the Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests

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the Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests
Publications Catalogue of the Pilot
Program for the Conservation of
Brazilian Rainforests
17 years of work in the Amazon and Atlantic Forests
Ministry of Environment
Executive Secretariat
Department for Coordination of Policies for the Amazon
Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests
Federative Republic of Brazil
President - Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Vice-President – José Alencar Gomes da Silva
Ministry of Environment
Minister – Carlos Minc Baumfeld
Executive Secretariat
Secretary – Izabella Mônica Vieira Teixeira
Department for Coordination of Policies for the Amazon Director – Mauro Oliveira Pires
Publications Catalogue of the Pilot
Program for the Conservation of
Brazilian Rainforests
17 years of work in the Amazon and Atlantic Forests
Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests
Coordinator – Nazaré Lima Soares
Ministry of Environment
Executive Secretariat
Department for Coordination of Policies for the Amazon
Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests
Brasília, 2009
List of Acronyms
Executive Secretariat - Secex
ACRONYM:
MEANING
Department for Coordination of Policies for the Amazon - DAAM
AAFI
Indigenous Agroforestry Agents
Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests
AAV
Volunteer Environmental Agents
Abanne
Meeting of Anthropologists from North and Northeast Regions
ADA
Development Agency
Fax: 55 61 3274-7704
AM
Amazonas State
E-mail address: [email protected]
AMA
Monitoring & Analysis Project
AMF
Forestry Management Areas
APA
Alternative Farmers Association
Apruram
Rolimourense Rural Farmers Association for Mutual Assistance
ASC
Agroforestry
ASP
Silvopasture Agroforestry
Aspac
Silves Association for Environmental and Cultural Preservation
BCDAM
Amazon Shared Database System
BNDES:
Brazilian Development Bank
Catie
Tropical Agronomy Research and Teaching Center
CCA
Amazon Central Corridor
CCMA
Atlantic Forest Central Corridor
CDS
Sustainable Development Center – University of Brasilia
CEC
Community Statistics Center
Cena
Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - University of Sao
Paulo
Cena
Capacity-building Needs Diagnosis
Cenaflor
National Forestry Training and Capacity-Building Center
Centru
Rural Worker Education and Culture Center
CGTT
General Council of the Ticuna Tribe
CIF
Fuste Identification Class
CLA
Alcântara Launch Center
SEPN 505 bloco B. Edifício Marie Prendi Cruz, 2º andar. Asa Norte
70.730-542. Brasilia - DF.
Tel.: 55 61 3105-2093
Text: Marli Teresinha dos Santos
Editorial Coordinator: Larissa Ribeiro Barbosa
Support: Pilot Program Coordination Team
Cover, layout and electronic editing: Extrema Comunicação
Guidance to bibliographic standardization: Ibama
Helionídia Carvalho de Oliveira
© Ministry of Environment
Not for sale
Catalogue Item Publication
Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
C357
Catálogo de publicações do Programa Piloto para Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do
Brasil: 17 anos de atuação na Amazônia e Mata Atlântica /PPG7. – Brasília: MMA,
2009.
220 p. ; 29 cm. DVD.
Bibliografia
1. Catálogo (publicação). I. Ministério do Meio Ambiente. II. Secretaria Executiva. III.
Programa Piloto para Proteção das Florestas Tropicais – PPG7. IV. Título.
CDU(2.ed.)504
The authors are solely responsible for the concepts and opinions disclosed herein.
Condessa
Consortium for the Socio-environmental Development of the
BR 163 Highway
CPT
Land Pastoral Commission
CTI
Indigenous Studies Work Center
DBH
Diameter at Breast Height
DLIS
Integrated and Sustainable Local Development
DRP
Participatory Rural Diagnosis
EIA
Environmental Impact Assessment
Embrapa
Brazilian Agricultural Research Company
EEZ
Ecological-Economic Zoning
FAO
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
Fase
Federation of Social and Educational Assistance Bodies
FBDS
Brazilian Foundation for Sustainable Development
Fetragri
State Federation of Agricultural Workers
Finep
Brazilian Innovation Agency
Flona
National Forest
FNMA
National Environment Fund
FNO
North Region Constitutional Fund
FNS
National Health Foundation
Funai
National Indigenous Foundation
FVPP
Live, Produce and Preserve Foundation
G-7
Group of the most industrialized countries on Earth
GPD
Environmental Preservation Group
Granav
Live Nature Environmental Group
GTA
Amazon Work Group
GTZ
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbit –
German Technical Cooperation
Iara
Amazon Institute for Environmental Resources Management
Ibam
Brazilian Municipal Administration Institute
Ibama
Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural
Resources
IBGE
Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
ICV
Life Center Institute
IFC
Continuous Forestry Inventory
IIEB
International Education Institute of Brazil
Imazon
Amazon Institute of Man and the Environment
IMT
Amazonas Institute of Tropical Medicine
Inam
Amazon Nature Institute
Incra
National Institute for Colonization and Land Reform
Inpa
Amazon National Research Institute
Inpe
National Space Research Institute
Ipam
Amazon Environmental Research Institute
IPE
Individual Protection Equipment
Ipea
Applied Economic Research Institute
ISA
Socio-environmental Institute
ISPN
Society, Population and Nature Institute
Jacarex
Joint Amazonian Carbon Experiment Project
Macoe
Manaus Atmospheric CO2 Experiment Project
MDA
Ministry of Agrarian Development
MDTX
Movement for the Development of Transamazônica and Xingu
MEB
Basic Education Movement
MFC
Community-based Forestry Management
MMA
Ministry of Environment
MPEG
Emílio Goeldi Museum of Pará
MPST
Movement for the Survival of Transamazônica and Xingu
SL
Sustainable Livelihood
NAEA
Amazon Advanced Studies Center of the Federal University of
Pará
Oemas
State Environmental Bodies
NGO
Non-Governmental Organization
PA
Pará State
PDA
Demonstration Projects
PDPI
Indigenous Demonstration Project
PFC
Cerrado Fruits Project
PFN
National Forests Program
PFNM
Non-Timber Forestry Products
PGAI
Integrated Environmental Management Project
Planafloro
Rondonia National Forestry Plan
PNF
National Forests Program
PPG7
Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests
PPTAL
Indigenous Lands Project
PRCA
Regional Environmental Capacity-building Plan
Proambiente
Program for the Socio-Environmental Development of Familybased Agriculture
Proarco
Seater
Acre State Technical Assistance and Agroforestry Extension
Secretariat
Sipam
Amazon Protection System
SLAPR
Rural Properties Environmental Licencing System
SNUC
National Conservation Unit System
SPC&T
Science and Technology Subprogram
SPRN
Natural Resources Policy Project
SQA
Environmental Quality in Human Settlements Secretariat
ACT
Amazon Cooperation Treaty
IL
Indigenous Land
Ufam
Federal University of Amazonas
Emergency Fire Prevention & Control Project
Unifap
Federal University of Amapá
Profor 163
Strenghthening Social Participation in the BR 163 Plan Project
Unipoma
Santarém Integrated Environmental Policing Unit
ProManejo
Forest Resources Management Project
UNCED
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
Proteger
Amazon Fire Prevention and Mobilization
UPA
Annual Production Unit
ProVárzea
Flood Plain (Varzea) Management Project
WWF
World Wildlife Fund
PES
Payment for Environmental Services
Radam
Radar in the Amazon Project
Rebraf
Brazilian Agroforestry Network
REDD
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forestry
Degradation
Resex
Extractive Reserves Project
RFC
Cerrado Fruits Network
RFT
Rain Forest Trust Fund
Rima
Environmental Impact Report
RMA
Atlantic Forest NGOs Network
RPPN
Natural Heritage Private Reserves
SAF
Agroforestry System
Sasop
Rural Grassroots Organizations Support Service
SCA
Amazon Coordination Secretariat
SCM
Mamirauá Civil Society
Summary:
Introduction........................................................................................................... 15
The Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests............................ 17
Abstracts – publications by the Subprograms and projects.................................... 17
1.AMA - Monitoring & Analysis Project................................................................... 19
2.Ecological Corridors – Ecological Corridors Project............................................ 37
3.GTA – Amazon Working Group and the projects GTA Institutional Strenghtening,
Support to GTA Institutional Development and Capacity-building to Prevent Forest
Fires in the Amazon (Proteger II)........................................................................... 45
4.PDA – Demonstration Projects........................................................................... 53
5.PDPI - Indigenous Demonstration Project.......................................................... 69
6.PPTAL - Indigenous Lands Project..................................................................... 79
7.ProManejo – Forest Resources Management Project........................................ 83.
8.ProVárzea - Flood Plain (Varzea) Management Project.....................................123
9.RMA – Atlantic Forest NGOs Network – RMA Capacity Building and Institutional
Development Project...........................................................................................177
10.SPC&T - Science and Technology Subprogram..............................................181
11.SPRN - Natural Resources Policy Project....................................................... 213
Introduction
To keep the knowledge and experiences gained through the Pilot Program
for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests (PPG7) alive, the Ministry of
Environment has assembled this catalogue bringing together abstracts of
publications of different PPG7 subprograms and projects. The full publications are also provided in digital form (attached hereto).
The Pilot Program generated a large number of technical and scientific
studies that supported the design of environmental public policies focused
on sustainable development. In its 17 years of existence, the Pilot Program
has implemented 26 subprograms and projects which contributed to expand
knowledge of the Brazilian Amazon and Atlantic Forest environments. It
committed resources to five lines of action: experimentation and demonstration; conservation of protected areas; institutional strengthening; science
and technology for sustainable development; lessons learned and knowledge dissemination.
Most subprograms and projects are concluded and a few are about to be
consolidated. The great challenge now is to retain the knowledge acquired
during these 17 years of intensive activity, which contributed to the establishment of environmental guidelines and guidance, such as new tools for
management and social control, and the strong environmental commitment
built at different government spheres.
This catalogue presents abstracts of the studies published – about 250 words each, and the shortest ones with about 120 words. The abstracts depict
the key topics of the publication, using the same language as the original
text. With it, readers can decide about reading or not the entire article or
book.
14
15
The Pilot Program for the Conservation of
Brazilian Rainforests
The Pilot Program (PPG7) was established in 1990 during the Houston
Convention which gathered the G-7 countries to protect the Brazilian Rainforests. It was ratified during the United Nations Conference on Environment
and Development (UNCED) – the so-called Rio 92. There was a global wave
against the deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest. Governments and the
civil society were working together to find solutions to combine conservation
of the Amazon Rainforest and Atlantic Forest and the sustainable use of their
natural resources, while improving the living conditions of local populations.
Seventeen years later, amidst negotiations and implementation of 26 Subrograms and projects, the Pilot Program reports successful experiences and
challenges that should be publicized. The Program has carried out countless
studies, learning many lessons about the socio-environmental management
of Brazilian forests. The Pilot Program played (and still plays) a core role
in the establishment of sustainable development-oriented public policies,
notably due to the amount of knowledge generated and the incentives and
capacity for social mobilization of its many subprograms and projects.
The PPG7 is a Brazilian government initiative in partnership with the international community. It is being considered one of the largest multilateral cooperation Programs linked to an environmental theme of global relevance.
Funding came from the G-7 countries, Netherlands and the European Union.
Funds were complemented by Brazilian Federal and state governments,
together with civil society. The World Bank managed the Rain Forest Trust
Fund (RFT), created to receive the contributions of different donators.
Abstracts – publications by the
Subprograms and Projects
The abstracts briefly show the main points of the publications, including the
initial problem, methodology, main findings and conclusions. These were divided into subprograms and projects, in alphabetic order, and are classified
starting with the most recent.
16
17
1
AMA
Monitoring
and Analysis Project
The AMA Project was created in 2000 to play a key role in the PPG7,
organizing lessons learned from projects and subprograms through
monitoring, studies, analyses and dissemination of lessons. The
Project worked with the identification and analysis of strategic lessons, aiming at disseminating these as inputs to the formulation of
public policies.
AMA was implemented by the Ministry of Environment along three
lines of action: 1) technical assistance and capacity-building in monitoring and assessment tools, emphasizing impact analysis and knowledge systematization as tools to manage projects and generate
inputs for public policies; 2) carrying out studies and analyses on innovative initiatives of the Pilot Program and other strategic topics related to the sustainable development of the Amazon and the Atlantic
Forest; 3) dissemination of lessons learned and other strategic knowledge of the Pilot Program through publications and the organization
of debates, seminars and other events to exchange experiences and
dialogue with public policies agents.
This project, linked to Pilot Program Coordination, produced 24 publications.
18
19
AMA1
WUNDER, S. (Coord.). Pagamentos por serviços ambientais:
perspectivas para a Amazônia Legal [Payment for environmental
services: perspectives for the Legal Amazon]. 2. ed. rev. Brasilia: MMA,
2009. 144 p. (Série Estudos, 10)
According to the literature, Payment for Environmental Services (PES) is a
voluntary transaction, where a well-defined environmental service, or use of
the land that could ensure that service, is purchased by at least one buyer from
at least one supplier, provided that the supplier guarantees service delivery.
Almost all the existing PES comprise environmental services linked to four
categories: 1) carbon retention and capture; 2) biodiversity conservation;
3) water services conservation; and, 4) landscape conservation. This study
focuses on the opportunities most common in the Amazon, i.e., PES linked to
biodiversity and carbon. Local PES is direct payments to service providers,
as in the Forest Allowance Program (Programa Bolsa Floresta) in the State
of Amazonas, and the Program for the Socio-Environmental Development
of Family-based Agriculture (Proambiente) of the Federal Government.
International PES take place when a country or administrative entity is
paid to implement policies focused on environmental services provision.
International PES are being discussed in terms of avoided deforestation or
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation or Forestry Degradation (REDD).
The high deforestation rates and the prevalence of command and control
policies ineffective in reducing environmental degradation suggest the need
to apply PES to the Brazilian Amazon. However, PES have economic,
cultural, institutional and information requirements. Such pre-conditions
can be fulfilled, but the institutional pre-condition – mainly regarding land
ownership – is the most critical impairment. Nonetheless, the Amazon has
huge potential for providing environmental services related to biodiversity
and carbon retention in natural forests, despite the inexistence of demand
at the international level to support PES arrangements at a regional scale
in the Brazilian Amazon.
AMA2
ASCHER, P.; VALARELLI, L. L. Monitoramento de Impacto: uma
proposta metodológica [Impact Monitoring: a methodological proposal].
Brasilia: MMA, 2008. 80 p. (Série Monitoramento & Avaliação, 4)
The publication proposes an alternative and practical method to build
an impact monitoring system. The basic premise of this methodological
proposal is that monitoring is mainly aimed at learning. The first part
of the book introduces the characteristics, intentions and logic of the
20
sustainable development projects, the rationale and monitoring needs
during implementation, as well as the different types of monitoring used in
project management. The second part discusses different approaches to
project management and guidelines or strategies to design the project’s
monitoring and evaluation system. The third part develops, step-bystep, an example of how to build an impact monitoring strategy using
a fictitious case related to a sustainable agriculture project. Moreover,
there is one chapter on issues related to the universe of indicators,
focusing on the procedures for formulation and constructing project
monitoring-related indicators.
AMA3
SAUER, S. (Coord.). Experiências inovadoras em prevenção e controle
de queimadas na Amazônia brasileira [Innovative experiences in slashand-burn prevention and control in the Brazilian Amazon]. Brasilia: MMA,
2007. 96 p. (Série Estudos, 9)
The main aim of this study is the comparative analysis of the efficiency
of different strategies for slash-and-burn prevention and control in the
Brazilian Amazon adopted by the projects Reviving (Reviver), Fire-free
Farming (Roça sem Queimar), Fire: Chronic Emergency (Fogo: Emergência
Crônica) and Protect (Proteger), thus contributing to the formulation and
implementation of public policies for slash-and-burn prevention and control.
The concern over the indiscriminate use of slash-and-burn techniques and
their consequences resulted in many governmental and non-governmental
initiatives in Amazon. The four projects have effectively implemented and
developed a wide array of actions that provide an alternative to the use
of fire, such as fire-free farming; beekeeping and fish farming; planting
of agroforestry systems; recovery of degraded areas; intensive use of
pasture; construction of breeding sites, among others. The effectiveness
derivded from some strategies employed to implement the actions: a) use
of the existing organizational structure; b) implementation of a process for
dialogue and engagement of leaderhip and social organizations of family
farmers in the activities developed by the projects; c) local government
involvement; d) complementarity of actions developed by some projects,
including with government programs. One of the largest gaps found in all
the four projects analyzed is the lack of proper and consistent technical
assistance. Other gaps are: lack of scientific research capable of offering
alternatives to small crops; and the existence of lines of credit based on
chemical-mechanical production. The study concludes that each project
has particular characteristics and, therefore, the replication of strategies
depends, among others, on discussing with the local actors to be targeted by
the projects. Drawing on the projects’ experience, the main areas to be fostered
would be: readjusting the lines of credit; encouraging technical assistance;
providing managerial and market training to family farmers in Amazon.
21
AMA4
GUERRA, R.; ASCHER, P. Estratégias e métodos de monitoramento
em projetos de proteção das florestas tropicais brasileiras [Monitoring
strategies and methods in Brazilian Rainforest protection projects]. Brasilia:
MMA, 2006. 214 p. (Série Monitoramento & Avaliação, 3)
The publication contains different articles that depict the rich monitoring
knowledge acquired by the PPG7 projects. The publication’s first article
was written by the AMA Project providing readers with a general view on
the evolution of monitoring and evaluation activities in the Pilot Program
projects, as well as providing some clues on how to achieve effective and
functional monitoring systems. The second article, by the Demonstration
Projects (PDA), discloses lessons learned in the creation of participatory
monitoring systems. The third text presents an experience of the
Indigenous Demonstration Project (PDPI) which followed 70 small projects
by Indigenous organizations in the Amazon. Is also discloses experiences
of the Natural Resources Policy Project (SPRN), of the Family Farmers
Mobilization and Capacity-building Project to Prevent Forest Fires in the
Brazilian Amazon (Proteger), showcasing the participatory monitoring
that involved 1,684 families in the 53 municipalities in the area reached
by the project. There are also many lessons learned from the Flood Plain
Management Project (ProVárzea) and from the monitoring of the first
stage of the Science and Technology Subprogram (SPC&T). The last
article depicts another monitoring method, aimed at observing changes in
biodiversity protection and conservation, implemented by the Ecological
Corridors Project.
AMA5
reflections as operational systematization guides, ensuing from practical
experiences. This publication intends to enable critical thought and serve
as a tool to plan experience systematization processes, as well as fostering
the dissemination of lessons learned.
AMA6
INSTITUTO DE PESQUISA AMBIENTAL DA AMAZÔNIA – IPAM. A
grilagem de terras públicas na Amazônia brasileira [Public land grabbing
in the Brazilian Amazon]. Brasilia: MMA, 2006. 108 p. (Série Estudos, 8)
The study analyzes the main problems of Federal land and environment
bodies. It assesses the main measures that could be adopted by both
the Ministry of Agrarian Development (MDA) and the National Institute of
Colonization and Land Reform (Incra) to legalize the occupied areas and
to set criteria to allot public lands in the Brazilian Amazon. The central case
studies were the region of São Félix do Xingu and part of the area along
the BR-163 highway – both in the state of Pará. The Amazon has become
the site of disputes among many players, with different interests that entail
problems for the disputes over land and natural resources. To crown it
all, there are consistent violations of indigenous rights, traditional peoples’
land and squatters. Hence, the study emphasizes the struggle against land
grabbing and rural violence cannot be perceived as a short-term policy,
nor can it be based only on occasional and disconnected actions. Another
relevant issue when it comes to rural properties in the Amazon (small,
medium and large) is the consistent effort that should be made to strengthen
social and environmental protection. Within this context, two important
aspects related to the struggle against land grabbing in the Amazon come
up: the development of criteria to legalize small, medium and large plots;
and the criteria to allot public lands, giving priority to small family property.
HOLLIDAY, O. J. Para sistematizar experiências [Systematizing
experiences]. Translated by: Maria Viviana V. Resende. 2. ed., rev. Brasilia:
MMA, 2006. 128 p. (Série Monitoramento & Avaliação, 2)
One of the main challenges faced by public policy programs is the
dissemination and expansion of successful experiences, and the
incorporation of lessons learned that should be translated into policies to
foster a new development model. Therefore, systematizing experiences
is a pedagogical political challenge of the utmost relevance. Within the
scope of the Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests,
systematization is considered to be a relevant tool that contributes to
face the challenges posed, since such experiences bring crucial lessons
that could be disseminated, as well as serving as potential inducers of
sustainable public policies. The book approaches the difficulties faced by
systematization, giving some clues and theoretical and methodological
22
AMA7
SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL INSTITUTE – ISA/ CENTRO DE VIDA
INSTITUTE – ICV. Sistema de licenciamento ambiental em propriedades
rurais no estado de Mato Grosso: análise de sua implementação
[Rural property environmental licensing system in the state of Mato Grosso:
implementation analysis]. Brasilia: MMA, 2006. 177 p. (Série Estudos, 7)
Since 1999, the state of Mato Grosso has implemented an innovative system
of deforestation control and monitoring at rural properties, known as the
23
Rural Property Environmental Licensing System (SLAPR), incorporating
remote-sensing technology and the aim of integrating the activities of
deforestation monitoring, licensing and surveillance. The work proposed
by the Ministry of Environment, through the AMA and the PPG7 Projects,
intends to analyze SLAPR, assess its effectiveness and identify the
main causes and links with deforestation. The analyses provide inputs to
implement control and licensing systems at rural properties in the other states
of the Legal Amazon, based on the assessment of legal and land-related
aspects, inspection and accountability, institutional aspects of management
and transparency; technological aspects and mechanisms of support to
control deforestation under the responsibility of other Federal Government
sectors. The multi-disciplinary team in charge of the study (composed of
teams from the Centro de Vida Institute – ICV and the Socio-Environmental
Institute – ISA) participated in seminars and meetings, held workshops and
interviewed many members of public institutions working in the state of
Mato Grosso. Among these, farmers, geo-processing consultancy firms,
non-governmental organizations. Moreover, it collected, produced and
analyzed data, a study on the applicable laws, and documentary analysis
of legal and administrative processes. The improvement of environmental
management systems in rural properties in the Amazon, as well as the
monitoring and control of deforestation in the region, are contributions that
could be observed.
AMA8
ALMEIDA, A. W. B. de. Os quilombolas e a base de lançamento de
foguetes de Alcântara: laudo antropológico [Quilombolas and the
Alcântara rocket launch center: an anthropological report]. Brasilia: MMA,
v. 1, 2006. 212 p.
The anthropological report discloses the findings of a survey carried out
among remaining quilombo communities in the municipality of Alcântara,
state of Maranhão, requested by the General Prosecutor’s Office after
the institution of a Civil Inquiry to investigate likely irregularities observed
during the implementation of the Alcântara Launch Center (CLA). The
communities have pursued their rights to the territory and ethnical-racial
self-determination since the 1980s, when the CLA began to be built.
Considering that the mandatory displacement actions affect the black rural
communities, the decision was favorable to the legal suit. After the public
hearings in Alcântara and Sao Luís, which pointed out inconsistencies in the
EIA-Rima, notably regarding the anthropic and ethnical relations, the survey
was prepared, and arguments were developed to fulfill the requirements
that guide the survey and field work, involving secondary sources, map
production and on-site data collection. For exposition purposes, the final
official report was divided in two parts. The first one focuses on the links
between the basic principles of scientific investigation and the procedures
required to produce the so-called expert evidence - studies that ground
24
and provide input to the findings. During the visits to settlements aimed at
identifying communities and establishing links between historical fact and
collective identity, field work was not carried out at the institutional sites
of political or economic leadership, but with persons of a singular social
position: the elders. Hence, the report stands for historical contextualization
and demographic records of the installation of quilombos in Alcântara, as
well as defining the territory according to inhabitants’ description and onsite verification.
AMA9
ALMEIDA, A. W. B. de. Os quilombolas e a base de lançamento de
foguetes de Alcântara: laudo antropológico [Quilombolas and the
Alcântara rocket launch center: an anthropological report]. Brasilia: MMA,
v. 2, 2006. 145 p.
The anthropological report discloses the findings of a survey carried out
among remaining quilombo communities in the municipality of Alcântara,
state of Maranhão, requested by the General Prosecutor’s Office after
the institution of a Civil Inquiry to investigate likely irregularities observed
during the implementation of the Alcântara Launch Center (CLA).
For exhibition purposes, the final result was divided in two parts. The
second one is an applied and more direct response to the requirements
formulated by prosecutors, an analytical effort to provide input to the
corresponding arguments. In the Dispatch, the Prosecutor outlined
the eleven requirements to be developed by the expert which, despite
having guided the experts’ works and been answered throughout the data
analysis in the first part, are are directly answered to in the second part
which adds as annexes the most relevant document and archive sources,
as well as the photographic record.
AMA10
TONI, F.; PACHECO, P. Gestão ambiental descentralizada: um estudo
comparativo de três municípios da Amazônia brasileira [Decentralized
environmental management: a comparative study of three municipalities in
the Brazilian Amazon] Brasilia: MMA, 2005. 73 p. (Série Estudos, 6)
The document is the final report of the “Analysis of innovative experiences
in decentralized environmental management at the municipal level”, carried
out by the PPG7 AMA Project. Some municipalities stand out for their work
25
in the environmental area; some as a direct response to the few support
policies of the Federal Government, such as those implemented through
the Natural Resources Policy Project (SPRN); others, at their own initiative.
This study compares the experiences of three municipalities in the Brazilian
Amazon – Juína, in the state of Mato Grosso; Itaituba and Marabá, in the
state of Pará. The work approaches in a reflexive way the experiences
in decentralized and shared environmental management, considered as
innovative by the Ministry of Environment. The work aims at getting to
know the factors that lead to higher or lesser involvement of municipal
governments with environmental management, and identify the lessons
learned about decentralized and shared environmental management
at Federal, State and Municipal levels. It also highlights the duties and
functions within the scope of the legislation in force. The study uses five
parameters of analysis: 1) physical structure and human resources of the
municipal environmental departments; 2) environmental management
policies, programs and tools used in the municipalities; 3) development
of the municipal environmental legal framework; 4) popular participation
in the development of environmental policies; and, 5) articulation between
government bodies and NGOs involved in environmental management.
Hence, the report contributes to thoughtful consideration about the existing
innovative experiences in environmental management that demystify some
ideas about decentralization.
AMA11
BARBANTI JÚNIOR, O. Políticas de desenvolvimento sustentável no
Acre: contribuições do SPRN [Sustainable development policies in Acre:
contributions by the SPRN]. Brasilia: MMA, 2005. 59 p. (Série Estudos, 5)
The study investigates how and to which extent the public policies on
environmental management decentralization in the state of Acre were
subsidized, analyzing the contribution of the Natural Resources Policies
Project (SPRN) of the PPG7. The most noticeable contributions of the SPRN
that have positively influenced the establishment and implementation of public
policies and private organizations’ policies in the state of Acre have to do with
environmental management, notably zoning and monitoring related to the
introduction of geo-referencing and use of satellite images during the licensing
and surveillance processes. The stakeholders were identified, characterizing
a methodological difficulty, since former members of local NGOs started
working in the state government, obscuring the dividing line between civil
society and government. However, public participation has promoted the
social insertion of rubber tapers and indigenous peoples, as well as involving
the Federal Prosecutor’s Office, the Judiciary and the private sector. Neither
the state nor municipal Legislative Powers seem to have been involved. The
26
mainstreaming of agroforestry management practices in Acre’s SEATER rural
extension, incorporating the lessons learned from occasional initiatives of
agroforestry extension developed by NGOs and social movements in the state
and other Amazon regions, should also be highlighted. Many capacity-building
activities were carried out using the methodology known as Participatory Rural
Diagnosis (DRP), and strategic and development plans were formulated. That
brought about changes to the bureaucratic and autocratic concepts found in
the classic systems of rural extension.
