Phonetics and Phonology

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Phonetics and Phonology
Phonetics and Phonology
Announcements
-­‐ Office hours: Tues 12-­‐1, Wed 3-­‐4
-­‐ Slides and grades on MyCR
-­‐ First blog post: due midnight Thursday
Blog assignment
By special request: Effects of memory span
People with smaller short term memory...
-­‐ were better at hearing their name in the background (ie, get more distracted)
-­‐ searched a wider range of (possibly irrelevant) knowledge
-­‐ were more likely to find simple, experience-­‐based solutions -­‐ were more variable in their moral choices
Source: Cognition (Ashcraft and Radvansky 2009)
The vocal tract
The larynx
(the ‘voicebox’)
-­‐ Contains the vocal folds and glottis
Voicing
• Voiceless sounds: vocal folds held apart; air flows freely through glottis
• Voiced sounds: vocal folds held loosely together and vibrate as air passes through glottis
• Try with [s] and [z]!
What it actually looks like
Consonants
-­‐ Involve a major obstruction in the airstream.
-­‐ Described by:
-­‐ voicing (yes/no)
-­‐ place of articulation
-­‐ manner of articulation
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/english/
frameset.html
X-­‐ray of vocal tract in action
circa 1964!
Vowels
-­‐ no major obstruction in vocal tract
-­‐ demo
Vowels
-­‐ Praat: Vowel Editor, formants
Vowels
-­‐ Exemplar theory...
-­‐ Exemplar theory...
Vowels
Vowels
-­‐ Spanish: Mexican v. Peninsular
Putting gestures together
Frequency effects
-­‐ Gestures overlap and reduce
-­‐ [dɪd.ju] > [dɪdʒu] > [dʒu]
-­‐ [goʊiŋtu] > [gənə] > [ənə] > [ə]
-­‐ [aɪ.æm] > [aɪm] > [əm]
-­‐ memory ~ mammary
-­‐ [hiɹ] ~ [hɪɹ]
-­‐ Why?
-­‐ neuromotor practice
-­‐ listener-­‐oriented theories
-­‐ exemplars (self-­‐feeding loop)
The wug test
Voicing assimilation
This is a wug. Now there are two of them. There are two ____.
This is a plip. Now there are two of them. There are two ____.
The wug test
Voicing assimilation
After
p, t, k
[s]
voiceless
b, d, g, v, m, n, r, l
[z]
voiced
The wug test
Voicing assimilation
After
p, k, s, ch, sh
[t]
voiceless
b, g, v, m, n, r, l, j
[d]
voiced
Experiment
-­‐ Can work solo or in groups
-­‐ Make up 5 words that will test one of these patterns
-­‐ Let me check them
-­‐ Draw a picture of each
-­‐ Write a sentence that will get someone to say the word
-­‐ Experiment on someone that has not taken this class
-­‐ Give them a cookie at the end

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