERIFORMES
LAGOMORPHA
ARTIODACTYLA
0,00%
10,00% 20,00% 30,00% 40,00% 50,00% 60,00%
% of individuals of the Family sampled fresh
Figure 2 : Freshness of cadavers
Number of alerts
« The number of
alerts has doubled
between 2009 and
2010 »
In 2009, 14 alerts were
centralized at the national
level against 32 in 2010.
Three national « Flash infos » followed these alerts
in 2010, they concerned
an abnormal mortality according to field observers :
of swallows,
of European brown
hares,
of European rabbits
The SAGIR sample from 2009 to 2010
2010, which can be related
to the large collection of
hares and rabbits in the
7000
autumn 2010 in some departements.
Figure 3 :Number of SAGIR cases per year
6271
6000
Nombre de cas
In two years, 4 436 SAGIR
cases were collected.
1.51% of these cases were
not exploitable (1.74% in
2009 and 1.31% in 2010).
Figure 3 shows that the
number of SAGIR cases is
stable since 2008. A slight
increase in the number of
cases was observed in
5000
4000
3475
3043
3000
2320
2038
2328
2000
1000
0
2005
Page 2
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
SAGIR NETWORK
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
%
% cumulative
OTHERS
SONG THRUSH
ALPINE IBEX
COMMON CRANE
HOUSE SPARROW
EURASIAN TEAL
WHITE STORK
HERRING GULL
STOCK DOVE
COOT
HOUSE MARTIN
SWALLOW SP.
ROCK PIGEON
MOUFLON
PHEASANT
COLLARED DOVE
PERDRIX SP.
BARN SWALLOW
BADGER
CARRION CROW
MUTE SWAN
RED PARTRIDGE
COMMON BUZZARD
EUROPEAN
CHAMOIS
RED DEER
PIGEON SP.
WOOD PIGEON
MALLARD
GREY PARTRIDGE
RED FOX
WILDBOAR
RABBIT
ROE DEER
HARE
In the following report, we
superseded the wood piwill work mainly in on exgeon, which may be the
ploitable SAGIR cases, that result of an increased colis to say 4 366 cases.
lection of partridge cada30 % of animals were
vers in connection with the
found alive (either shot,
Pegasus study, initiated in
trapped or found mori2010.
bund).
3% of SAGIR cases are
viscera, coming from hunter-killed animals or large
animals that cannot be
moved. A diagnosis could
be made from organs
alone in 54.6%
Figure 4 :
(71/130) of cases.
The predominant species
in 2009-2010 were the
same as in 2008. Howe- Table 1: The 7 predominant species in
the database in 2006*, 2007 and
ver, the grey partridge
2008
species
Species distribution in the 2009-2010 sample
* from Terrier et al. 2006
Species richness
2006
2007
2008
mallard
brown hare
brown hare
brown hare
roe deer
roe deer
roe deer
mallard
wild boar
pigeon sp
rabbit
rabbit
mute swan
wild boar
red fox
starling
red fox
wood pigeon
common buzzard mute swan
mallard
100
90
80
Number of species
The species richness is
slightly lower than that observed in 2008 but is nonetheless significant, slightly less than 80 species in
2009 and in 2010. This
richness can be partly explained by the implementation of a toxicovigilance
operation, encouraging the
collection of any cadaver in
a state of being analysed,
whatever the species.
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
2009
2010
« In two years,
4 436 SAGIR cases
were collected.
1.51% of these
cases only were not
exploitable »
Figure 5 : Number of species per year
References
Terrier M.E., Barrat J., Guibé A., Rossi S., Hars J., Gaillet J.R. 2006. Bilan du réseau SAGIR, réseau ONCFS/FNC/FDC, Office national de la chasse et de la faune sauvage
(ed), Paris, 48p.
Decors A. et Mastain O. Epidémiosurveillance de la faune sauvage — Bilan des analyses effectuées de 2006 à 2008 dans le cadre du réseau SAGIR. Paris : oficce national de la chasse et de la faune sauvage. Juillet 2010. 48p. Accesible sur http://www.oncfs.gouv.fr/Reseau-SAGIR-ru105/Rapports-SAGIR-ar156
Page 3
The Mallard duck
October 2011
SAGIR REPORT 2009-2010
(Decors A., Moinet M., Mastain O.)
Mallard
(Anas platyrhyncos)
Salient facts
Luc Barbier
virus (2010). The case histories collected
by observers of the network showed that
the ducks came from a husbandry of the
Loire where the disease was rife (letter
165).
Herpesvirus infection
The mortality of mallard ducks on a pond
near the Rhine was
attributed to a herpes
Anticoagulant intoxications
The increased mortality notified in July
2009 was related to a chlorophacinone
intoxication in Gironde. Chlorophacinone is
used for rodenticide treatment (fight against
voles, garden dormouse, dormouse, field
mouse, muskrat, black rat, house mouse and
brown rat).
Several incidents related to malicious acts
were reported for this species. Chlorophacinone combined with bromadiolone, another
anticoagulant, was also responsible for a
grouped mortality of mallard ducks in the
Tarn in March 2010, of malevolent origin.
Figure 2 : Number of mallard
duck cadavers collected per
month in 2009 and 2010.
25
20
15
2009
10
2010
Chloralose intoxixation
Several cases of grouped mortality from chloralose intoxication,
one of the major causes of intoxication of wild birds, were reported: in 2010 in the Nord departement, in 2009 in Isère and Aude
(Figure 1).
Botulism
The large number of cases in
August 2009 was attributed to
notifications of waterborne botulism in the Sarthe and Pas-deCalais departements (Figure 1
and 2). A retrospective study on
the network data from 1995 to
2007 shows that cases of waterborne botulism are notified all
year round but with a clear preponderance during the summer
and a peak in August. Dabbling
ducks account for the vast majority of birds discovered in botulism
outbreaks (Figure 3).
5
be
r
O
ct
ob
er
?
t
Se
pt
em
Au
gu
s
Ju
ly
Ju
ne
ay
M
Ap
ril
ar
ch
M
ry
0
Ja
nu
a
number of cadavers collected
Figure 1: Spatial distribution
of animals collected in 2009
and 2010
Difénacoum caused mortality in
the Hérault in January 2010.
Month
Figure 3 : Distribution of botulism outbreaks per group of wild species
recorded by SAGIR from 1995 to 2007
The Red deer
October 2011
SAGIR REPORT 2009-2010
(Decors A., Moinet M., Mastain O.)
Red deer
(Cervus elaphus)
Salient facts
Mortality in Sologne
14
12
2009
10
2010
6
4
2
Au
gu
st
Se
pt
em
be
r
O
ct
ob
er
No
ve
m
be
r
De
ce
m
be
r
Ju
ly
Ju
nj
e
Ap
ril
M
ar
cf
h
0
ry
Fe
br
ua
ry
ITD of Cher, Loir-et-Cher and Loiret have passent on to the
national team observations of red deer found dead or ill or
weakened and caught by dogs. No typical necropsy picture
was revealed. A heavy parasitic infestation was however
noted on young animals coming from high density areas. It
is recalled that as with MAC episodes in the roe deer, the
health outcomes should not be disconnected from knowledge relating to the demographic trends of populations.
Bovine tuberculosis
8
Ja
nu
a
number of cadavers collected
J.C. Boisguérin
At the beginning of 2009, a
winter mortality of red deer was
reported in Sologne (SAGIR letter n°164) .
Month
Figure 1: Number of red deer cadavers collected per month in
2009 and 2010.
One case of bovine tuberculosis was detected in a young
one year old red deer found dead on 21/04/2009 in Morbihan (SAGIR letter n°165). This animal was discovered in
the municipality where a deer farm was subjected to a
total stamping-out procedure due to the disease. This animal presented a generalized evolutive tuberculosis that
could explain the death. An epidemiological link is thus
obviously suspected between the two events. The epidemiological surveys carried out during the 2009-2010 and
2010-2011 hunting seasons on red deer and wild boar
killed in the area did not reveal any case. The tuberculous
red deer thus remained an isolated case.
The situation of tuberculosis in wildlife is described in the sheet « other
health news »
In this issue
Salient facts
1
Intoxications
2
Bluetongue
2
Intoxications
EXPOSURE
CHLORALOSE
IF
INTOXICATION BY ACORNS
total
number red deer
Table1 : Red deer intoxications in 2009 and 2010
1
1
2
5
Intoxications recorded during this
period are mainly alimentary, but
a chloralose intoxication was
observed, which is recurrent in
cervids.
Red deer
Targeted survey : Bluetongue
Moinet M., Rossi S.
« Among the 22 red
deer submitted within
the SAGIR framework
between 2007 and 2010
and tested for FCO, 7
were PCR positive, the
macroscopic findings
were little suggestive
for 6 of them»
The wild ungulates collected within the framework of
the SAGIR network at the
national scale are in the
vast majority roe deer
(Table I). Indeed, owing to
difficulties of transport,
large ungulates are much
less collected. Hence, less
than 20 red deer per year
were necropsied between
2003 and 2007. But due
to mortality episodes that
occurred in 2009-2010
and a greater vigilance of
the network following the
emergence of the BTV8
virus in domestic ruminants (SAGIR 2008), 42
red deer were necropsied
during the year 2009 and
29 during the year 2010.
In 2009, the red deer were
collected notably during
winter mortality episodes
observed in January and
February 2009 in the Indre, Loiret, Loir-et-Cher,
Cher, Doubs,
Côte-d’Or
and Hautes-Alpes (SAGIR
10). In 2010, red deer
were collected in similar
conditions in 19 different
departements, mainly the
Drôme, Indre,
Dordogne and Savoie.
However, in the absence of
a specific funding, only
267 (~15%) of the 1824
wild ruminants collected
between 2008 and 2010
were diagnosed for bluetongue. One can probably
rule out the involvement of
bluetongue in the roe deer
year
Cervus elaSKus
2009
1(/10) 4(/17) dont 0 positif
11(/42) dont 5
4(/5)
positifs
2010
5(/5) 5(/29) dont 1 positif
2008
Page 2
Capra
Ibex
Cervus
nippon
mortalities observed during
this period, given that no
infected animal was detected among the 212 tested
individuals (only 3 weakly
positive results were observed by RT-PCR in 2008 and
were considered as nonspecific results). No positive result was either observed in the few mountain
ruminants, fallow deer and
Sika deer tested since
2008, without any possibility of concluding on the
impact of bluetongue in
these species (very small
sample, see Table I). Lastly, among the 22 red deer
diagnosed for bluetongue
between 2007 and 2010
(including two tested in
2007, not included in Table I), 7 were PCR positive
(SAGIR 2010, Rossi et al.
2010, Moinet Pers. Com.)
In 6 of these animals, the
clinical picture was rather
crude (loss of vigilance,
thinness), the macroscopic
findings were little suggestive of bluetongue (cerebral
hemorrhage, congestive or
purulent pneumonia, pulmonary strongylosis). One
animal presented lesions
compatible with an acute
viral attack combined with
a positive result in RT-PCR
(BTV8), however bluetongue could not be confirmed
as the cause of death. In
areas where high red deer
mortalities were reported
in 2009, the necropsied
red deer that have not
Rupicapra
rupicapra
Capreolus
capreolus
been subjected to a bluetongue virus search were
animals of all ages and
sexes, generally thin, very
parasitized (pulmonary or
digestive parasitism), presenting sometimes diarrhea. These macroscopic
findings, little suggestive of
a particular disease, are
potentially related to a
combination of high density/low food availability. It is
thus unlikely that bluetongue was the cause of mass
mortality in red deer, although it could have contributed to the weakening of
some animals in relation
with other factors of wear.
These results are consistent with the low mortality
observed in Belgium in
2007-2008, while a high
circulation of the BTV8 serotype was observed in red
deer (Linden et al. 2008)
as well as with the absence
of clinical signs reported in
Spain in red deer infected
naturally or experimentally
by BTV1 or BTV8 serotypes
(López-Olvera et al. 2010,
Falconi et al. 2011).