AMA12
SANTOS, M. Aprendizados do Projeto de Manejo dos Recursos
Naturais da Várzea – ProVárzea [Lessons learned from the Flood Plain
Management Project]. Brasilia: MMA, 2005. 53 p. (Série Estudos, 4)
The study explains how and to which extent ProVárzea contributed to a
more specific and coherent public policy related to the management and
use of Flood Plain natural resources in the Amazon, with emphasis in
two areas: fishery agreements and land regulation in flooded forests. The
study interviewed individuals linked to the Project in Pará, Amazonas and
Brasília, and analyzed the documents on ProVárzea’s creation. The main
problems faced at this stage were the lack of flood plain management,
natural resources degradation, fishery-related conflicts, the lack of land
regulation and uncoordinated actions at the different government levels in
the Amazon. The initial documents warned about the development process
in the region which was and is causing gradual degradation of the area,
environmental problems and social conflicts. The fishery agreements stand
for rules established by the community, assisted by environmental bodies,
to control fishery in a given region. ProVárzea is not the only generator
of the process of constructing agreements. Social movements and NGOs
have participated, even before the Project was established. However,
ProVázea advanced the process in some years. flood plain residents
have no land tenure. The intended degree of institutionalization is the
establishment of legal rules that allow granting the right to use flood plain
lands, through a multiple stage process. ProVárzea invested in technical
studies on the matter and social mobilization to discuss the issue, but has
not yet generated any legal rules. The next stage would be institutionalizing
ProVárzea in government bodies; otherwise, all the knowledge generated
will be underused.
27
AMA13
VERÍSSIMO, A. Influência do Promanejo sobre políticas públicas de
manejo florestal sustentável na Amazônia [Promanejo’s influence on
sustainable forestry management public policies in the Amazon]. Brasilia:
MMA, 2005. 49 p. (Série Estudos, 3)
The overall concept of the Forest Resources Management Project (ProManejo)
aimed at expanding the managed forest area, inhibiting the high ratio of
predatory timber exploitation in the Amazon. ProManejo reached important
results in the scope of public policies, being conceived as a decentralized
management project. To assess the aspects that have contributed to ProManejo
success, the study highlights three policies: creation of the National Center
on Forestry Training and Capacity-building (Centro Nacional de Treinamento
e Capacitação Florestal - Cenaflor); participatory management of Tapajós
Flona through the Consultative Council in the Pará Unit and the Forest Credit
Program of the Amazônia Bank (FNO). Another highlight was the definition
of problems to be solved and government and non-governmental actors,
including: timber dealers, exporters, purchasers, traditional populations,
indigenous peoples, self-employed professionals in the forestry sector, and core
actors involved in the process. To assess more deeply the aspects that have
effectively contributed to ProManejo success, the key actors were interviewed
in the cities of Brasilia, Manaus, Santarém and Belém. Moreover, the project
documents and publications were reviewed, and a field visit was carried out to
Tapajós National Forest to observe the local impact ensuing from participatory
management. Activities were developed from July to October 2004.
AMA14
LITTLE, P. E. Projetos Demonstrativos - PDA: sua influência na construção
do Proambiente [Demonstration Projects – PDA: their influence in the creation
of Proambiente]. Brasilia: MMA, 2005. 63 p. (Série Estudos, 2)
The study is part of a more comprehensive study called “Pilot Program Impacts
on public policies and lessons learned about the mainstreaming processes of
the Monitoring & Analysis Project – AMA” (Impactos do Programa Piloto sobre
as políticas públicas e aprendizados sobre processos de ‘Mainstreaming’ do
Projeto de Apoio ao Monitoramento e Análise (AMA)”. The study presented
herein makes a qualitative analysis of the social processes related to the
development of public policies with socio-environmental components, notably
the survival of rural family-based farmers in the Amazon. The study recovers
the process of formulating and implementing the Socio-Environmental
Development of Family-based Agriculture Program (Proambiente). One of
28
the innovative aspects brought by Proambiente was the implementation of
12 Pioneer Units of Family-based Agriculture and Extractive Activities. The
Demonstration Projects’ main approaches are typically experimental in nature,
in the fields of: forestry management; recovery of degraded areas; agricultural
production; fruit growing; environmental management; Extractive Activities;
natural areas preservation; fishery; agroforestry systems; and, natural medicine.
Five kinds of influence by the PDA were identified in relation to Proambiente,
and to the stronger incentive for sustainable production practices among
family-based farmers: 1) The Amazon Work Group (GTA), which involved
civil society participation in the creation of the PDA; 2) support to experimental
productive spaces, notably regarding the implementation of agroforestry
systems – management/recovery; 3) the PDA provided local associations
and organizations with an opportunity to translate the community’s ideas into
projects; 4) as in the trans-Amazon region, it provided enabling powers to
consolidate a political and environmental line of action, based on sustainability;
5) the PDA financed the first two years of the Proambiente Technical Team - an
essential step toward consolidating the proposal as a whole.
AMA15
SAUER, S. Prevenção de incêndios florestais na Amazônia: lições
aprendidas no Projeto Proteger [Forest fire prevention in the Amazon:
lessons learned from the Proteger Project]. Brasilia: MMA, 2005. 63 p.
(Série Estudos, 1)
The Amazon Fire Prevention and Mobilization (Proteger) was established
within the scope of the formulation and implementation of the Emergency
Fire Prevention and Control Project (Proarco), which was formulated and
coordinated by Ibama. Proteger Project aimed at organizing the mobilization
of family-based, extractive and indigenous farmers to protect the Amazon
ecosystems. Through educational processes, it has intensively worked
on the concept of sustainability capable of contributing to reduce fire and
increase control over the use of slash-and-burn. Another aspect was
the incentive for communities and leaders to exchange experiences on
many alternative sustainable production practices in the Amazon region.
The lessons learned by all were of utmost relevance, since indiscriminate
use of fire is one of the most serious problems found in the region. Thus,
the insertion of social groups involved has strengthened their links and
facilitated the work of Proteger. The Amazon Work Group (GTA) was in
charge of Proteger Project national coordination. The main components of
the project were: social mobilization; fire-free sustainable production; and,
environmental education.
29
AMA16
Instrumentos Econômicos
para o Desenvolvimento
Sustentável na Amazônia
MAY, P. H. et. al. (Org.). Instrumentos econômicos para o desenvolvimento
sustentável na Amazônia brasileira: experiências e visões [Economic
tools for sustainable development in the Brazilian: experiences and views].
Brasilia: MMA, 2005. 124 p.
This publication gathers the presentations and debates held during the
Seminar “Economic Tools for the Sustainable Development of the Amazon”
(Instrumentos Econômicos para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável da
Amazônia) in 2002. The texts attempt to deepen the discussions on concepts
and methods to use economic tools to foster environmental protection and
the sustainable use of natural resources in the Brazilian Amazon, notably
regarding the forestry sector. The conclusions presented in the book point
out that the use of economic tools in an isolated and static way seldom
brings about positive effects. It is crucial to understand the context to be
influenced by the traditional mechanisms of inducing economic actors
behavior - such as subsidies, fees or rules – and innovative mechanisms
aimed at compensation for environmental services rendered to either the
local or global community. Economic tools can encourage and guide social
agents, but these are not supposed to replace complementary actions
related to regulation, capacity-building and provision of information.
AMA17
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA/ BRAZILIAN AGROFORESTRY
NETWORK – REBRAF. Políticas públicas e financiamento para o
desenvolvimento agroflorestal no Brasil [Public policies and financing
for agroforestry development in Brazil]. Brasilia: MMA/SCA, 2005. 30 p.
(CD-ROM)
Agroforestry systems (SAF) are alternatives to land use, combining
agricultural crops or pastures and forestry species. Most of the Brazilian
NGOs dealing with rural development are disseminating SAF use, with
positive impacts on family income, recovery of degraded areas and
generation of environmental services. The adoption of SAF in Brazil
is expanding but, nonetheless, reports many failures that demand
increased financial support and innovative measures in public policies
if these are to be remedied. To define participatory strategies to
hasten and improve agroforestry development, the national seminar
Public Policies and Financing for Agroforestry Development in Brazil
was held from August 18 to 20, 2004, in Brasilia. The main topics
discussed in the event were: partnerships, market, food security, credit,
environmental services, and legislation. The event was organized into
thematic working groups tasked with the development of concrete and
30
feasible guidelines to optimize agroforestry development in Brazil. This
publication brings together the main findings of those groups, as well as
the recommendations for further steps.
AMA18
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA. X Reunião do BCDAM: Sistema
de Bases Compartilhadas de Dados sobre a Amazônia. [10th BCDAM
Meeting: Amazon Shared Database System], 2004, Porto Velho. Brasilia:
MMA/SCA, 2005. 24 p. (CD-ROM)
The event was held by the Ministry of Environment in Porto Velho, state
of Rondonia, June 1-3, 2004. It aimed at improving the relations between
technicians from institutions that work to generate and use the data and
information required to get acquainted with and monitor changes in the
Amazon. Thus, it gathered for the tenth time the Coordination Committee
of the Amazon Shared Database System (CCS/BCDAM), sponsored by
the Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests, through
AMA. The main objectives of the event were to: monitor the development,
improvement and formalization of the System; consolidate partnerships
and joint actions between the Amazon Coordination Secretariat (through
BCDAM) and the Managing and Operational Center of the Amazon Protection
System (Censipam); discuss shared problems; recommend solutions; and,
establish joint actions in thematic areas. The meeting was a step forward
in the process of developing and improving the Amazon Shared Database
System, and enhancing integration among the collaborating institutions.
AMA19
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA. Programa Piloto para a Proteção
das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil: relatório de progresso, 2001-2004
[Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests: progress
report]. Brasilia: MMA/ SCA, 2005. 151 p.
The document presents an assessment of the main achievements, impacts
and lessons learned in the Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian
Rainforests from 2001 to 2004. It also discloses some reflections about
the further implementation steps within the context of strategic initiatives,
like the Sustainable Amazon Plan – PAS. The study involved teams from
the Pilot Program and AMA. It describes the Pilot Program, citing its
main objectives, institutional arrangements and projects portfolio (it also
31
presents their progress). The document shows the increasing need for
stronger partnerships to overcome new challenges. However, it highlights
the importance of recognizing that its activities need time to be fully
implemented, and results are long-term ones, outlining a strategy for the
future or “new stages” of the Pilot Program for the Amazon and Atlantic
Forests. Another issue is the emphasis on the pursuit of strategies to
protect ecosystems, together with the establishment of enabling conditions
for the sustainable development of the regions involved.
AMA20
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA / BRAZILIAN INSTITUTE OF
MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT – IBAM. Gestão Integrada de Resíduos
Sólidos na Amazônia: a metodologia e os resultados de sua aplicação
[Integrated Solid Waste Management in the Amazon: methodology and
results]. Brasilia: MMA/SCA; Ibam, 2005. 72 p.
The project on Integrated Solid Waste Management in the Amazon was
developed under coordination of the Ministry of Environment, through the
Amazon Coordination Secretariat (SCA) and the Environmental Quality on
Human Settlements Secretariat (SQA) from November 2001 to January
2004, with technical support from the Brazilian Municipal Administration
Institute (Ibam) and resources from the Federal Government in partnership
with the Dutch Government. The improper disposal of solid waste that
affects not only the cities outskirts, where these are typically disposed, but
mainly the large water network that has presented clear signals of damage
due to the disposal of non-degradable and cumulative materials of waste,
is a serious impact found in the Amazon Region environment. Hence, dully
approaching the issue is an essential strategy to protect the forest, improve
the population’s quality of life, and regional sustainable development. Each
state in the Legal Amazon appointed cities to integrate the project, based on
the needs identified and potentials to host, develop and execute the project
based on participatory management, and to socialize and disseminate
the knowledge acquired. The short- and medium-term proposed results
could be expanded to the long run, replicating the successful model in
other municipalities in the Amazon region and, expanding capacity-building
processes to experts in other municipalities.
32
AMA21
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA. Monitoramento e avaliação
de projetos: métodos e experiências [Project monitoring and evaluation:
methods and experiences]. Brasilia: MMA/SCA, 2004. 243 p. (Série
Monitoramento & Avaliação, 1)
One of the objectives pursued by the AMA Project, developed within the
scope of the Pilot Program, is to strengthen the projects’ monitoring and
evaluation systems, to allow for analysis of strategies and path adjustments,
promote collective education and expand the scope of its impacts. The
monitoring and evaluation system used for to generate knowledge and
social learning is a powerful tool for projects to improve decision-making
processes, adjusting the means of intervention. In this light, AMA delivered
many capacity-building and technical advisory activities. This book ensues
from the workshop on experience exchange: methods and experiences
related to monitoring and evaluation held in 2002 to report how the projects
were using the tools focusing on sustainable development, both within the
Pilot Program and beyond. The book includes eight texts that summarize
different experiences in monitoring and evaluation. Besides detailing the
tools employed, the texts discuss the importance of such processes for the
development of the projects. The publication intends to serve as input for
building monitoring and evaluation systems.
AMA22
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA. Construindo a sustentabilidade:
lições aprendidas no Projeto Proteger [Building sustainability: lessons
learned from the Proteger Project]. Brasilia: MMA/AMA, 2002. 25 p. (Série
Textos para Discussão, 1)
The study presents a summary of the vision of AMA Project’s team and
collaborators on many lessons experienced during the years together
with the Pilot Program partners. Some essential topics related to the
outputs of the activities should be highlighted. For example, the building
of Agendas for Sustainability allied to participatory processes to promote
local development on sustainable grounds, and the Positive Agendas
aimed at reducing deforestation indexes and recovering the areas. Among
the positive lessons learned, the opportunities for shared management
between federal and state bodies, local governments, and other local
social actors are some of the successful examples. The importance of
Ecological-Economic Zoning (EEZ) was confirmed as an essencial means
to achieve regional development, and its contribution to the formulation of
public policies on sustainable grounds. Regarding traditional populations,
the knowledge acquired from the valuing of their knowledge regarding
their surroundings is outstanding. Therefore, the conversion of innovative
33
experiences into public policies – one of the main components of the
Pilot Program – was achieved. The results also ensue from interaction,
strengthening and integration of research institutions from the Amazon
region and, above all, by civil society participation.
AMA23
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA / WORLD BANK. Lessons from
the rain Forest: experiences of the Pilot Program to conserve the Amazon
and Atlantic Forests of Brazil. Brasilia: MMA; World Bank, 2002. 49 p.
PPG-7 is a joint initiative by government and society in partnership with
the international community aimed at developing strategies focusing on
the protection and sustainable use of the Amazon and Atlantic Forests.
It was a key factor of changes considering local populations lifestyles.
After all, currently the main priority for Brazil is to reduce deforestation.
The publication includes case studies on the Pilot Program components,
considering subprograms and projects: for the protection and management
of Conservation Units and indigenous lands, PPTAL, Resex, Atlantic Forest
and Ecological Corridors Projects were implemented; experiences and
demonstrations based on community initiatives ground the implementation
of the PDA, ProManejo, ProVárzea and Proteger; institutional strengthening
to expand environmental decentralization policies, with the participation
of NGOs including SPRN, GTA and RMA; Science and Technology
Subprogram to improve knowledge about ecology and sustainable rainforest
management, working on the Science and Directed Research Centers;
finally, regarding identification and dissemination of strategic lessons, the
AMA project was implemented. Initial financing was granted by the G-7
countries, complemented by contributions by the Brazilian government and
NGOs. Moreover, the World Bank managed the fund established to channel
contributions, and supplied technical assistance to the program.
34
AMA24
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA. Causas e dinâmica do
desmatamento na Amazônia [Deforestation causes and dynamics in the
Amazon]. Brasilia: MMA/ SCA, 2001. 436 p.
The book contains 23 articles by different authors, presented during the
technical seminar “Deforestation Causes and Dynamics in the Amazon” held
in September 2000, by the Ministry of Environment. The seminar discussed
issues related to understanding the functioning of rainforests, the dynamics
of its ecosystems, and the impact of economic activities on the natural
resources basis, as well as initiatives adjusted to the protection of Brazilian
rainforests. The first set of topics aim at discussing the economic dynamic
and deforestation in the Legal Amazon region, with the contribution of
Professor Bertha Beker of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro; Aristides
Monteiro Neto from Ipea; Franciso de Assis Costa from NAEA; and Donald
Sawyer from ISPN. Marcelo Afonso from INCRA; Telma Krug from INPE;
and Humberto Candeias Cavalcanti from IBAMA discuss the links between
deforestation and anthropic relations. The second set of topics are related
to the environmental, economic and social consequences of deforestation
in the Amazon, with contributions by Professor Enéas Salati from FBDS;
Philip M. Fearnside from INPA; Carlos Nobre from Inpe; Ricardo Bomfim
Machado from MMA/SBF; Emeleocípio Botelho de Andrade from Embrapa
and Eugênio Arima from Imazon. The third set of topics focuses on flora
protection tools, and includes Ubiracy Craveiro de Araújo from the Federal
Prosecutor’s Office; Alisson José Coutinho; Frederico de Moura Muller,
Special Secretary for the Environment of the state of Mato Grosso; and,
Roberto Smeraldi from the Amigos da Terra NGO. The last set discusses
public policies, sustainable development and strategies to revert the
deforestation process in Amazon with contributions by Yolanda Ramalho
and Pedro Bara Netto of BNDES; Eliana Zacca from Sudam; Raimundo
Deusdará Filho from MMA/SBF; Ronaldo Serôa and Mario Menezes from
MMA/SBF.
35
2
Ecological Corridors
Ecological Corridors Project
The Ecological Corridors project started in 2003, its objective was
to protect large areas considered to be of exceptional biodiversity
in the Amazon and Atlantic Forests. The project aims at protecting
those areas by connecting and integrating the Conservation Units
found at different levels - Federal, State and Municipal – with private
areas and indigenous lands. The work is an attempt to reduce or
prevent the fragmentation of ecosystems located in those areas,
connecting them through biodiversity corridors.
The corridors are expected to achieve effective protection of nature,
connecting protected areas and other areas with different land uses.
The Project launched a new conservation paradigm, replacing the
model based on isolated protected areas for the management of
areas at the regional level. Rather than administrative political units,
the corridors are large geographic areas defined by biological criteria
for planning and conservation purposes. The criteria are based on
scientific knowledge, such as the presence of key species relevant
in the global, regional and local context. The priority corridors are the
Atlantic Forest Central Corridor and the Amazon Central Corridor,
implemented with participatory planning strategies that include
Federal and State governments, civil society and those locally in
charge of natural resources conservation actions. The Ecological
Corridors Project has published 12 studies.
36
37
CE1
LIMA, R. X. de. (Org.). Corredores Ecológicos: experiências em
implementação de corredores ecológicos [Ecological Corridors: experiences
in implementing ecological corridors]. Brasilia: MMA/SBF, 2008. 80 p. (Série
Corredores Ecológicos, 1)
The publication is composed of ten articles that briefly discuss the lessons
and contributions ensuing from the Ecological Corridors project experience,
to provide inputs to policies on planning and land organization. The project
was divided into two stages. The first one comprised investments such as
Management Plans and investments in different categories of Conservation
Units, purchasing equipment, supporting the assembling of councils, and the
development of management plans, with emphasis on the expansion of the
National Nature Conservation Units System in the territories of Amazonas,
Espírito Santo and Bahia. The second phase, in turn, scheduled investments
to consolidate the concept of ecological corridor. In the CCMA it relied on
the participation of 200 institutions in the local socio-environmental area,
and resulted in the creation of functional ecological corridors in the states
of Espírito Santo and Bahia. The biological conservation tools tested as
a pilot in the Central Atlantic Forest Corridor (CCMA) and in the Central
Amazon Corridor (CCA) show that the MMA should establish continuity in
the management of those territorial macro spaces, so that other examples
of large corridors can be managed as such.
CE2
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA. Corredores Ecológicos: experiência
de planejamento e implementação [Ecological Corridors: experience in
planning and implementation]. Brasilia: MMA/ SBF, 2007. 57 p.
This publication reports on the four years of execution of the Ecological
Corridors project, considering how the establishment of partnerships
between government and civil society can assist the environmental
management of territories. The project aimed to conciliate natural
resources conservation and economic alternatives for local populations,
testing different conditions to implement the Central Atlantic Forest Corridor
(CCMA) and the Amazon Central Corridor (CCA). The prioritization of
the CCMA in the states of Espírito Santo and Bahia was due to the high
degree of vulnerability and fragmentation of the region’s ecosystems, as
well as the availability of data. Regional meetings are held to learn about
successful local experiences, acknowledging local actors and articulating
with working groups, characterizing the participatory way as a process to
legitimate the project for local society. The Integrated Plan on Inspection
and Monitoring proposed to integrate the partner institutions was
characterized by environmental education actions and the assembling
38
of groups and cooperatives to carry on sustainable activities, such as
ecotourism and ecological agriculture. Another measure adopted that
has strengthened ecological corridors consolidation was conservation in
private lands, by acknowledgement of Private Natural Heritage Reserves
(RPPN) as efficient measures to ensure the insertion of isolated fragments
into territorial planning for conservation and sustainable development.
CE3
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA; INTERNATIONALCONSERVATION
– IC; SOS MATA ATLÂNTICA FOUNDATION. O Corredor Central da
Mata Atlântica: uma nova escala de conservação da biodiversidade [The
Central Atlantic Forest Corridor: a new scale of biodiversity conservation].
Brasilia: MMA, 2006. 46 p.
This publication intends to assist experts and the general public to
understand what ecological corridors are. The book reports the experience
of the Central Atlantic Forest Corridor, which comprises an 8.5 million ha
area where actions on natural resources conservation are being developed
through the consolidation of Conservation Units, environmental restoration,
inspection and monitoring. By showing this reality, the text emphasizes the
importance of the territorial management of ecological corridors, highlighting
the need for broad social participation in this process, from planning to the
implementation of actions. This approach is expected to be a new and
promising contribution to dynamic and integrated landscape management,
thus expanding the achievements and consolidating the biodiversity
conservation results in the Atlantic Forest and Brazil, assisting the Country
to protect its natural heritage and fulfill the goals of the Convention on
Biological Diversity.
CE4
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA. Documento base para a elaboração
das diretrizes operacionais da Fase II do Corredor Central da Mata Atlântica
(CCMA), Projeto Corredores Ecológicos. [Preliminary instructions to write the
Operational guidelines for the Phase II of the Central Atlantic Forest Corridor,
Ecological Corridors Project].Brasilia: MMA/ SBF, 2005. 147 p.
This document aims to lay the ground for developing operational
guidelines for the Phase II of the Ecological Corridors Project. The result
is a collective document that counted on a wide range of individual and
institutional contributions, in addition to broad use of the literature. The text
recommends actions and defines Focal Areas for Project intervention. The
39
Focal Areas are the priority areas where the specific actions of Phase II will
be developed. These are mainly characterized by reducing or abolishing
pressures on biodiversity, and actions aimed at establishing connectivity.
Each focal area was described and analyzed, and threats and opportunities
defined. The text brings synoptic charts with the organized information
about these priority areas.
plan. The workshop assessment registered the participants’ opinions. A list
was prepared with suggestions for the next meeting. Among other issues,
it highlighted the need of inviting more community members, indigenous
peoples and government representatives.
CE7
CE5
SILVA, F. A. Q.; PINHEIRO, M. R. Oficina de Planejamento da região
do alto rio Solimões (Benjamin Constant) [Planning Workshop for the
Upper Solimões River Region (Benjamin Constant)]. Manaus GTA, 2005.
32 p. (Cadernos das Oficinas Participativas para Elaboração do Plano de
Gestão do Corredor Central da Amazônia, 12)
On March 29 and 30, 2005, in Benjamin Constant, state of Amazonas,
the representatives of organizations and communities from the Upper
Solimões River gathered to participate in the Workshop on the Central
Amazon Corridor Management Plan Planning. The report describes the
activities developed in that period, which were mainly aimed at building the
proposal of the Central Amazon Corridor Management Plan. The Ecological
Corridors Project, the Workshops on the Central Amazon Corridor (CCA)
Management Plan and the issues raised during the Diagnosis Workshop
were presented. The applied activities were another relevant point. These
aimed at enabling participants to build their own visions for the CCA.
SILVA, F. A. Q.; PINHEIRO, M. R. Oficina de Planejamento da região do
médio rio Solimões (Tefé) [Planning Workshop for the Middle Solimões
River Region (Tefé)]. Manaus GTA, 2005. 44 p. (Cadernos das Oficinas
Participativas para Elaboração do Plano de Gestão do Corredor Central
da Amazônia, 10)
The Amazon Central Corridor Management Plan should serve as a
navigation chart to implement the Central Amazon Corridor Project (CCA)
defining strategies, activities and guidelines for the project’s investments.
The booklet presents the report of the Participatory Planning Workshop
for the Middle Solimões River. The workshop was held on March 3 and 4,
2005, in Tefé (state of Amazonas) and brought together representatives
from organizations and communities of the Middle Solimões River. Among
others, the meeting aimed at building a "vision" for the corridor and the
Management Plan strategies, in an attempt to build alliances to reach
their objectives. In the final assessment of the workshop, participants
highlighted as positive points the technical team’s assistance, and the
overall interaction. However, the short time for discussion was one of the
most recurrent aspects in the reports of negative points.
CE8
CE6
SILVA, F. A. Q.; PINHEIRO, M. R. Oficina de Planejamento da região do
alto rio Solimões (Fonte Boa) [Planning Workshop for the Upper Solimões
River Region (Fonte Boa)]. Manaus GTA, 2005. 40 p. (Cadernos das
Oficinas Participativas para Elaboração do Plano de Gestão do Corredor
Central da Amazônia, 11)
On March 7 and 8, 2005, in Fonte Boa, state of Amazonas, the representatives
of organizations and communities from the Middle Solimões River gathered
to participate in the Planning Workshop for the Central Amazon Corridor
Management Plan. The general purpose of the workshop was to create
a proposal for the Central Amazon Corridor Management Plan, and
discuss and establish the action strategy for the inspection, surveillance
and monitoring system, trying to establish partnerships to implement the
40
PENA, J.; PINHEIRO, M. R. Oficina de Planejamento da Região do rio
Negro (Novo Airão) [Planning Workshop for the Solimões River Region
(Novo Airão)]. Manaus GTA, 2005. 32 p. (Cadernos das Oficinas Participativas
para Elaboração do Plano de Gestão do Corredor Central da Amazônia, 9)
The PPG7 Ecological Corridors Project’s main objective is on-site
conservation of Brazilian rainforest biological diversity by integrating
different protected areas through “ecological corridors”. This publication
ensues from the technical cooperation provided by the Amazon Work
Group (GTA) to the Ecological Corridors Project – Central Amazon
Corridor, and to implement the Central Amazon Biosphere Reserve. The
booklet contains the report of the Planning Workshop for the Negro River
Region (Novo Airão), held from April 2 to 3, 2005, in Novo Airão, state of
Amazonas. It gathered representatives of organizations and communities
41
of the Lower Solimões River to participate in the Planning Workshop for the
Central Amazon Corridor Management Plan. The report briefly describes
all activities carried out during the meeting. In the final part, the assessment
highlights as one of the positives points the intensive participation of
organizations, and the consensus on the main problems, which contributed
to foster the debates.
organizations and communities of the Uatumã River to establish strategies
to solve the problems identified during the diagnosis workshops, and
strengthen the positive points of the region. The end of the document sets
the next steps to be taken and an assessment of the workshop, highlighting
the participation of community members and institutions as an exercise in
democracy, awareness-building and civism.
