Big Ideas:

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Big Ideas:
Chapter Three
The British in
North America
Big Ideas:
How did British imperialism impact
Aboriginal societies?
How was imperialism responsible for the
creation of British settlements?
Who were the key people in British
exploration and settlement of North
America?
What role did the British government
play in colonizing North America?
You already know why
the French wanted to
colonize the New World.
What motivated Britain
to expand into North
America?
Economy
France, Spain, and Portugal had
made a lot of money from colonies
in the New World. Britain was
hoping they could too.
Competition
Britain wanted to be the most
powerful nation in Europe and
was competing with France
and Spain for resources in the
New World.
Quality of Life
Britain was overpopulated and
there was very little land left to
farm. Moving to the New World
offered British citizens a chance
at a better life.
Religious Freedom
Many religious groups in Britain were
treated poorly because of their beliefs.
Puritans, Quakers, Baptists and others,
wanted to find a place to live where
they could practice their faith freely.
The Thirteen Colonies were
far more successful than
New France and Acadia.
Why?
New France
The Thirteen
Colonies
1660
3 000
90 000
1710
18 000
331 711
1720
24 474
446 185
1730
34 118
629 445
1740
44 000
905 563
1750
53 000
1 170 760
1760
64 000
1 593 625
Different Goals
While France wanted to have new colonies,
the King thought it was too expensive to
pay for the creation and protection of the
colonies. Britain had a different goal when
it came to colonies. Britain invested a lot of
money because they wanted to have huge
settlements so they would be more
powerful militarily and economically than
the other imperial countries.
The Climate
The climate along the St. Lawrence where
New France and Acadia were established
was better suited to collecting furs then to
farming. Winters were long and bitterly
cold and the growing season was very
short so the settlers in New France had a
much harder time making a living. The
climate in The Thirteen Colonies was a lot
warmer and it was possible to farm nearly
all year long, giving colonists a better
quality of life.
Employment
Because the economy in New France
was based mainly on the fur trade, there
were not many opportunities for
colonists to make money. In the British
colonies however, the economy included
farming, fishing and logging, giving
settlers more opportunity to earn a
living.
Religion
France encouraged only Catholics
to come to New France whereas
The Thirteen Colonies
encouraged settlers of ALL faiths,
and even people from other
countries to come and be a part of
the new colony.
Trade
As you recall from chapter two, we
learned that the French King handed
out monopolies to merchants for the fur
trade. The Thirteen Colonies were
allowed to trade with other countries
outside of Britain and the colonists were
free to start business and grow a large
variety of crops.
Social Studies 7 – Chapter Three
The Thirteen Colonies and New France Compared
Your assignment is to create a poster illustrating ONE of the five
different reasons why The Thirteen Colonies were more
successful than New France. You may use a combination of
words, computer graphics, and/or hand drawings to create an 8
½ by 11 poster. You must also include a short paragraph ON
THE FRONT of your poster (4-7 sentences) that explains the
reason you have chosen to illustrate.
Your poster MUST:
•
Have a CREATIVE title
•
Be completely coloured
•
Attract attention – meaning it must be neat and able to be
seen clearly from about six feet away (not the paragraph, just the
drawings).
•
Show the characteristic you have chosen in New France
AND in the Thirteen Colonies.
The Impact of
British Imperialism
on Native Americans
A Look at the Beothuk
The Beothuk lived in Newfoundland. During the summer, they lived on the coast
where they fished and gathered shellfish. In the Winter, this group moved inland
where the weather was less severe, to hunt caribou. When the British arrived,
they set up settlements along the coast disrupting the Beothuk way of life. The
Beothuk no longer had access to the ocean AND they had massive competition
for the resources the ocean provided.