Dama
dama
1(/5)
Ovis
musimom
0(/1)
4(/67)
85 (/601)
1(/9)
1(/1)
8(/37)
78 (/500)
3(/11)
7(/31)
49 (/447)
0(/6)
Table2: Number of wild ruminants collected by the SAGIR network and having been subjected
to a diagnosis (serological or PCR) for FCO between 2007 and 2010 (after the emergence of the
BTV8 virus in domestic ruminants).
Red deer
References
Falconi C., López-Olvera J.-R., Gortázar C. (2011). BTV infection in wild ruminants, with emphasis on red deer: A review. Vet. Microbiol. (in
press).
Linden A., Mousset B., Gregoire F., Hanrez D., Vandenbussche F., Vandemeulebroucke E., Vanbinst T., Verheyden B., De Clerck K. (2008).
Bluetongue virus antibodies in wild red deer in southern Belgium. Vet. Rec., 162, 459-459.
López-Olvera JR, Falconi C, Férnandez-Pacheco P et al. (2010). Experimental infection of European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) with bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 8. Vet. microbiol.,145(1-2):148-52.
Rossi S., Gibert P., Bréard E., Moinet M., Hars J., Maillard D., Wanner M., Klein F., Mastain O. Mathevet P., Bost F. (2010a). Circulation et
impact des virus de la fièvre catarrhale ovine (FCO) chez les ruminants sauvages en France. Bulletin épidémiologique, 35, 28-32.
SAGIR (2008). Etude sur la circulation et l’impact du virus de FCO chez les ruminants sauvages. lettre SAGIR 162, ONCFS, St Benoist.
SAGIR (2010). Surveillance de la fièvre catarrhale ovine (FCO) dans la faune sauvage : quoi de neuf docteur ? lettre SAGIR 164, ONCFS, St
Benoist.
Page 3
The roe deer
October 2011
SAGIR REPORT 2009-2010
(Decors A., Moinet M., Mastain O.)
Roe deer
(Capreolus capreolus)
Salient facts
Yvan Vilair
Figure 1 : Spatial distribution of roe deer collected
in 2009 et 2010
Tularemia (zoonosis)
Francisella tularensis was
revealed in 2009 from the
spleen of a roe deer that
presented a septicemic picture compatible with an
acute bacterial attack. We
have at this stage little hindsight on the clinical effect of
F. tularensis in this species
and we cannot conclude that
there is a causal relationship.
Erysipelas (zoonosis)
An erysipelas diagnosis was
made in 2009 in a roe deer
of the Somme. The animal
presented an infected rear,
an ulcer at the abomasum
NAV, a liver of abnormal colour, congested mediastinal
ganglions and mesenteric
ganglions of abnormal colour. The bacteria was isolated from mediastinal gan-
glions. The individual was
negative for pestiviruses.
Keratitis in young male roe
deer
In August 2010 in the
Meuse, 5 young male roe
deer were observed alive
with ocular lesions of the
keratitis type and neurological symptoms. Similar cases
were notified in Côte d’Or in
September 2010. The epizootic form of the outbreak
on young animals in the
Meuse has led the network
to further investigate the
case. A search for Mycoplasma conjonctivae and Moraxella bovis, as well as a
chlamydiosis, Q fever and
mycoplasmosis serology
were requested. All the analyses came back negative.
No diagnosis could be made,
owing to the lack of samples,
FDC 55
Young roe deer suffering
from keratitis and a motor
coordination disorder
but the main hypothesis remains listeriosis, which could
not be searched for.
Dermatology
In November and December
2010, there were several notifications of roe deer presenting depilation, 3 cases of demodicosis and 1 case of dermatomycosis.
Evolution of the main 4
diseases
2010
30
20
10
0
au
gu
st
se
pt
em
be
r
oc
to
be
r
no
ve
m
be
r
de
ce
m
be
r
Cyanobacteria: suspi- 4
cion of intoxination
2009
40
ju
ly
3
50
ju
ne
Intoxications
60
Figure 2: Number of roe deer cadavers collected
per month in 2009 and 2010.
ay
2
70
m
Zoom sarcocystosis
80
ap
ril
1
ja
nu
ar
y
fe
br
ua
ry
m
ar
ch
Salient facts
Number of cadavers collected
In this issue:
Month
No signal of abnormal mortality appears on Figure 2. On the other hand, the collection of roe
deer was substantial in the Jura but stable in 2009 et 2010 (Figure 1).
Roe deer
Zoom on sarcocystis infection of the roe deer
Alain Viry (LDA39)
In the course of the 2009-2010 hunting season, we observed on necropsied roe deer of the Jura
departement, Sarcocystis cysts in large quantity and more frequently compared to previous years.
It is customary to say that it is a necropsy discovery and that these parasites cannot be the cause
of morbidity or mortality. What is this about? And what are these parasites? By flicking through a
few documents, this is what emerges. Firstly, according to Euzéby [3], given the disappearance of
the phylum Sarcosporidia in which coccidia of the genus Sarcocystis had been initially classified,
one should avoid speaking of sarcosporidiosis and prefer the term sarcocystosis.
Development cycle
LDA 39
Muscle infested by
sarcocysts
« In most cases,
sarcocysts have no
pathogenic action for
the roe deer »
Sarcocystis infection is a protozoal infection caused by coccidia with a dixenous development (2
hosts) of the family Isosporidae, subfamily Sarcocystinae and genus Sarcocystis Lankester, 1882.
The final host is a carnivore mammal and sometimes man, in which the oocysts sporulated in the
intestine open and release sporocysts comprising 4 sporozoites. The intermediate host, a herbivore mammal for most Sarcocystinae species, becomes infected by consuming sporocysts. These
sporocysts can resist for one year in humid environment, 2 to 3 months in dry environment. And
they resist well to negative temperatures, as low as – 20°C for 48 hours. The sporozoites released
in the intestine of the infected individual, pass in the circulatory system where they multiply within
the vascular endotheliomas of different organs. The cycle then takes place at the level of the monocytes. Finally, the monocytes carry the parasites in the striated muscles where, round about the
2° month after infestation, sarcocysts or Miescher tubes are formed, i.e. whitish to greyish elongated cysts, that can be visible to the naked eye, measuring from 0,5 to 3 mm long and 0,3 mm
wide, containing bradyzoites in the shape of bananas, measuring from 12 to 15 µm by 6 to 9 µm
still called Rainey corpuscules. From this stage, sarcocystosis is chronic. According to the parasitized muscles, it can cause mastication difficulties (located in the masticatory muscles), myositis, or
even a cardiac accident, but most often, it is asymptomatic. The final hosts become contaminated
by consuming the muscles of intermediate hosts that are carriers of sarcocysts. They evacuate
sporocysts after a duration of about 10 to 15 days and during a period of 3 to 5 months, much
longer than for « classic » coccidiosis and related to the fact that immunological reactions caused
by Sarcocystis are much weaker, allowing successive reinfestations.
Sarcocystis infections in the roe deer
According to Odening [7], there are 189 different Sarcocystis species known. The roe deer is one of
the intermediate hosts of these parasites. At least four species are described in the roe deer in
Europe : Sarcocystis gracilis Ratz, 1909 ; S. capriolicanis Erber, Boch and Barth, 1978 ; S. cf. hofmanni and a 4° non-specified Sarcocystis sp. type described by Kutkiené [4]. The distinction of
these species is based on the observation of the morphology of sarcocysts and bradyzoites. Recently, the species S. oviformis n. sp. was revealed by molecular biology on a Norwegian roe deer. In
any case, in optical microscopy, the species’ determination remains extremely difficult.
The described prevalences which depend on ecological conditions, but also on the diagnosis methods used, are generally high : 80% on roe deer of Lithuania (Kutkiené, 2001), 86 to 93% in Germany (Erber et al. , 1978 – Partenheimer-Hannemann, 1991), 86% to 30/31 (?) in Poland
(Wesemeier, 1995 – Tropilo, 2001), 86% in the north-west of Spain (Lopez et al., 2003) with a
mean density of 15 cysts per gramme of muscle, 100% in central Italy on 22 roe deer studied
(Santini et al., 1997). Prevalence varies also according to the age of animals : 69.4 % for those
less than one year old, – 97% for those above one year old (Spickschen, 2002). Sarcocysts are
numerous in muscles of the tongue, the oesophagus and the myocardium. They are easily observed on the masticatory muscles (after incision) or on the muscles of the costal wall or on the diaphragm. The main final host for sarcocysts of the roe deer is the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). However,
the hunting dog which consumes roe deer meat and can excrete sporocysts during hunting action
can also play a role in the cycle.
Page 2
The roe deer
In humans
Humans can become infested by consuming non-frozen and insufficiently cooked roe deer meat
and contract a sarcocystic coccidiosis. But unlike sarcocysts coming from porc or beef meat, sarcocystis of the roe deer are not capable of developing in humans. Thereby, only the first phase
called toxinic (linked to the presence in the cysts of a toxin, sarcocystine, which is thermolabile
but resists up to 55°C) and is accompanied by nausea, abdominal pains, diarrhea, can be observed within 3 to 8 hours following the consumption of the parasitized meat. The symptoms can
prolong for 24 to 48 hours. They should be distinguished from other intoxications due to staphylococcus (very short incubation of 3-4 hours and predominant vomiting), salmonelles (incubation of
more than 24 hours, diarrhea, vomiting and hyperthermia) or Clostridium perfringens (incubation
of 8-10 hours, diarrhea, no hyperthermia).
In summary, four different Sarcocystis species whose final host is the red fox, are described in
the roe deer, but their identification is extremely difficult in optical microscopy. Different studies
show a very high prevalence in the roe deer, between 80 and 100%. Most of these studies are
based on pepsic digestion methods. The observation of sarcocysts by visual examination at the
moment of necropsy on masticatory muscles, muscles of the costal wall, the diaphragm or the
heart, is probably indicative of a very heavy infestation of the analysed subject. A negative visual
examination, even more so for sarcocysts than for other parasites, does not mean that the subject is not infested, it can be infected at a low level. In most cases, sarcocysts have no pathogenic action on their host. Exceptionally, during rupture of the cysts, an inflammation linked to this
rupture causes myositis, mastication disorders, or even cardiac accidents. According to Karin
Lemberger of VetDiagnostics, acute sarcocystosis, depending on the animal’s immune status
and on the sarcocyst load, can also cause abortions, meningomyelitis or eosinophilic myositis.
Histological examinations of affected muscles can enable one to distinguish quiescent forms
from acute inflammatory forms.
In humans, sarcocystosis, a minor zoonosis, can cause nausea and digestive disorders within 3
to 8 hours following the consuption of a non-frozen and insufficiently cooked roe deer meat.
« Sarcocystosis is a
minor zoonosis»
Intoxications
From May to September 2010 in the Tarn, 22 roe
deer of all ages and sexes, in good bodily condition,
were found dead. The mortality was observed in a
restricted area of 700 ha. A goat and a horse were
also found dead in the vicinity, in the same period.
Among 5 roe deer analysed, one carbofuran intoxication, one chloralose intoxication (shaded area in
Table 1) and one roe deer positive to ehrlichiosis
were revealed. Following a field action of the SD
and FDC81, the mortalities stopped, suggesting a
malevolent origin.
Page 3
EXPOSURE
ALDICARBE
ATRAZINE
BROMADIOLONE
CARBOFURAN
CHLORALOSE
CHLOROPHACINONE
CYFLUTHRIN
INTOXICATION BY MISTLETOE
INTOXICATION BY ACORNS
MEVINPHOS
total
number roe deer
Table 1 : Intoxications of roe deer in 2009 et 2010
1
1
1
4
3
1
1
1
3
1
33
The roe deer
Cyanobacteria : suspicion of intoxination
Marc Hessemann (LVD25)
In spring 2010, one roe deer was discovered dead in the river La Loue, in Franche-Comté. In the
previous weeks, high fish mortalities and the presence of cyanobacteria (as well as toxoid) had
been revealed.