CE11
CE9
PENA, J.; PINHEIRO, M. R. Oficina de Planejamento da região da
Capital (Manaus) [Planning Workshop for the Capital area (Manaus)].
Manaus GTA, 2005. 28 p. (Cadernos das Oficinas Participativas para
Elaboração do Plano de Gestão do Corredor Central da Amazônia, 8)
The Amazon Central Corridor Management Plan will serve as a navigation
chart to implement the Central Amazon Corridor Project (CCA) setting
out strategies, activities and guidelines for project investments. This
booklet presents the report of the Participatory Planning Workshop for
the Capital (Manaus) area, held between February 28 and March 1 in
Manaus (state of Amazonas). The core objectives were the establishment
of strategies to solve the problems identified during the diagnosis
meetings, and consider means to strengthen the positive points found in
the area. The document highlights many positive points of the workshop,
such as the availability of a forum to enable all participants to voice their
ideas, suggestions and claims.
CE10
PINHEIRO, M. R. Consolidação dos relatórios das oficinas de
diagnóstico do Corredor Central da Amazônia [Consolidation of the
reports of diagnosis workshops on the Central Amazon Corridor]. Manaus
MMA/ Ecological Corridors Project, 2004. 81 p. (Technical Document)
The PPG7 Ecological Corridors Project’s main objective is the on-site
conservation of Brazilian rainforest biological diversity by integrating
different protected areas through “ecological corridors”. The Central Amazon
Corridor (CCA) is almost completely located in the state of Amazonas, in
the central Amazonas River basin, occupying an area of about 40,000,000
ha. Among others, the project includes the development of the Central
Amazon Corridor Management Plan to guide the corridor implementation
process, setting out the strategies and activities to consolidate the CCA,
and the main investment guidelines. The methodology adopted to in the
CCA Management Plan reflects the reality of those living in the area in
order to effectively contribute to the region’s conservation and development.
The Plan guides the development and conservation dimensions that will
impact the corridor, contributing to the formulation of territorial organization
guidelines, in coordination with regional economic and social development.
The mobilization and participation of regional social actors in the design of
the Management Plan were perceived as ideal conditions to successfully
carry out the activity.
PENA, J.; PINHEIRO, M. R. Oficina de Planejamento da região do rio
Uatumã (Presidente Figueiredo) [Planning Workshop for the Uatumã River
Region (Presidente Figueiredo)]. Manaus GTA, 2005. 36 p. (Cadernos das
Oficinas Participativas para Elaboração do Plano de Gestão do Corredor
Central da Amazônia, 7)
The Ecological Corridors Project aims at on-site conservation of Brazilian
rainforest biological diversity by integrating different protected areas
through “ecological corridors”. This publication ensues from the technical
cooperation provided by the Amazon Work Group (GTA) to the Ecological
Corridors Project – Central Amazon Corridor to implement the Central
Amazon Biosphere Reserve. The booklet contains the report of the Planning
Workshop for the Uatumã River Region (Presidente Figueiredo), (state of
Amazonas), February 22 to 23, 2005. It gathered representatives from
42
CE12
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Projeto Corredores Ecológicos
[Ecological Corridors Project]. Brasilia: MMA/PPG7, 2002. 147 p. (Technical
Document)
The Ecological Corridors Project is part of the Pilot Program for the
Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests – PPG7. It aims at enabling diversity
conservation based on the management of large areas through ecological
43
corridors in the Amazon and Atlantic Forests, using Conservatiion Units
as the main tool to provide biodiversity conservation. The PPG7 Technical
Secretariat, together with Ibama, established the Technical Working
Group (GTT) comprising representatives of the Ministry of Environment
and environmental entities from the states of Amazonas, Bahia, Espírito
Santo and Minas Gerais, in addition to Funai, GTA and RMA, to adjust
and monitor the project. The project intends to involve relevant actors
to prevent or reduce forest fragmentation and increase the connectivity
between protected areas. Regarding the strategies, the Central Amazon
Corridor (CCA) aims at ensuring connectivity between protected areas
through activities aimed at maintaining and expanding conservation areas,
and supporting policies on natural resources sustainable use. The Central
Atlantic Forest Corridor (CCMA), in turn, ensures protection to relevant
residual forests and gradually increases the connection between isoleted
portions of the landscape through the control, protection and recovery of
forest cover. To this end it established management structures to foster the
implementation of strategies for biological diversity conservation in public
and private areas, including indigenous lands, with the participation of
different public and private agents, promoting long-term sustainability.
3
GTA
Amazon Work Group and the GTA Institutional
Strengthening and Amazon Fire Prevention and
Mobilization (Proteger II) projects
The GTA was established in 1991 to bring together different
members of social movements to monitor Amazon-oriented actions
and policies, and to follow-up on the Pilot Program when it was
being prepared. The GTA is composed of over 600 civil society
organizations, representing rubber tappers, babaçu palm and
Brazil nut extractive workers, and rural workers, among other local
communities. The GTA published 11 studies.
Institutional GTA
The Amazon Work Group Institutional Strengthening Project started
in 2002 to qualify the participation of civil society organizations in
the design of public policies for the Amazon region. Thanks to the
number of partnerships, GTA became an important tool for dialogue
among different entities, governments, multilateral agencies
and international donors. The institutional strengthening project
invested in four lines of action: 1) monitoring of Amazon-oriented
public policies with annual diagnoses of public policies during the
entity’s regional meeting, when the leaders discuss the matter
and exchange experiences; 2) transparency and financial and
administrative management, with the Project’s support to establish
a financial management system, exchange information, and
reach the institution’s goal; 3) institutional independency, through
the creation of an administrative fund and a mobilization plan; 4)
institutional communication, developing a mechanism to exchange
experiences, and creating internal and external communication
capabilities.
Proteger I and II
Amazon Fire Prevention and Mobilization Project – Proteger – was
implemented in 1998, in response to the emergency situation that
affected the Amazon that year, as a consequence of the El Niño,
which caused droughts and uncontrollable forest fires. The project
developed an educational campaign in many communities, informing
44
45
the risks of slash-and-fire techniques during the dry season, and
teaching techniques for forest fire prevention. The purpose was
to train local leaders who could train other persons and organize
the so-called “puxiruns ambientais” which are groups of persons
mobilized and trained not only to fight fires, but also to work on
prevention and environmental education. Proteger, coordinated
by GTA, has developed activities as a network of partners in eight
states (Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Rondônia, Mato Grosso, Pará,
Tocantins and Maranhão) and 134 municipalities.
Proteger II – started in 2001 – continued the actions carried out by
Proteger. In this stage, the challenge was to build alternatives to
minimize the use of fire in agriculture and some extractive activities.
Direct involvement by the local populationremained a crucial
objective. In 2003, the Project was incorporated into the “Green
Roads (Estradas Verdes) consortium, ensuring its continuity until
2007. Proteger II worked in three areas: 1) environmental education;
2) social mobilization; 3) fire-free sustainable farming. In the first
stage, the Project trained 12 thousand community leaders, and
120 thousand persons were estimated to have benefited from the
Project all over the Legal Amazon. The Project was considered to
be an example of successful cooperation between official agencies,
non-governmental organizations and the local community.
GTA - Institutional
GTA1
AMAZON WORKING GROUP - GTA Pelo futuro da Amazônia [For the
future of the Amazon]. Brasilia: GTA, 2002. 31 p.
The Amazon territory houses about 20 million individuals, comprising about
180 indigenous peoples and millions of rural and extractive workers. Despite
this and many other differences, there is a strong tendency to homogenize
the way how social and environmental issues are approached in the
Amazon. Another critical issue approached is the land issue, since problems
of that nature affect riparian peoples, indigenous peoples, extractive
workers and family-based farmers. The implementation of big projects in
some Amazonian regions also bring about some discussions because of
the migratory pressure to the main cities, and irrational consumption of
natural resources. The material highlights the delayed implementation of
the commitments undertaken by the Brazilian government in 1992, during
the UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio-92), notably
Agenda 21, the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the Framework
Convention on Climatic Changes. The document rejects the current
development model responsible for the current rates of environmental
devastation, threatening local communities through the installation of huge
hydroelectric projects, indiscriminate ore extraction, monocultures and
irrational exploitation of timber resources. It also criticizes the financing
of projects with high social and environmental impact in the Amazon. The
conclusion emphasizes the partial or non-compliance with international
agreements on sustainable development.
GTA2
AMAZON WORKING GROUP - GTA A Amazônia na Agenda 21 brasileira
[The Amazon in the Brazilian Agenda 21]. Brasilia: GTA, 2001. 39 p.
The GTA Network is one of the main representatives of organized civil
society in the Legal Amazon. In this study, GTA presents the local interest
shown in participating in the design of local agendas in the Brazilian
Amazon, highlighting that it has promoted the exchange of information
and experiences of community-based projects all over the region. The
group always knew that the design of the Amazonian Agenda 21 would
be a great challenge, and that it would have to go a long way before
defining the models to achieve the region’s sustainability, where natural
resources can be conserved and explored. Hence, it was established that
the efforts to implement an agenda of that nature should comprise a script
46
47
of sustainable development actions capable of ensuring the human and
social empowerment of local communities. Emphasis was also placed
on popular consultation of representatives of rubber tappers, extractive
workers, family-based farmers, indigenous peoples, rural and urban
workers, coconut breakers, fishermen and every segment that complement
the huge local human diversity. To expand the preparation process and
reach of Agenda 21 in the Brazilian Amazon, the document briefly presents
the general aspects related to the development and objectives of both
the Global and Brazilian Agenda 21, and background information on the
Greater Amazon Agenda 21 Project – launched in June 1997. The Greater
Amazon Agenda 21 aimed at incorporating the concept of sustainable
development into the Amazon Cooperation Treaty (ACT), facilitating the
integration and harmonization of a set of national, bilateral and multilateral
policies, mechanisms and actions related to the sustainable development
of the Amazons that make up the greater Amazon.
GTA4
AMAZON WORKING GROUP - GTA Farmácia Mãe Natureza [Mother
Nature Drugstore]. Brasilia: GTA/Proteger Project, 2005. 18 p.
The document results from the Proteger Project developed by the Amazon
Working Group. It aims at cooperating to acknowledge and preserve
biodiversity, as well as recovering popular culture at the quilombola
communities of Boa Vista Cuminá, Cachoeira Pancada, Espírito Santo,
Jauari, Santa Terezinha, São Sebastião and Tapixana in the municipality
of Oriximiná in the state of Pará, which use medicinal plants to produce
medicine and food. It reports the result in the form of specific recipes
for each disease commonly found in the region. The study derives from
a course delivered by the project instructor to the communities’ children,
youths and adults, considering the knowledge acquired through contact
with elder women from the same community.
GTA5
Proteger II - Amazon Fire Prevention and Mobilization Project
AMAZON WORK GROUP - GTA Manual Operacional: o nosso caminhar
[Operational Manual: our path]. Brasilia: GTA, v. 5, 2004. 44 p.
GTA3
AMAZON WORKING GROUP - GTA / MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT MMA. Fazendo gênero na Amazônia: ações pela inclusão e igualdade
[Making gender in Amazon: actions for inclusion and equality]. Brasilia:
GTA; MMA/PPG7, 2005. 52 p.
The book reports the activities developed from 2004 to 2005 by the Pilot
Program and Project initiative. The initiative ensued from the need of
overcoming the inexistent gender approach in the PPG7 subprograms and
projects. The work was developed based on the pursuit for the topic’s crosssection nature to promote the participatory preparation of proposals and
strategies to integrate a gender perspective to the Pilot Program. The book
presents topics discussed in workshops on the Pilot Program and Gender
initiative, like what is gender, the importance of approaching gender, and
how the Pilot Program approaches the gender issue. During the workshop
some good practices were identified to improve and expand the actions
to promote women’s participation and/or empowerment. Those practices
should serve as raw material to outline a proposal of action to the PPG7,
aiming at integrating the gender approach in a cross-sector way.
The manual presents in a simple and practical yet relevant way general
information on the Proteger II Project. It reports historical aspects of
Proteger, the financing agencies and other responses inherent to its
development. The document also reports the Proteger action sites, listing
the municipalities in all the Legal Amazon states, pointing out actions
and the persons involved. This fifth volume recorded information on the
achievements and challenges faced. The work highlights the importance
of counting on the participation of everyone: instructors, coordinators,
partners and every community involved , since the knowledge shared, the
time devoted to the project and, above all, everyone’s commitment were
the major driving force to achieve success.
GTA6
AMAZON WORKING GROUP - GTA Manual Operacional: como trabalhar
a comunicação. [Operational Manual: how to work on communication].
Brasilia: GTA, v. 4, 2004. 74 p.
The material compiles and analyzes information gathered from 15
workshops about the Proteger Project communication, held from July to
December 2002. Altogether, the workshops gathered 430 participants
48
49
within the GTA network. The manual reports the communication strategy
developed to increase the visibility of the project’s second stage – Proteger
II – and multiply the effects of the three components: social mobilization;
environmental education; and sustainable production. It discusses from
the selection of a logo capable of translating the project’s mission to the
possibilities of expanding dissemination. Radio was selected as the main
communication strategy for the project, and the manual presents the
reasons for that choice. It also brings statements and testimony on the
many female experiences that originated a magnificent “bank of voices”.
GTA7
AMAZON WORKING GROUP - GTA Manual Operacional: como trabalhar
com mulheres. [Operational Manual: how to work with women]. Brasilia:
GTA, v. 3, 2003. 50 p.
The book provides information on the GTA and gender aspects in the
Proteger Project. The GTA is a network that comprises 512 civil society
entities, organized in 16 regional offices distributed throughout the nine
states in the Legal Amazon. In the field of public policies for the Amazon
region, GTA is an important articulator of proposals by grassroots social
movements of its representative entities, and aims at meeting the demands
and needs of those organizations. In May 2001, the network restarted
Proteger Project activities, giving priority to the introduction of a gender
perspective. It encourages women’s participation at all levels, both at
different executive positions and in community participation. The study
gathers the research covering these activities. Data were collected from
activity reports by state and regional monitors and coordinators, as well
as other documents of the Project itself. The manual shows numeric data
on the effective participation of women in different activities, as well as
other data for every municipality involved in the Project. Proteger II also
attempted to collectively build the concept of gender among female leaders.
The work presents some of those experiences related to the discussion of
the concept. As a result of these and other discussions, new aspects that
could contribute even more to the Project are presented.
50
GTA8
AMAZON WORKING GROUP - GTA Fogo bom é fogo controlado:
prevenção aos incêndios florestais. [A good fire is one under control: forest
fire prevention] Brasilia: GTA, 2003. 24 p.
The study presents clear and objective illustrations on the need for learning
to control fire. Other points highlighted by the educational illustrations are the
main causes of accidental fires, and the need for community organization
to prevent those fires (informing about licenses to burn and the mobilization
of neighbors for community burning when required). The conclusion
emphasizes the need for education and prevention, warning about the risks
of forest fires. The GTA is a network that comprises 512 civil society entities,
organized in 16 regional offices distributed throughout the nine states in
the Legal Amazon. GTA aims at following-up public policies oriented to the
Amazon, and promote the participation of local populations in the execution
of those policies.
GTA9
AMAZON WORKING GROUP - GTA Manual Operacional: plano de
trabalho e atividades. [Operational Manual: working plan and activities].
Brasilia: GTA, v. 2, 2002. 24 p.
The Operational Manual Volume I presented information describing the
main components of the Proteger Project, while this volume II itemizes each
activity oriented to the good performance of the project, concerned about
ensuring the efficiency of the process at each stage. The Amazon Working
Group is the agent in charge of coordinating the Proteger II Project, through
the National Project Coordination. The projects are executed in the states
by institutions with great insertion and capacity of mobilizing the target
audience. The general lines that determine project activities are as follows:
social mobilization; fire-free sustainable farming; and, environmental
education. The “Puxiruns Ambientais” to be assembled by volunteer
community groups that will define the priority activities, working rules,
responsibilities and rights, will be mobilized to work in different situations,
including environmental education. The project is expected to foster a large
number of educational materials on each achievement to disseminate the
different experiences in the states, and expand the access to information
of farmers and other groups. Proteger II also has a Monitoring Plan that
reflects indicators that enable fulfilling its goals.
51
4
PDA
GTA10
AMAZON WORKING GROUP - GTA Manual Operacional: instruções
gerais. [Operational Manual: General Instructions] Brasilia: GTA, v.1,
2002. 32 p.
The Proteger Project is carried out by the GTA. The state/regional executing
agents are the State Federations of Agriculture Workers (Fetagri) in the
states of Acre, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia and Tocantins; the Land
Pastoral Commission (Comissão Pastoral da Terra - CPT) in Roraima; and
the Rural Worker Education and Culture Center (Centru) in Maranhão. The
Proteger I Project was implemented from July 1998 to December 1999,
when courses on controlled fires were delivered in 322 municipalities of
the Legal Amazon. It aimed to significantly reduce the occurrence of forest
fires. One of the goals for that action was training monitors to work as
multipliers of information and guidance. The Proteger II Project is based
on the principle of ensuring the participation of beneficiaries at all stages:
preparation, execution, monitoring and evaluation. The constant challenge
is to find methods capable of inserting the target audience in the process
of preparing the activities. Proteger II is financed with PPG7 resources,
complemented by a counterpart contribution by the Ministry of Environment,
in addition to other sources.
GTA11
FIGUEIREDO, C. Cadê a vida que estava aqui? O fogo queimou! [Where’s
the life that was here? It was burned away!] 2. ed. Brasilia: GTA, 2000. 31 p.
This book tells the story of the fire that ravaged almost one third of the
state of Roraima in 1998. The publication intends to disseminate the
lessons learned by those who had losses caused by the fire, and use those
experiences to provide input to debates on how to prevent fire losses.
The stories were told by children and young High School students who
suffered the tragedy. The book is a tool to foster debates at schools and
communities.
52
Demonstration Projects
The Demonstration Projects (PDA) started in 1995 to strengthen
the capacity of non-governmental organizations and local
community organizations in the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest
to plan and implement innovative models for the conservation and
sustainable use of natural resources. The Project encouraged
the local population to promote knowledge generation, develop
sustainable technologies, and build new management and
productive practices structures.
The PDA was implemented by the Ministry of Environment,
benefiting over six thousand families during its existence. The
main positive achievements of the PDA were the following: 1)
improved management capacity and social capital construction
of the community organizations and NGOs; 2) diversification of
productive systems and improved natural resources management;
3) arise of new income sources to local community; 4) improved
forestry management; and, 5) rural community’s awareness
about the forestry importance to generate income and provide
environmental services. The Project started a new phase in 2005,
expected to be concluded by 2009, comprising three new lines of
action: experiences consolidation; Atlantic Forest conservation;
and, alternatives to deforestation and fires. In those years, the PDA
launched 19 publications.
53
PDA1
FARIA, A. A. da C.; FERREIRA NETO, P. S. Ferramentas de diálogo –
qualificando o uso das técnicas de DRP: Diagnóstico Rural Participativo.
[Dialogue tool – qualifying the use of DRP techniques: Participatory Rural
Diagnosis] Brasilia: MMA; IEB, 2006. 76 p.
This Guide aims at rescuing the role played by the dialogue tools
developed by the Rural Participatory Diagnosis (DRP) to provide input
to the action developed by mediators who want to promote collective,
straight and productive dialogue. It employs tools like visual and interactive
charts representing aspects of a given reality, gradually built by a group of
persons participating in the discussion. The Spoken Map (Mapa Falado)
is a drawing representing the space or territory object of discussion, and
enabled broadly debating of different reality aspects. It is largely used as
an exploratory technique at the initial stage of a diagnosis. The Seasonal
Calendar (Calendário Sazonal) technique is a table where one of the axes
is time. The Flow Graph is a set of cards arranged like a flow, which could
have two representation logics: ways and causes-consequences. The Venn
Graph is composes of circles of different sizes, arranged in such a way as
to represent the existing links among them. This tool originates from the
set mathematics, and was adapted to represent the links between different
groups of a given society. The Comparative Logical Framework is a table
where one of the axes represents the elements to be compared, and the
other stands for the comparison/assessment criteria. The challenge posed
to the tools is to enable a reflection capable of leading to a critical analysis
of the reality, enabling an active posture in face of that reality.
PDA2
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Arte de ampliar cabeças: uma
leitura transversal das sistematizações do PDA [Art of expanding minds: a
crosswise reading of the PDA systematizations]. Brasilia: MMA/PDA, 2006.
52 p. (Série Sistematização, XI)
This last volume of the PDA “Systematization” series can be considered
as “crosswise”. That is because instead of being a story of systematized
experiences, like the remainder volumes of this series, it is a sort of reflection
on the set and a story of the path run. It is a sort of “meta-systematization”. It
introduces three texts: the adventure story in the methodological viewpoint;
a look on the singularity of specific points of different systematized
experiences; and, a reflection on the process, in a text by Elza Falkembach
(“Sistematização, uma arte de ampliar cabeças...”). The stories presented
54
deal with the place of experiences as possibility of establishing new links
with production, with the market, the environment, persons, public policy.
This is an aspect that should always be stressed: the way of doing different,
the new, experimentation, changing relationships. These are new family
relations built around the sustainability concept; new health and education
parameters; new gender, generation and neighborhood relations. Life
histories told drawing on these changes.
PDA3
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Wyty Catë: aliança para manter
o mundo vivo e o Cerrado em pé [Wyty Catë: alliance to keep the world
alive and the Cerrado standing]. Brasilia: MMA/PDA, 2006. 52 p. (Série
Sistematização, XI)
The Cerrado Fruits Project (PFC) – whose economic thread is in the
FrutaSã company – emerged as an alternative of sustainable management
of natural resources in the Pre-Amazonian Cerrado, within a context of
devaluation and environmental destruction. It started in 1993 and is partner
to the Indigenous Work Center (CTI) and the Wyty Catë Association of
Timbira Communities from Tocantins and Maranhão. The publication of the
series “Sistematização: comunidades construindo sua sustentabilidade”
(Systematization: communities building their sustainability) brought about
the opportunity of building a written document. The Association and the
CTI found it an interesting opportunity of publishing their experience, with
two objectives: serve as educational material and promote reflection to
the mentwajê and the Timbira School, and disseminate the initiative to the
external audience. The PDA supported the elaboration of the written text
by hiring specialized consultancy services. The consultancy carried out
some interviews and a workshop with the mentwajê at the Timbira Pënxwyj
Hëmpejxà Education and Research Center, in Carolina, Maranhão. The
text drew upon documents produced by the Indigenous Work Center
advisors, reports by the FrutaSã Plant, and by the Cerrado Fruits Project
financing agents. The consultants organized the work and produced the
final text. The basic texts of this story were written by the CTI team linked
to the Cerrado Fruits Project. The texts report the experience in the light
of some of its protagonists, whose reflections and visions of future are
broadly discussed with the Indigenous. Among the many voices reported,
it is worth mentioning the thought of some directors of the Wyty Catë (a
Gavião Pykobjê, Jonas, and a Krahô, Hapyhi), showing their perspectives
of life and perplexity in face of the kupen’s way of acting and thinking.
55
PDA4
PDA5
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA APA – Tudo em Família: diversificação
produtiva, defesa ambiental e geração de renda em Ouro Preto D’Oeste-RO.
[APA – All in Family: productive diversification, environmental defense and
income generation in Ouro Preto D’Oeste – Rondonia] Brasilia: MMA/PDA,
2006. 52 p. (Série Sistematização, IX)
This publication was produced based on a process of systematizing the
Alternative Farmers Association (Associação dos Produtores Alternativos –
APA) experience, and intended to disclose the main lessons learned during
the entity’s path. Its objective is toshow how productive diversification based
on beekeeping and agroforestry consortia have improved the environmental
conditions and quality of life of the individuals involved, changing the dynamic
of their family life and contributing to revalue the role played by women and
youths in the production. The APA was assembled by 29 farmers in 1992 to
gather the family’s food safety improved and the pursuit for income generation
alternatives. It gathers about 250 families from the municipalities of Ouro
Preto D’Oeste, Nova União, Mirante da Serra, Urupá, Teixeirópolis and Vale
do Paraíso – one of the most populated regions in Rondonia, with strong
agricultural vocation. Based on the beekeeping – which is being successful
and enabled the entity’s strengthening - APA expanded its range of activities. It
promotes among its members the introduction of agroforestry consortia made
by regional fruit trees like cupuaçu, araçá-boi, graviola; palm trees like pupunha
and açaí; and forestry essences like freijó-louro, mogno, bandarra, andiroba,
among others. The oldest areas, implemented in 1992, are already producing.
Altogether, there are 500 ha reforested with about 800 thousand plants of 30
different species. The methodology employed to systematize it was composed
by a meeting with participants to align and plan the activities to be held. Then,
four regional meetings were held with the group of women to survey information
and build the narrative. Moreover, there were four additional meetings with
coordinators and the APA partners’ institutions to collect information and build
the narrative. The meetings aimed at organizing the material gathered during
the base events, besides the required analyses and complementation with
interviews and documents.
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Jaguatareí Nhemboé: caminhando
e aprendendo com os Guarani comunidade de Guarani-Mbyá do Aguapeú.
[Jaguatareí Nhemboé: walking and learning with the Guarani from the
Guarani-Mbyá do Aguapeú community]. Brasilia: MMA/ PDA, 2006. 44 p.
(Série Sistematização, VIII)
The Guarani Indigenous Land of Aguapeú occupies 4.372,10 hectares, at
the coast portion in the Center-south coast of Sao Paulo, known as Baixada
Santista. It is inserted in representative areas of the Atlantic Forest Biome,
municipality of Mongaguá – south coast of Sao Paulo. In 2006 it housed
24 families, about 70 individuals. In this document the community reports
the initial ideas and the gradual elaboration and execution of the project,
in partnership with the non-governmental organization Indigenous Work
Center (CTI), to deal with the increasing demand for visits to the settlement,
in a coherent way. Regarding the physical structure prepared to the project,
the following stand out: Culture House, panels, boat houses, boats, tails,
garbage baskets on the settlement entry, handicraft works. To the indigenous
community, the project provided significant learning opportunity to the group,
both about the need of cooperating with institutional partnerships, and on the
need of autonomy to the project to have it smoothly developed. According
to them, another extremely positive point was the involvement of everyone
in the discussion and implementation of the project, leading to strong social
cohesion. Considering that the Guarani people – like most of the indigenous
peoples in Brazil – orally transmit their knowledge, this was considered the
best way to disseminate the project experience to other communities.
