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Culture
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I
n its history Calabria has seen the passing of many populations and many cultures coming from all over the
Mediterranean. It conserves all the historical and cultural signs of this event full of fascination; often we talk of
“Calabrie” in the plural way and not Calabria. the Calabria’s population is sincere and hospital and it is the result
of all the invasions that characterized its history. these
invasions also characterized the art, the archaeology, the
architecture, the gastronomy and the craftsmanship, the
music, the religion and all of its culture. But Calabria isn’
t only an expression of history and cultural diversity, it is
also contemporaneousness, showed by an important number of international events and its museums that have masterpieces known all over the world.
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From the majesty of riace Bronzes, known all over the
World, to Mattia Preti’ s paintings and umberto Boccioni’ s
and Mimmo rotella’ s pieces. Calabria can offer an important artistic property to its tourists, and it links folklore,
gastronomy and artisan tradition. All round the year Calabria offers an important opportunity to know its tradition,
culture (art, ceramic, copper ‘s things, wood’s sculpture,
spun). But the most important thing of Calabria’ s Population is its hospitality and its loving style.
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“Every corner of this wonderful
land represents an invitation
to discover its millenarian history”
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ArChAeOlOGy
“A fascinating journey
throughout the origins
of the Mediterranean civilization”
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the biggest part of archaeological remains of Calabria coming from the first colonies of
Magna Greacia, and they are re-closed in four Big Archaeological Parks of locri, Capo
Colonna, roccelletta di Borgia e Sibari, unique case in Mediterranean where there are
three different eras. Other archaeological areas of Magna Graecia are spread all over the
regional territory, mostly of the roman era.
Sibari
SyBAryS
Founded around 730-720 B.C. by Greek population, Sibarys with Kroton and Taranto, was one of the
biggest city of Magna Graecia. It had a population
of about 1oo.ooo inhabitants, they are distributed
on 510 hectare of territory surrounded by a wall 10
km long. Today the ruins of the three ancient cities
Sibarys, Thoutioi and the roman Copia, are coming
up from the underground of the Archaeological Park
of Sibari, creating a unique thing all over the Occident world. Linked to the Archaeological Park of
Sibari there is the New Archaeological Museum of
Sibari inaugurated in 1996. It is the most important
cultural and historical point of the Ionic Part of Cosenza’ s province. Among the five Calabria’s National
Museum, the sibary’s one, has the most important
remains of the surrounding territory, including the
remains pre-colonies of Francavilla Marittima and
Castiglione of Paludi. Distributed in five museum’ s
areas, there are the remains of the area of excavation
of the near Archaeological Park. They represent the
city of Sybaris and Thourioi (of archaic and Hellenic
Era) and the roman Copia.
KrOtOn
Ancient and powerful Greek colony of VI century
B.C., surrounded by 20 km of wall and it is defended by an army of 15o.ooo soldiers, it was the place
of the philosophic ’s Pythagorean School, medical
school (considered the best of the ancient world)
and gymnastic school.
Ten km further down of Crotone, on the Capo Colonna’s promontory, there is the Archaeological
Park, named as another one realized by the Organization of Archaeological property of Calabria.
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The park spreads along 30 hectare of the territory
Park. Founded in 1982 with its Antequarium of
organized for the excavation, and other 20 hectare
Roccelletta. The area is interesting for the ruins of
for wood and for mediterranean spot. Between the
the Norman Basilica, and for the ancient colony of
holy areas of all the Mediterranean the most im-
Scolacium, built in 120 B.C. over the remains of the
portant is the majestic Sanctuary dedicated to Hera
Greek colony called Skylletion. The excavations of
Lacinia, wife and daughter of Zeus and queen of all
the Archaeological Park of Scolacium reveals every
the divinity. Hera was venerated like a Goddess that
day important objects of the ancient Roman’s co-
protects the pasture, the women, the women fertility,
lony of Scolacium, while we have probably a few
the family and the wedding. The enter of the Park is
or maybe nothing of the ruins of ancient Skylletion.
composed of the New Archaeological museum that
Over the mountain, the preliminary researches in-
keeps the remains coming from the near excavations.
dividuated an amphitheatre of the II century A.D.
Many objects was found during the excavations in the
three thermal establishments, a necropolis and a
Archaeological Park and they are divided in the diffe-
aqueduct that complete the ancient Scolacium.
rent museums of Crotone’ s city. The last refugees are
in the new and near Capo Colonna’ s Museum, while
hIPPOnIOn
something of pre-colonial Eras is showed in The Anti-
Four km away from the coast, on a small hill 5oo
quarium of Torre Nao, built inside the Archaeological
meters above the sea level, in the modern city of
Park. In the most equipped Archaeological National
Vibo Valentia, there are the remains of the ancient
Museum of Crotone there are the first remains of
Locri’s colony of Hipponion, built near an early in-
archaic Era and the precious Hera’s treasure.
digene centre called Veipo. Hipponion was a colony
of Locri Epizefiri founded at the end of VII century
SKIlletIOn
B.C. with Medma, to acquire new cultivable lands
Ancient Greek city it became a roman’s colony
and guarantee a trading way on the Tyrrhenian Sea.
with the name of Scolacium, where nowadays are
Inside the Norman Castle of Vibo Valentia we find
the monumental ruins inside the Archaeological
the Archaeological Museum with the remains co-
ming from the excavations of Hipponion.
and the major poetess of Magna Graecia.
The Archaeological Park of Locri Epizefiri is 4 km
lOCrI ePIzeFIrI
further down south towards Reggio Calabria to the
The ancient Locri’s colony of Locri Epizefiri was
modern city of Locri. The entrance, composed of
founded a few years after the foundation of Kroton
the new Archaeological National museum of Locri
in 709 B.C. Locri Epizefiri is the most interesting co-
Epizefiri, is directly accessible from the SS 106 Io-
lony among the Magna Graecia, and here was born
nic road. The Park protects a large area in Marasà
Zaleuco, the man that wrote the first written Code of
where was individuate the ancient Locri’s colony of
Laws and the poetess Nosside, a follower of Saffo
Lokroi Epizefiri.
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Locri
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ethnIC MInOrIty
the AlBAnIAn
the “OCCItAnI”(tyPe OF lAnGuAGe)
They settled in the Calabrian territory around 1400
Guardia Piemontese, in the Province of Cosenza,
especially in the area of the Pollino Park, after 5 centu-
has the particularity to be the only one to mountain
ries they still keep intact their mother-tongue, typical
this language in the south of Italy because it was
customs lots of historic-folklore events above which
founded by the “Valdesi” from Piedmont. The com-
the famous Vallje, with which the Arbresh people,
munity speaks “Occitano” as mother-tongue .At the
every Tuesday after Easter ,remember and celebra-
entrance to the town there is the famous “Porat del
te one of the Hero Skanderberg’s victory against the
sangue”(Blood Door) main door to the town and the
Turkish Empire that happened exactly a Tuesday after
name recalls the sad period of repression.