At the necropsy, the roe deer presented a non specific congestive picture. Complementary firstline examinations (mainly searches for bacteria) did not reveal anything particular. The gastric
content analysis enabled one to isolate cyanobacteria that had the same aspect as those isolated in La Loue. To have a diagnostic certainty, it is necessary to complete this result by a search
for toxins in the organism. Indeed, it is the intoxination (toxoid a) which causes nervous signs
followed by a sudden death. Exhaustive investigations were thus launched in a second stage but
did not reveal any toxins responsible for sudden death in the necropsy samples. This case illustrates well the methodological difficulties involved in revealing an intoxination due to cyanobacteria, and in the interpretation of results.
Relative evolution of the main roe deer diseases
10
8
Enterotoxemia
6
Pasteurellosis
4
Traumatism
2
Oestrus ovis infestation
0
2009
2007
year
2005
Unspecified
2003
% of affected animals /
total sample
12
Figure 3: Proportion of the main roe deer diseases
in relation to the annual sample – 2003 to 2010
evolution
This graph of Figure 3 shows the relative evolution of the main diseases diagnosed in the roe deer. All the diseases responsible for acute clinical signs in the roe deer are not shown. This graph serves to visualize trends
and to detect the expansion in some years of diseases with a stake. It does not show the temporal evolution of
a disease, and is not representative of the roe deer population owing to recruitment biases connected with the
SAGIR network.
No peak relating to these diseases was observed at the national level, for the years 2009-2010. On the other
hand, this graph does not show the spatial heterogeneity : indeed, an upsurge in cases of Oestrosus sp. infestation was reported at the end of August 2010 in the Haut-Rhin.
Page 4
Number of cases per syndrome
The roe deer
160
nTOT = 601
140
nTOT = 500
120
ocular syndrome
100
respiratory syndrome
80
nTOT = 447
60
dermatosis
digestive syndrome
40
20
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
year
Figure 4 : Number of cases collected per year from 2003 to 2010
To improve the detection of the emergence of a new disease, we have implemented the temporal monitoring of
the number of cases without a diagnosis (see Figure 3 « unknown») and of some syndromes described in the
database. Four main syndromes are shown on Figure 8 : ocular, digestive, respiratory or cutaneous
(dermatosis). These syndromes summarize the macroscopic findings described by the laboratories when no
diagnosis has been established with certainty. The occurrence of respiratory, cutaneous and ocular syndromes
is stable and there was a decrease of the number of digestive syndromes in 2009, then in 2010.
References
1 - ENTZEROTH (R.) - Light, scanning, and Transmission Electron Microscope Study of the Cyst Wall of Sarcocystis gracilis RÀTZ, 1909
(Sporozoa, Coccidia) from the Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) - Ark. Protistenk. 129 (1985) : 183-186.
2 - ENTZEROTH (R.) - Ultrastructure of Gamonts and Gametes and Fertilization of Sarcocystis sp. from the Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Dogs – Z Parasitenkd (1982) 67 : 147-163.
3 - EUZEBY (J.) - Les sarcocystoses zoonosiques : des coccidioses à Sarcocystis à la myosite éosinophilique sarcocystique. Congrès SPE
de l’Ile Maurice, nov. 1996.
4 - KUTKIENÉ (L.) - The species composition of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) Sarcocystis in Lithuania. Acta zoologica lituanica (2001) 11-1 : 97-101.
5 - DAHLGREN (S. S.), GJERDE (B.) - Sarcocystis in Norwegian roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) : molecular and morphological identification of Sarcocystis oviformis n. sp. and Sarcocystis gracilis and their phylogenetic relationship with other Sarcocystis species – Parasitology research (2009) 104 n° 5 : 993-1003.
6 - LOPEZ (C.) et al. - Sarcocystis spp. infection in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from the north-west of Spain – Z. Jagdwiss, 49 (2003) :
211-218.
7 - ODENING (K.) – The present state of species – systematics in Sarcocystis Lankester, 1882 (Protista, Sporozoa, Coccidia). Systematic
Parasitol. 41 : 209-233.
8 - SANTINI et al. - Ultrastructureof the cyst wall of Sarcocystis sp. In roe deer – Journal of Wildlife Diseases – 33 (4) 1997 : 853-859.
9 - SPICKSCHEN (C.), POHLMEYER (K.) – Investigation on the occurence of Sarcosporidia in roe deer, red deer and mouflons from two
different natural habitats in Lower Saxony. Zeitschrift für Jagdwissenschaft (2002) Vol. 48 (1) : 35-48.
10 - TROPILO (J.), KATKIEWICZ (M.T.), WISNIEWSKI (J.) - Sarcocystis spp. infection in free-living animals: wild boar /Sus scrofa L./, deer /
Cervus elaphus L./, roe deer /Capreolus capreolus L./. - Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences year: 2001, vol: 4, number: 1, pages: 1518.
11 - GOLDOVA (M.) et al. – Sarcocystosis in cloven-hoofed game in Slovak Republic – Nat. Croat. Vol. 17 (4) – 2008 : 303-309.
Page 5
Columbids
October 2011
SAGIR REPORT 2009-2010
(Decors A., Moinet M., Mastain O.)
Columbids
Salient facts
A. Levesque
Suspicion of fowl pox in Guadeloupe
SAGIR
T. gallinae trichomonosis
In this issue:
Salient facts
1
Intoxications
2
Trichomonosis and
stock doves
3
1.
Fowl pox
Fowl pox is an infectious disease of viral origin that affects many bird species. It is
due to a poxvirus. The disease
is cosmopolitan and occurs in
tropical countries. It is present
in the Carribean, notably in
Martinique. The virus enters
the skin owing to a wound or
can be transmitted by a biting
insect.
In 2009, we suspected fowl
pox or a mycobacteriosis on a
une turtle dove coming from
Guadeloupe. The bird could
not be necropsied nor undergo
complementary examinations
to confirm or reject the suspicion.
In September 2010, fowl pox
was revealed by histology in
Vendée on 2 wood pigeons.
There were also 2 suspicions
on wood pigeons : 1 in 2010 in
Figure 1 : Spatial distribution of
columbids collected in 2009 and
2010
Ile et Vilaine and 1 in 2009 in
particular in the Oise, Eure,
Morbihan.
Seine Maritime, Yvelines,
Somme, Yonne and Maine et
Digestive candidiasis
Candidiasis is a disease that Loire (Figure 1).
A high mortality of doves sp. in
affects mainly the digestive
system, notably the œsophagus and the crop. It is found
essentially on debilitated
birds. It is an opportunistic
infection caused by a yeast
Candida albicans. This yeast
is a normal host of the intestinal flora of birds and mammals if it is in small quantity1.
Candidiasis lesions in the crop,
In the Eure in November
2009, a digestive candidiasis note the whitish coating
was diagnosed (crop) on 2
wood pigeons from their crop. Martinique (20 individuals) was
reported in the end of July. No
It appears to be responsible
diagnosis could be made with
for a grouped mortality of
certainty, but observed lesions
wood pigeons.
lead one to suspect a T. gallinae trichomonosis.
T. gallinae Trichomonosis
Many pisodes were reported
affecting the wood pigeon, in Avian tuberculosis
Two cases diagnosed in 2010
on wood pigeons : one in the
Gard and one in Mayenne
For more information, http://www.avicampus.fr/PDF/PDFpathologie/Candidose.pdf
Unspecified cause of grouped
mortality
In 2009, 25 turle doves were
found dead in Pas-de-Calais
within a radius of 200 m . The
cause of death could not be
determined.
Columbids
Intoxications
number columbids
1
3
1
17
19
1
4
3
57
Intoxications account for 20% of
the mortality causes of columbids collected within the SAGIR
framework. At least 4 grouped
mortality events were described
from 2009-2010, resulting either from malicious acts or from
intoxication despite the compliance with good agricultural
practices.
Table 1 : Molecules to which columbids were exposed
Figure 2 : Number of columbid
cadavers collected per month in
2009 and 2010.
30
25
20
2009
15
2010
10
5
Au
gu
st
Se
pt
em
be
r
O
ct
ob
er
No
ve
m
be
De
r
ce
m
be
r
Ju
ly
Ju
ne
ay
M
ar
ch
M
ry
Fe
br
ua
ry
0
Ja
nu
a
« 3 grouped mortality
events were related to
the use of
imidaclopride in
compliance with the
conditions of use »
Number of cadavers collected
EXPOSURE
ALDICARB
ANTHRACENES
CARBOFURAN
CHLORALOSE
IMIDACLOPRIDE
METALDEHYDE
METHIOCARB
TEFLUTHRIN
total
Ap
ril
ONCFS-SD82
Month
In June 2010 (Figure 2), 23 pigeons sp. died following an intoxication by chloralose and methiocarbe in Meurthe et Moselle. The birds were discovered in an urbanized area and did not fly away at the approach. The presence of blue grains in
the crop was noticed during the necropsy. A grass snake was found dead close to a young pigeon, 2 days after the discovery of the pigeon cadavers, but was not analysed.
Imidaclopride (see box on the « grey partridge » sheet) : 3 important events in October 2010 were reported following the
application of coated seeding in compliance with agricultural practices. In the Nord departement : 29 pigeons sp. were
found dead in a good bodily condition. 25 birds very little eaten by predators were sent to the veterinary laboratory. The
opening of the crops and gizzards revealed the presence of a large quantity of coated wheat. One of the birds was discovered dead at 60 cm from a heap of non-buried seeds, weak pigeons were attacked by crows according to the ITD SAGIR.
14 wood pigeons were discovered in Saône et Loire and 20 turtle doves in the Marne, and an exposure to imidaclopride
was revealed (Figure 2).
In 2009 : a grouped mortality of pigeons sp. on feeding grounds on winter cereals (barley and wheat) was detected in the
Somme (letter 165) : it followed an exposure to a phytopharmaceutical substance used in seed treatment. Sowed in compliance with the authorization conditions, that is buried, the seeds were consumed by the pigeons. Two of the three substances (anthraquinone and tefluthrine) of this preparation were identified but only anthraquinone seems to have caused
this intoxication, given its toxicity.
In the Drôme and Jura, grouped mortalities of pigeons sp. were related to a chloralose intoxication.
In May 2009 : within the framework of the maize toxicovigilance operation, 8 wood pigeons, 6 thrushes and 10 pigeons sp.
were discovered dead near a maize crop in the Nord departement. One individual was analysed and the necropsy conclusion is death by methiocarbe intoxication.
Page 2
Columbids
Targeted survey : impact of trichomonosis on breeding
success of the stock dove (Columba oenas)
Context and method
In 2008, 2009 and 2010,
the ringer networks of
Mayenne and Aisne observed a serial mortality of
stock dove chicks in areas
where trichomonosis was
present in this species
since 2-3 years. In 2008,
following a high mortality of
chicks at the nest, a necropsy was performed by
the Mayenne laboratory.
The laboratory had found
evidence of trichomonosis
(letter SAGIR n°162). The
legitimate question of the
role of T. gallinae trichomonosis in the breeding success of the stock dove was
thus raised. To answer this
question, a pre-study was
initiated in 2010 in
Mayenne with the aim of
describing the epidemiology of the disease in stock
dove chicks and measuring the apparent impact
of the disease on breeding
success. This pre-study
was also an opportunity to
develop a sensitive method
for the detection of T. gallinae for departemental laboratories, an essential
prerequisite to any epide-
miological study in wildlife.
This study is the result of a
collaboration between the
SAGIR network and the columbid ringer network of the
ONCFS, the laboratory of Vectorial transmission and epidemiosurveillance of parasitic
diseases of the University of
Reims Champagne-Ardenne,
the departemental veterinary
laboratory of Mayenne and
Vetdiagnostics.
Preliminary results
18 nests and 32 broods were
monitored by the columbid
correspondant of the ONCFS,
Alain Giret. 5 nests resulted
at least once in the fledging
of the young. 34 % of the
broods were unsuccessful,
among which 65 % related to
a mortality at the nest.
Mortality in a nest affects the
two chicks in 92% of cases.