PDA6
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA FVPP: a história do movimento
pelo desenvolvimento da Transamazônica e Xingu [FVPP: the history of
the movement to the development of Transamazônica and Xingu] Brasilia:
MMA/PDA, 2006. 64 p. (Série Sistematização, VII)
This narrative tells the history of social movements at Transamazônica and
their development, which were transformed from claim and denouncement
movements to movements of transformation and development of the reality
of a region and a people. This history is marked by conquers and victories,
but also for fights, losses and suffering; marked by chasing and murdering of
fellows, and the building of a new concept on development. A development
different from that to which the Transamazônica settlers were invited to join
in and promote in the 1970’s. A development that does not mean deforesting,
but that considers the interest, needs and dreams of farmers, and the
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57
needs for preserving the forest. All that is summarized in a historical motto:
“we want to live, produce and preserve”. The systematization aimed at
promoting a process of debate and re-planning of organizations in the area
reached by the Viver, Produzir e Preservar Foundation (FVPP), to support
strategic actions to incorporate Legal Reserves to the production system,
thus contributing to consolidate a diversified system in the region. The first
experience selected to be systematized was the Project on Valuation and
Conservation of Forestry Resources in the Legal Reserves of Lands of
Small Farmers at the Municipalities of Pacajá and Medicilândia (Valorização
e Conservação dos Recursos Florestais das Reservas Legais dos Lotes
de Pequenos Agricultores dos Municípios de Pacajá e de Medicilândia).
The focus identified to be deepened was the process of incorporating forest
to the productive system, thus influencing the families’ everyday life in the
economic and environmental aspects, strengthening local and regional
organizations. However, as the systematization developed, the social
movement history became very important, beyond the context wherein the
systematization actions were carried out. So, the systematization period
was expanded beyond the initial plans, and ended by fostering the recovery
of the reasons that led the Movement for the Transamazônica Survival
(Movimento pela Sobrevivência da Transamazônica - MPST) to become the
Movement for the Development of Transamazônica and Xingu (Movimento
pelo Desenvolvimento da Transamazônica e Xingu – MDTX) and pursue a
“different development” where incorporating forest to the productive system
is a key element.
PDA7
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Sabiá: a experiência com
comercialização agroecológica. [Sabiá: the experience on agro-ecological
trading.] Brasilia: MMA/PDA, 2006. 68 p. (Série Sistematização, VI)
This document is the narrative of some stories about the knowledge,
lives, people building more sustainable ways of living together with the
environment. The experience selected by the Sabiá Agro-ecological
Development Center (Centro de Desenvolvimento Agroecológico Sabiá)
was the participatory building of Agro-ecological Rooms in Recife and Serra
Talhada Fair, where producers can trade directly with consumers, increasing
the family income and, therefore, remain farming. The Sabiá Center and
the Rural Workers Trade Union in the Municipality of Bom Jardim carried
out a participatory diagnosis on the rural production in the municipality.
After discussing the results, they concluded that the main problem for local
farmers was the practice of a non-sustainable production system, in deep
crisis and decline. Moreover, they have identified the lack of public policies
oriented to family-based agriculture. In face of that, the Sabiá Center
started an advisory process, focusing on awareness-building to change the
production system, introducing the topic of agro-ecology with emphasis on
the agroforestry agriculture. The main advances on the agroforestry work
and trading at agro-ecological spaces deal with food safety; family units’
58
planning process; improved life quality through economic increase; health
improvement; satisfaction with work; professionalization through new
knowledge. The main conclusion of the group was that systematization
is worthy not only for the products it generates, but also for the links
established in its process and the possibility of identifying lessons and
enabling individual and collective growth.
PDA8
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Apruram: produção, beneficiamento
e comercialização dos produtos de sistemas agroflorestais. [Apruram:
production, processing and trading of agroforestry systems’ products].
Brasilia: MMA/PDA, 2006. 68 p. (Série Sistematização, V)
This publication attempts to systematize the experiences of Rolim de
Moura’s Rural Farmers Association to Mutual Assistance (Associação
dos Produtores Rurais Rolimourense para Ajuda Mútua – Apruram) by
recovering their histories. Apruram is made of seven associations and
a formal group from the municipality of Rolim de Moura, in Rondonia. It
was established in 1991 to serve as a central trading unit, to get farmers
rid from middlemen. In 1995 it started working with the growing of fruit
species seedlings, to diversify the production. That work started with
a community initiative project, financed by the National Forest Plan of
Rondonia (Plano Nacional de Florestas de Rondônia - Planafloro). The
agroforestry consortia proved to be a feasible alternative to increase
the family income. There are short-term results, like the annual crops
implemented in the line spacing until they become shrubs. In the medium
run, with the fruit or palm species; and, in the long term, with the timber
species. The timber stands for a saving account to farmers, a financial and
environmental investment. The report discloses statements by farmers
proving the financial return of that investment.
PDA9
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Colônia de Pescadores Z-15: os
acordos de pesca em Igarapé-Miri. [Z-15 Fishermen Colony: the fishery
agreements in Igarapé-Miri]. Brasilia: MMA/ PDA, 2006. 44 p. (Série
Sistematização, IV)
The municipality of Igarapé-Miri has 52,000 inhabitants, and is located in
the mesoregion of northeast of Pará, micro-region of Lower Tocantins River,
78 km from the state capital. From 1999 to 2003, the Z-15 Fishermen
Colony of Igarapé-Miri developed a small PDA-supported project focusing
59
on strengthening fishery agreements, as an initiative of community-based
management of water resources. The thematic systematization axis to the
work was the fishery agreements as economic, food and organizational
alternative to artisanal fishermen. The work employed the methodology
of surveying documents from the communities’ and the Colony’s on
agreements, meetings and interview rounds in the communities, using
resources like constructing the Time Line. The document presents
alternatives to fishery agreements, and introduces communities in different
stages of the process of elaborating the agreements. However, the work
concludes with recommendations on the Z-15 Colony, emphasizing that
the participation of all is a key element to strengthen the local social
organization.
PDA10
MMINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Sasop: difusão de práticas e
princípios agroflorestais no Baixo Sul da Bahia. [Sasop: dissemination of
agroforestry practices and principles in the South End of the Bahia state].
Brasilia: MMA/PDA, 2006. 52 p. (Série Sistematização, III)
The document focuses on the dissemination strategies adopted by the
Support Service to Popular Rural Organizations (Serviço de Apoio às
Organizações Populares Rurais – Sasop) to promote a process of collective
reflection on the strategies to disseminate the Agroforestry Systems
(SAF), capable of re-focusing the practice and fostering the exchange of
experiences among farmers. The methodology approached the narrative
constructing; simplified systematization of individual experiences; exchange
of experiences among farmers; and, the analysis of the narrative built. The
simplified systematization was carried out through visitation to ten SAF
management experiences, working with a script of questions through which
families told a little about their experience and life history. The results and
lessons of the participatory experimentation process in the implementation
of Demonstration areas and dissemination of agroforestry principles
and practices have contributed to generate knowledge on conservation,
preservation and sustainable management of natural resources within the
Atlantic Forest Biome. That enabled building awareness among farmers,
involved communities, organizations representing family-based agriculture,
and other regional players. The systematization has shown the evolution,
besides providing a new moment for technicians and farmers to think over
the practice, reaffirming or reformulating guidelines and strategies. It has also
shown that farmers do not adopt a system, but appropriate principles and
practices that are punctually introduced to their production systems, leading to
changes in the existing subsystems and production system as a whole.
60
PDA11
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Cametá – acordos de pesca: uma
alternativa econômica e organizacional. [Cametá – fishery agreements: an
economic and organizational alternative]. Brasilia: MMA/PDA, 2006. 64 p.
(Série Sistematização, II)
This work, just like the others in the same series, reports histories and
knowledge from people who have built ways for sustainably co-existing with
environment. Those experiences are supported by the PDA. The histories
therein are told by the groups involved with the PDA projects from 2001 to
2003. The narrators are involved with fishery in the municipality of Cametá,
state of Pará. Among other initiatives, the fishermen have sought for
fishery and forestry resources conservation through “fishery agreements”
or “preservation agreements”. The projects’ core topics approached issues
like: water resources conservation, forestry management, and, family-based
fish farming as strategies to value the riparian communities. The fishery
agreements were strengthened as other institutions like Ibama, fishermen
colony, NGOs and local governments started supporting them. Another
highlight in the municipality of Cametá is the presence of 30 volunteer
environmental agents accredited by Ibama, who largely contribute to
surveillance and clarification among the community. The most impressive
result is the fishermen’s awareness of the importance and need of fishery
agreements to maintain their activity.
PDA12
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Terra Viva: estratégias, ações,
resultados e desafios na disseminação agroflorestal. [Living Earth:
strategies, actions, outputs and challenges to agroforestry dissemination].
Brasilia: MMA/ PDA, 2006. 56 p. (Série Sistematização, I)
In ten years, the PDA has supported about 320 institutions in the Amazon
and Atlantic Forests. This work reports histories told by the groups involved
in the project, and how they succeeded in building more sustainable ways
of relating to the environment. Another outstanding aspect in the histories
is the dialogue between traditional knowledge and new information. The
work gathers eleven histories resulting from PDA-supported projects from
July 2003 to March 2004. Partnerships were established with regional
institutions to carry out the projects, enabling a permanent exchange
between technicians and farmers aiming at strengthening the public policies
that involve family-based agriculture and agro-ecology, as references to
the national sustainable development. Those histories have contributed to
61
define the priority work of the “Terra Viva”, which was established to build
awareness among the public power, technical assistance bodies and the
official education system, to increasingly develop joint actions focusing on
the sustainable development stages at the municipalities reached at the
extreme south end of Bahia: Itamaraju, Prado, Itanhaém and Jucuruçu.
PDA13
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Estudos da Amazônia: avaliação
de vinte projetos PDA. [Amazonian studies: assessment of 20 PDA projects]
Brasilia: MMA/PDA, 2004. 134 p. (Série Experiências PDA, 5)
During its nine years of existence, the PDA has achieved the maturity
of a project that emerged from its purpose of thinking over a different
way of living together with and preserving the rainforests. Hence, the
PDA launched an innovative way of analyzing and approving projects,
gathering the government and civil society with same decision power, to
the hard exercise of seeking balance among different regions, institutions,
perceptions and needs. The 188 experiences were rather unique. Twenty
Amazon projects were analyzed, and stand for much more than twenty
Demonstration experiences. These represent experiences of different
individuals who accepted trying a new way of living with the environment.
The 20 projects represent many experiences promoted by the PDA in the
Legal Amazon. The projects analyzed were selected based on three criteria:
different experiences typologies and indicatives of significant lessons for
the successes and failures. Moreover, it attached priority to experiences
that had not been incorporated to other studies carried out by the PDA.
PDA14
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Estudos da Mata Atlântica:
avaliação de doze projetos PDA. [Atlantic Forest studies: assessment of 12
PDA projects] Brasilia: MMA/PDA, 2004. 80 p. (Série Experiências PDA, 4)
The study was carried out in 2002, within the context of outlining the new
PDA component exclusively focused on the Atlantic Forest. The immediate
objective was to provide subsidies to the financing agents’ Assessment
Mission of this new component, held in September 2002. The study
proposed to check lessons, impacts and results achieved, trying to respond
a basic question: should we go on? To carry it out, it was decided to perform
a field assessment of twelve projects in different Atlantic Forest regions,
62
in August 2002. Projects from different Atlantic Forest areas (from Bahia
do Rio Grande do Sul) were selected among a universe of 44 initiatives
supported by the PDA in eight years. The projects’ selection tried to
provide a representative sampling on the Atlantic Forest recovery, dealing
with different ecosystems and audiences. The assessment comprised a
wide array of activities that, as a whole, proposed new models for biome
use and conservation, like secondary forests management, recovery of
coastal ecosystems, recovery of degraded areas through SAF, expansion
of protected areas around Conservation Units, recovery of water bodies,
among others. Moreover, the projects selection considered the rich
population’s diversity: quilombolas, artisanal fishermen, family-based
farmers, urban area residents. The assessment showed how the investment
was worthy in face of the clear benefits that remained to communities,
families and the environment. The lessons learned also evidences that,
despite some failures, the significant successes achieved could inspire a
new way of living with the Atlantic Forest.
PDA15
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Implantação de tecnologias de
manejo agroflorestal em terras indígenas do Acre. [Implementation of
agroforestry management technologies in indigenous land in Acre] Brasilia:
MMA/PDA, 2002. 76 p. (Série Experiências PDA, 3)
TheImplementation of Agroforestry Management Technologies in
Indigenous Lands of Acre Project (Implantação de Tecnologias de Manejo
Agroflorestal em Terras Indígenas do Acre) aiming at training Indigenous
Agroforestry Agents (AAFI) and maintaining the path of indigenous teachers
and health agents, started in 1996, with resources of the Pilot Program
for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests (PPG7), through the PDA.
It mainly focused on the Indigenous Lands environmental management,
notably the management of some natural resources found in its ecosystem,
to AAFI interacting with indigenous and non-indigenous populations in eight
municipalities in the state of Acre and southeast portion of Amazonas,
considering their bilingual literacy, and to those participating in indigenous
schools as collaborators or teachers of natural resources management.
The process and achievements are recorded on work journals which
became publications that collect cultural and ecological knowledge of the
indigenous peoples’ members. The AAFI are also tasked with solving,
through negotiation and dialogue, external and internal problems related
to hunting, fishery, use of natural resources and territorial surveillance
work - a consistent exercise of political and educational action. To analyze
the importance and complexity of the AAFI work, valuing, respecting and
63
encouraging the relations of those peoples and their environment, farming
improvement is a continuation of what is done in forests, but with stronger
intervention. The agents’ training is complemented by interchange visits or
advisory travels to other indigenous peoples or similar projects, integrated
to the curricular proposal as a sort of "Networked Knowledge".
PDA16
ASSUMPÇÃO, A. et. al. Sistemas agroflorestais em assentamentos
de reforma agrária. [Agroforestry systems in agrarian reform settlements]
Brasilia: MMA/SCA/PDA, 2002. 66 p. (Série Experiências PDA, 2)
This publication is the second volume of the PDA Experience Series
that describes experiences on environmental protection and recovery in
different regions of the Atlantic Forest realm: Pontal do Paranapanema,
on the extreme west end of the State of Sao Paulo, and south part of
the State of Bahia. The first part of this work refers to the activities
developed and preliminary results achieved during the first fifteen months
of execution of the Green Hug Project (Projeto Abraço Verde) developed
in the Pontal to Paranapanema. The main objectives were to provide agroecological information to settlers, foster the implementation of agroforestry
management practices in sites neighboring the forest fragments, and
implement Demonstration agroforestry modules adapted to local culture
and needs. The experience showed that ecosystems conservation could
be achieved through eco-negotiations, i.e., the community participation
and education, reliability, friendship and trust relationships, agro-ecological
extension and surveys, adaptable management, additionally to responsive
legislation and effective surveillance. The second part discloses relevant
aspects related to the projects execution involving generation of new
knowledge and development of change processes in the family-based
agricultural production systems at the extreme south end of Bahia. Firstly,
the work introduces the socio-environmental contexts of the coastal plain
at the south extreme end of Bahia. Then, it describes the strategic and
methodological elements developed and the main results achieved in the
Riacho das Ostras settlement, municipality of Prado, nearby the National
Discovery Park (Parque Nacional do Descobrimento). Finally, it presents
some key topics to achieve the objectives, and the main challenges to build
a regional model of sustainable development.
64
PDA17
PUFAL, D. V. de L. Agricultura agroflorestal: viabilidade econômica e
estratégias de implantação [Agroforestry agriculture: economic feasibility
and implementation strategies]. Brasília: UnB/CDS, 2002. 82 p. Master’s
Degree Dissertation.
The objective of this thesis is to analyze the economic feasibility of a model
of an agroforestry system – the Agroforest or Analogous Regenerative
Agroforestry System – adapted to the context of family farming in
Pernambuco. The model was disseminated by the Sabiá Agro-ecological
Development Center, in partnership with farmer-disseminators trained
in the experimental process. The present study consists of an analysis
of four farms in different ecosystems of the Mata and Agreste zones of
Pernambuco. The farms followed different strategies adapted to their
resource availability and environment, but all had in common the fact of
being engaged in a strong social organization, with customized technical
assistance and organizing marketing in a large consumer center in the city
of Recife. The results indicate promotion of food security, environmental
recovery and economic feasibility on the basis of the integration of the
agroforest with different production subsystems, such as beekeeping,
raising of small animals and small-scale raising of large livestock.
PDA18
LEROY, J. P.; TOLEDO, G. T. Novo rumo para o desenvolvimento
regional. [New path to the regional development] Brasilia: MMA/PDA,
2001. 63 p. (Série Experiências PDA, 1)
This publication launches the PDA Experience Series, approaching the
Cerrado Fruits Project (PFC) executed by the Cerrado Fruits Network
(RFC) which is composed of farmers and indigenous people that follow
the principles of solidarity, respect to human beings and environment, and
pursuit of sustainability, even under the pressures of mining, metallurgy
and eucalyptus growing on one hand, and the soybean and cattle farming
expansion fronts on the other hand. This document reports how a pilot
program created through the gathering of different peoples to defend the
Brazilian Rainforests can reach such remote areas in the Pre-Amazon,
and contribute to create new sustainable economic alternatives to the
65
population. The PFC is composed of 11 subprojects in transition areas
between the Amazon Forest and the Cerrado in the states of Maranhão and
Tocantins. It aims at generating income to farmers who are members of the
cooperative and, therefore, improve their living conditions, strengthen the
organization of associations and cooperatives, fix people on rural areas,
diversify production, preserve and value the Cerrado and peoples living in
there, and opposing the model of predatory development. In its three years of
activity, the PFC members and coordinators have acquired great experience
trying to solve different problems posed during the processing and trading of
production, which ended by leading to changes on the strategies.
PDA19
RUSSO, R. Avaliação de aspectos da sustentabilidade ambiental
dos sistemas agroflorestais: um estudo de caso. [Assessment on
environmental sustainability aspects of the agroforestry systems: a case
study]. Brasilia: UnB, 2001. 54 p. Master’s Degree Dissertation.
This dissertation was submitted to the Forest Engineering department of
the University of Brasilia in 2001, and aimed at assessing the environmental
sustainability of agroforestry systems not in an isolated way, but as a
component of the family-based agricultural property. Groups from initiatives
based on the productive systems being implemented in the BR 364 axis, in
the state of Rondonia, supported by the PDA and the Pilot Program, were
selected to have their logical indicators framework analyzed. The indicators
were defined based on an environmentally sustainable model, and
hierarchically valuated in a Cluster analysis. The values achieved allowed
for pooling projects for assessment and to obtain the distance between
the expected results in the written projects, the results achieved during
field execution, and the ideal theoretical model. It employed the Content
Analysis to get information from the text, and Ethnographic Procedure to
obtain field information. The expected results were very weak in terms of
environmental information which was left out for information on income
generation, thus limiting the thesis of replacement of a productive system
for a more profitable one, disregarding that the system to be replaced
could be the natural system, and failing in recommending measures to
reduce that risk. The execution results are influenced by the adoption of the
agroforestry component, in the farmer’s logic when focusing the agrarian
system as a whole, and enabling the development of systems much closer
to the ideal theory than those provided for in the projects.
66
PDA20
MANCIN, R. C. Estado e sociedade na busca do desenvolvimento
sustentável em projetos demonstrativos. [State and society pursuing
sustainable development in Demonstration projects]. Brasilia: UnB, 2001.
150 p. Master’s Degree Dissertation.
The study approaches the organized civil society’s participation in
the PDA, part of the PPG7. The theoretical reference is based on the
analysis of phenomena related to changes on the State role resulting
from the emergence of neo-liberalism and globalization – processes that
have brought about new agents and new social structures in different
dimensions and contexts. The State crisis enabled new roles to the NonGovernmental Organizations, consolidating a new economic sector, the
so-called Third Sector. The study's results show the success of introducing
in the PPG7 a component of support to community projects, allowing for
significantly expanding the insertion of the organized civil society sectors
in the implementation of innovative experiences on natural resources
management.
67
5
PDPI
Indigenous Demonstration Project
The PDPI aims at seeking opportunities to generate economic,
social and cultural sustainability to indigenous peoples in the Legal
Amazon, while conserving the natural resources found in those
indigenous lands. One of the Project’s specific objectives is to
disseminate the knowledge acquired during the implementation
of Demonstration projects to assist the outlining and reformulation
of public policies responsive to the indigenous’ living conditions.
The PDPI is being executed by the Ministry of Environment in
partnership with the Coordination of Indigenous Organizations in
the Brazilian Amazon (Coordenação das Organizações Indígenas
da Amazônia Brasileira - Coiab). The Project has two fronts or
main work components: 1) support to projects at local level in
three thematic areas - protection to indigenous lands, sustainable
economic activities, and cultural valuation; 2) support to institutional
strengthening, supporting institutional structuring processes,
political articulation and capacity-building to manage the Amazonian
indigenous movement. The project started in 2001 and is about to be
concluded. The Project launched 4 publications.
68
69
PDPI1
ALMEIDA, F. V. R. de. (Org.). Guia para a formação em gestão de
projetos indígenas. [Guide book to indigenous projects management
training]. Brasilia: Paralelo 15, 2008. 282 p.
The Guide ensues from the implementation of the Training Course to
Indigenous Managers of subprojects supported by the PDPI/MMA, and
aims at facilitating the use of that course in other contexts where it could be
useful. The Guide provides the required information to build a general view
on project management, notably on the problems surrounding the indigenous
projects. The publication also provides pedagogical guidance to those willing
to support its application and dissemination. In the introduction, the book deals
with challenges posed to the indigenous manager, referring to the project
cycle, characteristics of a social project, and discussing the specificities of
indigenous projects. In Module 1 the book works on the place of indigenous
projects, presenting some discussion texts like the Ethno-development and
the market of projects, additionally to the pursuit for indigenous protagonism.
The module 2 provides guidance on the elaboration of participatory diagnosis.
The module 3 approaches projects elaboration, presenting opportunities
and design, ways of organizing the ideas: from logical framework to the time
of writing it. The module 4 deals with project implementation, monitoring
and evaluation, reports, expenditures control, transparancy and good use
of resources, additionally to rendering of accounts. The annexes work on
the operational manual and the PDPI opinion givers manual, as well as
information on the monitoring visits to the PDPI subprojects.
PDPI2
SOUZA, C. N. I. et. al. (Org.). Povos indígenas: projeto e desenvolvimento.
[Indigenous peoples: project and development]. Rio de Janeiro: Contra
Capa, 2007. 172 p.
The book presents eight texts by different authors on the topic of interface
between indigenous communities and development projects. The authors
were encouraged to discuss the topic as contribution to the 9th Meeting of
Anthropologists from North and Northeast (IX Reunião de Antropólogos do
Norte e Nordeste – Abanne) held in 2005, in Manaus, within the Workgroups
Indigenous Peoples, Demonstration Projects and Development.
Development is a relevant topic in the field of the complex relations
between those peoples and the larger society agents. The discussions on
the engagement in regional economic circuits, the appropriation of income
generation and goods and services consumption mechanisms, the impacts
of large enterprises, institutional strengthening, the elaboration of public
policies and the implementation and execution of social interventions
on the projects to or by indigenous peoples are thought through the
development topic. The publication provides seven practical and theoretical
topics on the matter: 1) link between indigenous peoples and the Brazilian
state: conceptual and political issues; 2) projects market; 3) indigenous
70
participation; 4) protagonism and socio-cultural appropriation of projects; 5)
concrete mechanisms of selection and approval of indigenous projects; 6)
economy, purposes and management mechanisms in indigenous projects;
and, 7) elements to think over the research on indigenous projects.
PDPI3
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Políticas públicas relacionadas
aos povos indígenas no Brasil: processos e iniciativas em curso (situação
até janeiro de 2005). [Public policies related to indigenous peoples in Brazil:
ongoing processes and initiatives (situation as of January 2005)]. Manaus
MMA/ PDPI, 2005. 91 p. (Work Paper, 1)
The Indigenous Peoples Demonstration Project (PDPI) aim at contributing
with experiences to build public policies that are more responsive to
indigenous peoples, trying to get acquainted to what has already been
done in that sense. The existing fragmentation in such policies at the
federal level gave rise to the illustrative notion of Indigenous Ministries
- those with budgetary resources to deal with indigenous matters and
demands. Moreover, it grounded the methodology of general mapping of
what has already been done in terms of indigenous public policy. Hence,
it decided for a short number of institutions and Programs approached at
federal level, excluding the actions executed by Funai, and the health and
education policies as well. The survey resulted in a document elaborated
through means of consultations. Therefore, it refers to a dynamic reality that
involves multiple actors. It concluded that actions are not aligned, there are
no consistent recommendations, and the initiatives are not supported by
knowledge and experience. However, there are demands and contributions,
even if disconnected. Therefore, the report could be considered to be an
initial step toward contributing to the constructing more responsive public
policies to the indigenous peoples in Brazil.
PDPI4
ALMEIDA, F. V. R. de; SOUZA; C. N. I. Discutindo a noção de autonomia
nos “textos” e “contextos” de projetos demonstrativos indígenas.
[Discussing the notion of autonomy in the “texts” and “contexts” of
Indigenous Demonstration Projects]. Manaus Acta Amaz., 2004. 20 p.
Discutindo a noção
de autonomia nos
“textos” e “contextos”
de projetos
The text approaches the indigenous people’s autonomy, based on the
experience gained with projects submitted to the PDPI. Based on the
projects, the article discusses how different concepts of autonomy are
expressed in the proposals and practical activities. According to the authors,
the notion of indigenous peoples’ autonomy is broadly employed by many
agents in the indigenous area. To the same extent, the notion does not
imply one single understanding. There are different concepts, depending
71
demonstrativos
indígenas
on the ideology, interest and practice of those who use it. Approach the
issue of autonomy in projects can be viewed in different angles: based on
the sustainability of the actions, the access to resources (natural, human,
financial resources), the capacity-building, etc. This text focuses on the
issue of participation and, therefore, the analysis passes by the issue
of authorship and conduction of projects, as well as the links between
indigenous communities and organizations, their partners (governmental
and non-governmental ones) and advisors. In the conclusion, the text
states that within the scope of the PDPI-supported projects, where the
relation between Funai and indigenous peoples and organizations is more
relevant. The challenge posed is to have them contributing to strengthen
the indigenous managerial capacity. Regarding the relations between the
PDPI and indigenous representatives and organizations, the challenged
posed by the PDPI “texts" is how to overcome indigenous practices that
reinforce dependency, through means of consistent investment in capacitybuilding as a way to increase the indigenous protagonism. Ultimately, it
affirms that the effective PDPI contribution to enhance practices to ensure
indigenous autonomy could only be verified within the “context” of its
practical implementation.
PDPI5
INDIGENOUS PEOPLE DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS - PDPI
Informações básicas e formulário para apresentação de projetos:
PDPI – Projetos Demonstrativos dos Povos Indígenas. Basic information
and projects submission form: PDPI - Indigenous People Demonstration
Projects [S.l.]: MMA, [s.d.]
The book explains what is a PDPI – a project created to support activities
developed by indigenous communities in the Legal Amazon. The text informs
to whom the project resources are addressed; briefly introduces the initiative;
presents the criteria and principles; shows the thematic areas and what cannot
be supported. The project supports strengthening the way of living of each
indigenous people, their culture, social and political organization, and their
knowledge about environment. It encourages the development of sustainable
economic activities, and also supports the protection of indigenous territories
in the Legal Amazon, thus preventing the pressure exercised by timber
dealers, miners or other intruders. Only regulated indigenous organizations
or organizations made of non-Indigenous that support indigenous peoples
are eligible to submit proposals to the PDPI. The second part of the book
discloses the draft and the final forms with the required information to be sent
to the PDPI to apply for resources.