Easter. The element that joined these ancient communities ,settled in foreign land has been the Greek- By-
the “GreCAnICI”(GreeKS)
zantine rite professed amongst the Italian- Albanian
From the Ionaian Coast, going up the river Melito,
population and by them lived as the most highest
and through the Aspromont, we discover, the Ar-
estate of all nations In all the communities of Italian-
chaic world of the Greek communities or “Bovesia”,
Albanian historical origin, mass and all the principle
the descendents of Greeks Bova, Condofuri, Galli-
sacraments(Baptism, Confirmation, Wedding) are
ciano’, Roccaforte del Greco, Roghudi are mountain
celebrated with the Byzantine- Greek rite and whe-
villages in which they speak an incomprehensive
re the Icon have a high sacred symbolical value as
Neo- Greek dialect and are maintained traditions of
well as a high number of furnishing of the Byzanti-
an ancient civilization. Bova , for instance over 900
ne liturgic that are found in nearly all the churchs
meter sea-level, is considered the centre of “Greek”
of this community.Civita a small Arbresh village on
in Calabria. The Greek area has a mild climate and
the Pollino slopes, is known for its strong culture
therefore suitable for the plantation of Bergamot.
and numera initiative to protect the Minor Histori-
Along the banks of streams and on hills we find
cal Ethnics Culture. Lungro place of the Byzantine
other plantations but this one is named the “green
Dioces,(Eparchia di Lungro) of Byzantine- Greek rite.
Gold “from which is obtained the essence used as
The church of San Nicola di Mira keeps the splendid
the base for the most refined perfume producers
Mosaic “Il Cristo Pantocrator”.
of the world.
“Populations safeguarding their own
language and culture identity”
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MuSeuM And CItIeS OF Art
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CAtAnzArO And the MArCA
CAtAnzArO Art MuSeuM
of settlements along the valley of Corace since the
Known as the “City of the two seas”, it is also called
name vitulus (calf) the simulacrum they venerated,
“City of the three hills”-corresponding to those repre-
renamed by the Greeks “Italioi” - worshipers of the
sented in its emblem, St.Trifone, today known as St.
calf-and ruled by the famous Italian king Italo. The
Rocco, of the Bishopric, today’s Piazza Duomo, and
latter – brother of Dardanus- ancestor of the Trojans
of the Castle, today’s St. John. In ancient times it was
– gave his name to the entire peninsula, Italy.
known as city of the three V’s, referring to the three
By tradition it was founded by the Byzantine general
distinct features of the city: the V of San Vitaliano, the
Nicephorus Phocas the Elder; Catanzaro’s develop-
patron saint; the V of velvet, as it was an important
ment into a fortress town was established by General
silk centre since the time of the Byzantines; and the
Flagizio. According to some assumptions, it was du-
V of wind (vento in Italian) as it is constantly beaten
ring this period that the cultivation of mulberry and
by the strong breezes from the Ionian Sea and Sila.
silk began, hence, in addition to the legendary foun-
“VVV” was the acronym by which Catanzaro’s silk
ding by the Byzantine leaders Zaro and Cattaro, the
industry was identified on both national and foreign
name of the city from the Greek word “Katartarioi”,
markets, an emblem of the finest fabrication of silks,
spinners of silk.
velvets, damasks and brocades from the city.
The Saracens, who occupied it in the tenth century,
The latest archaeological finds testify to the presence
founded here an emirate, Qatansar. Then the By-
Iron Age. The area was inhabited by the Vituli, by the
zantines, the Normans, the Angevins, the Swabians
came until the strenuous resistance to the French
that earned the city the title of “Faithful” granted by
Charles V in 1528. Its coat of arms was enriched by
the presence of the imperial eagle, and by the motto
Sanguinis effusione; exempted from taxes, it could
mint a coin of the value of a carlin whose faces bore
the inscription OBSISSO CATHANZARIO and CAROL. V S IMP. The city was the capital of Calabria
Ultra from 1593 till 1816, the year of the province
administrative division. It is full of churches, monu-
ments and civil architectures: the Cathedral, rebuilt,
nal level, wants to be a place of cultural production
remodelled and at last restored, was built on the site
facilitating the dialogue among the different arts. Its
of a Norman church; the little church of Saint Homo-
Picture Gallery and its Plaster Casts Gallery house a
bonus dating back to the eleventh or twelfth century;
remarkable historical and artistic heritage: from An-
the monumental fountain of “The Cavatore” by Giu-
tonello de Saliba to Salvator Rosa, from Francesco
seppe Rito; the viaduct Morandi, third in the world
Jerace to Andrea Cefaly.
for its span width; the recent Politeama Theatre a
The MARCA, despite its recent institution, has ho-
work by Paolo Portoghesi. Since 2008, the city hosts
sted international artists such as Antoni Tapies, Alex
the MARCA. The Museum, directed by Alberto Fiz is
Katz, Alessandro Mendini and collective exhibitions
one of the most important artistic and cultural cen-
such as Community and Berlinottanta.
tres throughout the South of Italy. Its main purposes
The collaboration with Mimmo Rotella foundation has
are: to enhance the collection of local paintings and
been very significant.
sculptures from ‘600 to ‘800, to pay homage to Mim-
The MARCA Underground, at last, is responsible for
mo Rotella, born and artistically trained in Catanzaro,
testing new languages, highlighting the research of
and to promote contemporary art in the direction of
the most interesting young artists on a national and
the important experience of Intersections, a sculp-
international level.
ture exhibition, in the Park of Scolacium, that since
The museum’s location allows you to benefit, from
2005 marks the summers of Calabria. The MARCA,
the reading room, from the spectacular view of the
promoter of artistic events of national and internatio-
Viaduct “Bisantis”.
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COSenzA And the OPen AIr MuSeuM
Known as the “city of Bruttii” (Città dei Bruzi), it is one
of the oldest cities in the region, head of a metropolitan area of about 269,000 inhabitants.
Its origins date back to the 4th century BC, when the
whole area of the Valley of Crati was considered strategic by the Bruttii. Subdued by the Romans, who
turns it into a strategic stopover on the Via CapuaRhegium, the Roman Via Popilia, the city, once a military centre, becomes a relevant business centre. It is
said that Alaric, king of the Visigoths, suddenly dead
after the sack of Rome, was buried in the bed of the
Busento River. Dominated by the Longobards and by
the Byzantines, fought over by the Saracens, and the
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Longobards, Swabians’ dukedom and favourite city
of Frederick II, residence of King Louis III of Anjou,
the capital of Calabria Citra Naethum, conquered by
the Spaniards in the sixteenth century it became an
outstanding centre of humanistic flowering , called
the Athens of Calabria. The Accademia Cosentina
Cosenza
was the second of the Kingdom of Naples and one
ming maze of narrow streets and staircases.
of the first in Europe. Austrian dominion until the
In the pedestrian precinct, the central Corso Mazzi-
war between the House of Bourbon and the French,
ni, the nerve centre of the town, there is the MAB-
it takes part in the liberal and patriotic movements
Open-air Museum “Bilotti”. The museum houses im-
of 1844; the Brothers Bandiera, rushed to help the
portant sculptures different in style and epoch and
“Calabrian brothers”, are captured and shot in the
created by different artists. Among them the open-air
Vallone di Rovito.
works by Giorgio De Chirico, Giacomo Manzù, Salva-
In October 2008 it was recognized Art City by the
dor Dalì, Mimmo Rotella.