Chicks found dead are 5 to
12 days old. 6 chicks were
sent to the veterinary laboratory to be necropsied. The
submission rate of cadavers
to the laboratory is relatively
low (26%) since in this season, the nestling cadavers are
quickly assimilated by their
environnement (necrophagy)
or autolysed. Five diagnoses out
of 6 are in favour of trichomonosis, according to the macroscopic data. The presence of T.
gallinae was only detected on 3
nestlings by direct examination
(PCR was not performed on nestlings that were negative at the
direct examination).
It is supposed that T. gallinae is
directly transferred from the
oral cavity and the upper digestive tract of infested adults to
the young doves during the regurgitation of dove milk produced in the crop of adults
(Kietzmann 1990). Newly hatched chicks thus become infected as soon as their first feeding. The lesions usually decribed in the literature were revealed in nestlings with trichomonosis. The exploitation of re
sults is still in progress and will
be the subject of a complete
communication in a SAGIR letter soon.
Source : Michigan, Department of natural resources
and environment
« 34% of broods
failed, among which
65 % related to a
mortality at the nest,
5 of the 6 chicks
submitted had lesions
consistent with
trichomonosis »
References
Kietzmann, G.E. 1990. Transmission of Trichomonas gallinae to ring doves (Streptotelia risoria). Proccedings of the South
Dakota Academy of Science 69 : 95-98.
Page 3
The European rabbit
October 2011
SAGIR REPORT 2009-2010
(Decors A., Moinet M., Marchandeau S., Mastain O.)
European rabbit
(Oryctolagus cuniculus)
Salient facts : the new VHD variant
Following the announcement
of a high mortality of brown
hares in the north of France,
several cases of mass mortalities of European rabbits
were reported. For example,
in the Finistère, the case of a
population estimated at 700800
rabbits reduced to
about fifty individuals was
registered.
Figure 1 : Monthly distribution of
rabbits collected in 2009 and
2010.
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
2009
Ju
ly
Au
gu
st
Se
pt
em
be
r
O
ct
ob
er
No
ve
m
be
De
r
ce
m
be
r
ay
Ju
ne
M
Ap
ril
M
Ja
nu
a
ar
ch
2010
ry
Fe
br
ua
ry
Number of cadavers collected
Yvan Vilair
Month
In this issue :
Salient facts
1
RHD Syndrome
2010
2
Intoxications
2
These mortalities were due
to VHD, and in particular to
the emergence of a new viral
strain that is very distant
genetically from the strains
known so far. It was first detected in livestock, then quickly in the wild by the SAGIR
network. At this point, the
origin of this strain is still
unknown since it is not an
evolution of known strains. It
differs in two respects from
classic strains. On the one
hand, the test to identify the
virus used in analyses
conducted by the SAGIR network does not definitely detect this strain. On the other
hand, the immunity induced
by the classic strains only
partially protects against this
new strain. Its impact in the
wild is rather mixed: some
been spreading since to the
departements of the southern half (Figures 2 and 3).
The analysis of SAGIR cases
will enable one to study the
spread of this strain and to
further clarify its impact on
populations.
Evolution of the main 2
diseases
Figure 2 : Spatial distribution
of rabbits collected in 2009
and 2010
populations are highly affected whereas others only experience low mortalities. Moreover, this strain also affects
very young rabbits (4-5
weeks) which are usually mostly resistant. A study programme is currently being set
up by the ONCFS and its
scientific partners (Anses
Ploufragan and ENVT). The
aims include : to precisely
describe this strain, to measure its virulence, to measure
the effectiveness of current
vaccines and to develop specific tests to identify it in SAGIR analyses. The first data
collected through the SAGIR
network and the CNERA PFSP
seem to indicate that the phenomenon that was limited to
the departements of the north
of France in the autumn has
SAGIR
Hemorrhagic lesions of
VHD on the lungs
European rabbit
The 2010 VHD syndrome
(Marchandeau S. and Lefloch L.)
SAGIR
« Moraxella sp., the
agent of keratitis, was
isolated on a rabbit in
the Cantal in March
2010. This rabbit
presented purulent eyes,
an acute inflammation
of the trachea, a
paralysis of the caecum
and a spleen
hypertrophy. »
The ONCFS rabbit team has carried out a syndromic analysis of VHD (or RHD) cases
censused by SAGIR since 2008. The factorial analyses were conducted on the whole
dataset by including a period variable : before 30/06/2010 versus after 01/07/2010
(presumed date of emergence of the new variant). This study aimed at identifying possible evolutions of macroscopic findings, associated with the emergence of the viral variant RHDV 2010. With the emergence of the variant RHDV 2010, we note the appearance of 2 types of syndromes that were not noted during the period prior to
30/06/2010 :
 icterus (3% of rabbits analysed after 01/07/2010)
 œdema of the airways (lungs and trachea) (16%).
Figure 3 : Spatial distribution of VHD
cases due to the variant RHDV 2010
on 8 June 2011.
Intoxications
EXPOSURE
BROMADIOLONE
Table 1 : Molecules to
which rabbits were expo- CARBOFURAN
sed among the 24 rabbits CHLOROPHACINONE
for which a toxicological
DIFENACOUM
analysis was performed.
CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS
Total
number rabbits
Three of the molecules
responsible for intoxication are anticoagulants :
1  bromadiolone,
1  chlorophacinone,
3  difenacoum.
1 Most intoxications of rab2 bits are malicious intoxi8 cations.
Carbofuran, a substance prohibited since 2008, continues to cause mortalities in wild birds
and mammals. This demontrates that the ban on products is not always sufficient to reduce
the number of incidents in wildlife. The effectiveness of these measures largely depends on
the accessibility of these substances in other countries for example (Berny et al. 2011)
Relative evolution of the main rabbit diseases
40
Page 2
2009
year
30
Pasteurellosis
25
myxomatosis
20
15
VHD
10
5
0
2007
2005
2003
35
unspecified
proportion of cases
/total sample of the
year
This graph shows the relative evolution of the main
diseases of the rabbit. All the diseases responsible
for acute clinical signs in the rabbit are not shown,
we selected only those likely to have an impact on
the rabbit population. This graph serves to visualize
trends and to detect the expansion in some years of
diseases with a stake for the rabbit. It does not
show the temporal evolution of a disease’s prevalence and is not representative of the rabbit population owing to recruitment biases connected with the
SAGIR network.
Figure 4 : Proportion of the
main rabbit
diseases relative
to the annual
sample – 2003
to 2010 evolution
e
The European rabbit
Figure 4 clearly highlights that
that the disease with a stake
for the rabbit in 2010 is VHD.
The emergence of new strains
always raises questions on
their origin. Genetic analyses
show that the 2010 variant of
RHDV does not result from the
evolution of a known strain
(following a mutation or a
deletion of an element of the
genetic code), nor even from a
recombination of several of
them. It could come from the
evolution of a non pathogenic
virus that has never been
detected until now. Another
hypothesis would be a crossing of the species barrier :
this virus could have evolved
in another host than the rabbit
and have passed from this
host to the rabbit. To date, no
evidence enables one to single out one of these hypotheses.
The evolution of cases of
rabbit myxomatosis remains
difficult to objectivize, since
outbreaks of the disease are not
systematically subject to an analysis. Indeed, as the disease has
rather characteristic macroscopic findings, it is often the subject of a field « diagnosis » .
However, the clinical signs of this
disease vary according to the
strain and the virulence of the
virus : there is a nodular form
and an amyxomatous form,
greatly underestimated.
Idhesa
Rabbit that died from VHD, the external examination reveals an epistaxis
and food in the oral cavity.
number of rabbits collected
450
400
Figure 5 : Number of rabbits
collected per year from 2003
to 2010
350
300
250
SAGIR
200
150
100
50
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
year
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Figure 5 shows a slight increase in the number of rabbits collected within the SAGIR
framework 2010, linked to the « flash info » of the autumn. The will of federations
to
to know the spatial distribution of the new variant of the virus responsible for VHD is at the root of the reinforcement of
the collection effort in the autumn 2010.
nomber of cases /year
120
100
80
genital syndrome
60
digestive syndrome
ocular syndrome
40
Hemorrhagic syndrome
20
respiratory syndrome
0
2003
-20
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
year
Figure 6 : Number of cases per syndrome and per year since 2003
References
BERNY P, J VEIN, D VEY, O MASTAIN. Is banning of pesticide effective in reducing the
number of pesticide poisonning incidents in wildlife? 60th Annual International Conference of Wildlife Disease Association. Québec City, Québec, Canada, 15 to 19 August
2011.
Page 3
In order to improve the detection of the
emergence of a new disease, we have implemented the temporal monitoring the the
number of cases without a diagnosis (see
Figure 4) and of some syndromes described
in the database. Five main syndromes are
represented on Figure 6 : genital, digestive,
respiratory or hemorrhagic and ocular. These
syndromes summarize the macroscopic findings described by the laboratories when no
diagnosis has been made with certainty, for
example when no complementary examination has been performed or confirms a coherent etiology. In the period concerning us,
there was an increasing number of cases of
rabbits with a hemorrhagic syndrome in
2010. One attribue this increase to the VHD
episode that occurred in the autumn 2010.
Indeed, during a VHD epizootic, a complementary examination is performed only on
the first individuals to confirm the cause of
the epizootic, then the diagnosis is based on
macroscopic findings.
The evolution of cases with a digestive syndrome is probably related to sampling fluctuations.
The European brown hare
October 2011
SAGIR REPORT 2009-2010
(Decors A., Moinet M., GuittonJ.S., Mastain O.)
The European brown hare
(Lepus europaeus)
T. Quintaine
« 2 cases of sarcoptic
mange were reported
in 2009 »
*Epizootic : disease
affecting
abruptly a
large number of animals at the same time
in a given region
(Toma et al.1991)
Salient facts
Myxomatosis
EBHS
In 2010, in a few departements of northern
France, several cases of hares with a
« myxomatous» aspect were reported. These
hares were sometimes thin, and presented
swollen eyes with lacrimation, and sometimes purulent. We thus decided, in cooperation with the ITD, the LDAV concerned and
the hare team of the ONCFS to further investigate the subject. The disease, although it
concerned several animals in a few departements, never took the form of an epizootic*.
Histological (Vetdiagnostics) and virological
(national veterinary school of Toulouse) results confirmed myxomatosis. The literature
indicates that the brown hare can harbour
the myxomatosis virus but develops only
exceptionally the disease (in case of immunosupression for example).
In autumn 2010, EBHS was responsible to
a large extent for the hare mortality. EBHS
outbreaks are frequently observed at this
period of the year, but are generally of
lower amplitude according to observers.
The episode seemed limited to the north
and west of France and was attributed to
a known viral strain, G3, responsible in
2004 for significant mortality in the southeast. We have no information on cross
immunity between strains or on their respective pathogenicity. One can for example
suppose that the low prevalence of EBHSV
in some years results in a lowered immune
protection of populations, favouring the
outbreak of an epizootic the following
years, by the circulation of a known or new
strain.
It is however possible to limit their impact
by knowing how to react. Hence in Ile et
Vilaine, the recorded mortalities led the
In this issue
Salient facts
1
Tularemia : pathological aspects
2
Intoxications
2
Protostrongylosis
3
Evolution of the
main diseases
4
Figure 1 : Proportion of EBHS cases
among analyses performed by the SAGIR
network in the autumn 2010.
FDC not to open the hare hunting in 2010.
The counts carried out this spring show
that, in this departement, populations overall remained at the previous year levels.
This management measure was thus effective, by preventing undoubtedly a strong
density decrease that would have ruined
the efforts made since several years.