The Beothuk people were afraid of the British and tried to avoid them at all costs...
even if it meant starving. When the British left for the winter, the Beothuk would
raid supplies left behind in an attempt to catch enough fish to survive. When the
British returned in the spring, they were angry at the thefts and often engaged in
violence. The British actually started using guns to hunt down and kill Beothuk
men, women and children. On top of this, Beothuk
people also suffered from diseases like influenza and
tuberculosis which were brought over by the British.
By 1830, the entire population of Beothuk people had
gone extinct, completely wiping out a unique culture.
Mi'kmaq Perspective
The Beothuk were not the only people who were affected by the
arrival of Europeans. The Mi'kmaq had managed to live in relative
cooperation with French settlers in New France, however the arrival
of British settlers at Halifax caused the Mi'kmaq people great
concern. Halifax had traditionally been one of the Mi'kmaq people's
preferred coastal camp. When the British arrived, the Mi'kmaq
people lost access to this site. The Mi'kmaq considered the French
settlers to be allies and listened to them when the French suggested
the Mi'kmaq make life difficult for the British. In
response, the British retaliated with orders to
"annoy, distress, take, or destroy Mi'kmaq
people wherever they are found."
Knowing that France and Britain were enemies
in Europe, and that they were both competing
with each other to gain more and better
colonies in North America, do you think the
advice of the French was good advice for
the Mi'kmaq people or not?
Important British
Explorers and Settlers
John Cabot
John Cabot made the journey to the new world in 1497,
arriving in what is known today as Newfoundland. When
he went back to England, he told them there were so many
fish, they could be caught by lowering a basket into the
water. Cabot claimed Newfoundland for Great Britain,
even though the British were only really interested in the
fish. Eventually, the British began to colonize the island
and in 1729, the island was granted its own governor.
Henry Kelsey
Kelsey worked for the Hudson Bay Company.
In the late 1600's he went with a group of Cree
people to try and meet other aboriginal groups
and convince them to trade with the British, not
the French. Kelsey made it as far West as
present day Saskatchewan, creating alliances
with many First Nations groups and ensuring
they would trade with the
British.
Anthony Henday
Henday also worked for the Hudson Bay Company. He
made it even further West than Kelsey, all the way to
present day Red Deer, on foot. Henday wanted to meet
with Aboriginal groups in the West and convince them to
bring their furs to Eastern Canada to trade with the
British. Henday tried to convince the Siksika nation to
adopt a lifestyle where they would trade furs for profit,
rather than only kill what they needed. The Siksika were
not interested in this proposal and needed to think about
what the consequences would be for their people if they
adopted this "European" way of life.
Matonabbee
Matonabbee was raised at a furtrading post and had knowledge of
both European and Aboriginal ways
of life. He spoke at least three
languages and was a very skilled
diplomat. Matonabbee was also a
successful fur trader, negotiator, and
guide. He was also a very close ally
of the British, bringing in more furs
than any other member of his tribe.
Sir John Franklin
One of the most famous British Explorers,
Franklin was charged with the task of trying
to find a “Northwest Passage” to Asia. That
meant he was to look for a route around
North America, through the Arctic Circle.
This was extremely dangerous as the summer
melt was so short and the ice was a very real
danger to ships. Franklin was unsuccessful
in his attempt to find the passage. He and his
crew were discovered with the help of Inuit
people. Everyone had died.
James Cook
James Cook sailed his ship Resolution
to Vancouver Island in 1778 in an
attempt to locate an entrance to the
Northwest Passage from the Pacific.
He was unsuccessful in discovering a
route that would lead east back to
England, so he sailed West to Asia.
When he reached China, he discovered
that Sea Otter furs his crew had traded
for near Vancouver were worth a lot of
money, so much that they were
nicknamed "soft gold."
George Vancouver
Yet another British explorer hoping
to discover an entrance to the
Northwest Passage along the coast
of BC. Vancouver spent three
summers exploring the entire coast
of British Columbia and many of the
islands around it. He and his crew
drew the first accurate map of this
shoreline. Vancouver Island and
Vancouver are named after George
Vancouver.

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