Laboratorio di Meccatronica

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Laboratorio di Meccatronica
Laboratorio di Meccatronica
Prof. G. Conte
Meccatronica
La meccatronica è la scienza che studia il modo di far
interagire tra loro le discipline dell’Ingegnaria Industriale e
dell’Ingegneria dell’Informazione al fine di potenziare
l’automazione nei sistemi artificiali a struttura meccanica
(sistemi di produzione, robot, veicoli, eccetera) per
accrescerne le prestazioni e semplificarne l’impiego.
La meccatronica nasce originariamente dalla necessità di
creare un know-how nell'ambito della modellistica,
simulazione e prototipazione dei sistemi di controllo,
orientandosi prevalentemente all’ambito dei sistemi di
controllo del movimento (Motion Control).
I principali campi di applicazione sono l’automazione
industriale, la robotica, l’automotive, l’home automation.
Meccatronica
Il corso di Laboratorio di Meccatronica è un corso di
Problem Solving.
Obiettivi:
– acquisire la capacità di formalizzare un problema ingegneristico
con rilevanti aspetti progettuali
– acquisire la capacità di individuare e analizzare le risorse utili alla
soluzione del problema
– acquisire la capacità di pianificare e organizzare il proprio lavoro e
svolgerlo nell’ambito di un team, rispettando le consegne e le
scadenze
– acquisire la capacità di progettare e realizzare soluzioni valide
utilizzando le proprie competenze nelle discipline di base
dell’Ingegneria.
Meccatronica
La modalità di svolgimento del Corso prevede di gestire la
“commessa” di un impianto, dispositivo o sistema
meccatronico, del quale vengono indicate le specifiche di
massima, mediante la progettazione e realizzazione di un
prototipo, costruito utilizzando in prevalenza componenti
standard, attraverso un lavoro di gruppo.
Nel corso dell’attività, l’enfasi è equamente distribuita sulla
qualità del prodotto finale (prototipo), sulla efficacia ed
efficienza del processo di progettazione e realizzazione e
sulla misura e bontà del coordinamento e dell’integrazione
del gruppo di lavoro.
Laboratorio di Meccatronica
A mechatronic system organization includes:
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•
•
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•
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central processing unit,
actuators,
sensors,
instrumentations,
communication system,
user-operation
interface,
and power supply unit.
Basically, the major function in a mechatronics system is the capability
of sensing the change of the environment to assist mechatronic
systems implementing their desired actions.
Laboratorio di Meccatronica
The mechatronic design is an iterative and
integrated process that includes different kinds of
the domain specific engineering (e.g., mechanical,
electrical, electronic, information, automation, and
multidisciplinary).
The design step is the starting and most important
procedure: objectives, applications, requirements,
functions, active structure, shape and behavior
should
be considered.
The implementation and inspecting step include the
distribution of interdisciplinary task, the use of
sensors and actuators, the electronic architecture,
the software architecture, the controller design, and
system validation resulting in totally desired
functions.
The development scheme is represented in the
form of a V-model, which distinguishes between the
mechatronics system design and integration, as
shown in Figure.
Meccatronica
Mechatronics is the synergistic integration of mechanical engineering with electronics
and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacturing of industrial products
and processes. It integrates the following disciplines]:
• mechanical systems – mechanical elements, machines, precision mechanics;
• electronic systems – microelectronics, power electronics, sensor and actuator
• information technology – systems theory, automation, software engineering, AI
The word “mechatronics” was born in the middle of 1970s.
In February of 1976, a magazine whose name is “Mechatronics” was published in Japan.
Mechatronics of 1970s meant the design concept for making machines of which mechanisms are
simplified and of which ability is raised by using the electronic circuits (mechanical systems with
increasingly automatic control and digital and process computers).
The following decades saw accelerated application with miniaturization and integration of the process
and micro computers (advances of technological bases for IT and decision making).
Integration of different fundamental domains caused mechatronics to differentiate into
- conventional mechatronic
- micromechatronic systems – MEMS (classical mechanics and electromechanics)
- nanomechatronic systems – NEMS (quantum theory and nanoelecctromechanics)
Meccatronica
Standard Industrial Guideline for Mechatronic Product Design - Vasilije S. Vasić, Mihailo P. Lazarević
FME Transactions (2008) 36, 103-108
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Working principle.
The basis of many mechatronic systems is
the mechanical part, which converts or
transmits the mechanical process.
Information on the state of the mechanical
process has to be obtained by measuring
generalized flows or electrical currents or
potentials.
Together with the reference variables, the
measured variables are the inputs for an
information flow, which the digital
electronics convert into manipulated
variables for the actuators or for monitored
variables to display.
The addition and integration of feedback
information flow to a feed forward energy
flow in the mechanical system is one of the
characteristics of mechatronic systems.
Meccatronica
Many of these potentials for market success could be divided into technical and commercial parts,
which are coupled and presented in the graphs below (Fig. 3).
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V model industrial guideline for mechatronic product design VDI 2206
•
To overcome classical sequential product design procedures and domain isolated product
development (s.c. over-the-wallsyndrome) with substantial cost and time reduction;
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To integrate existing, well-established domain-specific methods into a methodology for complex
mechanical products in a holistic way;
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To promote concurrent engineering.
VDI – VEREIN DEUTSCHER INGENIEURE (Association of German Engineers)
VDI 2206 - http://www.vdi.eu/uploads/tx_vdirili/pdf/9567281.pdf
The objective of this guideline is to provide methodological support for the cross-domain development
of mechatronic systems. The main aspects here are intended to be the procedures, methods and tools
for the early phase of development, concentrating on system design. The result of system design is
the assured concept of a mechatronic system. This is understood as meaning the solution established
in principle and checked by verification and validation. Depending on the application and risk
assessment, different vaidation accuracies are required: the validation of the concept may be
performed on the virtual prototype, on the partly real prototype or on the completely real prototype.
Meccatronica
After a general problem solving procedure
on the micro level and the determination of
all necessary requirements, there is need to
enter s.c. V model (adopted from software
engineering and adapted for mechatronics
requirements).
The aim is to establish a cross-domain
solution concept which describes the main
physical
and
logical
operating
characteristics of the future product.
The overall function of the system is broken
down into subsystems or even components
to which suitable operating principles or
solution principles are assigned.
Domain-specific design, system integration
and properties assurance has to be
accompanied with modeling and model
analysis.
Meccatronica
Meccatronica
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A complex mechatronic product is
generally not produced within one-macro
cycle, but within many macro cycles as a
continuous macro cycle.
The term “end product” means not only
the finished product, but increasing
concreteness of the future product in
terms of product maturity e.g. laboratory
specimen, functional specimen and pilotrun product.
These products represent a certain degree
of product maturity, which need to be
interacted
and
adjusted
among
themselves.
Part of process module is made out of
system design, modeling and model
analysis, domain specific design, system
integration and assurance of properties.
Meccatronica
A complex mechatronic product is
generally not produced within one-macro
cycle, but within many macro cycles as a
continuous macro cycle.
The ultimate goal is making the process
more concrete and forming solution
variants into the principle.
Since the ideas worked out for solution
are usually not concrete enough to
stipulate the final cross domain concept,
instead other issues have to be taken into
account – e.g. fault susceptibility, weight,
service life.
The final assessment of end-solution
variants are always subjected to technical
and commercial criteria.
Meccatronica