15 % of animals with EBHS were found
alive, some presented nervous signs, a
keratitis and a conjonctivitis, rather suggestive of an acute course. It thus seems
that two forms of the disease coexisted :
acute and hyperacute. For 3 cases, no lesion was described. The exploratory analysis of
confirmed cases revealed trends in the macroscopic findings, hence 3 main pictures
emerged :
1– cooked aspect of the liver with spleen congestion and hemorrhage of the heart and
250
200
150
2009
100
2010
50
Ju
ly
Au
gu
st
Se
pt
em
be
r
O
ct
ob
er
No
ve
m
be
De
r
ce
m
be
r
Ju
ne
ay
M
Ap
ril
ar
ch
M
ry
Fe
br
ua
ry
0
Ja
nu
a
number of cadavers collected
The European brown hare
Month
liver
2- hemorrhagic effusion in the abdominal and thoracic cavities with intestine
hemorrhage and lung œdema
3- conjunctivitis with tracheitis and
hepatomegaly
EBHS is not associated with a particlular etiology. (see letter SAGIR n°171)
Aknowledgement
Ghislaine LeGall-reculé, AnsesPloufragan
Figure 2 : Number of hare cadavers collected per month in 2009 and 2010.
Tularemia : results of the retrospective survey
Pathological aspects (by Célia Lesage, ONCFS)
« Atypical
macrocospic findings
of tularemia of
European brown hare
were revealed in
France»
This study is based on the
2003-2008 dataset. 20%
of the 363 hares with
tularemia were found alive
and 80% of animals presented lesions. The organ
most often affected is the
spleen (88% of cases),
with a splenomegaly in
23% of cases, followed by
the lung (58% of cases).
Most of the centralized
cases correspond to acute
affections with septicemia.
A few cases however presented atypical macroscopic findings affecting mainly airways with for example :
1) a sinusitis with a puru-
lent conjunctivitis,
2) a purulent tracheitis with
pleurisy, pericarditis and a
splenomegaly,
3) a laryngitis and a purulent
tracheitis, with pleurisy, lung
hepatization, petechiae on
the stomach and splenomegaly,
4) epistaxis with a hemorrhagic tracheitis and pulmonary
hemorrhage
However, interpretation of
these results requires caution since these lesions can
also result from intercurrent
diseases, that could not always be investigated (such
as pasteurellosis on frozenlung for example). These
atypical findings raise a
question : does the clinical
picture reflect the transmission route, as has been
observed in humans ? Indeed, these cases suggest
a contamination by the
respiratory route.
The inter-group factorial
analyses performed did not
reveal any difference in the
macroscopic findings according to the season or
state (dead/alive) of the
animal.
Intoxications
118 brown hares were subjected to a targeted, toxicological analysis according to case histories, 9 were
positive. The exposure to a molecule does not necessarily mean that it is responsible for the animal’s
death. To make a diagnosis, it is necessary to have an
idea of the quantity ingested, to be certain of the exposure, to have clinical and epidemiological indications and to know the toxic dose. This information is
sometimes difficult to obtain for wildlife. For example,
traces of tefluthrine were revealed but were not responsible for the death of the animal.
Table1 : Molecules to which brown hares were exposed
EXPOSURE
BROMADIOLONE
CARBOFURAN
CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS
METALDEHYDE
TEFLUTHRIN
Total
Number hares
Carbofuran, a substance prohibited since 2008, continues to cause mortalities in wild birds and mammals. This demonstrates that the ban on products is not always sufficient to reduce the number of incidents in wildlife. The effectiveness of these measures largely depends on the accessibility of these substances in other countries for example (Berny
et al. 2011)
Page 2
1
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2
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9
The European brown hare
Targeted survey : protostrongylosis
Protostrongylosis is a respiratory parasitosis, caused
by nematodes of the Protostrongylidae family. In
France, the number of notifications of cases has increased on brown hares
killed during hunting in the
south of France, since 3 - 4
years. Contrasting situations have been described
by field agents, according
to years and territories,
with clinical symptoms
ranging from very few
symptoms to severe apathy*. Even if protostrongylosis seems to affect more
acutely populations of the
south of France, it is a national concern. There is
very little information on
the epidemiology of pulmonary strongylosis of the
European brown hare in
the literature, in particular
concerning the identification of parasites, the modalities of its transmission to
the brown hare and the
role played by parasites in
the health of individuals
and populations of the European brown hare. A prestudy was conducted in
2010 in response to hunters’ concern, to describe
protostrongylosis in the
southern departements.
Two species of co-parasites
have already been identified (URCA) in a same
lung . Besides, observed
prevalences are high in
the studied departements,
in the order of 67% [54-80]
in Ardèche, 42 % [34-50] in
Tarn, 38 % [28-48] in Hérault and 28% [18-38] in
Gard**. In 20% of the cases, more than 50% of the
lung presents lesions and
in 8% of cases, 75% of the
lung is affected.
The results have not yet all
been centralized owing to
the delay linked to analyses but should be yielded
soon. The first results show
presence of larva in hare
droppings in municipalities
that were thought to be
unaffected. Besides, we
could observe the resis-
tance of these larva, as
they remained alive even
after freezing. This is a methodological tool since we
can thereby work on frozen
samples. The lifecycle of
parasites of the Strongylus
genus requires the presence of a mollusc. The
mollusc samples were all
found to be negative and
did not enable one to identify the intermediate host.
Indeed, there is a seasonality of the cycle, so it would
be interesting to collect
molluscs in a more favourable season.
Figure 3 : Lesions of pulmonary
prostrongylosis (source : J. Befort/
LVD30, N.Keck/LVD34)
« Protostrongylosis is
a disease of the
brown hare that is
apparently emerging
in the south-east of
France »
Figure 5 : Study territories in 2010
* Apathy: indolence, absence energy, incapacity to
react
** Non-definitive results
Figure 4 : Epidemiological cycle of protostrongylosis
(from an iconography of Boch et al. 1988)
Page 3
The European brown hare
Relative evolution of the main brown hare diseases
20
15
10
nomber of hares
collected/year
EBHS
pulmonary strongyliasis
pseudotuberculosis
Pasteurellose
tularemia
unspecified
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
0
2005
2004
year
2003
5
proportion of cases/annual sample
25
2000
Figure 6 : Proportion of the main brown hare diseases
relative to the annual sample– 2003 to 2010 evolution
(above)
1500
1000
500
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Figure 7 : Number of cases collected per year from
2003 to 2010 (to the right)
year
This graph of Figure 6 shows the relative evolution of the main diseases of the brown hare. All the diseases responsible
for acute clinical signs in the brown hare are not shown, we selected only those likely to have an impact on the hare population or presenting a risk for human health. This graph serves to visualize trends and to detect the expansion in some
years of diseases with a stake for the brown hare or human health. It does not show the temporal evolution of a disease’s
prevalence, and is not representative of the hare population owing to the recruitment biases connected with the SAGIR
network.
Figure 6 clearly highlights that the disease with a stake for the brown hare in 2010 is EBHS. The amplitude of the peaks of
2004 and 2010 cannot be compared, since in 2010, a « flash info » had been sent to support the disease surveillance.
The consequence of this flash could have been a greater collection of brown hares with EBHS.
There was also an increase in the proportion of pulmonary strongylosis cases. This result reflects the feeling in the field.
The share of pulmonary strongylosis in the SAGIR sample remains low for two reasons : the first is that it is an apparently
localized phenomenon (in the south) on the one hand, and on the other hand, SAGIR cases are only the tip of the iceberg,
they do not reflect the real importance of the disease since SAGIR does not enable the detection of sublinical effects. Indeed, hunters’ parallel watch on carcasses of hares killed during hunting provided the largest number of cases. This increase in the proportion of pulmonary strongylosis cases has led to the implementation of a targeted surveillance programme in the departements of the south.
The increase of pasteurellosis cases at the national level, and of 7 to 11% from 2007 to 2009 is probably related to the
sampling fluctuation. This frequent disease in the brown hare does not occur in the form of a severe epizootic, and does
not currently appear as a threat for the health of populations.
In 2009 and 2010, there was no apparent increase in cases of zoonosic disease (tularemia, pseudotuberculosis).
Page 5
The European brown hare
400
number of cases
350
300
genital syndrome
250
digestive syndrome
200
hemorrhagic syndrome
150
respiratory syndrome
100
50
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
year
Figure 8 : number of cases /syndromes and by year since 2003
To improve the detection of the emergence of a new disease, we have implemented a temporal
monitoring of the number of cases without a diagnosis (see Figure 6) and of some syndromes described in the database. Four main syndromes are shown on Figure 8 : genital, digestive, respiratory or hemorrhagic. These syndromes summarize the macroscopic findings described by the laboratories when no diagnosis was established with certainty, for example when no complementary examination was performed or confirmed a consistent etiology. In the period concerning us, there was
an increasing number of cases of brown hares with a hemorrhagic syndrome in 2010. This increase was attributed to the EBHS episode that occurred in the autumn 2010. Indeed, during an
EBHS epizootic, a complementary examination is performed only on the first individuals to confirm
the cause of the epizootic, then the diagnosis is based on macroscopic findings. Among the brown
hares with a hemorrhagic syndrome collected in autumn 2010, a few were found to be negative for
EBHS (n=15). These cases with a suggestive picture but with negative results can be falsenegatives* but they can also be considered as the result of another affection. The main hypotheses include : toxoplasmosis, anticoagulant intoxication, tularemia, a coagulation disorder linked to
a septic shock, etc. The hypothesis of an anticoagulant intoxication is relevant since the SAGIR
network records each year a peak of mortality from anticoagulant intoxication in the autumn. Intoxications are mainly suspected in the Doubs and Saône-et-Loire, Bourgogne and Franche-Comté
being among the regions most affected by intoxications. The hypothesis of toxoplasmosis for the
other departements is also relevant. Indeed, in Finland, Jokelainen et al. (2010) showed that 14
European brown hares among 173 found dead were affected by an acute generalized toxoplasmosis (letter SAGIR n°169). A study conducted from 1937 to 1947 on about fifty cases shows that
the brown hare dies from this infection rather in winter and that the disease can take both an enzootic and an epizootic form (Bouvier et al., 1954). An important fact to note is that the 15 cases
« unspecified with hemorrhagic syndrome » of the autumn 2010 form a geographic unit with adjacent departements (45, 41, 37, 49, 85 and 72) (letter SAGIR n° 171).
References
BERNY P, J VEIN, D VEY, O MASTAIN. Is banning of pesticide effective in reducing the number of pesticide poisonning incidents in wildlife? 60th Annual International Conference of Wildlife Disease Association. Québec City, Québec, Canada, 15 to
19 August 2011.
BOCH J. ET SCHNEIDAWIND H. 1988. Krankeiten des jagdbaren Wildes. Hambourg, Verlag Paul Parey.
BOUVIER G, H BURGISSER ET PA SCHNEIDER 1954. Monographie des maladies du lièvre en Suisse. Service vétérinaire
cantonal et institut Galli-Valerio, Lausanne.
JOKELAINEN P, M ISOMURSU, A NAREAHO, A OKSANEN. Toxoplasma gondii killing European brown hares and mountain
hares in Finland : Proportional mortality rate, seroprevalence and genetic characterization. 9th Biennal Conference of the
European Wildlife Disease Association, Vlieland, The Netherlands, 13 to 16 September 2010.
TOMA B, JJ BENET , B DUFOUR et al. 1991. Glossaire d’épidémiologie animale. Editions du point vétérinaire. Page 5
*false-negative
:
affected subject for
which the result of
a diagnostic or
screening test is
negative
Mountain ungulates
October 2011
SAGIR REPORT 2009-2010
(Decors A., Moinet M., Gibert P., Mastain O.)
Mountain ungulates
J. Appolinaire
Salient facts
The Mediterranean mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon × Ovis sp.)
A keratoconjunctivitis episode was reported in 2009 in the Sancy massif (63), during which
18 mouflons were found dead. One case was also recorded in Hautes-Pyrénées in 2009.
Mycoplasmosis
2
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Salient facts
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
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br
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In this issue
number of cadavers collected
Figure 1: Number of
mountain ungulate
carcasses collected per
month in 2009 and
2010.
Ja
nu
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L. Barbier
The Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra)
The caseous disease was detected on 3 chamois : in March 2009 in the Drôme, in September 2009 and December 2010 in Isère.