72
6
PPTAL
Indigenous Lands Project
The PPTAL was executed by the National Indigenous Foundation
(Funai) from 1996 to December 2008. The project has implemented
actions oriented to ensure territory (identification, demarcation
and regulation of land actions) to the non-predatory use of natural
resources by the indigenous peoples. The Project’s general objective
was: improve natural resources conservation in indigenous lands,
and increase the indigenous people’s welfare through means of:
I – legalization of indigenous lands in Legal Amazon; II – improve
protection to indigenous populations and lands.
The Project implementation strategy was structured in four
components: I) legalization of indigenous lands and the indigenou’s
accompaniment of demarcations; II) surveillance and protection of
Indigenous Lands (Surveillance Actions); III) studies and capacitybuilding (Capacity-building, Geographic Information System and
Ethno-ecological Surveys); IV) support to the Project management
(Support to the Project Execution, Monitoring, Dissemination,
Deliberative Parity Commission).
In terms of protected areas through land legalization in indigenous
lands, as of 2008 the PPTAL had demarked about 44 million
hectares in the Legal Amazon, with 115 Indigenous Lands
demarked. However, the Project has also worked on other areas,
like studies development, elaboration of technical manuals, and
delivery of training courses to staff members, aiming at promoting
technical and operational improvement of Funai’s team. PPTAL has
also fostered the indigenous participation in land demarcations;
supported capacity-building; and provided technical contributions
to develop projects on indigenous accompaniment of demarcations,
and surveillance and protection actions to indigenous lands.
Altogether, the Project has prepared 123 publications.
73
PPTAL1
PPTAL3
QUEIROZ, R. C. de. Trombetas-Mapuera: território indígena. [TrombetasMapuera: indigenous territory]. Brasilia: Funai/PPTAL, 2008. 312 p.
The book tells the history of the demarcation of the Trombetas-Mapuera
Indigenous Land, of 3,970, 418 hectares, in the states of Pará, Amazonas
and Roraima. An almost entirely preserved area, with no invasion of
outsiders, where many different ethnical groups live, some of which in
isolation. The people now living at the TI (Indigenous Land) TrombetasMapuera are called people of the Tarumã-Parukoto complex (Karapawyana,
Waiwai, Katuena, Hixkaryana, Mawayana, Xowyana, Tikyana, Xereu,
Tunayana, Kamarayana, Yaipîyana, Pianokoto, among others) and the
isolated groups. They live at the surroundings of Trombetas, Jatapu,
Anauá, Nhamundá and Mapuera Rivers basins. The Brazilian federal
government is in the process of recognizing and legalizing the lands they
have been occupying for decades. However, that is a time-consuming and
complex process. The first work group created to demarcation dates back
to 1976, but it was only in 2004 that the Funai President’s dispatch was
published, recognizing the studies on identification and delimitation of the
TI Trombetas-Mapuera. In the beginning, the book shows maps and image
chart of the Indigenous Land. In the first part, it introduces the legalization
history, problems and difficulties, and the conclusion of physical demarcation
with some lessons learned and proposals. Then, it shows pictures of the
people’s everyday life, and of the identification and delimitation process. The
second part approaches the history of the territory social organization, with
many statements by Indigenous peoples and the Funai team. By the end, the
book tells the history of these peoples according to their own vision of world.
PPTAL2
NATIONAL INDIGENOUS FOUNDATION – FUNAI/ Indigenous Lands
Project – PPTAL/ GERMAN TECHNICAL COOPERATION – GTZ.
Levantamento etnoecológico das Terras Indígenas do Complexo
Médio Purus I: Peneri/Tacaquiri, Água Preta/Inari, Catipari/Mamoriá,
Seruini/Marienê e Tumiã. [Ethno-ecological survey of Indigenous Lands
in the Medium Purus River Complex I: Peneri/Tacaquiri, Água Preta/
Inari, Catipari/Mamoriá, Seruini/Marienê AND Tumiã]. Brasilia: Ministry
of Justice/Funai, 2008. 168 p.
The book is an edition of the report on the ethno-ecological survey of
Indigenous Lands (TI) in the Medium Purus River Complex I, approaching
the use by and knowledge of indigenous populations about their territory
and natural resources. The Medium Purus River Complex I comprises the
Indigenous Lands Peneri/Tacaquiri, Água Preta/Inari, Catipari/Mamoriá,
Seruini/Marienê and Tumiã on the southeast part of the Brazilian Legal
Amazon, southward the State of Amazonas. Those TIs are distributed
on both sides of the Medium Purus River, in the municipalities of Boca
do Acre, Pauini and Lábrea, state of Amazonas. The Ethno-ecological
field work was carried out for about 70 days from October to December
2000. The information gathered followed some basic topics: 1) space
occupation and use; 2) knowledge and understanding about resources
that are significant to the communities; and, 3) distribution in time and
space, as well as the ways for exploring and managing such resources.
The first part deals with social-historical aspects of the Apurinã, describing
and analyzing some social organization-related items in the Complex.
The second part presents the ranking and use of physical space and
natural resources by the Complex residents, incorporating social and
environmental aspects to the analysis. The last part summarizes the
information discussed in the book, to think over the management of TIS
in the Medium Purus River Complex I.
SILVA, L. F. V. e. (Org.). Coletânea da legislação indigenista brasileira.
[Collection of Brazilian Indigenous legislation] Brasilia: Funai, 2008. 818 p.
The Collection compiles the main laws, normative acts and international
agreements that govern the relations between indigenous peoples and the
Brazilian state. The publication also presents the Portuguese version of the
UN Declaration on the Indigenous Peoples Rights, approved in 2007. The set
of legal acts organized in the work was edited and updated to contemplate
the acts published until September 2008, and the related legislation was not
integrally transcribed, but only the main issues relevant to the indigenous
thematic. The acts were arranged according to the following topics: basic
legislation like the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
and the Indignous Statute; citizenship; territory organization; environment;
education; social security; Federal Government’s organization; ethnodevelopment; advocacy and research. Additionally to those chapters, it has
also organized a remissive and alphabetic index to facilitate research.
74
PPTAL4
NATIONAL INDIAN FOUNDATION – FUNAI/ Indigenous Lands Project –
PPTAL/ GERMAN TECHNICAL COOPERATION – GTZ. Levantamento
etnoambiental das Terras Indígenas do Complexo Macuxi-Wapixana:
Anaro, Barata/Livramento, Boqueirão, Raimundão, Jacamim, Moskow,
Muriru, Tabalascada e Raposa/Serra do Sol. [Ethno-environmental survey
of Indigenous Lands in the Macuxi-Wapixana Complex: Anaro, Barata/
Livramento, Boqueirão, Raimundão, Jacamim, Moskow, Muriru, Tabalascada
and Raposa/Serra do Sol]. Brasilia: Ministry of Justice/Funai, 2008. 192 p.
The book discloses the ethno-environmental survey of the Macuzi-Wapixana
Complex – the name that describes the set of Indigenous Lands (TI) in the
region of Lavrado (savannas) in Roraima. The text contributes to improve the
knowledge on the relation between indigenous peoples from Lavrado to the
75
environment, and how they use the natural resources to subsidize actions and
initiatives on environmental and territorial management. The survey comprised
nine TIs: Anaro, Barata/Livramento, Boqueirão, Raimundão, Jacamim,
Moskow, Muriru, Tabalascada e Raposa/Serra do Sol. [Ethno-environmental
survey of Indigenous Lands in the Macuxi-Wapixana Complex: Anaro, Barata/
Livramento, Boqueirão, Raimundão, Jacamim, Moskow, Muriru, Tabalascada
and Raposa/Serra do Sol]. The first part of the book presents and summarizes
information on environment and the indigenous peoples from the MacuxiWapixana Complex as a whole. The general information is then followed, in
the second part, by brief descriptions of each TI surveyed, complemented by
maps and satellite images. The last part explores the relevance of the topics
“environmental management and sustainability” to the reality and needs of the
TIs and of the Macuxi-Wapixana Complex.
PPTAL5
NATIONAL INDIAN FOUNDATION – FUNAI/ Indigenous Lands Project –
PPTAL/ GERMAN TECHNICAL COOPERATION – GTZ. Levantamento
etnoecológico das Terras Indígenas do Complexo Médio Purus II:
Paumari do Lago Marahã, Paumari do Rio Ituxi e Jarawara/Jamamadi/
Kanamati. [Ethno-ecological survey of Indigenous Lands in the Purus
Medium River Complex II: Paumari do Lago Marahã, Paumari do Rio Ituxi
e Jarawara/Jamamadi/Kanamati]. Brasilia: Ministry of Justice/Funai, 2008.
207 p.
The publication discloses the ethno-ecological survey of Indigenous Lands
(TI) in the Medium Purus River Complex II, which shows the cultural ecology
of indigenous groups living in that region, focusing on local environmental
knowledge and cultural practices related to environment. The information
is complemented with information on climate, geo-morphology, pedology;
limnology; botanic and zoology. The field work was developed from
October to December 2000 at the following TIs: Paumari do Lago Marahã
and Paumari do Rio Ituxi, of the ethnics Paumari and Apurinã; Jarawara/
Jamamadi/Kanamati of the ethnics Jarawara and Jamamadi. The first
part of the book presents a general overview on the Complex region, in
the environmental, demographic, social, economic and historical lines.
The second part brings general information on indigenous peoples in the
Complex, including anthropological grounds. The third part introduces the
information gathered in the field about the use of natural resources by
indigenous communities. The last part presents the analysis of data on the
Medium Purus River Complex II and recommended actions.
76
PPTAL6
NATIONAL INDIAN FOUNDATION – FUNAI/ INDIGENOUS LANDS
PROJECT – PPTAL/ GERMAN TECHNICAL COOPERATION – GTZ.
Levantamento etnoecológico das Terras Indígenas do Complexo
Bacia do Rio Juruá: Kaxinawá da Praia do Carapanã, Kampa do Igarapé
Primavera and Kulina do Igarapé do Pau. [Ethno-ecological survey of
Indigenous Lands in the Juruá River Basin Complex: Kaxinawá da Praia do
Carapanã, Kampa do Igarapé Primavera and Kulina do Igarapé do Pau].
Brasilia: Ministry of Justice/Funai, 2008. 214 p.
The book brings the ethno-ecological survey on the Indigenous Lands (TI)
at the Juruá River Basin Complex, in the state of Acre. The work registered
the indigenous knowledge on environment, and related social practices in
the TIs Kaxinawá da Praia do Carapanã, Kampa do Igarapé Primavera
and Kulina do Igarapé do Pau. In the first part of the book, it presents a
draft environmental characterization of the Complex. In the second part,
it describes the social aspects of indigenous groups in each area (Kulina,
Kaxinawá and Ashaninka), the occupation and use of lands; distribution
of natural resources and ways of exploration and management; traditional
knowledge associated to the use of natural resources; and, territorial
management. In the last part, it presents final remarks about the data
surveyed to guide Funai and indigenous peoples in the planning of their
territorial management.
PPTAL7
NATIONAL INDIAN FOUNDATION – FUNAI/ INDIGENOUS LANDS
PROJECT – PPTAL/ GERMAN TECHNICAL COOPERATION – GTZ.
Levantamento etnoecológico Maku: Terra Indígena Paraná do Boá-Boá.
[Maku ethno-ecological survey: Indigenous Land Paraná do Boá-Boá].
Brasilia: Ministry of Justice/Funai, 2008. 100 p.
The book discloses the results of the Maku ethno-ecological survey of the
Indigenous Land Paraná do Boá-Boá, in the state of Amazonas. The field
work was developed from January to March 2005. The study analyzed the
processes and ways of socio-cultural, material and symbolic use of natural
resources by the Maku people. In the first part of the book the study is
introduced, in a perspective that tries to comprise changes in the activities
promoted by the group regarding the socio-cultural framework. The second
part brings general data on the TI location and the region. The third part
77
emphasizes the relations of the indigenous people with the environment.
Firstly, it introduces the physical and biotic environments, like geology,
climate, soil, fauna and flora. Then, it presents the social environment,
with demographic, historical, territorial, ethnological and linguist data on
the Maku. The ethno-ecology of the indigenous group is approached in the
fourth part, through the analysis on everyday use of the environment in the
two settlements of the TI, and the recent migrations of those settlement’s
inhabitants. In the conclusions, it presents the Indigenou’s perception
on their relation/interaction with the environment, and the main threats
to the indigenous populations and their territory. It also outlines some
recommendations on the indigenous work with the Maku.
PPTAL8
NATIONAL INDIAN FOUNDATION – FUNAI/ INDIGENOUS LANDS
PROJECT – PPTAL/ GERMAN TECHNICAL COOPERATION – GTZ.
Levantamento etnoecológico Munduruku: Terra Indígena Munduruku.
[Munduruku Ethno-ecological survey: Munduruku Indigenous Land].
Brasilia: Ministry of Justice/Funai, 2008. 194 p.
The book is the report of the ethno-ecological survey of the Munduruku
Indigenous Land in the state of Pará. The study deals with aspects related
to the Munduruku social organization, partially approaching social practices
and the perception related to the territory and environment. The field works
were developed from November to December 2004 and from January to
March 2005. The first part presents data on the TI location, population,
migrations and archeology. The second part tells the history of the contact
of Indigenous with non-Indigenous since 1768. In the third part, it shows
the cosmology and social practices, such as the old warrior expeditions
to hunt the enemie’s heads. The fourth part presents aspects related
to the Indigenou’s daily lives. Then, it describes the TI environmental
characterization, the productive activities carried out by the Indigenous;
natural resources use; and the production of food for consumption or
trading. Finally, it presents some recommendations and actions to value
the Munduruku’s culture and way of living.
78
PPTAL9
NATIONAL INDIAN FOUNDATION – FUNAI/ INDIGENOUS LANDS
PROJECT – PPTAL/ GERMAN TECHNICAL COOPERATION – GTZ.
Levantamento etnoecológico das Terras Indígenas do Complexo Tefé:
Maraã/Urubaxi, Paraná do Paricá, Cuiú-Cuiú e Kumarú do Lago Ualá.
[Ethno-ecological survey of the Tefé Complex Indigenous Lands: Brasilia:
Ministry of Justice/Funai, 2008. 184 p.
The book discloses the results of the Tefé Indigenous Lands (TI) Complex
ethno-ecological survey, in the state of Amazonas. The field works were
carried out from October to November 2006 at the TI Maraã/Urubaxi, Paraná
do Paricá, Cuiú-Cuiú and Kumarú do Lago Ualá of the Kanamari, Miranha
and Madiha Indigenous. In the introduction, book emphasizes the regional
ecology. The second part highlights the socio-cultural aspects related to
ecology and the use of territory by the Miranha people. Then, the third and
the fourth parts introduce the practices and ecological pace of the Kanamari
people. The fifth part approaches the Madiha people, showing the dialogue
between culture and environment. In the last part, the book presents the
reflections and considerations on the ethno-ecological survey.
PPTAL10 ao PPTAL122
Collections of Indigenous Lands Documents
The collections published gather documents that deal with the main acts that
consolidate land regularization in Indigenous lands. It aims at unveiling the
main documents that formally ensure the indigenous peoples the recognition
of their social and cultural organizations, and rights on the lands that they
traditionally occupy. The publications show specially selected registries to
expand the visibility of formal acts on indigenous lands, like: 1) abstract
of the final identification report, with the dispatch of the Funai’s president
recognizing and approving the indigenous lands identification studies; 2)
the Declaratory Ministerial Directive signed by the Minister of Justice, after
the analysis and approval of the documents submitted by Funai, stating the
land boundaries, the permanent ownership by the indigenous group, and
ordering demarcation; 3) Homologation Decree signed by the President of
the Republic confirming the physical land demarcation carried out by Funai;
f) the register at the Notary Public Office of the District on the indigenous
land situation; 5) register at the Union Heritage Secretariat of the Ministry of
Finances and the map of the demarked indigenous land.
79
113 publications were launched in 2008 on the following indigenous
lands: Paraná do Arauató; Hi Merimã; Fortaleza do Patuauá; Fortaleza do
Castanho; Espírito Santo; Diahui; Deni; Cunhã-Sapucaia; Cuiú-Cuiú; CoatáLaranjal; Catipari/Mamoriá; Camadeni; Cabeceira do Rio Acre; Boqueirão;
Boa Vista; Barreirinha; Barata Livramento; Banawá; Balaio; Ariramba; Arara
do Igarapé Humaitá; Apurinã do Igarapé São João; Apurinã do Igarapé
Mucuim; Apipica; Anaro; Alto Tarauacá; Alto Sepatini; Alto Rio Negro; Água
Preta/Inari; Acimã; Acapuri de Cima; Zo’é; Xipaya; Wai-Wai; Vale do Javari;
Uneiuxi; Tupã-Supé; Tumiã; Tukuna Umariaçu; Trombetas/Mapuera; Torá;
Tenharim Marmelos; Tenharim do Igarapé Preto; Tabocal; Tabalascada;
Seruini/Marienê; Sepoti; Sapotal; São Sebastião; São Pedro do Sepatini; São
Francisco do Canimari; São Domingos do Jacapari e Estação; Riozinho do
Alto Envira; Rio Urubu; Rio Téa; Rio Paru D’Este; Rio Manicoré; Rio Jumas;
Rio Bia; Rio Apaporis; Raimundão; Poyanawa; Porto Praia; Pinatuba; Peneri/
Tacaquiri; Paumari do Rio Ituxi; Paumari do Lago Paricá; Paumari do Lago
Marahã; Paumari do Lago Manissuã; Paumari do Cuniuá; Patauá; Parque
do Tumucumaque; Paraná do Paricá; Paraná do Boá Boá; Padre; Nova
Esperança do Rio Jandiatuba; Terra Indígena Muriru; Munduruku; Moskow;
Miguel/Josefa; Médio Rio Negro II; Médio Rio Negro I; Mawetek; Matintin;
Maranduba; Maraitá; Maraã Urubaxi; Lauro Sodré; Las Casas; Lago Jauari;
Lago Marinheiro; Lago Capanã; Karuáya; Kumaru do Lago Ualá; Kulina
do Iagarapé do Pau; Kayabi; Kaxinawá do Baixo Rio Jordão; Kaxinawá da
Praia do Carapanã; Kaxinawá Ashaninka do Rio Breu; Kararaô; Kanamari do
Rio Juruá; Kampa e Isolados do Rio Envira; Kampa do Igarapé Primavera;
Jarawara/Jamamadi/ Kanamati; Jaminawa/Envira; Jaminawa do Igarapé
Preto; Jaminawa Arara do Rio Bajé; Jacamim; Itixi-Mitari; Inãwébohona;
Inauani/Teuini; Igarapé Grande; Capana.
the surveys carried out by multi-disciplinary and multi-cultural teams and
the guidelines comprised in the updating of the Convention on Biological
Diversity, notably regarding the access to traditional knowledge and
biodiversity protection. The ethnological methodology is a multi-phase
methodology that considers pooling in the areas of different indigenous
communities to facilitate logistic arrangements in terms of time available
and geographic proximity; collection of previous information on the area;
selection of the field work team; feedback to the community; composition of
final products, reports, maps and other medias to be used by the project’s
fostering bodies. The participatory techniques regard local individuals as
participants, rather than investigation subjects. Therefore, they participate
in a large part of the survey, mainly in the field phase and feedback to the
community. It translates an equalitarian approach on the links established
among participants.
PPTAL123
NATIONAL INDIGENOUS FOUNDATION - FUNAI Levantamentos
etnoecológicos em terras indígenas na Amazônia brasileira: uma
metodologia. [Ethno-ecological surveys of indigenous lands in the Brazilian
Amazon: a methodology]. Brasilia: Funai/PPTAL, 2004. 54 p. (Edited and
updated version)
The document describes the methodology employed to develop the
ethno-ecological investigation to the PPTAL studies, which consists of a
practical and flexible tool to organize the information required to implement
further projects on territorial management and development of indigenous
communities, notably after the inclusion of the environmental component to
the process of identification and delimitation of indigenous areas in Brazil.
The changes reported in the document stand for referential adjustments to
80
81
7
ProManejo
Forest Resources Management Project
The ProManejo, executed by Ibama, started in 1999 and ended
in 2006. Its objective was to foster the development and adoption
of sustainable forestry management systems in the Amazon
region. It promoted activities that ensured income generation and
improved living conditions to local populations, while preserving the
environment. The Project fosters a sort of forestry management
that takes into consideration and respects the mechanisms outlined
aiming at ecosystems sustainability, to ensure continuity to the
availability of natural resources in the future.
The Project established four lines of action: 1) strategic studies and
analysis aimed at building directives to public policies, oriented to
reduce the offer of products of predatory origin, while increasing
the offer of raw materials from areas with sustainable management;
2) promising initiatives, with technical and financial support to
communities and initiatives on forestry management, provided by
companies that take into consideration the sustainability concepts;
3) monitoring and control, with the development and assessment
of methodologies and mechanisms that contribute to control tree
cutting, using technological tools like remote-sensing; 4) support
to the Tapajós National Forest management, through incentive to
innovative forestry management strategies.
Following are the main ProManejo achievements: 1) design of
the national forests program; 2) development of guidelines to
the first auction of concession or permit to use public forests;
3) establishment of lines of credit at the Banco do Amazônia to
community-based forest management activities; 4) establishment
of a national support forestry management center (Cenaflor); and,
5) assembling of a group and network to monitor the Brazilian
forests dynamic in the Amazon.
82
83
Didactic
PM1
POKORNY, B. et. al. (Org.). Manual de Vistoria de Campo para Planos
de Manejo Florestal Madeireiro na Amazônia. [Manual of Field Inspection
to Wood Forestry Management Plans in the Amazon]. 2. ed. [S.l.]: Ibama/
ProManejo, 2006. 108 p.
This manual presents, in a technical way, a new methodology to inspect the
field forestry operations during the execution of a Management Plan, and
results from field tests carried out by the team of the Bom Manejo Project
and Ibama technicians in eight Forestry Management Areas (Áreas de
Manejo Florestal – AMF) with ongoing management plans in the states of
Pará, Rondônia and Mato Grosso. Inspection is one of the tools that should
be used to promote the adoption of sustainable forestry management
practices. In face of that scenario, identified in 2001, which considered
the efficiency of actions of control and monitoring of forestry activities as
independent from the existence of automated systems, but dependent on
the institutional capacity of managing information and setting standardized
procedures and methods to perform the duties, ProManejo within the
scope of Component 3, redefined its execution strategy and incorporated
the development of this new methodology. The procedures considered
include assessment of field implementation, and aim at promoting gradual
improvement of operations until reaching the standard expected by the
environmental body. The expected results converge to the possibility of
higher objectivity and standardization in the operations assessment. The
process presents a complement to the measures being adopted by the
government to improve the forestry operations quality in the Amazon,
including reviewing the Forestry Management regulation and the outlining
of technical guidelines to elaborate and analyze the Management Plans
and Annual Operational Plans.
information provided in the booklet also emphasizes the establishment of
the Tapajós Flona on January 19, 1974, disclosing additional information,
mainly about the National System of Conservation Units (Sistema Nacional
de Unidades de Conservação - SNUC) The Flona Management Plan
reaches 110,559 hectares and was distributed in four nuclei: Ribeirinhos
do Tapajós, Planalto, Aveiro and BR 163. In brief, the text reports how
all the involved communities have incorporated and started applying the
acquired knowledge to care and conserve their natural resources.
PM3
Forest Resources Management Project - Promanejo Floresta Nacional do
Tapajós – DRP: Diagnóstico Rural Participativo. [Tapajós National Forest PRD
- Participatory Rural Diagnosis] Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 60 p.
The Participatory Rural Diagnosis (PRD) was developed during the
elaboration of the Management Plan to the Tapajós National Forest. This
first PRD, narrated by Flonaldo and Flonabela, aims at giving a feedback
on the results and proposals that emerged during the PRD, and serve as
an everyday guide to residents in the Flona and surroundings. The PRD
has reached its objectives, also promoting a sound information basis that
served to build the Tapajós Flona Management Plan, then ensuing nice
benefits to every community and to the forest, as well. Assisted by many
entities, experts, consultants, students, partners and community groups,
it gathered a large amount of information from June to September 2003,
in the 29 communities part of the Tapajós Flona and in four surrounding
communities, with the participation of more than 600 individuals.
PM4
FRANCO, F. S. Sistema de monitoramento participativo: Floresta
Nacional do Tapajós. [Participatory monitoring system: Tapajós National
Forest]. [S.l.]: Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 72 p.
PM2
Forest Resources Management Project - ProManejo Cartilha do
plano de manejo da Floresta Nacional do Tapajós: a transformação para
conservar está em nossas mãos. [Booklet of the Tapajós National Forest
management plan: transformation toward conservation is in our hands].
[S.l.]: Ibama/ProManejo, 2005. 34 p.
The booklet presents actions developed in the Tapajós National Forest
Management Plan, through the eyes of the involved communities. In this
material, those communities present the results of the knowledge exchanged
with institutions, both governmental and non-governmental ones. The
84
Since 2001 ProManejo/PPG7 has implemented a monitoring and
evaluation system. The system aims at monitoring the main actions
developed during the Project’s two years of existence. It shows how the
first stage was developed regarding the monitoring of ProManejo-supported
community projects at the Tapajós Flona, with the initiatives of oils, SAF
and caboclas workshops. This system improves the beneficiarie’s domain
on actions and, therefore, deeper understanding and commitment to what
had been planned. The system enables establishing of indicators and
objectives to each project based on the community member’s viewpoint.
The participatory monitoring system was developed from March 2003 to
85
March 2004, through means of four workshops, field activities and the
joint development of methodological steps. Experience has shown that
in some cases and aspects the indicators do not necessarily need to be
parameters to be measured in figures. These could be only a script to be
followed to monitor a discussion in regular evaluations during the project.
Additionally to the technical supervision, the participatory monitoring can
open a wide range of possibilities, articulations and motivations, besides
making knowledge accessible to all stakeholders. Therefore, this system is
expected to contribute to enhance the communities even more.
community participation and environmental conservation. The trails are the
main focus of the ecotourism action, which are to be built considering the
balance between landscape and the walking trace, since the impacts are
physical, visual, sound and smelling-related, notably in the Conservation
Units – natural environments typically weak or needing protection. The
analysis of visual resources in the Conservation Unit zoning, as well as the
implementation of trail system and analysis on topography, vegetation and
hydrograph could allow for dividing the area in different landscape classes
– information that could provide the first indications to outline the pathway.
PM5
WAWZYNIAK, J. V. (Coord.). Velhinha do Lago, Mãe do Igarapé e outros
mitos da Floresta Nacional do Tapajós. [Old Lake Lady, Igarapé’s Mother
and other myths of the Tapajós National Forest]. 2. ed. Manaus Ibama/
ProManejo, 2004. 50 p.
The book attempts to recover myths, stories, short-stories and legends of
the riparian communities in the Tapajós National forest, thus valuing their
culture and promoting more sensitive and committed posture regarding
the adoption of sustainable natural resources management practices.
The myths, through their representations of reality in the collective
consciousness of the Flona’s inhabitants, show the meaning of nature to
the group, build concepts on sustainable use, and emphasize relevant
aspects to conserve the forest resources. Stories are told by individuals
belonging to the Amazonian communities. Among others, the work aimed
at promoting the local population’s self-recognition in the material produced.
The engagement of social groups in activities oriented to raise ecological
awareness is crucial to make the group perceive the valuing of their cultural
symbols. The stories display mythological characters typical to the Tapajós
region, revealing the close links between men and environment.