Region of Calabria with a resolution that highlighted
its historical and artistic heritage and recognized its
the ByzAntIne rOSSAnO
touristic value. The old town is one of the most beau-
Where: Rossano (CS)
tiful and interesting in Italy not only for its extent, but
Rossano was one of the main Byzantine centres in
above all for the abundance of religious sites, such
Calabria. This is testified by the Madonna Acheropita,
as the Cathedral, which houses the “Madonna del
by tradition this word means “not painted by human-
Pilerio”, from the greek puleros-warden, Patron pro-
hand”, the 12th century Church of Panaghia and the
tector of the city, and for its prestigious monumental
little Church of St. Mark, the oldest monument in
buildings.
the city, one of the best preserved Byzantine chur-
On one of its seven hills stands the Swabian Castle,
ches in Italy. It was built on the initiative of St. Nilus
the imposing fortress, stronghold of Frederick II, all
as an ascetic retreat for the hermit monks who lived
surrounded by the buildings of the old town, a char-
in ancient rocky settlements below. The real treasu-
“Towns with ancient hearts but
also with vivid culture and works
from modern artists”
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re of Rossano is the Codex Purpureus Rossanensis,
is characterized by two overlapping orders. The en-
Greek Gospels of Middle Eastern or Alexandrian ori-
trance arch opens at the bottom, among pilasters and
gin dating back to the fifth-sixth century, brought to
columns; the central balcony with its round arch lies
Rossano by a monk fleeing from the East because
at the top, flanked by two small rectangular windows.
of the Arab invasion (9th- 10th century). Consisting
You can plainly observe the Renaissance shapes at
of 188 parchment sheets containing the Gospels of
the bottom and the baroque ones at the top.
Matthew and Mark and a letter by Eusebius to Carpiatains texts penned in gold and silver; it is decorated
the CIvIC MuSeuM OF tAvernA
And MAttIA PretI
with 15 miniatures that illustrate the most significant
Where : Taverna(CS)
moments of Jesus’ life and preaching. Norman do-
The museum is housed in the former convent of the
mination failed to undermine the Greek-Byzantine
Dominicans – 15th century - and is divided into two
tradition of the city that was so deep-rooted thanks
sectors. In sector A, from 17th to 19th century, it ex-
to the work of St. Nilus and St. Bartholomew from
poses Our Lady of Angels, a sketch for the frescoes
Simeri, founder of the famous Abbey of Santa Maria
of S. Biagio in Modena and the drawing of the Ec-
del Pathire, flourishing centre of the amanuenses’ art
stasy of St. Peter Celestine, by Mattia Preti. Sector B,
practiced also in other monasteries of the city, as evi-
dedicated to contemporary art, shows some works
denced by the presence of different codices.
by Ercole Dei, Mimmo Rotella, Angelo Savelli France-
no, the manuscript, mutilated and anonymous, con-
sco Guerrieri and Lia Drei. One cannot but pay a visit
PAOlA And the MOnAStery
OF St. FrAnCIS
also to the rooms dedicated to ligneous art, to textile
Where: Paola(CS)
ry Mattia Preti is part of the museum and it is hou-
The Sanctuary of St. Francis from Paola is one of
sed inside the monumental church of St. Dominic,
the most important places of worship in Italy and it
which exhibits works by Mattia Preti (1613-1699),
is located on the hills of Paola, near the stream Isca
the Cavalier Calabrese, and by his brother Gregory
and next to the monastery founded by the Saint in
(1603-1672) born in Taverna. Among the works by
1435. The monastery has two long wings, one built
Mattia Preti there is the Fulminating Christ and the
on a deep gorge, the other following the line of the
Preaching of St. John the Baptist with self-portrait.
handworks and to graphic works. The Picture Galle-
mountain. It shows interesting architectural details;
A large square, from which you can admire the co-
the CIvIC MuSeuM OF
COnteMPOrAry Art
SIlvIO vIGlIAturO
ast and the town below, lies in front of the solemn
Where: Acri(CS)
and elegant church, whose façade in tufaceous stone
A majestic building of the eighteenth century, thirty
the Gothic portal and the cloister reveal the severe
and simple character of the monuments in Calabria.
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San Giovanni in Fiore
Contemporary Art in Acri - that was opened in June
the hIStOrIC MuSeuM
OF the MInIerA dI SAlGeMMA
(SAlt-MIne)
2006 in the rooms of Palazzo Sanseverino Falcone. It’s
Where: Lungro,(CS)
the product of a courageous and ambitious project:
It was one of the oldest industrial sites in Calabria;
giving to Calabria an important space for contempo-
known since the time of Pliny the Elder, when large
rary art. A museum with two souls: treasure chest for
amounts of salt were produced. The salt workers, for-
the works by Silvio Vigliaturo and exhibition centre,
ged in the bowels of the earth, with their strong libe-
art workshop, a meeting place for visitors, artists and
ral convictions, fought in the struggles of the Risorgi-
art critics. The MACA houses at present in its eleven
mento and had an active part in the historical popular
rooms two hundred thirty-seven works by Vigliaturo
uprisings of 1903. The Museum that is now in the hi-
that represent an important heritage, and are also a
storic Martino Palace, occupies 9 rooms in which we
significant return to his homeland, to its landscapes,
find 180 drawings, some of which are of the first half
sensations and colours. These works are the result
of 800, typical objects, old photographs portraying
of a selection of Vigliaturo’s production from 1961
the salt-workers at their work, maps of geological
till today and mark the milestones of his artistic re-
and mineral interest. The pride of the museum is the
search, from the beginning until the more refined
hall of the historical archive that preserves more than
elaboration of the glass-fusion technique.
220 folders, material partly gathered in the mine and
rooms, three thousand square metres of exhibition
space: these are the numbers of MACA - Museum of
partly provided by the Archive of State of Cosenza.
SAn GIOvAnnI In FIOre ABBey
(ABBAzIA FlOrenSe)
Where: San Giovanni in Fiore (CS)
the ethnIC MuSeuM
OF ArBreSh Culture
Among the major religious buildings in Calabria for
Where: Civita (CS)
the impressiveness of the whole abbey complex, the
It was founded in 1989 with the aim of promoting
beautiful Abbazia Florense stands in the old town of
and protecting the Albanian language and culture. It
San Giovanni in Fiore, a locality in Sila rich in art and
represents an open book on Arberia, it is a meeting
history. Together with the adjacent monastery, the
place fostering cultural exchanges, and head-office
Abbey was built between 1189 and 1198 and it was
of the oldest periodical of Arberia “Katundi yne” (Our
wanted by the abbot Gioacchino da Fiore, founder of
country) founded in 1970.
the Florense order, who reached this place in search
the complex preserves the severe austerity of the
Centre FOr InterPretAtIOn
OF the eCO-MuSeuM OF rAGAnellO
heritage Interpretation Centre
Romanesque style. Some stylistic devices make it the
Where: Civita (CS)
best example of Florense architecture in Italy.
The Interpretation Center was created to give value
of a new source of spirituality. Despite the various
changes it underwent over the different centuries,
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Serra San Bruno
to the landscape and culture of the Valley of Raga-
thusian monks.
nello, an environmental resource of exceptional be-
Surviving remnants of the original walls of the fifte-
auty where in 2007 five municipalities gave birth to
enth century with a square corner cylindrical towers,
the Eco-museum of Raganello. They are Alexandria
the ruins of the Renaissance facade of the Church,
del Carretto, Cerchiara di Calabria, Civita, Franca-
much of the lower order, the seventeenth-century
villa Marittima and San Lorenzo Bellizzi, suggestive
cloister, baroque fountain and the old cemetery of
mountain centres in the Calabrian side of the Pollino
the Carthusians. To meet the needs of pilgrims and
Park, that through their landscapes and their people’s
tourists a museum has been set up in the Charterhou-
memories tell their experiences and lives through the
se, in a wing accessible through a separate entrance.
Ecomuseum. The Interpretation Centre is therefore
Not far away from the Charterhouse, plunged into a
a place that documents the territory and recovers its
picturesque landscape dominated by green woods,
stories and its knowledge, by promoting participatory
there is the “lake of miracles” in whose waters, as
processes for a new culture of firm. an independent
tradition says, St. Bruno went to do penance. Today it
entry .Not far away from the Charter house there’s
houses a statue of the kneeling saint.
a “miracle lake “in an area surrounded by the green
wood .Tradition says that San Bruno would enter in
the “CAttOlICA” OF StIlO
this lake in penitence, and today right in the middle
Where: Stilo (RC)
there is a statue of the Saint kneeling.