Two clinical cases of contagious ecthyma were detected by PCR, in January 2009 in Isère
and Haute-Savoie. The animals presentred crusts on the lips. There was also a suspicion in
the Jura in October 2010.
Salmonella Dublin was revealed for the first time on 2 chamois in the Doubs and Jura, and
was associated for one of them with a septicemia and a digestive syndrome. A prevalence
survey carried out by the SAGIR network on chamois killed during hunting did not show any
evidence of a carriage phenomenon.
Month
The Alpine ibex (Capra ibex)
A paratuberculosis diagnosis was made in March 2009 on ibex in the Savoie departement.
The mortality differences between 2009 and 2010, in March and September, are mainly
due to a larger number of collected ibex cadavers. It was not a grouped mortality and the
described affections for these individuals were diverse.
Mountain ungulates
Targeted survey : Mycoplasmosis
From F. Tardy et F. Poumarat / Anses
« M. agalactiae could
be a new agent
involved in the
respiratory disease of
mountain ungulates »
During the 2007-2008
winter, a mortality of
Alpine ibex that was
considered abnormal
was detected in the Vanoise and Encombes
massifs. The counts carried out in 2008 confirmed a demographic impact only in the Vanoise.
The cadavers coming
from the two massifs
were transported to the
LDAV73 for necropsy.
The clinical pictures,
from about fourty necropsies, were dominated by two types of lesions : keratoconjonctivitis and pneumonia. Detailed bacteriological
analyses performed by
the LDAV73 and Anses,
Lyon laboratory, revealed the presence of mycoplasmas in some
lungs of the necropsied
ibexes, notably Mycoplasma agalactiae and
to a lesser extent Mycoplasma mycoides subsp.
capri. The other diagnostic clues explored to explain these lung diseases revealed notably
M. Chaffaut
Page 2
Pasteurella sp. and heavy parasitic infestations
by Protostrongylus, but
no respiratory virus was
found. Following this
mortality episode, a study programme was launched, aiming at specifying the geographic extent and the epidemiology of this episode, improving the tools for monitoring these pathologies,
specifying the role of
Mycoplasma agalactiae
in mortalities as well as
the origin of isolated
strains. All the data obtained suggests that the
infection with these very
particular strains of Mycoplasma agalactiae
preexisted since a long
time enzootically in the
ibex population. Mycoplasma agalactiae could
be a new agent identified involved in the respiratory disease of mountain ungulates. However,
the exceptional mortality
episode observed in
2007-2008 cannot be
attributed directly to the
sole outbreak of Myco-
plasma agalactiae. It is
likely that another factor,
probably environmental,
or possibly viral non
identified, affected momentarily the resistance
of animals, favouring
the colonization by pathogens, parasitic or
bacterial agents such as
pasteurella or mycoplasmas, leading to a fatal
outcome.
M. Nowak
The grey partridge
October 2011
SAGIR REPORT 2009-2010
(Decors A., Moinet M., Mastain O.)
Grey partridge
(Perdix perdix)
Luc Barbier
Salient facts
Figures 1 and 2 show that in
2010, the observed mortality
of grey partridges was higher
from March to October (Figure
2), over the whole distribution
range of the grey partridge
(Figure 1). This increase of the
collection can be attributed to
the higher observation pressure in connection with the
Pegasus programme (see box
page 2).
Figure 1 : Spatial distribution
of collected partridges
in 2009 and 2010
The presence of the disease
in adults could be indicative
of an immune system problem.
SAGIR
Gapeworm infestation (« red
worms »)
The parasite was identified in
large quantity on two adult
partridges discovered dead in
October 2009 and March 2010
in Seine Maritime.
Gapeworm infestation usually
affects young birds (between 3
and 6 weeks), while in adults
immunity is normally acquired.
In this issue
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Pegasus
2010
10
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2009
15
ar
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Imidaclopride :
retrospective study
20
M
2
25
ry
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1
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Intoxications
30
nb of cadavers collected
Salient facts
Presence of « red » or
« forked» worms in large
quantity in the trachea
Month
Figure 2 : Number of grey partridge cadavers collected per month in 2009 and 2010.
Grey partridge
Intoxications
EXPOSURE BROMADIOLONE
CHLORALOSE
IMIDACLOPRIDE
METALDEHYDE
TEFLUTHRIN
total
number grey partridges
« a case of metaldehyde
impregnation was detected
for the first time in 2010 »
1
1
7
1
1
11
Table 1 : Molecules to which partridges were exposed
The exposure to a molecule
does not necessarily mean
that it is responsible for the
animal’s death. To make a
diagnosis, one needs to have
an idea of the quantity ingested, to be certain of the exposure, to have clinical and epidemiological indications and
to know the toxic dose. These
elements are sometimes difficult to obtain for wildlife. For
example, traces of tefluthrine
were identified on a grey partridge but are not responsible
for the death of the animal.
60% (7/10) of cases of intoxication with clinical signs are
caused by imidaclopride (see
box below)
A case of metaldehyde impregnation was detected for the
first time in November 2010 in
a young grey partridge in Indre
et Loire. Metaldehyde does not
belong to a toxicological class
and is used in agriculture and
by private individuals to fight
against snails and slugs. This
substance is mainly presented
in the form of granulates (letter
166).
Imidaclopride : results of the retrospective survey
LVD10
Between 1rst January
1995 and 31 December
2010, the SAGIR network
recorded 71 mortality outbreaks in wild birds, associated with the use of imidaclopride as seed treatment. 35 involved partridges.
In nearly a third of the outbreaks, animals were observed moribund, with
neurologic signs, for example in the form of a reduced flight distance and falls
in flight.
On the basis of a clinical
and epidemiological diagnosis approach, a causal
relationship was demonstrated between the agricultural use of imidaclopride and the health problem revealed by SAGIR in
exposed birds.
Page 2
Several avenues can explain
the occurrence of these outbreaks and their amplitude.
The network’s observations
and results will refine the
assessment scenarios of the
acute toxic risk associated
with the use of imidaclopride
as cereal seed treatment.
The following parameters
should eventually be taken
into account in the reassessment of the substance :
 Toxicity for the grey partridge compared with
that calculated for the
model species,
 The presence of treated
seeds on the surface in
conditions of agricultural
practices,
 The reality of consumption
of treated seeds by birds
in the field,
 The feeding ecology of
the species,
 The conservation status
of the wild bird species,
 The sublethal effects of
an exposure to imidaclopride for wild birds.
(Letters 168 and 173).
The grey partridge
Pegasus : summary of necropsy results
Within the framework of a
"population-environment"
study, in partnership with
hunters called PeGASUS1
environ, 240 grey partridges
were radio-tracked in 2010.
The cadavers of these birds
were actively searched for
necropsy according to the
normal Sagir protocol. The
aim was to describe the
state of health of birds in
the field and to bring complementary information to
the field indices concerning
mortality causes (ultimate
causes, predisposing causes). In addition to this necropsy, samples of organs
(liver/kidney/crop/gizzard/
brain/reproductive organs)
were systematicallly taken to
perform toxicological analyses (and in some cases histological). Toxicological analyses, still in progress, were
targeted thanks to the phytosanitary programmes recovered for each plot by farmer
survey.
chinery, manipulation).
Among these 23 "trauma", 4
also presented liver problems (2 hypertrophy, 2
muddy consistency of the
liver with icteric4 carcass) of
which the etiology was unspecified. One of the cases
of hypertrophy presented in
addition a marked vascular
congestion of the brain. All
of these partridges that
died from traumatism were
in a good bodily condition,
except 1 that presented as
well as cachexia, a deformity at the crest of keel-bone
(ancient injury or deficiency?).
5 of infectious causes :
- 3 cases of listeriosis including 2 associated with coccidiosis.
- 1 staphylococcus infection
with as main lesions hemorrhagic lungs, an enteritis with
diarrhea and an average fatness.
- 1 suspicion of avian leucosis
with as main lesions a hyperFrom March to August 2010, trophy of the liver and spleen
50 radio-tracked + 7 non
accompanied by whitish noradio-tracked2 grey partriddules with a tumorous aspect
ges were sent to the veterias well as a cachexia.
nary laboratories, that is to
say slightly more than 40%
1 of drowning (resulting
of mortality cases of radiofrom capture stress).
tracked partridges.
Among these cadavers, 9
For the 8 other cases, the
were
mortality cause remained
"uninterpretable3" (16%), 29
unspecified :
"whole" (51%) and 19
- for 3 cases, the necropsy
"partially eaten" (33%).
showed a congestiveIn the end, 37 of these cada- hemorrhagic picture with for 2
vers could undergo a
cases a strong suspicion of
« complete » necropsy:
traumatism (unspecified) and
23 partridges died of trau- in one case a suspicion of
matic causes (predation,
intoxication via field indices
collision, agricultural ma(negative results to anticoagu-
lants and chloralose).
- 3 cases showed lesions on the
liver. 1 case of liver hypertrophy
associated with respiratory problems (grey lungs) and an important
coccidial burden. 1 case of steatosis associated with a congestive
picture (marked congestion of lungs
and kidneys). 1 case with only lesions on the liver ( heterogeneous
aspect of the liver with discolouration zones and of rather crumbly
consistency).
- 1 case presented only a degeneration of the brain and a digestive vacuity. Suspicion of intoxication via
field indices (negative results for
neonicotinoides and pyrethrinoides).
- 1 case showed no significant lesion
allowing one to determine an etiology.
In these 8 last cases, the birds
presented all a satisfactory degree of fatness
For 62 % of the necropsied ani« 62% of necropsied
mals, the cause of death was
animals died from
traumatic (predation, collision,
manipulation during the transmit- traumatism and were
ter fitting). 4 of the partridges that
in a good bodily
died of traumatism also presented
condition»
liver lesions of non-traumatic origin. The systematic toxicological
examinations will allow us to
check that no sublethal process of
toxicological origin facilitated the
traumatisms of the birds.
1. For more information: www.oncfs.gouv.fr/PeGASE-Etude-nationale-perdrix-grise-2010-2011-ru430/PeGASE-Etudenationale-perdrix-grise-2010-2011-ar910
2. the cadavers of 19 other animals found dead or moribund on the study sites were also necropsied (grey partridges (7),
red partridges (2), non specified partridges (2), brown hares (4), pheasant (1), wood pigeon (1), owl (1) and weasel (1)).
3. These cadavers could be submitted to the baboratories for example for the brain to be sampled.
4. These were 2 young birds from the same covey that died from collision
Page 3
Cadavers of radio-tracked
partridges collected within the Pegasus framework (source : Florian
Weber)
The red fox
October 2011
SAGIR REPORT 2009-2010
(Decors A., Moinet M., Mastain O.)
The red fox
(Vulpes vulpes)
Salient facts
L. Barbier
Sarcoptic mange
Many departements have
notified sarcoptic mange
episodes in 2009 and 2010,
such as the Yonne in 2009 ,
Bouches du Rhônes in 2010,
who sent several individuals.
Some federations are
concerned by the disease
progression, the Oise in particular who decided to reinforce the surveillance of this
disease of the red fox (letter
168).
of
cutaneous lesions : early
stage, chronic stage evolving
towards death, remission
stage. There are differences
in the cutaneous expression
of mange according to the
geographic location. Animals
with a severe form are fewer
in areas where the disease
has been circulating since a
long time and foxes that died
from mange appear to be
rare in areas with a long history of mange (this is the
case of Valais in Switzerland
for example) (Duerr et al.
2010)
Red fox mange cases can be
classified into three categories according to the aspect
The rise in the number of cases in January, February, March 2009 is mainly due to: traumatism
(injury?), sarcoptic mange and intoxications
(carbofuran, bromadiolone)
16
14
12
FDC21
Mangy foxes
10
2009
8
2010
6
Figure 2 : Number of
red fox cadavers collected per month in
2009 and 2010.