PM7
Forest Resources Management Project - ProManejo Condutores de
visitantes. [Visitors’ guide]. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 32 p.
This Visitor’s Guide, results from a train course delivered to community
members involved with ecotourism activities. The course was held in Alter
do Chão and the communities of Paraíso and Prainha, in the Tapajós Flona,
with the participation of community members trained to guide visitors on
trails and tours through the communities in the region. The objective is
to provide a general overview on the Conservation Units and the Tapajós
National Forest, working on information about ecotourism, environmental
education, the visitors guide's duty, and techniques to successfully guide a
tourist in the forest, additionally to some educational dynamics presented
during the course and that could be used with visitors, approaching safetyrelated aspects in natural environments. Actions like that improve the
community member’s knowledge and increase the multiple use of forest.
PM8
PM6
Forest Resources Management Project - ProManejo Manejo de trilha
e interpretação ambiental. [Trail management and environmental
interpretation] [S.l.]: Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 38 p.
This booklet, Trail Management and Environmental Interpretation, results
from a training delivered to community members involved with ecotourism
activity, in order to improve their knowledge and enhance the multiple
forest uses. The courses are grounded on the ecotourism plan to the
Tapajós Flona to support the activity’s ordering, diversifying the resident
familie’s income source, respecting and valuing local culture, fostering
86
FOREST RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PROJECT - ProManejo
Diretrizes simplificadas para instalação e medição de parcelas
permanentes em florestas naturais da Amazônia brasileira. [Simplified
guidelines to install and measure permanent parts in natural forests of the
Brazilian Amazon]. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 27 p.
The study presented by the Forest Dynamic in the Brazilian Amazon
Monitoring Network, implemented by the Inter-Institutional Monitoring of
Forests Growth Dynamic in the Brazilian Amazon (GT Monitoring) within
the scope of IBAMA Forests Board, aimed at gathering information on the
growth of natural forests, based on existing initiatives; generate a database
87
on the forests growth and productivity; expand the network to regions not
contemplated with permanent parcels; promote discussion forums on the
topic; and, disseminate existing knowledge on the forests dynamics. The
methodology observes that the parcels to study the growth and production
should be established in productive areas or those not subject to forestry
interventions, to monitor the natural forest development. Demarcation
should be permanent to facilitate locating the parcel, and the measures
should be at every 1 year and, later one, from 2 to 5 years. The stem
identification class (CIF) describes the different states of trees in the
forest. To data processing purposes, the species should be identified and
be assigned a corresponding code. The results contemplate simplified
guidelines to establish and measure permanent parcels in the Amazon.
instructions, explaining many terms that are crucial to understand the
information. Another important issue emphasized by the booklet is the
need of building awareness among all workers concerning work-related
accidents prevention. It aims at showing that most of the situations require
simple actions of priceless importance that contribute to implement workrelated prevention actions in forestry management activities. It also advises
about the dynamic nature of the forestry management, which is developed
in open environment and, therefore, could lead workers to perform their
duties in a disorganized way and, therefore, more exposed to risks.
PM11
PEREIRA JÚNIOR, R. A. (Org.). Segurança e saúde no trabalho em
atividades do manejo florestal: Prevenção de acidentes de trabalho.
[Occupational safety and health in forestry management activities: workrelated accidents prevention]. Manaus Ibama/ ProManejo; Inam, 2003. 9
p. (Série Seu Manejo, 4)
PM9
PEREIRA JÚNIOR, R. A. (Org.). Segurança e saúde no trabalho em
atividades do manejo florestal: uso do equipamento de proteção
individual (EPI). [Occupational safety and health in forestry management
activities: use of Individual Protection Equipment – IPE]. Manaus Ibama/
ProManejo; Inam, 2003. 9 p. (Série Seu Manejo, 6)
The booklet, just like other issues of the series, also bring well designed
illustration, and a character who narrates the information, named “Mr.
Management”. This volume aims at building awareness among forest
workers on the use of individual protection equipment (IPE) when performing
forestry management activities. The document describes and introduces
how the equipment is grouped in relation to the body’s parties. Pictures
disclosed near the illustrations allow for better viewing the right use of the
IPE. Another important advice has to do with the company’s obligation of
providing the equipment for free.
PM10
PEREIRA JÚNIOR, R. A. (Org.). Segurança e saúde no trabalho em
atividades do manejo florestal: eliminando atos inseguros, condições
inseguras e riscos ambientais. [Occupational safety and health in forest
management activities: abolishing unsafe acts, unsafe conditions and
environmental risks]. Manaus Ibama/ ProManejo; Inam, 2003. 11 p. (Série
Seu Manejo, 5)
Besides the rich illustrations and the positive presence of the main character,
“Mr. Management”, the booklet also provides a glossary to expand the
88
The booklet with colored illustrations objectively shows the main items
on work-related accidents prevention in forestry management activities.
Accident prevention is not an isolated activity and, therefore, the material
warns that complying with legal requirements is not enough. To prevent
accidents, one should work directly on the productive process, trying to
abolish risks and neutralize harmful effects. Additionally to the rich quality
of images, the booklet counts on the participation of “Mr. Management” who
builds awareness and foster forestry workers toward preventing accidents.
It also introduces the PPRA – a program that establishes actions, activities
and procedures that could facilitate the abolishment and/or neutralization
of risks. It also informs on the Brazilian legislation and the classification of
the work activities’ risk level, in a scale that ranges from 1 to 4.
PM12
PEREIRA JÚNIOR, R. A. (Org.). Segurança e saúde no trabalho em
atividades do manejo florestal: informações básicas e importantes
sobre acidentes do trabalho. [Occupational safety and health in forestry
mangement activities: basic and important information on work-related
accidents]. Manaus Ibama/ ProManejo; Inam, 2003. 11 p. (Série Seu
Manejo, 3)
This series of booklets, formulated to disseminate the rules of occupational
safety and health in forestry management activities, counted on the presence
of a character, “Mr. Management” to provide information and assist building
awareness among forestry management workers. Occupational safety and
health demands access to basic information on typical accidents of their
field of work. The objective of the booklet, which contains many illustrations,
89
is to inform forestry workers about what a work-related accident is, and
what could cause it. There are also explanation charts with clear language,
approaching the main agents (physicial, chemical, biological, ergonomic and
mechanical ones) that cause work-related accidents in forestry activities.
network in the municipality of Belterra. The Guide also presents a brief
history of each partner, its principles and work at schools, contributing
to improve education and life quality of citizens. Therefore, the activities
should provide practical contributions of each partner to teachers through
a consultation tool.
PM13
PEREIRA JÚNIOR, R. A. Manual técnico de manejo florestal: guia
gerencial para a produção responsável na Amazônia brasileira. [Technical
forestry management: managerial guide to responsible production in the
Brazilian Amazon]. Manaus Ibama/ ProManejo; Inam, 2003. 23 p. (Série
Seu Manejo, 2)
The scientific sector of forestry surveys, private sector, governmental and nongovernmental organizations working with environmental issues are carrying
out works and disclosing in different ways their latest and most relevant
experiences on native dry land forests management in the Brazilian Amazon.
The experiences are important to develop new forestry management
technologies genuinely compatible with the Amazon forest(s) and its social
reality. The Amazon Nature Institute (Instituto Natureza Amazônica - Inam)
presents in this manual the process of awareness-building and promotion of
responsible forestry management in the Brazilian Amazon. This manual is
oriented to owners, managers, forest engineers and technicians that conduct
management plans or just coordinate operational management activities. This
is not an operational manual. It is only a field guide to assist “forestry farmers”
to understand the activities required to implement forestry management.
Therefore, the content of this manual should be considered as guidelines,
since the forestry management operational activities should be developed
according to the characteristic(s) of the managed forest.
PM14
MMELLO, S. S. (Org). Trilha-guia dos professores: contribuição dos
parceiros para a rede municipal de educação de Belterra. [Guide-trail
to teachers: partners’ contribution to the municipal education network in
Belterra] Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2003. 28 p.
The Guide aims at summarizing the activities to be supported in 2003,
according to the recommended lines of action: teacher’s training; material
production; participatory monitoring and evaluation; direct support to
students, among others, and thus support the building of a Participatory
Political Project to each school belonging to the Fundamental Education
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PM15
MELLO, S.; APEL, L. K. Fazendo educação ambiental na escola:
primeiros passos. [Environmental education at in schools: first steps].
Manaus Ibama/ ProManejo; Belterra Local Government, 2002. 37 p.
This booklet is a training tool to educators willing to work on environmental
issues at their schools. It was prepared to be presented during the
Participatory Diagnosis Workshop in 2001, in Belterra, state of Pará, and
counted on the participation of supervisors, instructors and teachers to
discuss pedagogy and environment. The material approaches pedagogical
processes of environmental discussion to be tought at fundamental schools,
besides serving as a tool to plan environmental education activities.
PM16
Forest Resources Management Project - ProManejo Nazaré Construindo
sua História. [Nazaré Building its History]. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo,
2002. 52 p.
Two characters tell the story: Flonaldo and Flonabela who live at the Tapajós
Flona. The characters contributed to present in a simple but useful way, the
information on the Quick Participatory Diagnosis (QPR), a tool of extreme
relevance to the decision-making process regarding the Unit management.
The work aimed at adjusting the technical language to a clear language.
The following tools have assisted the information collection: Venn Chart,
Assessment Framework, Daily Routine, Seasonal Calendar, Mapping,
Histogram, Cross Walk, and Ordering Framework. The booklet presents
the results of the QPR exercise in Nazaré. The Nazaré settlement is limited
by the Tapajós River in the communities of Marai, Bragança, Tauari and,
on the background, the Flona boundary area. It is 80 km far from Belterra,
state of Pará, taking the BR-163 highway.
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PM17
PM19
Forest Resources Management Project - ProManejo São Domingos
construindo sua história. [Sao Domingos building its history] Manaus
Ibama/ProManejo, 2002. 44 p.
The ProManejo Project is a pioneer in the participatory managmeent of the
Tapajós Flona, with wide range of activities. The work is the beginning of a
series that aims at providing communities, public bodies and civil society
with broad and systematized knowledge on the everyday life of traditional
populations. The booklet is an adaptation of the Participatory Rural Diagnosis
Report (PRD) held in the community of Sao Domingos, state of Pará – a
community belonging to Tapajós Flona. The objective was to translate the
report’s more complex language into cleared and more objective information
to be transmitted to the community. The PRD employs some interesting tools
to be integrated to the study community, among which long talks with involved
technicians and players, thus filling in the different spreadsheets required to
collect data. It presents general data on the São Domingos community, like:
location, background, transportation, health and education. More specific
data on soil, vegetation and the forest itself are also presented. Extractive
activities, fishery and hunting are key components of this work, because of
their social and environmental dynamics. The booklet, which has all chapters
illustrated with two characters holding regional features named “Flonaldo
and Floribela”, concludes the material introducing the organizations and the
links between associations, trade union offices and remainder social groups
that comprise the entire community.
BRANCHES, F.; MACIEL, K.; SILVA, S. O que é ecoturismo. [What does
ecotourism means] Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2001. 23 p.
The booklet ensues from the Basic Course of Ecotourism Guide, part of
the ProManejo Ecotourism Plan at the Tapajós Flona, at the communities
of Prainha I, Prainha II, Jaguarari, Maguari, Tauari and Itapuama. The text
presents the community member’s concern about environment in relation
to sorting garbage for recycling. It also explains the ecotourism’s interest
for the environment in the region and all the required cares to carry out
the activities, specially the guide’s actions, considering it as a source of
alternative income to the population, promoting the local economy. And,
finally, it observes ecotourism as an activity toward nature conservation and
to value the community’s culture, provided that it does not bring impacts on
the local population.
Management Policy and Forestry Marketl
PM20
MELLO, S. S.; MENDONÇA, P. R. Avaliação final das ações de
educação ambiental na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós. [Final evaluation
of environmental education in the Tapajós National Forest]. Manaus Ibama/
ProManejo, 2007. 84 p.
PM18
Forest Resources Management Project - ProManejo Floresta Nacional
do Tapajós: curso noções básicas de ecoturismo. [National Tapajós Forest:
course on basic ecotourism notions]. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2002. 39 p.
The manual ensued from a course on basic ecotourism notions, aimed at
qualifying individuals to safely escort groups in an area known to him/her.
The measures to be adopted in each visitation stage are described according
to the trail walk procedures, camping, knots, care to injured individuals
before the arrival of experts, considering factures, cuts, perforations, snake
or scorpion bite, head or eyes injuries, unconsciousness or asphyxia and,
finally, transportation from the accident site by firemen or rescue forces.
92
The Tapajós National Forest Conservation Unit – Tapajós Flona – was
created in February 1974 and is located in the municipalities of Belterra,
Aveiro, Rurópolis and Placas, state of Pará, in the Western Amazon.
With an area of about 544 thousand ha houses about 1,700 families.
Most of the traditional populations already lived in the area before it was
created. Currently, the families are distributed in 29 communities. The
Flona residents make their living mainly from fishery, extractive activities,
hunting, cassava, corn, rice and beans cropping for their own consumption,
additionally to community-based projects. The document presents an
evaluation of the results and impacts of the Environmental Education
actions in the Tapajós National Forest implemented by the ProManejo/
Component IV – Environmental Education Subcomponent, from 2000 to
2004 at the municipal education network of Belterra and of the surrounding
communities. The work’s proposal was to generate recommendations
to improve and consolidate Environmental Education in that Flona, and
provide guidelines to its implementation in other Flonas. The evaluation
was based on the ex-post facto model, i.e., the posterior analysis of an
intervention held in a given period of time, here from 2000 to 2004. The
93
precedent variable of the evaluation survey is the Environmental Education
Program in the Tapajós Flona and the consequent variable are the planned
changes, i.e., the expected results and impacts. The survey employed
both quantitative and qualitative techniques. Regarding performance, the
Program has reached its objective in an efficient and capable way. However,
when it comes to results the objectives were partially achieved, mainly
because of the discontinuity of the project from 2004 onwards, and the
reported results are not yet sustainable ones, because of the tendency of
reducing the successes achieved due to the lack of continuous incentive.
PM23
PM21
Normas florestais
federais para a
Amazônia
and the analysis of secondary data extracted from different pertinent data.
The ProManejo was pioneer in the production and provision of promotional
material about the Tapajós Flona, as well as in preparing booklets considering
the community’s needs and characteristics. The pilot experience of the
Ecotourism Subcomponent allowed creating a knowledge basis to advance
toward structuring a Program of Public Use in the Tapajós Flona.
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Normas florestais federais
para a Amazônia. [Federal forestry rules to the Amazon]. Brasilia: Ibama/
DBFLO/ ProManejo, 2007. 176 p.
This publication accounts for contributing to different actors in the field of
environmental and forestry law, and students at large, besides contributing
the forestry policy in the remainder countries of the Amazon Basin. The
content gathers the Brazilian rules published at federal level, enforced by
that time, referring to the forestry issue in the Amazon: Laws, Decrees,
Normative Instructions, and Execution Rules. The book discloses two
important moments and successes: the consolidation of a set of full rules,
for the very first time, related to forestry management in the Amazon,
ranging from technical rules to guidance to technicians from environmental
bodies in their routine inspections and project analysis; and the conclusion
of the Forest Resources Management Project – ProManejo, executed
by Ibama within the scope of the Pilot Program for the Conservation of
Brazilian Rainforests (PPG7) – a key partner to the large advances reached
by forestry management in the last years.
PM22
BONFIM, V. R.; SILVA, N. M. C. Mulheres e o manejo florestal: participação
e sustentabilidade. [Women and forestry management: participation and
sustainabilty]. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2007. 28 p.
The publication is a reflection on equity and gender social relations in
Community Forestry Management projects (MFC), particularly timber
dealers, based on the results of a socio-environmental evaluation held
in eight experiences supported by ProManejo. The assessment was
developed from April to October 2007, deepening innovative elements to the
MFC, among others, through gender and generation approach. The study
comprised eight forestry management projects in four states in the Amazon
region, three in Acre, two in Amazonas, two in Pará and one in Rondônia.
The core objective was to socialize the results, thus contributing to the
debate on equity, social gender relations in the MFC, as a core factor for
its sustainability. The inclusion of women should be considered beyond the
need of accumulating family income, but as the deepening of the discussion
on more sustainable productive systems in the socio-environmental line. It
concluded that women are yet to perform a core role in the activity, which
could stand for an important contribution in the distribution of tasks, in a
careful look into the family’s productive processes involving other activities
than wood, and in the use and appropriation of natural resources.
ZIMMERMMAN, A. (Org.). Avaliação final do subcomponente
Ecoturismo. [Final evaluation of the Ecotourism subcomponent]. Manaus
Ibama/ProManejo, 2007. 80 p.
This evaluation aims at fostering a reflection about the actions implemented,
its uses by beneficiary individuals, and the changes on the Tapajós Flona
reality to structure ecotourism. This Subcomponent is part of Component
IV – ProManejo’s Tapajós National Forest Management to develop actions
to optimize the tourism potential. To achieve effectively shared and
participatory management, the Ecotourism Subcomponent team created
different instances and movements of dialogue and collective decisionmaking. Therefore, this evaluation’s methodology has considered both
the analysis of primary data to check indicators through field interviews,
94
PM24
MELLO, S. S. (Org). A gestão do conhecimento na Floresta Nacional
do Tapajós: compêndio das publicações apoiadas pelo ProManejo de
1999 a 2007. [Knowledge management at the Tapajós National Forest:
compendium on publications supported by ProManejo from 1999 to 2007].
Santarém: Ibama/ProManejo, 2007. 105 p.
The publication presents an overview on the constructing of the Tapajós
National Forest, ProManejo Component IV, during the eight years of work,
95
placing emphasis to the community participation as key element to social
development and environmental conservation in a project that aimed at
allying sustainable forestry management of a public forest, to the needs and
experiences of local populations. It gathers the conceptual, organizational
and legal grounds that explain and justify the set of activities that have
collectively composed the project and influenced the Conservation Unit
management. It intends to provide accessible and transparent information,
thus contributing to the formulation of policies and overcoming the
challenges posed by a National Forest in the Amazon region. Despite the
many challenges to be overcomed, like the land issue, the managerial
unit structuring, financial feasibility, expansion and qualification of local
actor’s participation in management activities, expanded dissemination
of the contribution to the society, the need for stronger integration among
different initiatives to generate complementarity among projects and their
articulation with conservation strategies, the positive results and impacts
are unchallengeable. The result of that set of experiences accumulated
in the Tapajós Flona is considered to be a reference to the action of those
Flonas in the first Forestry District of Pará, providing subsidies to build
the Sustainable Amazonian Program and, therefore, generated and still
generates conceptual subsidies to the management of Flonsa in the
Amazon – the main objective of the project.
PM26
FERREIRA NETO, P. S. Floresta Nacional do Tapajós e o ProManejo:
aprendendo com a prática e pensando o futuro. [Tapajós National Forest
and ProManejo: learning by practice and thinking the future]. Manaus
Ibama/ProManejo, 2006. 56 p.
Register of what happened at the Tapajós National Forest after the
ProManejo implementation, since the first challenges, and even the
divergences among involved actors, was of utmost importance. However,
holding the constructing process demanded works to organize and
document all pieces of information related to the experiences. Hence,
the systematization aimed at gathering the stakeholders, supported by
ProManejo, NGOs, government, communities and their organizations, to
jointly reflect about the practice and paths run, identifying lessons, assisting
the decisions on path adjustments, or keep the successes. However,
systematization was also aimed at disseminating the lessons learned from
Tapajós Flona among the Sustainable Use of Conservation Units. Eight
workshops were held, additionally to visitations to projects and interviews
with families and other project partners.
PM25
PM27
FERREIRA NETO, P. S. Floresta Nacional do Tapajós e o ProManejo:
reflexões e aprendizados. [Tapajós National Forest and the ProManejo:
reflections and lessons learned]. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2006. 84 p.
The book presents a work on the systematization of an experience in the
Amazon region, specially in a Conservation Unit. The Tapajós Flona was
created in 1974, and it is located in the Medium Amazonas River region,
state of Pará. It incorporates part of the areas of the municipalities of
Belterra, Aveiro, Rurópolis and Placas, with about 11 thousand inhabitants
distributed in 29 rural communities. In 1995 the Flonas Project became
the ProManejo and the Tapajós Flona became one of its components.
The actions developed during the ProManejo work in the Tapajós Flona
have produced results, caused changes and found challenges to be faced.
Drawing on those findings, the ProManejo carried out a systematization
process to recover information and knowledge and, above all, to highlight
lessons that people learned during the actions. The information obtained
through documents and interviews were systematized, analyzed and
discussed in workshops. The workshops were attended by representatives
of governmental and non-governmental bodies, additionally to community
organizations and communitie’s representatives.
96
Forest Resources Management Project - ProManejo Iniciativas em manejo
florestal na Amazônia: relatos de oito experiências apoiadas pelo ProManejo.
[Forestry management initiatives in the Amazon: report of eight ProManejosuppported experiences]. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2006. 64 p.
This publication focuses on reporting the experience of different projects
supported by ProManejo, Promising Initiatives component. The initiatives
supported are spread in different states of the Amazon, in different and
complex environmental and ecological, social, political and economic
conditions, with different strategies of work. In the first stage, the “Promising
Initiatives” component aimed at promoting and supporting the wood
forestry management initiatives in public and private areas that could serve
as regional models of Demonstration nature. 21 projects were supported
focusing on the labor force capacity-building, technical assistance and
forestry management survey, and on the community-based organization
processes. The projects concluded or in final financial execution stage
were the first ones selected. Of those, preference was attached to the
ones providing information of higher quality. The method selected to
obtain information to be used to reconstruct the process experienced
by each initiative, was the time line – a tool that attempted to order the
97
facts in chronological order and obtain information on key aspects to the
programs. Therefore, it promoted the historical recovery of most relevant
factors in the executing agent’s view. A short monitoring process was
carried out, approaching the gains in different aspects like management,
capacity-building, technical assistance, inventory techniques and forestry
management, processing and trading, among others.
PM28
MEDINA, G.; POKORNY, B. Avaliação financeira do manejo florestal
comunitário. [Community-based forestry management financial
assessment] Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2006. 6 p.
The document is an abstract of the work prepared during consultancy
services on the pilot initiatives of community-based forestry management
in the Brazilian Amazon supported by Ibama’s ProManejo. It discloses
a financial assessment of the community-based forestry management
initiatives, approaching the technical models adopted, required investments
to implement the models, productivity reached and profits gained. It
analyzed eight pilot initiatives of community-based forestry management
considered to be the most promising ones, and with better documented
information. These were divided in shorter and larger scales. According to
the methodology, the shorter scale initiatives had annual production units of
up to 50 ha, collective work, and explored less less than 250 m3 forest/year
in a non-mechanized way. The larger scale initiatives had annual production
areas bigger than 100 ha, with specialized work teams, and explored more
than 650 m3 of forest/year in a mechanized way. The results reveal few
possibilities for producers to generate financial benefits in the proposed
models. It points out the urgent need for reviewing the understanding forest
use by family-based farmers, to use the comparative advantages of familybased farmers to the forestry management and regional development. It
concludes for the need of carrying out a critical analysis on the feasibility
of the current community-based forestry management model, since the
models analyzed report limited financial profitability, demanding high
investments in implementation, tending to demand continuous subsidies.
PM29
INTER-INSTITUTIONAL MONITORING GROUP ON THE DYNAMIC OF
FORESTS GROWTH IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON – MONITORING WG
(Org.) Diretrizes simplificadas para instalação e medição de parcelas
permanentes em florestas naturais da Amazônia brasileira. [Simplified
guidelines to install and measure permanent parcels in natural forests of
the Brazilian Amazon]. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2006. 29 p.
The publication summarizes the technical guidelines to deal with permanent
parcels, outlined on a document produced within the scope of the Bom
Manejo Project (Sustainable Management of Commercial Scale Production
Forests in the Brazilian Amazon). This is one of the outputs achieved by
the Monitoring WG to implement the Network in regions that have not yet
been contemplated with permanent parcels, also promoting discussion
forums on the topic and disseminating the existing knowledge on the
forests dynamic. The permanent parcels stand for demarked sampling
units that are consisitently monitored, to learn about the behavior of forestry
species and their dynamic processes, to study the growth and production,
and should be established in productive areas of the property. However,
parcels could be established in areas not subject to forestry interventions,
to monitor the natural forest development. Parcels should be installed and
measured prior to any intervention. Any variable to be collected at the
arboreous stratum should characterize the stem identification class (CIF),
the species identification, diameter, forestry situation, tree top lighting, and
the Cartesian coordinates. Metadata are the pieces of information to be
properly recorded, to consider the history of forest use at the site of the
selected parcel, and the identification of the situation of individuals to be
surveyed in the parcel.
PM30
PADOVAN, M. da P. (Coord.). Avaliação do manejo da Floresta Nacional
de Tapajós. [Evaluation of the Tapajós National Forest management]
Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 90 p.
The Tapajós National Forest – or Tapajós Flona – was established in 1974,
at the Medium Amazonas River region, westward Pará. It was the first
conservation unit to be established in that category of management in
Brazil, and has served as reference in the challenge of conciliating the
need for socio-economic development and alternatives of conservation of
natural and cultural richness in the Amazon.
The conservation of large areas of high biological importance, like the
Amazon Forest, demands a global conservation strategy, creating a mosaic
of conservation units capable of matching areas of integral protection
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99
with areas of sustainable use, building corridors that allow the species
movement, increasing the potential conservation of wild life. Therefore, the
evaluation process enables to identify the strong and weak points of resource
management, pointing out priority actions, and allowing the gradual and
consistent improvement of the conservation unit. This project on monitoring
and evaluation of National Forest’s management is part of the set of actions
being adopted toward the effective implementation of the conservation unit.
It is the integral assessement of management conditions, using previously
established standards and environmental, socio-economic and institutional
sustainability criteria. The methodology developed drew upon analyses of
environmental, socio-economic and institutional parameters, which led
to the elaboration of a scale to measure the Flonás management level.
According to the results, the Tapajós National Forest management quality
level is 60% of the optimum and, therefore, it is a regular system. That is
to say that the area holds the minimum management requirements, but
presents failures that prevent from reaching the sustainable management,
demanding several measures to remedy the problems.
PM31
SOARES, E. S. (Org.). Desafios, resultados, ameaças e oportunidades
em uma unidade de conservação na Amazônia: Floresta Nacional do
Tapajós. [Challenges, results, threats and opportunities in a conservation
unit in the Amazon: the Tapajós National Forest]. Manaus Ibama/
ProManejo, 2004. 164 p.
This document briefly tells the history of the Tapajós National Forest, from
its creation to these days. It is divided into ten chapters that approach
the National Forest’s concept and objective; environmental, population,
economic aspects; and, the land situation in the Tapajós National Forest
and surrounding region. Moreover, the study characterizes the history and
organizational and managerial structure of the Flona, besides introducing
the activities and projects developed, emphasizing the major outputs,
impacts, challenges and threats. Finally, the text points out conclusions
and lessons learned during the process. The document ensues from the
insight that getting acquainted to this history would allow for understanding
the changes on public policies proposed to create, implement and maintain
Conservation Units in the country. It also comes from the idea that failures
and successes could offer useful knowledge to all those involved in the
debate about the use of Brazilian forestry resources. Thus, the main
objective of this publication is to subsidize the debate on the importance
of assessing if the National Forests could become a priority public strategy
to the preservation and use of Brazilian forestry resources, contributing
to construct proposals that match socio-economic development and the
conservation of natural and cultural wealth of the Amazon.