Subjected to the empire of Byzantium until the eleventh century, Calabria still preserves many exam-
the ChArterhOuSe
OF SerrA SAn BrunO
ples of oriental art. One of the most valuable is the
Where: Serra San Bruno, VV
valley of the stream Stilaro, the Byzantine Valley, rich
Founded between 1090 and 1101 by Bruno of Co-
in architectural remains. The Cattolica, a true exam-
logne, the Charterhouse was the first Carthusian mo-
ple of sacred Byzantine architecture in the region,
nastery in Italy and the second of the entire Order.
among the best examples of it in Italy, was the Cathe-
Originally built in the Gothic style, it was restored
dral of the town and it was governed by a permanent
by Palladio at the end of the 500, subject to further
vicar, succeeded to the Protopope of the Byzantine
changes in the 16th and 17th century, destroyed by
era, which had right of burial in it; here, together
an earthquake in 1783, it was entirely rebuilt at the
with a valuable ring, human remains were found. The
end of 800. Of the original structure we only have
name Cattolica, katholiki, rated it among the “privi-
the remains of the boundary wall on a quadrilateral
leged churches” because they had a baptistery. The
foundation and with cylinder keeps, the ruins of the
cube-shaped building, made with a special mix of
renaissance façade of the church, great part of the
large bricks joined by mortar, has no outside decora-
lower order, the seventeenth-century cloister, the
tions. Only the little domes are covered with square
baroque fountain and the old cemetery of the Car-
tiles arranged in a diamond-shaped brick. The parti-
Cattolica that since the ninth century dominates the
117
cular location of the sources of light, despite its size,
highlights the beauty of the frescoes that can still be
seen. The presence of Arabic inscriptions tells us that
it was probably used for Muslim worship. The Arabs,
that used to destroy and pillage everything they conquered, did not destroy the Cattolica; perhaps because they were attracted by its beauty and its collocation – mostly laid down on the naked rock.
Since 2006 it is on the list together with 7 other Basilian-Byzantine sites in Calabria for the recognition of
World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
the nAtIOnAl MuSeuM
OF MAGnA GrAeCIA
Where: Reggio Calabria
The National Museum of Magna Graecia in Reggio
is one of the most famous in the world. It was in-
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stituted by the archeologist Paolo Orsi, who wanted
the placement and collection of all Calabrian findings
in the prestigious monumental building designed by
Marcello Piacentini and located in Piazza De Nava.
The museum, spread over 4 floors, is divided into
several sections: the prehistoric and protohistoric
collection, the Locri section, the section dedicated
to the Greek colonies in Calabria, the numismatic
section. The underwater archaeology section houses since 1981 the Riace bronzes ( the “Bronzi di
Riace”), precious testimonies of Greek sculpture in
bronze of the 5th century BC, as well as the Philosopher’s Head of Porticello, foundin a wreck in the
depths of the sea in the area of Porticello of Villa San
Giovanni. It houses also the outstanding finds from
the archaeological sites of Basilicata and Sicily that
illustrate the art and history of Magna Graecia from
the 8th century BC and the material of both earlier
Catanzaro
119
and later periods.
Collections of pinakes, votive terracotta offerings
Among the most significant materials:
bearing in relief scenes of the rape of Persephone,
The Bronzi di Riace: found in excellent condition, the
coming from Locri Epizephyrii
two great original Greek statues dating from the mid-
Collections of jewels, bronze mirrors and medals.
5th century BC could represent, according to recent
research, Tydeus and Amphiaraus or Eteocles and
The Museum’s collection temporarily includes also
Polynices of the Seven against Thebes.
works of 700s-900s, the collection of Domenico Ge-
The Philosopher’s head: found in Porticello near Reg-
noese and Monsolino, Lavagna, De Blasio and woo-
gio, is a rare example of Greek portraiture.
den tablets by Antonello da Messina.
Kouros of Reggio is a small marble statue, perhaps
a victorious athlete, exposed during the XX Olympic
SAntA BArBArA PArK MuSeuM
Winter Games.
Where: Mammola (RC)
Marble head of Apollo Aleus, from Cirò
Contemporary Calabrian art has its pulsating centre
Group of the Dioscuri coming down from their horse
in Mammola. The Basilian monastery of St. Fantino
in the battle of the Sagra, from Locri Epizephyrii.
De Pretoriate, today Santa Barbara, has been tur-
Bronze tablets, from the archives of the temple of
ned into the Santa Barbara Park Museum by Nick
Zeus in Locri Epizephyrii
Spatari, painter, sculptor, architect and craftsman
of international renown, collaborator of Charles-
Democedes and Alcmaeon who transformed conta-
Edouard Jeanneret, known as Le Corbusier, one of
minated medicine from magic and superstition into
the greatest architects of the twentieth century. The
science.
museum, 2 km away from the town of Mammola, is
It became the homeland of the philosopher-mathe-
today the base of the “Santa Barbara Art Foundation”
matician Pythagoras, who founded there his famous
created by Spatari and by his wife Hiske Maas, and
school. The rivalry between Crotone and Sybaris was
it is a destination for international artists who along
due to commercial and religious reasons, rather than
the slopes of the hill nearby realize works to enrich
to the legendary attempted kidnapping of a beautiful
the Museum’s collection. On the vault of the former
vestal by three nobles from Crotone, and it led to the
chapel of the monastery, Spatari realized “Il Sogno
battle of Nika that marked the end of Sybaris.
di Giacobbe” (Jacob’s Dream), an enormous three-
The old town is a maze of narrow alleys and little
dimensional painting.
squares. Here there are different interesting places:
the Cathedral built in the 11th century and the Castle,
120
CrOtOne
in a panoramic position above the area of the Greek
Founded by the Greeks in the 6th century BC on an
acropolis, built in 1541 by the Viceroy Pedro of Tole-
existing native settlement, it was one of the most im-
do to defend the coast from the attacks of the Turks;
portant cities of Magna Graecia.
it houses the Civic Museum and the Library. In the
As the legend says, its name derives from Kroton, son
square in front of the Castle there are the nineteenth-
of Aeacus, who was accidentally killed by his friend
century Palazzo Morelli and the eighteenth century
Heracles that, to amend his mistake and honour him,
Palazzo Barraco.
built the city on the banks of the river Esaro, next to
Pythagoras Square is the point of contact between
his tomb. Another legend tells that the name Kroton
the old city and the new.
derives from the name of Alcinous’ brother, king of
The province of Crotone with its historical landsca-
the Phaeacians.
pes recall in its entirety the Magna Graecia. Capo Co-
Famous for its climate, the beauty of its women and
lonna, the promontory where the majestic temple of
the strength of his men overcame every other city in
Hera Lacinia was erected – today only one column
the Olympic games. Milone is his most famous and
of the whole temple survives - is the place where the
celebrated Olympic champion, known as its doctors
sanctuary of Madonna di Capo Colonna is located.
“Different facets of a world
to be discovered in a single region”
Crotone
Continuing along the coast one meets the beautiful
massive Spanish fortification of Le Castella of Isola
Capo Rizzuto. In the province of Crotone, particularly
rich in cultural heritage, there are other places not to
be missed: the village of Santa Severina, the medieval
Caccuri and Mesoraca with its beautiful convent of
Ecce Homo.
In Ciro Marina, a seaside resort which gives its name
to the famous wine, you can visit the remains of a
Greek temple dedicated to the greek god Apollo
Aleus and the Castle.
vIBO vAlentIA
The ancient Greek-Roman Hipponion is, together
with Crotone, one of two new provinces of Calabria.