4
2
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Number of cadavers collected
Figure 1: Spatial distribution of foxes collected in 2009 and 2010
Month
The red fox
Intoxications
EXPOSURE
BROMADIOLONE
CARBOFURAN
CHLORALOSE
DIFENACOUM
HEPTACHLOR
CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS
LINDANE
total
number foxes
1
7
1
1
1
3
1
15
Two of the incidents have also led to the intoxication of dogs. Two other incidents mentioned at the
same time the intoxication of buzzards: in one case
7 buzzards were notified, in the other case 2 buzzards and one rabbit.
In the great majority of cases, the intoxication is
caused by a malicious act. Carbofuran, a substance
prohibited since 2008 , is detected in half of the
intoxication cases.
Table 1 : Intoxications of red foxes in 2009 and 2010
References
Duerr S. et al., 2010, Assessment of factors influencing the occurrence and pathological picture of sarcoptic mange in
red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 9th European Wildlife Disease Association meeting, Poster presentation.
Page 2
The wild boar
October 2011
SAGIR REPORT 2009-2010
(Decors A., Moinet M., Mastain O.)
The wild boar
(Sus scrofa)
sions, with in particular the presence of mucopus in the trachea and a lung inflammation. The animal, blind due to keratitis, was
captured alive. The diagnosis was based on
the results of culture and those of PCR. It is
difficult with a clinical case to say that this
individual died from tularemia, however
these atypical macroscopic findings have
aleady been described in the brown hare in
France.
Swine erysipelas (zoonosis)
A clinical swine erysipelas was revealed on
18 July 2010 in Haute-Loire, and the agent
of erysipelas, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae,
was isolated from the lung. The individual
presented an abnormal colouration of the
skin, a purulent inflammation of the pleura
and an intestine inflammation.
Listeriosis (zoonosis)
Five specimens were collected in the Lot and
Listeria monocytogenes (food-borne zoonosis) was revealed.
The increased number of wild boar
collected in July 2010 was related
to 5 cases of death from traumatism in the 42
20
15
2009
2010
10
5
Ju
ly
0
Au
gu
st
Se
pt
em
be
r
O
ct
ob
er
No
ve
m
be
De
r
ce
m
be
r
Figure 1 Number of wild boar cadavers collected per month in 2009
and 2010.
25
Ju
ne
3
ay
Trichinellosis
M
2
Ap
ril
Intoxications
Tularemia (zoonosis)
Francisella tularensis, the bacterial agent of
tularemia, was isolated on a young wild boar
in the Indre that presented septicemia le-
ar
ch
1
Number of cadavers collected
Salient facts
M
In this issue
Mange
In 2009: 4 wild boar with clinical demodicosis were collected, over a period of time of a
week, in Haute-Marne (letter 170). Demodicosis is a non contagious mange, transmitted
from the mother to offspring. Generally, the
carriage is healthy, but in case of immunizing
deficit, the disease can appear. Several questions thus arise in case of demodicosis : does
it reflect a reduced immunity of isolated individuals or of a population? The occurrence of
the disease could be due to a food availability problem for example. Other causes can
be at the origin of immunodeficiency, such
as the occurrence of an immunosuppressive
disease for example.
Cases of sarcoptic mange, potentially zoonotic, were also described in the wild boar in
2009, mainly in the departements of the northeast of France as well as in Savoie and
Drôme. One case was reported in the Sarthe
in 2010.
ry
Fe
br
ua
ry
D. Breton, FDC52 Salient facts
Ja
nu
a
Luc Barbier
Month
The wild boar
Figures 1 and 2 show an increased number of individuals collected in July 2010 in the Loire. This apparent increase can be related to a grouped mortality of wild boar (5 cases) from traumatism.
The apparent increase of mortality in 2009 in Haute-Marne can
be related to cases of demodicosis.
In 2010 in the Jura, several cases of pasteurellosis were diagnosed.
Figure 2 : Spatial distribution of wild boar collected
in 2009 and 2010
Intoxications
« Brodifacoum was
detected in 2010 for
the first time in a wild
boar »
Anticoagulant intoxications
remain a constant for this
species and represent half
of the confirmed intoxication cases (Table 1).
Brodifacoum was detected
in 2010 in a wild boar for
the first time by the network. This molecule, an
anticoagulant, is used to
control garden dormouse,
EXPOSURE
BRODIFACOUM
BROMADIOLONE
CARBOFURAN
CHLORALOSE
DIFETHIALONE
HEPTACHLOR
CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS
total
Page 2
dormouse, rat and mouse
(letter 165).
on the accessibility of
these substances in other
countries (Berny et al.
2011).
Carbofuran, a prohibitedMost wild boar intoxicasubstance since 2008 ,
tions reported in 2009 and
continues to cause mortality 2010 were due to maliin wild birds and mammals. cious acts.
This shows that the banning
of products is not always
sufficient to reduce the number of incidents in wildlife.
The effectiveness of these
measures largely depends
number wild boar
1
6
1
2
1
1
1
13
Table 1 : Wild boar intoxications in 2009 and 2010
The wild boar
Trichinellosis
Jean Hars
In wildlife, the presence of Trichinella was more particularly revealed during autochtonous human outbreaks related to the
consumption of wild boar meat,
particularly in the south of France
(129 cases since 1952) (Dupouy
et al. 2008). Accordingly, the
screening of this zoonosis is compulsory on any wild boar venison
intended for marketing or
consumption during hunting
meals. As regards pig farms, in
application of the regulation (EC)
n°2075/2005, fixing the rules
that apply to official controls of
Trichinella in meat, the systematic screening is performed in
breeding pigs and pigs in the
open air. To derogate from the
obligation to systematically
screen the presence of the parasite in pigs, France must evaluate
the risk posed by wildlife for pig
breeding.
To meet this requirement, the
DGAl entrusted in 2009 to the
ONCFS, in collaboration with the
Anses-Lerpaz (LNR Parasites
transmitted by food) and the national
hunting federation (FNC), the
conducting of a study of trichinellosis
in wildlife in five pilot departements
(Aveyron, Finistère, Ille et Vilaine,
Nord, Pyrénées Atlantiques) chosen
in the intensive and/or extensive pig
production areas (Payne et al. 2011)
The parasite was searched in the
wild boar and the red fox, species
known as good sentinels of Trichinella spiralis presence in wildlife, to provide epidemiological information on
risks of contamination of pig holdings
by wildlife. 2442 wild boar and 1235
red foxes were tested between September 2009 and August 2010. The
results, all negative, cannot confirm
the absence of the parasite but allow
one to say that there is at worst a low
grade circulation of the parasite in
wildlife and that the risk of contamination of pig holdings is extremely
low in these departements and by
extrapolation in most of the large pig
production areas of western France.
During this study, only one red fox
sampled « off-protocol» in the Pyrenees National Park (Upper Pyrenees),
was found to be infected. This
case, in addition to the positive
results previously observed on
red foxes and wild boar living in
mountainous areas of the southern half of France, suggests a
circulation of the parasite and a
greater risk of human contamination following the consumption of insufficiently cooked wild
boar meat in these regions.
3
References
BERNY P, J VEIN, D VEY, O MASTAIN. Is banning of pesticide effective in reducing the number of pesticide poisonning incidents in wildlife? 60th Annual
International Conference of Wildlife Disease Association. Québec City, Québec, Canada, 15 to 19 August 2011.
DUPOUY CAMET J, T ANCELLE , H TALABANI. Surveillance de la trichinellose en France. Rapport du Centre National de Référence des Trichinella. 2008 :
13p
PAYNE A,S ROSSI , S LACOUR , I VALLEE , B GARIN-BASTUJI , G SIMON, S HERVE, N PAVIO, C RICHOMME , C DUNOYER, A BRONNER, J HARS. Bilan sanitaire du sanglier vis à vis de la trichinellose, de la maladie d’Aujeszky, de la brucellose, de l’hépatite E et des virus influenza porcins en France. Bull. Epidémiol. Santé Anim. Alim. 2011 ; 44 :2-8.
Other birds
October 2011
SAGIR REPORT 2009-2010
(Decors A., Moinet M., Mastain O.)
Other birds
Salient facts
ONCFS-SD77
Larids
In 2010, a mass mortality
was reported on Tatihou
island in the Manche, associated with the mortality of
Shelducks (Tadorna tadorna). The death cause could
not be elucidated.
Gull with ascending paralysis
ONCFS
Blackbird
In this issue:
Salient facts
1
Zoom on European
greenfinches
2
In 2010, a mass mortality in
Seine et Marne was passed
on to the national team. This
mortality was concentrated
around a basin (old quarry
bordered by the Marne).
Since several years, mass
bird mortalities have been
observed there. The mortalities affect mainly the larid
(gulls and seagulls of all
ages) population. The cadavers of a swan, a raptor and
a coypu showing signs of
disease were also detected.
No mortality was observed
on coots (Fulica atra) and
great cormorants
(Phalacrocorax carbo) although they use the area.
Only opportunistic species
seemed to be affected. The
national team supported the
ITD in the field. On 22 December 2010, 73 cadavers
were observed (population
estimated at about 2000
larids). No diagnosis could
be made with certainty owing
to the difficulty of having
fresh samples in an aquatic
environment and the high
predation pressure on cadavers (wild boar population).
The surveillance is continuing, but the symptoms
observed on living animals
and the epidemiologiical
context suggest a slightly atypical botulism, as it would occur all the year.
pass area. The mortality occurred at night, following a
storm with fog. The mortality
was likely due to a collision
in the wire fence related to
In July 2010, in SeineMaritime, 10 gulls of all ages poor visibility conditions. The
were found dead over 200 m, necropsy corroborates this
hypothesis, as many fractuat the foot of a cliff, near a
treatment plant. At the necrop- res were observed.
sy, no fractures were detected,
the only lesions were intestinal In October 2010 a hundred
petechiae. Salmonella kottbus or so robins were found dead
at Lacanau, likely due to colliwas isolated for the first time
sions related to unsuitable
in the SAGIR network.
lighting.
Botulism D
In 2009 in the Hérault, a high
mortality of waders, ducks was
reported. A botulism D diagnosis was made, associated with
the circulation of a low pathogenic AI strain.
Common cranes
In February 2010, 14 cranes
were found dead or moribund
in the Landes, then 10 cranes
in March in the Landes, and
histology revealed lesions characteristic of gavage !
Nocturnal migrators :
In Octobre 2010 : the Pyrénées Atlantiques departement
notified the mortality of about
fifty thrushes, blackbirds, robins, redstratrs, skylarks,
blackcaps, meadow pipits,
Eurasian reed-warblers and
common starlings. They were
found around a wire fence and
a lamppost, in a mountain
Blackbirds
In 2009, a mass mortality of
blackbirds was reported in
the Bas-Rhin (letter 165).
Several tens of cadavers
were observed over a month
on a line 10 km long and
500m wide, in the vineyards.
The etiology of mortalities
could not be identified.
Other birds
Zoom on European greenfinch (Carduelis chloris)
Intoxications
In October 2009 : a mass
mortality of fringillids
(about 70 individuals,
among which greenfinches)
were intoxicated with carbofuran in the Yonne ; and
yet this molecule is prohibited since 2008 but continues to cause mortalities
in wild populations( Figures
1 and 2).
« Trichomonosis was
diagnosed or
suspected on
greenfinch in two
departements in
2010 »
In June 2010 in the Eure et
Loire, 30 greenfinches
were found dead in 3
weeks in a farm yard, near
a feeding point. Chloralose
is at the origin of this high
mortality.
In May 2010, there was
also an intoxication of
greenfinches in the Loiret
with chloralose.
Figure 1 : Spatial distribution of
European greenfinches collected in 2009 and 2010
Listeriosis
In May 2010 in the Orne : a
mortality of 7 greenfinches
was notified. Two greenfinches could be analysed.
They presented brain suffusions, a congestion of the
liver and the intestinal mucosa and an empty giz-
60
50
40
30
2009
20
2010
10
r
Oc
t ob
e
t
Au
gu
s
ly
Ju
ne
Ju
y
Ma
Ma
rua
feb
r ch
0
ry
number of cadavers collected
Figure 2 : Number of fringillid
cadavers collected per month in
2009 and in 2010.