100
PM32
Forest Resources Management Project - ProManejo Uma visão da
Floresta Nacional do Tapajós (PA): Diagnóstico Rural Participativo
(DRP) - junho a setembro de 2003. [An overview on the Tapajós National
Forest (Pará): Participatory Rural Diagnosis (PRD) - June to September
2003]. Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 81 p.
The Participatory Rural Diagnosis was an important action carried out
in 2003, during the elaboration of the Management Plan to the Tapajós
National Forest. Ibama, as the body in charge of administering this
Conservation Unit, attempted to identify the most responsive methodology,
capable of generating deeper and updated knowledge in relation to the
communities living in the Tapajós National Forestand surroundings, always
based on the participatory focus. The PRD is a methodological tool that
besides promoting a wider range of knowledge among stakeholders, allows
the communities to voice out their problems, expectations, needs and
potentials, while enabling the planning of joint actions to solve the problems
identified. The PRD allows a dialogue between community members and
inter-disciplinare teams based on reflections and shared analyses, thus
enhancing the involvement and commitment of local actors. It reported
high participation level, involving 23 communities from the Tapajós National
Forest, and 8 communities from the surroundings of that Conservation Unit,
reaching about 600 individuals.
PM33
LENTINI, M.; VERÍSSIMO, A.; SOBRAL, L. Fatos Florestais da Amazônia.
[Amazonian Forestry Facts] Belém: Imazon, 2003. 110 p.
The work purposes to summarize the main pieces of information available
about the Brazilian Amazon forestry sector. The work is based on the data
assumption crucial to understand and plan the forestry sector development.
This document focuses on the timber sector. Firstly, it summarizes the
general data on the territory, population, land and economic situation of
the Amazon. Then it approaches the timber sector in relation to extractive
production, transportation and industrial processing. The document has
also dealt with management and forest certification status, ending with
market information to wood products in the Amazon, additionally to timber
extraction, processing and transportation costs.
101
Uma visão da
Floresta Nacional
do Tapajós (PA)
PM34
VIDAL, E.; GERWING, J. J. (Org.). Ecologia e manejo de cipós na
Amazônia Oriental. [Ecology and management of lianas in the Eastern
Amazon]. Belém: Imazon, 2003. 141 p.
The lianas abound in rainforests, where these play core roles to the
ecosystem. Some species provide nectar and pollen to insects, birds and
bats. It provides arboreous animals the means to move on the tree tops,
besides having economic importance in the furniture industry or to medicinal
use. Despite its importance, lianas are usually considered to be a plague in
forests managed to timber extraction, because these can hinder the timber
extraction and forestry activities. The professionals in the field of rainforest
management have already recognized that forestry plans should consider
the management of lianas. However, there is little information about this
topic, which hinders the forest manager’s decision on forestry treataments
(tratamentos silviculturais). Hence, the book aims at providing resources
for forest managers and academic individuals interested in ecology and
liana management. The book is organized in seven chapters. The last one
summarizes some of the main findings of the studies specifically related to
forestry management.
PM35
BARROS, A. C.; VERÍSSIMO, A. (Ed.). A expansão Madeireira na
Amazônia: impactos e perspectivas para o desenvolvimento sustentável
no Pará. [Expation of Timer exploration in the Amazon: impacts and
perspectives to the sustainable development of Pará]. 2. ed. Belém:
Imazon, 2002. 166 p.
The work aimed at gathering the results of five years of studies carried
out by a group of researchers from Imazon on timber-related activities
in the state of Pará. The case studies published in each chapter make
up a diagnosis on the timber-related activity in the state, approaching its
economic and social relevance, and its ecological impacts as well. The
chapters show that ecological impacts ensuing from timber exploration
are small in selective exploration, but they considerably increase when
exploration is more intensive. The studies also disclose important secondary
impacts associated to timber extraction on dry lands. For example, there is
a tendency for timber roads invading the forest to become access ways to
farmer migrants who have no land. Timber activity also changes the forest
micro-climate, making it hotter and dryer, increasing the chances of forest
fires. The study’s surveys were based on the regions of the municipality of
102
Tailândia, on the sides of the PA-150 highway; the Paragominas region –
the largest timber pool in Brazil; mahogany exploration in the south portion
of Pará; and Flooded Forest and dry land timber exploration, estuary and
Lower Amazonas River Region.
PM36
BARRETO, P.; SOUZA JÚNIOR, C. Controle do desmatamento e
da exploração de madeira na Amazônia: diagnóstico e sugestões.
[Deforestation and timber exploration control in the Amazon: diagnosis and
suggestions] (DraftVersion). Brasilia: MMA; Imazon, 2002. 32 p.
The report is part of ProManejo – Component III. The document approaches
a diagnosis on the status of deforestation and timber exploration control
in Amazon, providing suggestions to improve that control. It identifies
progress on the control, like the approval of Law on Environmental Crimes;
review of the management plans from 1996 onwards, which resulted in the
cancellation and suspension of almost 85% of the plans; intensified field
inspection and use of information technology; simplification of the licensing
process by the state environmental body in Mato Grosso. It emphasizes
that control is hampered by the lack of effective integration among actions
by the federal and state governments. Among others, the work aims at
restraining deforestation and the illegal timber exploration, and foster the
adoption of proper forestry management techniques focusing on timber
production, to reduce negative impacts on the forest structure. The report
was anchored in information collected from literature, interviews with
members of the environmental bodies involved, and data of those bodies
in different states. Moreover, the management plans in three areas of Pará
were subject to inspection monitoring.
PM37
ARIMA, E.; BARRETO, P. Florestas nacionais na Amazônia: consulta a
empresários madeireiros e atores afins à política florestal. [National forests
in the Amazon: consultation to timber entrepreneurs and actors related to
forestry policy] Brasilia: MMA, 2002. 45 p.
The study results from a consultation carried out among timber entrepreneurs
and actors related to forestry sector on the use and management of National
Forests in the Legal Amazon. The National Forest Program, developed
by the Ministry of Environment, served as starting point to the study. The
questions asked to timber entrepreneurs through questionnaires approached
the following topics: interest in raw materials from the Flonas; ways of
103
Controle do
desmatamento e
da exploração
de madeira na
Amazônia
managing those forests; which corporate characteristics could influence on
their decision, like the size, kind of market to be reached, and raw material
sources. A significant share of the entrepreneurs interviewed supported
the idea of getting raw material from national forests and, regarding the
administration models, the preferred one where the government is in charge
of management. The study also discloses opinions from non-entrepreneur
respondents on the most responsive models to manage the Flonas. Over
50% preferred the model where the company would be in charge of outlining
and carrying out the management plan. The study was developed through
questionnaires that were mailed or e-mailed, and face-to-face interviews in
the states of Acre, Pará, Mato Grosso, Rondônia and Amazonas.
PM38
Preços da madeira em pé em pólos
madeireiros próximos de cinco
florestas nacionais da Amazônia
ARIMA, E.; VERÍSSIMO, A. Preços da madeira em pé em pólos
madeireiros próximos de cinco florestas nacionais da Amazônia.
[Prices of standing timber in timber pools surrounding five national forests
in the Amazon] Brasilia: MMA, 2002. 29 p.
The study, developed within the ProManejo scope, provides accurate
information on the costs of timber exploitation and on the prices of standing
timber at timber pools of the Amazon. Five National Forests were prioritized
to implement sustainable forestry management, to present information on
costs of exploitation and industrialization of timber at the Flonas region.
The National Forests Program (PFN) considered these areas as priority to
implement management, and report the maximum potential values that timber
dealers would pay for standing timber, in face of the current market conditions,
and price and technology levels. The methology was based on interviews
with timber industry owners or directors approaching timber exploration
and processing characteristics and costs at timber pools surrounding the
Flonas being surveyed. The result pointed out broad differences of timber
price in the five Flonas surveyed. The highest prices for standing timber were
found in Rondônia, due to stronger competition among timber industries
and the reduced timber stock, showing that the capacity of affording timber
from managed forest should widely vary in those regions. The abundance
of timber in the market, as well as the facility of obtaining timber free from
forestry costs restrain the capacity of charging prices higher than the market
average prices. Therefore, the value of standing timber could be increased
without damaging the current industries.
104
PM39
SOUZA JÚNIOR, C. M. de; VERÍSSIMO, A.; AMARAL, P. H. Identificação
de áreas com potencial para a criação de florestas nacionais no Estado
do Pará. [Identification of potential areas to establish national forests in the
State of Pará] Brasilia: MMA, 2002. 37 p.
The National Forests (Flonas) account for less than 3% of the Amazonian
territory. This study developed a methodology to identify potential forest
areas to establish Flonas in the Amazon. The case study was developed
in the state of Pará – the biggest producer of logs in Brazil. The areas with
potential to establish Flonas were selected based on four analyses. First,
the map of areas where timber exploitation was prohibited or restricted in
the State (32% of the lands in Pará) was analyzed to find protected lands
with no potential to establish Flonas. Then, it employed the map on kinds
of vegetation to exclude areas with no forest cover (21% of the state). The
third step was to analyze the anthropism degree in the forested areas of
the state, matching data on human occupation (homes, ranches, farms,
villages) and fire sites. It could observe that 21% of the forested areas in the
State with vegetal cover were subject to anthropic activities and, therefore,
had low potential to the establishment of Flonas. Finally, the residual areas
(26% of the state) with higher potential to the establishment of Flonas were
selected. Most of the potential areas to establish Flonas are under the
economic reaching of timber activities; these are not protected areas; have
favorable relief; have forest cover; and report low anthropic pressure. The
municipalities with stronger potential to the establishment of Flonas are:
Bagre, Portel, Monte Alegre, Oriximiná, Itaituba and Altamira.
PM40
ARIMA, E.; BARRETO, P. Rentabilidade da produção de madeira em
terras públicas e privadas na região de cinco florestas nacionais da
Amazônia. [Profitability of timber production in public and private lands in
the region of five national forests in the Amazon] Brasilia: MMA, 2002. 49 p.
The increased demand for timber with environmental quality, jointly with the
increased added value, pointed out increased market demand for products
of managed origin. This study analyzed the contribution of five National
Forests in the Amazon to supply timber in competitive market conditions.
The work assesses the potential profitability of timber exploitation in the
Flonas of Jamari and Bom Futuro in Rondônia; Caxiaunã and Tapajós in
Pará; and Tefé, in Amazonas. ProManejo, more specifically its Component
1, is one of the tools provided for in the PNF to meet the thematic line
105
“Market and Trading of Forestry Products”, thus ensuring the dissemination
of technical knowledge that those disclosed in this study. Another objective
was the analysis on how the production in public forests could become
competitive in the region of the five aforementioned National Forests.
First, the minimum amount payable for the standing wood in the managed
forest was compared against the average market prices at the regions
surveyed. Then, the net current value of timber production in the Flonas
was estimated, considering the production costs and average market price.
Finally, a strategy was designed to foster timber forestry management in the
Amazon. The study has also approached the most profitable alternatives,
comparing timber sustainable production in public forests, and the managed
production in private forests.
PM41
FERREIRA, A. M. Benchmarking da comercialização de produtos
florestais. [Benchmarking the forestry products trading] Brasilia: MMA,
2002. 86 p.
The study was developed within the scope of the Project Positive Agenda
for Forestry Sector in Brazil (Projeto Agenda Positiva para o Setor Florestal
no Brasil). It analyzes the mechanisms and factors that influence the
trading of Brazilian forestry products, in an attempt to improve the sector
participation in both national and international markets, according to the
Ministry of Environment’s National Forests Program (Programa Nacional de
Florestas – PNF) goals. The trading diagnosis disclosed a tendency toward
increasing demand and reducing the supply of timber in some regions of
Asia, which would entail stronger pressures on the Amazon Forest. In other
countries, the existing policies to promote forestry products trading could
be translated in measures of support to forestry and industrial activities
through incentives and benefits granted by governmental programs, in
opposition to Brazil, where the governmental bodies take on the sustaining
and promotion of commercial interchanging, supporting industries and the
forestry activity as a whole. The Brazilian credit incentives – considering
tax collection, product ranking and establishment of average price – are
oriented to increase exports. In producer countries, in turn, the measures
are oriented to add value to products at domestic level, discouraging
export of primary and semi-processed products. The effective adoption of
mechanisms oriented to improve trading and aimed at providing the country
with commercial competitiveness demands some changes at institutional
level and on the legal tools.
106
PM42
BARRETO, P.; VERÍSSIMO, A. Informações e sugestões para a
criação e gestão de florestas públicas na Amazônia. [Information and
recommendations to establish and manage public forests in the Amazon].
Brasilia: MMA, 2002. 43 p.
Forestry industry remains as one of the major economic activities in the
Amazon, contributing with 15% to 20% of the Gross Domestic Product in
the states of Pará, Mato Grosso and Rondônia. However, most of the timber
exploitation is predatory, affecting extensive forest areas in the region. One
way to ensure sustainable use and conservation of forestry resources is to
control the use of private forests. This is a hard task because of the high political
and financial costs. A complementary strategy to forestry conservation would
be the establishment of production public forests. Many countries employ
that model to produce forestry goods and services under the State’s control.
In that model, the state can directly manage the forest or assign the forest
use to a private or mixed instution, for fixed time. The 1965 Forestry Code
sets forth the establishment of public forests in Brazil. Currently, there are 46
National Forests (Flonas), and the Amazon houses almost the entire Flonas
area (99.5%). In 1998 the Federal Government established the National
Forests Program (Decree 2473, of January 1998) aimed at implementing
sustainable management to those forests and promote the establishment
of new additional areas. For that, it carried out many strategic studies. This
report summarizes those studies, and also comprises: I – analysis on the
minimum value payable for the timber from Flonas; II – analysis on the
demand for establishing new Flona areas; III – methodology to select the
areas; and, IV – a proposal on Flona assignment and management models
in the Amazon.
PM43
GARCIA, J. D. Perspectivas estruturais da comercialização de
produtos florestais. [Structural perspectives on forestry products trading]
Brasilia: MMA, 2002. 71 p.
This document aims at contributing to the general purpose established in the
cooperation agreement between the Ministry of Environment, Ibama and FAO
to the Positive Agenda project to Forestry Sector in Brazil, presenting the main
structural changes in the forestry sector both at national and international
level that could affect the trading of products in Brazil. Consumer market
is more demanding in quality than in price and, therefore, the corporations
are concerned about improving the products quality, including by adding
value to those. That concern gave rise to certification in environmental, and
processing and standardization terms. Certification entails high costs to the
company during the stage of obtaining and maintaining the certificate, and is
not necessarily translated into expanded domestic market, but can potentially
107
contribute to the acceptance and sales of products in foreign markets. The
social perspectives were presented as a panel, where factors that cause
forest degradation were approached, like current production and consumption
standards, poverty, poulation growth, poor environmental education,
commercial terms, discriminatory trading practices and unsustainable policies
of sectors like forestry, agriculture, energy and trading. The study concludes
that the main focus regarding macroeconomic aspects in Brazil needs to
reformulate the administrative, social security and tax structure to consolidate
and foster the trading of forestry products, degrading the Amazon ecosystem
to the lesser extent possible.
PM44
FERRAZ, C.; MOTTA, R. S. da. Concessões florestais e exploração
madeireira no Brasil: condicionantes para a sustentabilidade. [Forestry
concessions and timber exploitation in Brazil: sustainability determinant
factors]. Brasilia: MMA, 2002. 52 p.
The study analyzes one of the most promising forestry alternatives in the
Amazon: the system of public concessions to National Forests (Flonas). The
material presents the factors that determine sustainability in that system,
showing the advantages and variables that directly influences on the
implementation success or failure. The document identifies deforestation
indicators in Brazil; discusses the role of property rights on the forestry
efficiency; analyzes the main failures and successful experiences of the
concession system in the international scenario; and, establishes the
determinant factors to that system in Brazil. The recommendations are
important to analyze economic, environmental and social aspects, and should
serve as important inputs to define a policy on sustainable development for
the Amazon region. The reference points would be the profile of timber stock
in the region; international experience; regional and international industrial
timber exploitation standards; and, the governmental institutional capacity.
The analysis specifically identifies the incentive systems to be adopted by
the government to ensure that Flonas are feasible private activities, while
playing their role as ecologically sustainable activity.
108
PM45
GROGAN, J.; BARRETO, P.; VERÍSSIMO, A. Mogno na Amazônia Brasileira:
ecologia e perspectiva de manejo. [Mahogany in the Brazilian Amazon:
ecology and management perspectives]. Belém: Imazon, 2002. 42 p.
For many years, the extraordinary commercial value of mahogany has
fostered extraction in the Brazilian Amazon, more intensively since early
1970’s. As the timber exploitation is about to reach the last natural mahogany
stocks in the south of Pará, southeast of Amazonas and Acre, the Brazilian
environmental bodies have responded to the general concern about the
commercial future of that species: i) reducing exports quotas since 1990; ii)
prohibiting the authorization of new mahogany forestry management plans
since 1996; and, iii) after discovering illegal exploitation practices in the
south of Pará, in October 2001, it prohibited the transportation, processing
and trading of that species. To guarantee the future of mahogany as a
natural heritage and renewable natural resource, the technical information
available should be translated in forestry management guidelines that
meet public interests, are feasible to the industry, and can be audited by
environmental bodies. This work describes the mahogany at all sites where
it naturally occurs in South and Central Americas, emphasizing a survey
that was recently carried out in Brazil.
PM46
GONÇALVES, V. A. Levantamento de mercado de produtos florestais nãomadeireiros: Floresta Nacional do Tapajós. [Survey on non-timber forestry
products: Tapajós National Forest]. Santarém: Ibama/ProManejo, 2001. 59 p.
This study approaches the pre-investment activities within the ProManejo
scope regarding the Tapajós National Forest. It aimed at subsidizing the
Community-based Forestry Management subcomponent. Based on the
outputs that have identified the market, the activities have built awareness
and supported the organization of communities and forestry management
practices in that Conservation Unit, thus diversifying the familie’s income.
The methodology employed to collect data among old farmers and
extractive works in the communities and middlemen and traders in the
region was through structured and semi-structured interviews where the
109
potential of products could be observed, identifying the production by tree,
estimated individuals by hectare according to the Forestry Management
Plan. To identify potential trading channels in the regional market, the study
interviewed formal and informal traders, and contacted by phone some
civil society entities, governmental institutions, self-employed professional,
additionally to some publications. The results point out a tendency toward
diversifying forestry resources through multiple use, adding value, use of
proper technologies, forestry management, proper survey with systemic
focus, diversification of the current production systems and, in a more
strategic plan, the need for restructuring the commercialization channels.
The active market participation is associated to community organization
in groups, associations or cooperatives, which demands investment in
qualification and training.
of certified Brazilian tropical timbers. To measure certification-related social
costs and benefits in exports, it employed Marshall’s economic concept. The
certification effect on growth (competitiveness) of the Brazilian exports is
significant, due to the lack of flexibility in the demand for exports. However,
the incorporation of certification costs could reduce the export’s profitability
and the exporter’s remuneration, meaning loss of competitiveness.
Regarding the different types of timber products, the certification entails
stronger impacts to more elastic products. Therefore, the certification or
more industrialized produces entails more savings to the forest basis, when
compared to products of low processing degree. If on one hand certification
brings social benefits, contributing to reduce the forest basis losses and
employing qualified labor force, on the other hand it entails social costs by
reducing the consumer’s surplus and takes tropical timber consumers and
producers away from the market.
PM47
GERVING, J. et. al. O Rendimento no Processamento de Madeira no
Estado do Pará. [Timber Processing Output in the state of Pará] Belém:
Imazon, 2000. 38 p. (Série Amazônia, 18)
The study analyzes the factors that influence logs process output in ten
sawmills and two rolling mills in Paragominas, Pará, Eastern Amazon.
Through a survey among 52 timber corporations, the tendencies on
timber processing in the region were characterized. Processing to foreign
market, for example, has reduced the timber yard companies output, since
the quality required in that market allows only for minor defects on the
processed wood. It observed a wide range of factors that influence logs
processing output, like degradation during storage. The work methodology
has also employed questionnaires to visualize from the age of processing
equipment to the ratio of processed timber that is exported, and the kind of
timber products produced by the companies in the region.
PM48
ANGELO, H. Implicações da certificação florestal na competitividade
da madeira tropical brasileira no mercado internacional. [Implications
of forestry certification on the Brazilian tropical timber competitiveness in
the international market]. Brasilia: MMA, 1999. 29 p. (Série Documento de
Trabalho, 14)
This work deals with the effect of forestry certification on the Brazilian
exports of tropical timber, regarding competitiveness. It employed the
Constant Market Share model and actual exchange and profitability rate
indicators as methodological basis to explain in a clearer way the exports
110
PM49
ANGELO, H. Abertura das exportações brasileiras de madeiras
tropicais em toras: um estudo de tendências. [Opening Brazilian exports
of tropical timber logs: an assay on tendencies]. Brasilia: MMA, 1999. 19 p.
(Série Documento de Trabalho, 12)
The work deals with the hypothesis of Brazil re-taking exports of tropical
timber logs, and the implications of that trade on the reduction and loss
of forest basis. It has simulated changes on the domestic and exportoriented supply and demanded to explain the behavior of Brazil if it reopens
those exports. To measure the social costs and benefits of log exports,
it employed Marshall’s economic concept. That re-opening is expected
not only to increase the offer of logs in the international market, but also
to reduce the log and tropical timber manufactured products prices. The
Brazilian participation in that market would increase the supply of logs to
international consumers, at lower prices. However, there is no perspective
of reduced prices to consumers in the domestic market. Rather, prices are
expected to increase because of the discrepancy between the domestic
and the international markets. By opening the exports of logs, Brazil loses
for the reduced consumer’s surplus, by the removal of consumers from the
tropical timber market, and by the forest basis loss. In face of the analyses
developed, the study recommends maintaining the policy that restricts
exports of tropical timber logs until certification and management become
usual practices in the forestry sector. However, specifically regarding
National Forests and areas under concession, the log exports should be
allowed as a way of increasing the economic profitability of sustainable
timber management, and introduce less known species to the market.
111
PM50
Dinâmica de
uma floresta
monodominante de
Brosimum Rubescens
Taub. no Vale do
Araguaia, Mato
Grosso (1996-2004)
MARIMON, B. S.; FELFILI, J. M.; MARIMON-JÚNIOR, B. H. Dinâmica de
uma floresta monodominante de Brosimum Rubescens Taub. no Vale do
Araguaia, Mato Grosso (1996-2004). [S.l.: s.n.], [s.d.]. 30 p.
(Dynamics of a monodominant forest of Brosimum rubescens Taub. in the
Araguaia valley, Mato Grosso (1996-2004). – Patches of monodominant
Brosimum rubescens Taub. (Moraceae) forest, occur at transitional zones
between Cerrado and Amazon forests. Brosimum forests are classified as
“Priority Areas” for conservation by the Ministry of Environment in Brazil.
They have been exploited and are under threat. The dynamics of the woody
community was monitored at Nova Xavantina-MT, Brazil (14º50’47’’S
and 52º08’37’’W), from 1996 to 2004. In 1996, 60 (10x10m) plots were
established where all woody individuals with dbh³ 5 cm were measured. In
2001 and 2004 measurements were repeated in these plots and the growth
of some individuals were monitored in another area, logged and thinned in
1995. Parameters of dynamics and the Periodic Annual Increment (PAI)
were calculated for the community and its main species. The PAI was 0.17
cm yr-1 over the eight-year period. The PAI of Brosimum rubescens was
above the average for the forest community. The average mortality rate for
the community was compensated by its recruitment. However, the main
species showed a negative balance compared with the higher average
mortality. The plasticity of B. rubescens seems to ensure the maintenance of
the monodominance. The higher increment rates registered for individuals
of B. rubescens growing at the logged and thinned area (dbh³ 20 cm= 0.34
cm yr-1 from 2001 to 2004 whereas at the undisturbed forest= 0.18 cm yr-1)
demonstrated the heliophylous behaviour of the species suggesting that
management practices would favour its growth. Occasional disturbances
promoting the penetration of light into the forest seem necessary for the
juvenile growth of that species.
PM51
Efeito de diferentes
níveis de exploração
e tratamento
AZEVEDO, C. P. de et. al. Efeito de diferentes níveis de exploração e
tratamento silviculturais sobre a dinâmica do povoamento florestal
remanescente. [S.l.: s.n.], [s.d.]. 59 p.
silviculturais
sobre a dinâmica
do povoamento
florestal
remanescente
(Effect of Different Logging and Thinning Intensities on the Dynamics of
the Remaining Forest Stand). This study was conducted with data from
Projeto Bom Manejo (Embrapa/CIFOR/ITTO) – Sustainable management
of production forests in commercial scale in the Brazilian Amazon, carried
out by Embrapa Eastern Amazon in Monte Dourado Forest Company (Jari)
area, Vitória do Jari, State of Amapá, Brazil. The experimental design was
randomized blocks with three replications. The applied treatments were
combinations of logging intensities and thinning intensities. Three logging
intensities (extraction of 15%, 25% and 35%) of total volume of the trees
112
with more than 60 cm of dbh were tested, followed of four levels of basal
area reduction (0%, 30%, 50% and 70% of the original basal area). Stand
development was monitored through 40 permanent sample plots of 1 ha
each (36 logged and 4 unlogged). The stand was measured in 1984, logged
in 1985 and remeasured in 1986, 1988, 1990, 1994, 1996 and 2004. All the
trees with dbh = 20 cm were measured. The results showed that reduced
impact logging was good for the forest, but not, necessarily, it stimulated
the growth and it must take the longer cutting cycles of than the desirable
thirty years.
PM52
GOMIDE, G. L. A. et. al. Processos dinâmicos em florestas neotropicais
secundárias: estudo de caso na Amazônia Brasileira e na Costa Rica.
[S.l.: s.n.], [s.d.]. 40 p.
This study analyzed and compared the floristic dynamics and composition
of secondary forests in different phases of succession in Brazil (Jari
Forest) and in Costa Rica (Arrozal Forest). Permanent sampling plots
were set up and a continuous inventory was recorded during eight years.
For the study of the forest as a whole, the species were classified either
as group of short- lived intolerants, group of long- lived intolerants, and
climax. The individuals were distributed by species, genus, and botanical
family and analyzed in different periods. The phytosociological analysis
used abundance, dominance, and frequency parameters. The results
indicated that the growth rate of secondary tropical forests depends on
the predominant ecological group, that trees less vulnerable to competition
undergo greatest growth, and that group of short- lived intolerants species
is very similar, despite differing time patterns. It was observed that the
presence of remnants of the initial forest has great importance in recovery
of species diversity in secondary succession. During monitoring two forests
were in the second phase, however one of them, after 13 years, already
presented characteristics of the third successional phase. The size of the
areas and the colonizing process determine the diversity and speed of
the recovery of species in secondary succession. Trees less vulnerable
to competition have greater growth. In secondary succession there is a
similarity between the variation pattern on mortality rates and recruitment
among forests. This study also came to the conclusion that species of
a same ecological group present similar behavior and that groups are
markedly different among each other.
113
Processos
dinâmicos em
florestas
neotropicais
secundárias
PM53
Inventário
florestal contínuo
em projetos de
manejo florestal
em escala
empresarial na
Amazônia Brasileira
PM55
FREITAS, J. V. de et. al. Inventário florestal contínuo em projetos de
manejo florestal em escala empresarial na Amazônia Brasileira: estudo
de caso do projeto Democracia, Manicoré, AM. [S.l.: s.n.], [s.d.]. 43 p.