From its heights you can clearly see the port, from
which you can easily and quickly reach the Aeolian
Islands and the Gulf of Sant’ Eufemia.
Main sights:
The Norman-Swabian Castle, built by Ruggero the
Norman around 1070 and where it is possible to visit the State Archaeological Museum which houses
many archaeological finds dating between the end of
the 7th century BC and the 2nd BC.
The cathedral in Baroque style, built between 1680
and 1723, is dedicated to the Patron Saint Leoluca.
The beautiful bronze doors- by the Calabrian artist
Niglia-tell the historical events of the city; on the
eighteenth-century high altar you can see the “Madonna of the Snow” and the marble triptych of the
Vibo Valentia
121
122
sixteenth century by Antonello Ga-
reGGIO CAlABrIA
gini. The ruins of the Greek city,
Rhegion, founded toward the mid-eighth century BC
just outside the town, retain parts
by colonists from Chalcis, in 89 BC it became a Ro-
of the imposing walls of the sixth
man municipium, residence of the governor of Luca-
and fifth centuries BC.
nia and Bruttium. St. Paul stopped there during one
Tropea, the pearl of tourism of the
of his travels. Sacked by the Visigoths of Alaric, By-
province, is famous all over the
zantines’ dominion, repeatedly attacked by the Arabs
world; it is an interesting old town
of Sicily, conquered by the Normans of Robert Gui-
with its palaces of the ‘700s and
scard, it passed in 1502 from the Aragonese Alfonso
‘800s perched on the cliff overloo-
the Magnanimous to the king of Spain, Ferdinand
king the beach. It shows interesting
the Catholic. It was sacked by the Turkish comman-
portals of prestigious abodes often
der Khayr al-Din and by Scipione Sinan Cicala and
endowed with large tanks dug into
it knew an economic revival under the government
the rock and used to collect the grain
of the Bourbons. Marked by tragic events, the pla-
that from Monte Poro, loaded through clay
gue of 1743 and the earthquake of 1783, returned
pipes on ships moored under the cliff of Tropea,
to the Bourbons in 1814 it was conquered by Ga-
followed the trade routes of the Mediterranean. You
ribaldi’s followers (Garibaldini) in August 21, 1860.
can visit the private museum of the ancient crafts of
The earthquake and seaquake of 1908 devastated it.
Calabria and of the automatic machines.
Once rebuilt it became the Great
Pizzo is famous for its picturesque old town and the
Reggio with the unification
traditional “tartufo” (famous Italian ice-cream des-
of 14 surrounding muni-
sert). In the castle, Aragonese testimony of the 15th
cipalities by the podestà
century, was held prisoner before his execution Joa-
Giuseppe
chim Murat, King of Naples and brother in law of Na-
Zerbi.
poleon Bonaparte. Shot on 13th October, after the
Main sights:
trial that was held in the main hall of the castle, he was
the National Archae-
then buried in the church of San Giorgio. The Murat
ological Museum, fa-
Castle is also the seat of the Provincial Museum. Ser-
mous in the world for
ra San Bruno is another charming town with a strong
the “Riace Bronzes”, now
Benedictine presence of cultural and historical rele-
a symbol of the city; the
vance. Chosen by Brunone of Cologne, San Bruno,
Cathedral,
as a place of prayer and silence, is the seat of the
one in the region, repre-
Charterhouse and of the homonimous Museum that
senting both the Gothic
chronicles the life of the saint and of the Carthusian
and the Romanesque style
monks, the history and culture of the place.
although it was rebuilt after
Genoese-
the
largest
123
the destruction of the earthquake of 1908. Inside the
Gerace is rich in architectural treasures, the great By-
Cathedral there is the particularly beautiful and inte-
zantine Cathedral and its dwellings carved into the
resting “Chapel of the Sacrament” of the 16th cen-
tuff where still today you can see experienced potters
tury, an example of the baroque of Reggio Calabria.
at work, intent on shaping the clay according to the
Not to be missed in the province:
ancient Greek style.
Scylla, rich in history and legend, one of the most
The sumptuous elegant palaces with stone portals
beautiful villages in Italy, with its magnificent castle
worked by local stonemasons.
of the Ruffo and the Chianalea, is nicknamed “Little
A few kilometers from Reggio, in Bova, Bova Marina,
Venice”. Pentedattilo, an ancient ghost town from the
Roghudi, Condofuri, Roccaforte del Greco and Gal-
characteristic shape that resembles a gigantic hand
licianò, Stilo and Bivongi survives one of the most
with five fingers and hence the name, it represents
interesting Calabrian and national anthropological
a regular step of the travelling festival Paleariza, an
phenomena: the Grecian culture. Notable symbols of
important event in the Grecian culture . It houses
it are: the Cattolica of Stilo, a little Byzantine church
between August and September the Pentedattilo Film
unique in the world; in Bivongi, the renewed presen-
Festival, an international event of short films, a magi-
ce of greek orthodox monks in the monastery of St.
cal fusion of cinema and territory.
John Therestis.
WIne And FOOd
GAStrOnOMy
“A melting pot of traditional food having
its origin in popultations of invaders making
the Calabria food an unicum”
Calabria land of hospitality and warmth is not only famous for its coasts ,its crystal
beaches but its also famous for its century Wine gastronomy culture thanks to all the
people (Greeks, romans, normans , Arabs, Angioini, Barboni, Spanish, French) that
lived in the extreme south of Italy. each one of these has left a trace in the Calabrian
Food tradition; to testify this is the use of different spices and herbs like cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, wild fennel ,mint, hot chilli pepper, pastries prepared with honey and the
tradition to work and conserve meat.
124
COld CutS : SAlAMIS
Salamis in Calabria represents the dominant and
fundamental subject in its Gastronomy. In the Calabrian rural culture the “Norcina tradition” dates up
to the period Magna Graecia. In this region , once
again, it’s the wisdom of the people that are able
to extract benefit from meat and pork. Though pigs
don’t need special care it is owned even by the
poor people . Considering the point that tradition
wants that nothing goes lost of this animal. the ability of the people is that even the bones can give
something tasty. From these they obtain the jelly
and not long ago even the blood was transformed
into a sort of cream with nuts, sultana and pieces of
chocolate and used on bread as peanut butter.
SOPreSSAtA, SAlSICCe (SAuSAGeS)
CAPOCOllO
Amongst the Calabrian products the most typical
ones are the salumis, like the classic sopressata. History gives the origins of this tradition back to time of
the Greek Colonization along the Ionian Coasts and
the cultural and artistic influence of Magna Graecia
. We take note of the breed of the black pork, an
product and the quality is not the less in the whole re-
animal of noble origins that is now very popular in
gion. It’s prepared with the parts of fat of the pig and
Calabria and that gives high quality salumis.
Calabrian hot chilli peppers and stuffed in bowels to
then smoked. It’s is used on toasted bread better if
lA ‘ndujA
hot or used in tomato sauce with garlic ; on pizzas
This product called Nduja is one of the famous, Ca-
before the other ingredients if raw or after cooked;
labrian typical food products It’s a soft sausage very
on slices of cheese and in omelettes.
chilli ,that you can spread. IT ‘s produced especially
in Spilinga (VV) but there are a lot of imitation of this
Il MOrzellO
The Morzello (u’ morzeddhu) in Catanzaro dialect
is the authentic Calabrian Dish known by many and
unique in its taste, made from the insides of beef and
cooked in tomato sauce . The origins are to search
in the province of Catanzaro among the people of
Catanzaro, Tiriolo and Taverna even if the name of
this dish derives from the Spanish word “al muerzo”.