Month
This graph reflects the incidents but not systematically the amplitude of mortality.
Page 2
zard. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated on these
2 birds.
Unspecified cause
In August 2009 in the
Eure : 40 greenfinches
were found dead or alive,
the diagnosis remained
unspecified with however
the exclusion of an intoxication by cholinesterase
inhibitors.
In June 2009 in the 62: the
mortality was spread over
the month, the cause remained unspecified but a
chloralose intoxication
could be ruled out.
In May 2010 in the Loiret :
50 or so passerines
(European greenfinches,
goldfinches) were found
since February. Only a few
greenfinches were necropsied but the cause of death
remained unspecified. The
birds had ruffled feathers,
could no longer fly and had
the edge of the beak dirty.
Trichomonosis (T. gallinae)
In May 2010, in the Eure et
Loire, 20 greenfinches, 2
goldfinches, 1 house sparrow, were found in 1 month
1/2 to 200m from a cereal crop. The birds had
ruffled feathers and could
no longer feed. 10 greenfinches were submitted
and a trichomonosis diagnosis was put forward
based on the observed
lesions.
In July 2010 : there was a
suspicion in the Loiret.
Other health news
October 2011
SAGIR REPORT 2009-2010
Other health news
Bovine tuberculosis
Jean Hars
Wildlife tuberculosis is a particularly interesting subject
because it is an emergent or pseudo-emergent problem
(in case it is ancient but recently revealed) in some wildlife
species, concerning a suspected contagious animal disease (maladie animale réputée contagieuse (MARC)) on
the brink of eradication in the French cattle population
and entailing a long term risk of recontamination of domestic animals and humans.
It was discovered for the first time in wildlife in France in
2001, on red deer killed by hunters in the Brotonne forest
(Seine-Maritime). The risk of contamination of hunters and
other forest users or professionals, and the notification,
between 1996 and 2006, of a dozen or so cattle outbreaks around the forest, involving the same bacterial
strain (SB 0134) as that isolated in wild animals, have led
the health authorities to require the total culling of the red
deer population, considered as the primary reservoir of
the infection, and a significative reduction of the wild boar
population, a priori secondary reservoir (spill-over host). In
2010 and 2011, while there remained only
a few red deer in the forest, the results of this control
plan are very encouraging since the disease tends to disappear in the wild boar (a single case among the 150
tested in 2010) which, as it is very receptive to M. bovis, is
In this issue :
Bovine tuberculosis
2
Avian influenza
2
Surveillance by the
PNP
2
Inside article
3
Inside article
4
Inside article
5
Inside article
6
an excellent epidemiological sentinel.
In Côte d’Or, the disease developed in the wild boar as from
2007, in particular in the Ouche massif where wild boar are
very abundant, where the prevalence reached 16.5% in
2009. Besides, 19 cases of tuberculosis have been found in
2009 (n = 284) and the same number in 2010 (n = 300) in
badgers living near infected cattle farms. No badger was
found to be infected outside of the cattle infected zone, indicating that tuberculosis in this species is correlated with cattle outbeaks. As a precaution, in the infected zones of the
departement, a considerable reduction of badger and wild
boar densities has been undertaken to reduce the risks of recontamination of cattle (Hars et al. 2011).
In Dordogne, as in Côte d’Or, a spectacular upsurge of tuberculosis has occurred in cattle herds since 2004. M. bovis has
never been isolated among the 500 or so red deer, roe deer
and wild boar analysed in the areas « at risk » until January
2010 when one red deer with tuberculosis was discovered.
Since this date, a sample of badgers harvested near infected
cattle farms has revealed the presence of 25 badgers among
the 211 tested in infected cattle zone, knowing that no badger was positive (n = 63) in the disease-free zone. Moreover,
in the infected zone, 10 wild boar (n=252) were found positive and 1 roe deer (discovered incidentally during the venison inspection). This shows a development of tuberculosis in
wildlife, with a time lag relative to the cattle
epizootic recorded in 2006. In Charente,
neighbour departement, 4 badgers (n=10)
were found infected in 2010 around a cattle outbeak. Among the infected badgers in
Dordogne and Charente, several presented
a different necropsy picture from that observed in Cote d’Or, with evolutive lesions,
sometimes extended to several organs and
ganglionic sites.
Stabilized caseous-calcareous lesion in a wild boar
Other health news
Avian influenza
Jean Hars
BMI 78
« Since 2007, there
has been an
epidemiological calm
in Europe »
SD 21
Page 2
Since 2003, influenza viruses have been the object of an active surveillance in
the wild avifauna, conducted by the ONCFS in collaboration with the Anses, with
the analysis of swab samples taken on water birds belonging mainly to the anatid (ducks and geese), wader (shorebirds) and larid (seagulls and gulls) families
captured or hunter-killed in several French wetlands. This surveillance targeting
birds in apparent good health has never enabled the isolation of the highly pathogenic influenza virus on more than 10 000 tested birds, but low pathogenic
H5 and H7 strains, which could be potentially dangerous for domestic poultry
following mutations, are regularly isolated with low prevalences, usually lower
than 1%. Comparable results have been obtained on more than 25 000 call
ducks held by waterfowl hunters, which have been the subject of a virological
surveillance between 2006 and 2010 (Hars et al. 2010).
In 2006, during the « avian influenza crisis », 3426 dead birds were analysed in
France, including 734 in the Ain department. The H5N1 HP virus was detected
for the first time on 13 February on common pochards (Aythya ferina) cadavers
collected on a pond of the Dombes. A single turkey farm in the vicinity was
contaminated a few days later (Michel et al. 2007). In total, 66 dead birds were
found to be positive, including 63 from the Dombes, 2 from the banks of the
Lake Léman and one from the Bouches du Rhône (5 ; 15). 80 % of infected
dead birds were mute swans (Cygnus olor). The epidemiological analysis of the
epizootic suggests that the virus was introduced in the Dombes by common
pochards or other migratory ducks pushed towards the west in January-February
by a cold spell, from the countries already infected on the edge of the Black
Sea. The swan subsequently served as an excellent sentinel species for signaling the infection, as it is very sensitive to the infection and very visible on the
ponds. In the end, mortalities in wild birds remained very moderate and the epizootic, of short duration (two months), was on the whole restricted to the Dombes. A very similar scenario was observed in the summer 2007 when seven
cases of H5N1HP virus infections (5 swans and 2 mallards) were detected on
the ponds of Moselle (Lindre Estate) some time after common pochards had
assembled there for moulting. These observations suggest that the H5N1 HP
virus of Asian strain that circulated in France in 2006 and 2007 was in the end
not very pathogenic and not very contagious in wild birds and that prevention
and control measures implemented in poultry farms were effective (Afssa
2008). Since this period, there has been an epidemiological « calm » in Europe
where the virus has only been rarely isolated in wild birds (once in Switzerland in
2008, once in Germany in 2009, once in Bulgaria in 2010). However, the virus
is still circulating with great intensity in holdings in Asia, as well as in Egypt,with
notifications of human cases. Accordingly, vigilance remains the rule, even if the
risk in France is currently negligible. The hindsight that we have gained allows
us to say that avian influenza remains for the moment a rare zoonosis since the
pandemic dreaded in 2006 has never occurred, but the risks of contamination
of poultry holdings from the avifauna still exist.
Other health news
Surveillance in the Pyrenees National Park
Corinne Vial Novella / Pyrenees Laboratory of Lagor
In 2008, the Pyrenees national park finalised the implementation of a health monitoring programme in close
collaboration with the Pyrenees laboratoiries of Lagor (technical coordinator of the action) and many partners (actors of animal health (GTV, GDS, DDPP, ANSES) and of the environment (DREAL, hunting federations, ONCFS, etc.). This health monitoring aims at :
- improving the knowledge of the health status of targeted species and its evolution in time and space
(mortality causes; infectious, parasitic, toxic, traumatic disorders…),
- identifying and assessing the impacts of human activities on wildife pathology, and knowing the possible
wildlife-domestic species interrelations and their consequence,
- quickly detecting the occurrence of an unusual mortality phenomenon,
- monitoring the potential role played by wildlife in the circulation of suspected contagious diseases that
can play a role in the safety of property and persons, to be able to answer questions of users and the general public on the health of animal populations and the risks and consequences both on public health of property and persons, and on the future of the park’s biodiversity.
Two monitorings are carried out in parallel :
- A passive monitoring, based on the recovery and analysis of cadavers discovered incidentally, the recovery
of individuals in distress, and observation of anomalies on live animals (atrophy of the wings in a few vultures for example);
- An active monitoring, by the targeted study of a given pathogen and sampling on a defined population
(serological monitoring of the Pyrenean chamois population of Cauterets for example).
127 cadavers, collected from 2006 to 2010, have thus been analysed during the years 2009-2010. The
extent of these analyses varied according to the case histories and the species.
The salient facts of theses two years of necropsies :
- the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (agent of erysipelas) on a griffon vulture, invalid owing to the
union of bone fractures in abnormal position, of Salmonella (Hessareck strain) on an undernourished juvenile buzzard,
- the identification of acid-alcohol-fast bacillus in favour of avian tuberculosis (associated splenic lesions) on
a kestrel,
- the confirmation of the infection of wild cats by the virus Felv with FiV negative,
- the identification of the presence of Trichinella britovi on a fox at altitude (100m.),
- the presence of bromadiolone, DDE, malathion on a few diurnal raptors, of bromadiolone, difenacoum,
DDE, IDC (non identified) on small mammals,
- the presence of lead and cadmium on some raptors and small semi aquatic mammals as well as the presence of PCB at low dose (found also in a bearded vulture egg shell), of traces of arsenic and mercury on a
few semi aquatic mammals.
Regarding toxicology, a single mortality case could be attributed to an anticoagulant intoxication, the isolation of the other molecules had more to do with the exposure without necessary clinical consequence but
revealed the problem of the still current use of molecules that are currently prohibited and/or an environmental pressure, although it has not yet been possible to define whether it was related to human activities
or only soilborne.
In parallel :
- a monitoring and an active study is conducted in collaboration with the CNRS of Moulis and the European
programme RACE on chytridiomycose (pathogenic mushroom) of amphibia,
- an important study on keratoconjonctivitis affecting mountain ungulates has been set up in 2009, with the
participation of different mountain national parks, the university of Berne and Spanish partners, and has
confirmed the involvement of Mycoplasma conjonctivae in the process.
Page 3
Other health news
Address :
Réseau SAGIR
Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune
Sauvage
Direction des études et de la recherche
BP20 –78 612 Le Perray-en-Yvelines Cedex
Telephone : 01 30 46 54 28
Fax : 01 30 46 60 99
E-mail : sagir@oncfs.gouv.fr
SAGIR is a network for the epidemiological surveillance of wild birds and
terrestrial mammals in France. This surveillance, based on a constant partnership between the Hunting federations and the National hunting and wildlife agency has been carried out since 1955, it was consolidated in 1972
and has taken its present dimension in 1986 under the name SAGIR.
« SAGIR, surveiller pour agir! »
http://www.oncfs.gouv.fr/
Reseau-SAGIR-ru105
References
AFSSA. Rapport sur l’influenza aviaire hautement pathogène à virus H5N1 d’origine asiatique. 2008 : 190 pages
HARS J, A SCHMITZ, A CAIZERGUES, L SIMON, T GEORGES, E NIQUEUX, FX BRIAND, V JESTIN. Les virus influenza placés sous haute
surveillance dans l’avifaune sauvage. Ornithos. 2010 ; 17 (5) : 329-333.
HARS J, C RICHOMME, ML BOSCHIROLI. La faune sauvage : réservoir de tuberculose bovine en France ? Ed du Point Vétérinaire. 2011;
313 (42) : 8-9
MICHEL V, J HARS, M CHERBONNEL, V JESTIN. – Influenza aviaire et oiseaux sauvages dans l’Ain en 2006: impact sur l’élevage et enseignements à tirer. Bull. Groupements Tech. Vet. 2007 ; 40 : 43-48