It’s prepared with the Catanzaro typical bread shaped
as a doughnut and it has to be divided into big pieces and put into the Morzello. The real Morzello of
Catanzaro has to be eaten very chilli. The tradition
wants that it is eaten round 10.30 in the morning, the
time it was cooked in the “putiche” shops of the city.
OlIve OIl
In Calabria the olive plantation dates back to the Greek period 8th-7th century B.C.. when it arrived here
from Asia Minor .But all the merits of its use and preparation goes to the Romans. Evergreen and long-
125
mon are : Carolea, Coratina, La Tondina and Ottobratica. Gioia Tauro is known for its century “Giants” that
are 20 meters tall.Here we also find a wide number
of varieties that form the “The Olive Woods “ : Ottobratico, Sinopolese, Roggianella, Leccino.In Locri
where the plantations are cultivated in low areas, we
obtain high quality oil like Gerace (or Grossa di Gerace)and Nocellara. Oil is considered unquestionable
head and fundamental component of the Mediterranean Diet Gastronomy, used with both cooked or
raw food.
hOMeMAde BreAd
The Calabrian Homemade Bread is a Calabrian speciality .Prepared with meticulous cure in choosing the
quality of the products and obtaining a fragrant genuine and tasty bread. The particularity is long baking
126
time . The tradition wants that the housewives make
lasting trees with their silver-green colour give a par-
the bread and leave it to leaven all through the night
ticular site to the landscapes of the agricultural area.
under woollen blankets. Then they would get up ear-
Their plantation are adaptable even on inaccessible
ly in the morning to prepare the oven with wood to
areas. The olives are picked up round October / November before the sowing . It can be done by hand,
machines or by putting nets under the tree where the
olives fall on their own. Thanks to these experiences
that Calabria is at the top of the list as best producers
of Italian Oil.
the “dOP” CAlABrIAn OIl
In Calabria there are 3 “DOP” oils : Bruzio, Lametia, Alto Crotonese each with different characteristics and controlled by specific disciplinary. The most
interested areas for this plantation is in the region of
Cosenza, Lamezia, and Reggio (especially Gioia Tauro
and Locri).In the region of Cosenza the most com-
burn for one hour to reach the necessary climate
gust at San Lorenzo (RC)
for the baking of the bread. Still today many bakeries
Festival of the bread: First Saturday of August at Ba-
maintain the ancient method to produce bread.
gnara Calabra
The “Cuti” bread genuine and traditional as in the
Festival of “Frigia” :Montebello Ionico (RC)
past comes in 1 or 2 kg Cooked in oven with wood
Big Bread Feast :Altomonte (CS)
and leaven naturally.
The “Pizzata di Nardodipace (flat bread with chilli
MuShrOOMS
pepper);the wheat biscuit of Reggio Calabria ( a sort
THE MUSHROOMS OF THE SILA
of “frisella”)
Among the mountains and highlands of the Sila (from
The bread of Cerchiara di Calabria is a sort of f phe-
Cecita Lake in Ampollino, from Fossiata to Mancu-
nomenon just for its dimension 2 to 3 kilos , round
so Village,from Camigliatello to Palumbo Sila , from
shaped with a side higher called “rasella” because of
Bocchigliero to Petrona’)it’s a continuous following
the pastry . the bread rests in big boxes of wood to
of woods rich of fir and pine trees, lakes and pasture
be baked at 300degrees in ovens heated with woods
The mild climate of the summer and autumn sea-
of chestnuts and beech. The “Jermanu” rye bread
sons and the presence of the lakes create the right
variety, that can weigh from 500gr to 1.5kg with a
humidity, help the growth of more than 3000 species
brown crumbly crust and a white crumb. The bread
of mushrooms. This natural resource covers great
of fennel seeds of Serra San Bruno; the wheat bread
importance for satisfaction of the researchers as well
of Mangone (CS)
as the economic value important for good part of the
TRADITIONAL DEMONSTRATIONS
mountain people. Territories rich of mushrooms are
Festival of the hot local bread: First weekend of Au-
Sila , Le Serre, but really the entire Calabria, in the
127
high area and also those 100meter sea level.
rapeutic quality and not only. Diamante is the “City” of
Traditional Demonstrations
the Peperoncino and where every year has an impor-
Mushroom Festival : IN November at San Giovanni in
tant demonstration for it called “Peperoncino Festival”
Fiore (CS) and Savelli (KR)
liquorice
Edible Mushroom and Mountain Products Festival
Liquorice in Italy finds its location exclusively in the Ca-
:Last weekend of October at Mammola (RC)
labrian Region where about 80% is of national produc-
THE MUSSHROOMS OF SERRA SAN BRUNO
tion, mainly from the coast of Calabria the area of tran-
Typical genuine product of the Vibones Serre. Picked
sformation is Rossano and Corigliano. With the help
all year round in huge quantity. High gastronomy value
of the Duke of Corigliano, that built the first factory of
are the Edible and “Ovulo” mushrooms that you find in
this kind in 1715,in the period of industrialization, li-
almost all the dishes fresh or in oil or salt. the economy
quorice became a real fountain of economic progress.
of this area is pointing high for this product trying to
In 1800 the industry continue to develop, conquering,
bring sell it not only in the nation but also abroad.
thanks to its genuine product, Europe and America.
The exportation of Calabria Liquorice settled and be-
128
the eSSenCeS
hot chilli Pepper
came stronger in the second half of 19th century and
At the end of 17th century a lot of foreign travellers that
industrial sectors (especially in Pastries) for the pro-
visited Calabria wrote of the use of this pepper in food
duction of sweets ,tablets, sticks , herb tea ,syrups and
and thought that this little fruit was imported here by
liquorice liquor. In Rossano we find the Museum and
the “Saraceni”. Anyway the people of Calabria from the
Factory of the Liquorice Amarelli.
then in the beginning of the 20th .Its used in different
start appreciated its quality as disinfectant, the presuit’s used to preserve food, especially meet. The plant is
CheeSe
Sheep’s milk cheese of Monte Poro
easy to cultivate and in Calabria almost all the families
Already in the list of the Traditional Calabrian Produc-
have one at home or on their balcony ready to use.
tions, the sheep milk cheese of Monte Poro repre-
The Calabrian Hot Chilli Pepper is red horn shaped and
sents today one of the most request cheese of the
is sent all over the world for its high aromatic and the-
regional territory. A cheese that distinguishes itself
mable aphrodisiac power and of long-life, but above all
for the flavour considered the best of South Italy
Sheep’s milk cheese of Crotone
Among the cheese of sheep milk made in Calabria,
the “Pecorino Crotonese is surely the most common
and known out of the regional board-line. Produced
in the province of Crotone in the town of Cutro, Isola
Capo Rizzuto, Strongoli and Crotone itself, where we
find plenty dairies. The Calabrian Association of sheep and goat producers, have as fundamental aim that
to give value and promote Crotonese typical cheese
and to let know the history, tradition, and culture of
the territory. For this reason the “A.P.O.C.C.” is protagonist of the acknowledgement of the “DOP” denomination protected origin of the European Union.
Caciocavallo Silano(Italian Cheese)
The Caciocavallo Silano (DOP) is an ancient cheese
semi hard produced in the south of Italy with calf
129
milk. The name probably derives from the shape of
this cheese that looks like a horse if turned flat. The
name Silano derives from the Calabrian highlands of
the Sila one of the areas where it’s produced. Nowadays the area of production has spread throughout
the territory, Catanzaro, Cosenza, Vibo, Crotone.
stinguished from the others for its shape ,colour,
and size and for its organolettic properties .For what
veGetABleS And leGuMeS
Belmonte tomato
concerns the history of this “giant” It’s possible to
This vegetable protected by the mark De.CO, is di-
product changed its characteristics because of the
think that once imported from America in 1800 the
territory where it had been planted . We really can
divide it in two species : the first Ox Heart ”Cuore
di Bue” weighs 400-800gr and has the shape of a
heart. The second called “Giant” is more circular and
its weight can reach 2kg.
the red Onion
In the territory of Capo Vaticano- Ricadi,a great number of agricultural farms plant and sell the famous “Ci-
polle Rosse di Tropea” that are sold even overseas,
characteristics of this potato is to have a higher percen-
usually named Tropea as the most important centre
tage of starch. That makes it more nourishing and sweet
and where they were sent from by train or ship. On
compared to the other potatoes. To insure this quality
the promontory of Capo Vaticano this bulb has found
is the area where it grows,1000meters sea level, that
the right climate, in fact, its sweetness depends on
gives it taste and the characteristic to need more time
this :mild climate, sandy grounds near the sea on the
for the cooking.
Calabrian Tyrrhenian Coast. The technique of manu-
-At Camigliatello Silano, from 1978,in the month of
facturing of the onion are hand down from genera-
130
October “Potato della Sila Festival”
tion to generation. All the cultural activities are done
-At Parenti,from 1980, last Sunday of August “Fol-
by hand. The red onion of Tropea is protected by
koristic-Gastronomy Demonstration on the Potato
the trademark IGP “Geografic Indication Protection”
della Sila”
(CEE) with the following indication Cipolla Rossa di
the Beans of Caria
Tropea Calabria I.G.P., thanks to the petition presen-
This product is cultivated in Vibo for centuries ,in the
ted by the Accademy Tutela Cipolla Rossa di Tropea.
territory of Caria and Zacconapoli,after World War
Potato of the Sila
the cultivation has increased and in the 80s it started
The potato of the Sila is one of the varieties of the po-
decreasing. The bean of Caria owes its quality to the
tatoes growing in Sila, Calabria It’s registered in the list
way its cultivated as well as to the techniques of pro-
of the mountain products. The principle “organolettic”
duction that has remained the same as the past. The
particular micro-climate of the area of Poro at more
o less 700 meters sea level gives higher quality to
this product compared to beans cultivated in other
areas .For over 30 years in the town of Caria , on the
hills of Tropea, there’s “Sagra della Surjaca” : Bean
Festival ,with lots of visitors and tourists.
CItruS FruIt And FruIt
Clementine of Calabria IGP
The Clementine is a cross between a mandarin and
a sour orange. It is cultivated in Italy since 1940 and
have found in the land of Calabria their Ideal habitat.
They’re produced especially in the plane land of Sibari (CS) ,in some areas of Lamezia, in the province
of Reggio Calabria , Rosarno and also in some places
near Locri. Typical Calabrian product with the trademark that guarantees
Control and quality : IGP “Clementine di Calabria”
tract the essential oil “DOP” is done at the same pla-
the Cedar
ce of production of 4.860 tones of essence. In Cala-
The Cedar represents for Calabria one of those pro-
bria the industry to transform the Bergamot occupies
ducts that guarantees vital income to this territory.
an important level, considering the fact that no other
A citrus fruit that has a relevant position in the eco-
area permits its cultivation. The essential oil is pro-
nomy of several towns in Calabria that are part of the
duced along the coast between Villa San Giovanni
area called “Riviera dei Cedri” :Coast of Cedars, in
and Gioiosa Jonica ,between the Ionian Sea and the
the area of the Tyrrhenian Coast (CS) that leads from
Tyrrhenian Sea ,towns in the province of Reggio Ca-
Diamante to Tortora ;with in the centre Santa Maria
labria and occupies 6,3% of the citrus tree cultivation
del Cedro, where this fruit spontaneously grows. Ce-
in Calabria. Reggio Calabria has dedicated a museum
dar is used in the Food industry for the preparation
to this fruit.
of soft drinks but the main part is used in the phar-
the Fig
maceutical Industry to obtain the essential oil. During
Going down the sea towards south ,after coming
the summer season the is a Festival dedicated to this
across one of the most important fishing harbour of
fruit at Diamante and Santa Maria del Cedro.
the region :Cetraro ,here we are in territory with ano-
the Bergamot
ther important citrus tree ,the fig . the fig is very im-
The Bergamot is a fruit cultivated on the Ionian side
portant here for its fruit called “Dottato” of Cosenza,
of the province of Reggio Calabria. The work to ex-
considered the best in the world for making pastries.
131
Since 1100 its qualities were discovered by Gioac-
1978 every year on 9th August at Borgo Antico di
chino da Fiore, a monk preacher whom inspired the
Mammola there’s the Festival of the Swordfish coo-
ideals of San Francesco and also in Dante Alighieri’s
ked in different ways and served in earthenware, ac-
poem ,collocating this fruit in Paradise. A simple re-
companied by songs and folkloristic ballets.
cipe is stuffing it with an almond and then dipped in
Sardella
chocolate, or in oven and dipped in honey of fig, that
The principle specialty of Crucoli, in the province of
you get cooking the fresh figs for a long time, then
Crotone, known in all the region as the caviar of the
squeezing them and cooking it again. Another type of
south or as the poor. A taste that joins both sea and
preparation is the “Crocetta” crossing together two
earth, obtained mixing together fish with hot chilli
figs stuffed with nuts.
pepper and herbs . Good on bread, sipping a glass
of red wine ,or just used to flavour pasta or eggs.
132
FIShInG PrOduCtS
the Sword fish
At Cir’ the ingredients used remain the same but the
The swordfish is a typical Calabrian esteemed dish
bigger fish and so it is more evident. There is also the
,fished and served in Reggio Calabria and in the pro-
“Rosamarina” of Amantea, that looks more like the
vince especially at Villa San Giovanni, Palmi, Scilla,
“Caviar of Crucoli”. For its popularity there are Festi-
and Bagnara Calabra being like this the tradition in
vals since 20 years ago in Crucoli every third Sunday
gastronomy. The fishing is very particular with the
of August.
fish isn’t cut up. The “sardella” of Trebisacce uses a
traditional boats that have each one a typical name
swordfish is often reason to organize Festivals and
SWeetS
the “Buccunotti” of Mormanno
popular feasts during the summer season, especially
The “Bucconotto or Bucchinotto” in the local dialect
at Bagnara Calabra, in the province of Reggio Cala-
is a sweet in a round or oval shape filled with crum-
bria. It’s also fished in the north of Messina on the
ble nuts and chocolate,or with jam. Its about 4cm
opposite side of the strait.
and weighs 100gr .Its very common in Cosenza but
the stockfish
mainly in Acri, Altomonte and Mormanno. It is usually
Has its place of production at Mammola and its one
eaten in a bite and that’s the reason why of its name.
of the Italian traditional food product of the provin-
the “tartufo” (ice-cream)
ce of Reggio Calabria : obtained by drying cods. It
The tartufo of Pizzo is an ancient product typical of
was once considered food of the poor, as a matter
the Art pastry of Calabria. It’s an ice-cream handma-
of fact the farmers would offer it to the land-workers
de, semi-circle with liquid chocolate in the centre and
in hard days because it would give energy though
covered with chocolate powder. It’s called Tartufo for
it was considered of high energetic value; still today
its shape and colour. It’s a typical Handmade specia-
this tradition is kept alive. As a tradition is also to eat
lity that for years is recalling a lot of visitors to satisfy
this fish on Good Friday and Christmas Eve . From
their palate We now can find it in all the areas of Ca-
like :Passerelle, Feluche, more often Spatare. The
labria, as well in other places of Italy
“Mostaccioli” of Soriano Calabro
The mostaccioli are traditional sweets of this place
but today you can find them in Calabria as well as
in Italy and overseas The origins are Greek It’s a dry
biscuit of flour and honey, (some even with wine)
and comes in different shapes sometimes even decorated with coloured paper
torrone of Bagnara
The confectioners of Bagnara are known for their century tradition in making Torrone, handed down from
father to son since 1800. Made of almonds and honey,
ingredients of the zone. The cultivation of the almonds
was already done here by the Romans and spread in
the south of Italy. Its especially a Christmas sweet.
WIneS
Calabria once called “ENOTRIA” (land of wines) is
rich of wine with a typical Mediterranian taste.
Some vineyards are very ancient ,backing up to the
Greek colonies that brought them from their land
,started producing here and that today still continue
giving wine. The wine was offered to the winners of
the Olimpic games in ancient Greece while to the
God “Bacco” were dedicated Temples The people
of this region has been able to collect in the passing
of years experience of incalculable value in the acknowledge and techniques of the vineyards. Still today
a characteristic is that every family has its own wine
produced with the traditional methods. Plenty business point on the quality using scientific methods in
the phase of producing the wine . Thanks to experience of some leader ships of business after years of
experiments today we can say that we can count on
the high quality Today in Calabria the production is
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of 12 wines with the trade mark DOC that are 20%
Pollino in the province of Cosenza
of the entire production. The surface of the area in-
Sant’Anna di Isola Capo Rizzuto red and rosé in the
terested is equal to 18thousand hectare 20% plane
provinces of Crotone and Catanzaro
land, 65% hills,15% mountain. On the Ionian coast
San Vito di Luzzi in the province of Cosenza
and the inner part ,up to the Sila, between Ciro’ and
Savuto nelle province di Cosenza e Catanzaro
Isola Capo Rizzuto we find Vineyards of “Gaglioppo”
Scavigna in the province of Catanzaro
the one used for the wine “Ciro’”. Further down south
Verbicaro in the province of Cosenza
near Bianco up to Aspromonte we find Greek vine-
Wine IGt
yards . In the area of Lamezia we find the traditional
Arghillà in the province of Reggio Calabria.
Grapes Nevello Mascalese that gives a special taste
Calabria in the entire territory of Calabria.
to this type of wine.
Condoleo in the province of Cosenza.
Wine dOC
Costa Viola in the province of Reggio Calabria.
Bivongi in the provinces of Reggio Calabria and Ca-
Esaro in the province of Cosenza.
tanzaro
Lipuda in the province of Crotone.
Cirò in the province of Crotone
Locride nella provincia di Reggio Calabria.
Donnici in the province of Cosenza
Palizzi in the province of Reggio Calabria.
Greco di Bianco in the province of Reggio Calabria
Pellaro in the province of Reggio Calabria.
Lamezia in the province of Catanzaro
Scilla in the province of Reggio Calabria.
Melissa in the province of Crotone
Val di Neto in the province of Crotone.
Valdamato in the province of Catanzaro.
Valle del Crati in the province of Cosenza.
CrAFtS
the Art OF WeAvInG
Among the different crafts products in Calabria we
find weaving at the very first place. It is still widespread
throughout the land with different peculiarities from
zone to zone. It is the crafts production that better
represents the various cultural ‘souls’ of the region.
In Longobucco, in the Greek Sila, in the province of
Cosenza, there exists a precious highly specialized
production of many kinds of tapestries and blankets
. In San Giovanni in Fiore carpets are interlaced using
an Armenian recently imported technique and fabrics are embroidered using bobbins. In Ghorio di Ro-
the province of Reggio and Catanzaro they produce
ghudi still some broom blankets are produced and
the ‘pezzare’, multicolored stripes fabrics obtained
its working process follows very ancient techniques;
by using textile waste back again. The ‘pezzare’ are
in Staiti, Palizzi, Polistena and many other villages in
used like carpets or to decorate walls. In Tiriolo and
Badolato in the province of Catanzaro we find the
‘vancali’, typical shawls; in Caccuri in the province of
Crotone, wool blankets with traditional drawings; in
Cariati in the province of Cosenza, once again carpets and blankets with Arabian techniques. The today
textile crafts production inspired to Greek, Byzantine
and Arabian traditions is only a small part of the very
big Calabria factory in the field of weaving ,mainly silk
weaving.
Referring to the history of Calabria weaving ,we can
visit the weaving hall in the Popular Art Museum in
Monterosso Calabro, in the province of Vibo Valentia.
Textile crafts museum Reggio Calabria
the Art OF CerAMICS.
This kind of art finds in Calabria a secular tradition.
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The ceramics and terracotta production is influen-
preciated in Italy and abroad in different sectors:
ced by culture and tradition of those populations
from the show business to the religious field , from
who inhabited this ancient land. One of the main
haute couture to institutional sectors. The Mediterra-
characteristics of ceramics products in Calabria is
nean jewelry art school of Gerardo Sacco is among
the representation of symbols and magical rites. The
the most prestigious schools in Italy. Beyond the
production of graffiti, masks, pinakes, shepherds in
sacred objects of a past time, it teaches to decorate
ceramics is of great value. Thanks to its artistic past
instruments of the Calabria farmer art and it creates
history Squillace has now a relevant cultural role in
shapes and symbols of an Italian-Albanian civiliza-
this field. Ceramics in Squillace are made by using the
tion. But it also creates artistic jewels for cinema
technique of ‘ingobbio’ that is to cover the artifact
purposes, as for example those used in ‘The young
with white clay and then to decorate it with scratches
Toscanini’ acted by Liz Taylor, who considered them
by using a sharp point. The clay after a first cooking
of an ‘ unparalleled beauty’ and those used by Glen
period changes its colour into a dark red one. Locri
Close in ‘Hamlet’.
is famous for its lamps and vases while Gerace for its
artistic ceramics.
History, culture and tradition mixed themselves in
the golden strands of the famous jewelry tradition in
San Giovanni in Fiore reaching success all over the
GOld And SIlver
world for its originality and precision. The meaningful
Jewelry art in Crotone is almost recent but very ap-
life’s moments are associated to a jewel. Birth, enga-
sing itself on the technique of hand carving. Cabinetry, carving, inlay such as the production of tobacco
pipes are traditions inherited from father to son. In
fact the tobacco pipes of Calabria are at the first place in the most famous amateurs’ collections both for
functionality and beauty. In Brognaturo and Melissa
the local craftsmen use the roots of tree heather to
process the precious Aspromonte root in order to
gement, marriage, death find a proper representation
create tobacco pipes masterpieces to be collected.
in the jewelry tradition. The jewelry sector has still a
Great importance also have the high-quality musical
certain importance thanks to the ancient art and the
wood instruments particularly the lute produced in
know-how of some families, engaged in this mastery
Bisignano and the reed flageolets produced in San
for centuries: jewels, that won the time, being given
Luca and Plati’.
daughters from their mothers. The jennacca is the
main jewel decoration of the typical local costume.
The jennacca grains are obtained by working the filigree in a particular way, by creating a daisy with buds
having a hemispherical shape, which, interlaced with
another one, gains the shape of a grain.
the Art OF WOrKInG WOOd
The high quantity of wood existing in the Sila and
Aspromonte mountains has always permitted to develop wood crafts, it is also closely linked to ancient
traditions. One of the most original wood processing
production is the one called ‘shepherds ‘ art’, still ba-
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