(Continuous Forest Inventory in Forest Management Projects at Enterprisebased Scale in Brazilian Amazon: Study case of Democracia Project,
Manicoré, AM). – A technical cooperation experience between Universidade
do Amazonas and a forest enterprise on developing a continuous forest
inventory system (CFI) is presented. Started in 2000, a methodology for
installing and measuring permanent sample plots (PSP) was introduced
and incorporated by the enterprise in its forest management plan, training
was offered to the company team, and data of eighteen PSP were stored
in a relational database specially designed for this purpose. The proposed
activities for the IFC system are described, as well as the information flow
focusing on data gathering and use. The results of data processing for
one annual harvesting compartment are presented as example of product
from the CFI system. The main achievements of the technical co-operation
are discussed highlighting the importance of adding CFI to the forest
management system as one of the regular activities.
D’OLIVEIRA, M. V.; OLIVEIRA, L. C. de; RIBAS, L. A. Dinâmica de
florestas manejadas e não manejadas para a produção sustentável
de madeira na floresta estadual do Antimary no Estado do Acre. [S.l.:
s.n.], [s.d.]. 23 p.
(Dinamics of managed and non-managed tropical forest for sustained
timber production in the Antimary State Forest, State of Acre). – Study on
dynamics of three forest types vise bamboo forest, open forest and dense
forest was carried out in annual coupes Tabocal, Chico Bocão and Jatobá
and in the homesteads Poção e Dois Barracos in the Antimary Forest. The
forests were logged in 1999 (Tabocal) and 2000 (Chico Bocão and Jatobá).
No silvicultural interventions were applied on the homesteads areas.
Different forest types showed significant differences in respect to timber
production potential, diameter increment and mortality. The potential for
sustainable timber production was lower in the bamboo forest compared
to the other forest types. Logging damage and mortality were higher in
Bamboo forest. The results indicate that dense forests and open forests
are more appropriate sites for sustainable timber production. On these
areas, the impact of harvesting on the residual forest was minimized by
the use of reduced impact logging. Mortality rates 3 years after harvesting
were similar to the non-managed forest.
PM54
Manejo sustentável
de florestas na
Amazônia Ocidental
D’OLIVEIRA, M. V. et. al. Manejo sustentável de florestas na Amazônia
Ocidental: o estudo de caso da empresa S. T. Manejo de Florestas Ltda.
[S.l.: s.n.], [s.d.]. 29 p.
(Sustainable Forest Management in Western Amazon: the study case of
the company S.T. Manejo de Florestas Ltda.). – Logging costs, operational
yields, forest dynamics (growth, ingrowth and mortality) and the damage
to the residual forest, were evaluated in an industrial forest management
operation in Western Amazon. The silvicultural system prescribes a 25
year cutting cycle, harvesting intensity of 20 m3 ha-1 cycle-1 and logging.
Reduced Impact Logging techniques such as liana cutting and directional
felling were applied. Adequate planning of the main and secondary
roads, as well as the skidding trails, resulted in a reduction of 46.2 % in
skidding time and in an increase of 232 % in skidding volume. Logging
damage (including timber extracted) affected 12.1 % of the total basal
area undamaged before logging. Three years after logging, mean annual
ingrowth and mortality were 2.1 % and 3.9 % respectively. Periodic annual
increment of the residual forest was 0.25 cm year-1.
114
PM56
FORESTRY MANAGEMENT SUPPORT PROJECT IN AMAZON ProManejo Iniciativas promissoras em manejo florestal na Amazônia.
[Promising forestry management initiatives in the Amazon] [S.l.]: Ibama/
ProManejo, [s.d.]. 82 p.
ProManejo started in 1999, being executed by the Ministry of Environment and
Ibama. To develop its activities, the project was divided in four components: i)
Strategic analysis to subsidize the public policies formulation; ii) support and
promotion of promising forestry management initiatives; iii) development
and test of a timber activity-oriented control and monitoring system; and, iv)
support to forestry resources management, notably by traditional populations,
at the Tapajós National Forest. Through the Promising Initiatives component,
ProManejo has supported promising community and entrepreneur forestry
management initiatives to generate Demonstration effects, besides
supporting the processes of forestry management capacity-building and
dissemination. When the component was first thought, there were almost
no promising initiatives focusing on timber management in the Brazilian
Amazon. The first stage supported 21 projects (community and entrepreneur
management), providing training and building awareness among 4,600
individuals exclusively regarding the forestry management technical aspects.
115
Dinâmica de florestas
manejadas e não
manejadas para a
produção sustentável
de madeira na floresta
estadual do Antimary
no Estado do Acre
The component is characterized by strong support to labor force capacitybuilding and technical assistance, besides also serving a survey on forestry
management, and the community organization processes. The second
stage should support 46 promising initiatives with different actions, like:
capacity- and awareness-building; support to the establishment of forest
engineering courses; community organization; and, consolidation of training
centers. Those stages aim at reinforcing actions oriented to promote and
support the adoption and expansion of forestry management experiences,
either by strengthening the public and private institutions’ and organized civil
society’s capacity, or by validating and disseminating knowledge on forestry
management in the Amazon region.
PM57
BONFIM, V. R. Limites e desafios para a sustentabilidade do MFC:
avaliação socioambiental de 8 projetos de manejo florestal comunitário na
Amazônia. [Limitations and challenges to the MFC sustainability: socioenvironmental assessment of eight community forestry management projects
in the Amazon]. [S.l.]: Ibama/ ProManejo, [s.d.]. 106p. (Final Report)
This report discloses the socio-environmental assessment of eight
experiences on Community Forest Management (Manejo Florestal
Comunitário – MFC) supported by ProManejo. The MFC has been strongly
supported in the Amazon as an important strategy to refrain indiscriminate
exploitation of natural resources, besides serving as a likely alternative
to diversify, generate and expand income to many families. However,
there are many limitations and challenges to be surmounted to effectively
transform management in a sustainable activity to the rich socio-biodiversity
found in that biome. The assessment was carried out analyzing secondary
documents, maps, reports and meeting minutes, projects-related
documents, bibliography on the topic, visits to organizations and families
involved with the projects assessed and to ProManejo headquarters in
Manaus to analyze documents, ask for clarifications and articulate with
the involved organizations, besides following-up on the assessment,
carrying out interviews with semi-structured scripts, dynamics employing
participatory tools to collective meetings and photographic records. The
assessment data systematization employed participatory tools, recovering
the history, and thinking over the role of each actor, identifying the lessons
learned. The main lessons to managers are related to the forest, education
as a whole and the management itself. Regarding to field works – now to
executing agents – lessons are more related to the intervention process
and broader and more related to the conjuncture.
Reports
PM58
FORESTRY MANAGEMENT SUPPORT PROJECT IN AMAZON ProManejo ProManejo: Relatório de Atividades, 2007 [ProManejo: 207
Activities Report]. Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo, 2008. 113 p.
This publication introduces the assessment of ProManejo activities
carried out in 2007. The general conclusion is that ProManejo took a large
step toward making forestry management come true in the Amazon. It
supported forestry management projects and, through countless strategic
partnerships with private and governmental sectors representatives at
federal and state levels, as well as with social movements, has mobilized a
critical mass advocating for management. Moreover, it has supported the
implementation and consolidation of the National Forests Program, and
the elaboration and definition of the Public Forests Management Law. One
of the main challenges is the need of reaching small and medium sized
private corporations working as semi-informal corporations. There are
many factors, including forest diversity, clandestine supply, deforestation,
and characteristics of those companies that make management an
unattractive option to those producers. The project tried to reach those
entrepreneurs through a strategy focusing on dissemination and training
to technicians and staff members. ProManejo supported the establishment
and consolidation of training centers, as well as the creation of the National
Center of Support to Forestry Management (Centro Nacional de Apoio ao
Manejo Florestal – Cenaflor). Cenaflor is mainly tasked with strengthening
the initiatives focusing on forestry management training, and supporting
and articulating development and forest extension activities. Another
progress observed was the development of a system to monitor and control
the timber production. Moreover, it has also solved the conflicts between
Ibama and the population of Tapajós National Forest, implementing it as
forestry exploitation unit, emphasizing on management.
PM59
MITLEWSKI, B. Proteção através do uso – manejo das florestas
Amazônicas: sistematização e síntese integrada de documentos
produzidos pelo ProManejo. [Protection through use – management of
Amazon Forests: systematization and integrated synthesis of documents
produced by ProManejo]. Brasilia: Ibama/ProManejo, 2007. 99 p.
This publication attempts to systematize and summarize the documents
produced by ProManejo to partially re-build its history, concepts,
methodology, results, impacts and vision of future that have marked the
action of the PPG7 project. The systematization excludes the Project
116
117
Component 4, “Support to Tapajós Flona Management” since that is a very
complex project that deserves its own systematization. That component is
systematized in the publication “Knowledge management in the Tapajós
National Forest” (A gestão do conhecimento na Floresta Nacional do
Tapajós) – a compendium with the ProManejo-supported publications
from 1999 to 2007. The work has not attempted to systematize the Project
(or part of it); instead, it has selected the most relevant publications and
documents. Although the intended review and synthesis of the texts
produced within the ProManejo context presents tsome of the Project work
results, the methodology used to this kind of systematization is mainly
limited to summarizing the documents, integrating opinions and visions of
technicians, collaborators, partners or beneficiaries of the Project just to
supplement the work. The text starts by briefly introducing what did the
ProManejo mean, its institutional context and structure, what had been
planned and what was effectively executed. Then, it presents abstracts on
ProManejo’s outputs by component.
PM60
FORESTRY MANAGEMENT SUPPORT PROJECT IN AMAZON ProManejo ProManejo: Relatório de Atividades, 2006 [ProManejo: 2006
Activities Report]. Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo, 2007. 75 p.
This report discloses the activities performed and main results achieved
by the ProManejo, which had been established within the PPG7 scope.
The information is presented by project component: 01) studies and
strategic analyses; 02) promising initiatives; 03) control and monitoring;
and, 04) Tapajós Flona management. The main problems found refer to
public policies that fostered deforestation (clearcut); lack of incentives/
credit to forestry management (keep forest standing) and reduce the
supply of predatory timber. In this regard, one of the main contributions of
Component 01 was to the “Public Forests Management to the Sustainable
Production” Law (Lei Gestão de Florestas Públicas para Produção
Sustentável) elaboration, with decisive support in the stages of building
awareness among players and decision-makers (public consultations),
and to dissemination as well. Regarding Component 02 the impacts are
considered to be intermediary, since one cannot state that the maneged
area has expanded, neither that any eventual expansion entails exclusively
from ProManejo. It developed a methodology of field inspection to assess
the mechanized forestry management on Amazonian dry lands. This new
methodology enables increased control and standardization regarding the
forestry operations management.
118
PM61
FORESTRY MANAGEMENT SUPPORT PROJECT IN AMAZON ProManejo ProManejo: Relatório de Atividades, 2005 [ProManejo: 2005
Activities Report]. Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo, 2006. 70 p.
Forestry Management has been definitely incorporated to the agenda
of states, municipalities, the federal government, legislators, community
members, initiatives and the organized civil society. ProManejo’s challenging
work for six years has strongly contributed to change the posture in relation to
forestry management practice and, above all, allowed changes to the public
policies and institutions. The project performance and impact indicators can
be measures in the short run. However, some are hardly identifiable and
should be dully assessed in the long run. This report is an attempt to order,
classify and record information about the project actions. The reflection on
lessons learned is a consequence of that process. Despite the progress
observed, protecting and sustainably using the Amazon forest remains a
challenge. It is necessary to pursue the sustainable rural development. In
this regard, the forest component cannot be considered as just “a jungle”
waiting to be cut down. The ProManejo experience systematization could
contribute even more to improve visions and practices on forest, sharing the
knowledge acquired and incorporating lessons learned. In 2005, ProManejo
has also discussed the constructing of forestry management proposals
focusing on Incra Agrarian Reform Settlements, new proposals on more
efficient procedures and control and monitoring tools to the forestry activity;
Ibama’s replication and appropriation of experiences and lessons learned
by the Project in the field of forestry management like, for example, the use
of Tapajós Flona Management Plan elaboration methodologies, which are
now reference to the outlining of management plans to other Conservation
Units in the Amazon. The Project’s contribution in six years of execution
should remain useful to the construction and execution of programs to
support public policies aimed at forests conservation.
119
PROJETO DE
APOIO AO MANEJO
FLORESTAL
SUSTENTÁVEL NA
AMAZÔNIA
PM62
FORESTRY MANAGEMENT SUPPORT PROJECT IN AMAZON ProManejo ProManejo: Relatório de Atividades, 2004 [ProManejo: 2004
Activities Report]. Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo, 2005. 88 p.
The report shows that, regardless the limitations that pose new challenges,
ProManejo achievements, notably the progress in 2004, have built
one of the main references to the constructing of a sustainable rural
development. ProManejo outputs effectively prove how a public institution
– Ibama – can implement, jointly with dozens partnerships and an efficient
and motivated staff, a successful experience in the field of international
cooperation. The Project provided several lessons learned that could
assist the implementation of other projects. However, in a critical reality
related to the need of effective presence of the organizations in charge
of forestry management in the Amazon, jointly with other governmental
institutions – notably in the field of agricultural frontier – the sustainability of
actions developed by projects like ProManejo suffer several limitations. For
Ibama, the main limitation refers to the short staff with technical capacity to
work forestry management processes in the region. Another lesson to be
considered is that the ProManejo components setup should have included
the issue of support to the forestry management decentralization, lie other
programs have done in the environmental licencing of pollutant sources,
including the strengthening of environmental state bodies.
measurement of performance and impact indicators. The novelty is that
approximately 18 million Reals will be invested in capacity-building and
technical assistance in forestry management, with additional resources
granted by KfW. A wide range of partnerships – maybe the main reason for
the project success – ensures the effective participation of different forestry
sector stakeholders. The different participatory Commissions of the project
ensure social control. Additionally to the aforementioned information, the
report also presented the outputs detailed by component.
PM64
FORESTRY MANAGEMENT SUPPORT PROJECT IN AMAZON ProManejo ProManejo: Relatório de Atividades, 2002 [ProManejo: 2002
Activities Report]. Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo, 2003. 58 p.
This publication presents a set of the ProManejo results in 2002, and the
main challenges as well. It also makes reference to the monitoring and
assessment systems implemented by the project in the last few years. It also
records the main lessons learned which have served as tools to improve
the project quality, the relationship with partners and, undoubtedly, the
formulation of recommendations on the Amazon Forest use and protection.
Started in 1999, ProManejo has tried and developed innovative strategies
related to the sustainable management of Rainforests in the Amazon.
Additionally to the contribution of showing forestry management usefulness
to the region’s sustainable development, it is also worth mentioning the
ProManejo works in the processes of interchange, articulation and dialogue
about the region’s forest-linked issues.
PM63
FORESTRY MANAGEMENT SUPPORT PROJECT IN AMAZON ProManejo ProManejo: Relatório de Atividades, 2003 [ProManejo: 2003
Activities Report]. Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 90 p.
The year of 2003 had important implications to ProManejo. In the
institutional side, the project was incoporated to Ibama’s Forests Board
actions. Moreover, the Ministry of Environment and Ibama have established
by the National Center of Support to Forestry Management (Cenaflor) to
disseminate forestry management techniques through means of training,
capacity-building and use of management systems at corporate, community
and applied research levels. At the regional leve, forestry management
has played core role to the definition of strategies aimed at reducing
deforestation in the Amazon region. When it comes to project management,
we could mention the ProManejo SM&A consolidation and the continued
120
PM65
FORESTRY MANAGEMENT SUPPORT PROJECT IN AMAZON ProManejo ProManejo: Relatório de Atividades, 2001 [ProManejo: 2001
Activities Report]. Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo, 2002. 56 p.
The year of 2001 was of intensive activities to ProManejo. In that year,
all components have consolidated their objectives. New foreseen and
unforeseen challenges were posed, just like new problems and solutions,
as well. The administrative and financial support, and the fulfilling of the
demands poses by the supported productive proposals are doing well
in the project management. ProManejo has different components and
activities, involving productive, institutional, political, economic, social and
environmental aspects. In that sense, the task of implementing these has
121
been a hard one. ProManejo proposals remain pertinent. Recent studies
point out that forestry management as an alternative to rural development is,
at least, a natural vocation of the Amazon. Moreover, that is the alternative
that matches benefits from forestry production and the maintenance of
forestry services. However, the effective rural development is only feasible
when followed by positive social, economic and environmental indicators
mainly related to those living and inhabiting the forest.
PM66
AMARAL, P.; MARQUES, R. B. C; BOROUNCLE, C. Sistema de
monitoração e acompanhamento dos projetos apoiados no âmbito do
componente Iniciativas Promissoras: relatório de atividades. [Monitoring
and follow-up systems to projects supported by the Promising Initiatives
component: activities report] Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2000. 38 p.
The publication shows a schedule of a system to follow-up and monitor the
activities developed by projects supported by the ProManejo Promising
Initiatives. This system draws upon the logical and normative framework
to execute the proposed activities and a set of performance and impact
indicators defined jointly with the projects. The project’s activities follow-up
and assessment demand systematizing and monitoring actions. Therefore
it developed, in partnership with the projects and supported by the Tropical
Agronomic Survey and Education Center (Centro Agronômico Tropical de
Investigação e Ensino – Catie) and the Amazon Men and Environment
Institute (Instuto do Homem e Meio Ambiente da Amazônia – Imazon), the
design and implementation of a monitoring system to the projects supported,
based on the ProManejo general objectives. Two workshops were held
to systematize the lessons learned and encourage projects to adopt the
monitoring system as a managerial tool, and a practice of assessment and
control activities. The first workshop was held in May 2001, marking the
initial stage of the discussion process, the methodology definition, and the
constructing of a set of indicators. The second workshop, held in April 2002,
served to review the system and define a joint work agenda with projects to
implement the monitoring system.
122
8
ProVárzea
Flooded Forests Natural Resources
Management Project
The Flooded Forests Natural Resources Management Project
(Projeto Manejo dos Recursos Naturais da Várzea - ProVárzea)
was established in 2000 to set the scientific, technical and
political grounds to the socially sustainable environmental
conservation and management of natural resources in the
Flooded Forests in the central region of the Amazon basin, with
emphasis on fishery resources. The Project implementation
strategy is based on the establishment of partnerships with the
community and public and private entities that have legitimated
and facilitated the progress and impact on the Flooded Forest
of the Amazonas River. Ibama implemented the Project and
edited 75 publications to disseminate it.
The Project established four lines of action: 1) carry out studies
to support the development of policies specifically focused
on the Flooded Forests ecosystems; 2) develop promising
initiatives on the Flooded Forest natural resources management,
strengthening root organizations that are essential to this work;
3) try the integrated monitoring and environmental assessment
system, using a decentralized and participatory process in two
pilot areas: Santarém in Pará and Parintins in Amazonas; 4)
coordinate the projects actions in an articulated way.
The incentive to the establishment of fishery agreements at the
riparian communities to the strategic management of fishery
stock in the rivers and lakes is an outstanding result of the
ProVárzea. Those agreements were negotiated and signed by
community social agents, and is the major step toward solving
conflicts. Another positive achievement of the Project is the
institutionalization of environmental agent volunteers – local
individuals trained to monitor natural resources. It has also
contributed to build state and federal public policies, like the
elaboration of the fishery law in the State of Amazonas. Moreover,
the Project carried out many studies and recommendations to
solve the problem of land ownership in the Flooded Forests
environment.
123
PV3
Scientific grounds to the Flooded Forest Conservation
PV1
RASEIRA, M; et. al. (Org). ProVárzea/Ibama: resultados e impactos.
[ProVárzea/Ibama: outputs and impacts]. Manaus Ibama/ PróVarzea,
2008. 48 p. (CD-ROM)
The book is available in Portuguese, English and Spanish. It discusses
ProVárzea outputs and impacts at the Solimões / Amazonas Rivers central
channels, in the states of Amazonas and Pará. The Project developed
surveys, tried and supported management practices (fishery, timber,
non-timber and agricultural); strengthened baseline organizations; and,
promoted shared management and monitoring of the use of Flooded
Forest natural resources. The ProVárzea has made investments in
infrastructure and to build intellectual capital; but it has, nonetheless,
invested in the dissemination of the experiences through notebooks,
videos and technical documents. It promoted interchange of experiences
and integration of knowledge. The publication contextualizes the Flooded
Forest, the project, the strategic studies, the public policies subsidized by
the studies, promising initiatives, monitoring and control, impact monitoring
and assessment system, and communication impacts as well. The Project
actions have influenced far beyond the geo-political frontiers, inspiring
the Peruvian government to adopt similar actions to manage the Flooded
Forest in that country. ProVárzea experience can also encourage other
sustainable development initiatives in the Amazon ecosystem or other
sites that experience similar difficulties and potentialities. The publication
is followed by a CD-Rom with the Project publications.
PV2
RIBEIRO, N. V. Atlas da Várzea: Amazônia Brasil. [Flooded Forest Atlas:
Brazilian Amazon]. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2007. 135 p.
The publication is divided in four sections that firstly highlight the
Flooded Forest geographic aspects such as relief, geology, vegetation,
geomorphology, infrastructure implemented, geographic and political
divisions, draining net, additionally to social and economic aspects of the
meso-regions that make up the Flooded Forest. From the second section
onwards, it publishes the results achieved in Strategic Studies, Promising
Initiatives and Monitoring and Control.
124
ALBERNAZ, A. L. Conservação da Várzea: identificação e caracterização
de regiões biogeográficas. [Flooded Forest Conservation: identification and
characterization of bio-geographic regions]. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo,
2007. 354 p.
The book reports the results of the strategic study held by ProVárzea to
identify and characterize the different Flooded Forest regions at the Amazon
River, in terms of geomorphology and communities of plants and animals.
The studies have provided the grounds to an ecological zoning capable
of contributing to define important conservation areas of that environment
and management systems responsive to local conditions. According to the
text, up to now no highly generalized map has succeeded in representing
bio-geographic regions in the Amazon adequate to the Flooded Forest.
That is so because the Flooded Forest has double geological nature. It is
a geological extension of the Andes, and also stretches over geological
regions comprised by the Pre-Andean area, Amazon plain and, finally, the
eastern coastal region represented by the estuary. A synthesis on the kinds
of lives found in the Flooded Forests would be the first step toward explaining
its bio-geographic characteristics. In bio-geographic and ecological terms
the Flooded Forest is a combination of aquatic, terrestrial and arboreous
species. The question posed here is to which extend the flora and fauna of
the Flooded Forest are different or similar along the main stream of its main
river, the Solimões/Amazonas. The book stands for the first step toward
answering that question.
PV4
NESSIMIAN, J. L. et. al. Bases científicas para conservação da várzea –
identificação e caracterização de regiões biogeográficas e indicação
de áreas prioritárias para a conservação: sub-estudo entomofauna
aquática. [Scientific grounds to Flooded Forest conservation – identification
and characterization of bio-geographic areas and indication of priority
conservation areas: sub-study on the aquatic entomofauna]. Manaus Ibama,
2004. 57 p.
The report presents information on the collection of aquatic insects in flooded
areas of the Solimões and Amazonas River’s Flooded Forest. Based on
that information, analyses are carried out trying to establish the general
characteristics of that fauna, track the main taxons distribution. The analyse’s
results are employed to discuss a vision on the existence of defined ecoregions in that system. Among the groups of aquatic insect’s studies, the
orders Odonata, Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Trichoptera
were selected. The areas of study comprise the channel of the Amazonas
River in the Brazilian territory in Tabatinga (Amazonas) and Gurupá (Pará),
passing by the five geographic areas proposed: Gurupá – Paru River; Paru
River – Urucará; Urucará – Manaus; Manaus – Tefé; Tefé – Tabatinga.
125
Bases científicas
para conservação
da várzea
Samplings were collected from 26 sites in those five geographic areas. The
data from the identification and counting of the sorted material were tabulated
and further inputted in a database, jointly with information about each
collection site. The study has contributed to know the aquatic entomofauna
at Solimões/Amazonas River’s Flooded Forest. This was the first survey
standardized in 26 sites along a transaction of about 3,000 km. The five
orders surveyed reported significant increase in the number of occurrences
registered both at the Brazilian Amazon and in the Flooded Forest.
PV5
Relatório
dos estudos
VENTICINQUE, E. M.; REGO, F. A. Relatório dos estudos relativos à
araneofauna das várzeas do rio Amazonas. [Report of studies on the spider
fauna in the Amazonas River Flooded Forests]. Manaus Ibama, 2004. 32 p.
at investigating the trees distribution standards at broader scale, to try
the validity of some geographic variables that could be used as proxies or
surrogates to the distribution of arboreous species in the Flooded Forest
when selecting priority conservation areas. The different bio-geographic
regions in the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers channel were represented by
two proposals on longitudinal dividing. The first one is the WWF dividing into
ecoregions, and the second is the Radam vegetation map. The methodology
to test the longitudinal variation in the composition of Flooded Forest forests
species was through standardized samplings with the minimum variation
as possible of topographic and successional processes effects. This work
shows a general panorama on the distribution of trees and lianas species
along the main Flooded Forest, and stressed the limitation due to the
inaccurate identification of species. In the result, the indication of zones
that mark the existence of different vegetal communities along the Flooded
Forest, presented a distribution that does not match the proposed divisions.
relativos à
araneofauna das
várzeas do rio
Amazonas
The spider fauna in the Flooded Forest is poorly studied and there are few
references on what is known about spiders in Amazonian flooded areas.
According to the studies, the spiders are less aboundant in the Flooded
Forests than in the periodically flooded and dry land forests (Adis et AL.,
1984; Höfer, 1996; Borges e Brescovit, 1996). That is probably because of
the environmental changes ensuing from water level variations which brings
changes to micro-climate, humidity, availability of resources and primary
productivity (Uetz, 1976). The study has collected 10,901 spiders from 33
families, and 4,340 adult spiders were found and used for identification.
105 spiders have been identified until the level of species, and the result
showed strong tendency to reduced number of species from the Upper
Solimões River to the mouth. The rich sampling found in the Amazonas
River was almost twice as much that of the mouth. Another conclusion
that the complexity of the vegetal structure and habitats heterogeneity are
determinant factors to the spider fauna configuration. Thus, such factors
must be considered when characterizing the environment to improve
knowledge about the spider fauna in floodable areas, and to understand
how Flooded Forests contribute to the diversity and wealth of the spider
community in the Amazon.
PV6
Bases
científicas para
a conservação
da várzea
NESSIMIAN, J. L. et. al. Bases científicas para conservação da várzea
– identificação e caracterização de regiões biogeográficas e indicação de
áreas prioritárias para a conservação: contribuição ao conhecimento da
distribuição de árvores. [Scientific grounds to Flooded Forest conservation
– identification and characterization of bio-geographic regions and
recommended priority conservation areas: contribution to knowledge on
trees distribution]. Belém: Ibama, 2004. 62 p.
PV7
CONSERVA, A. S. (Coord.). Bases científicas para conservação
da várzea – identificação e caracterização de regiões biogeográficas:
sub-estudo macrófitas aquáticas. [Scientific grounds to Flooded Forest
conservation – identification and characterization of bio-geographic
areas: sub-study on the aquatic macrophytes]. Belém: Ibama, 2004. 14 p.
(Technical Report)
The study of aquatic macrophytes aimed at identifying and characterizing
bio-geographic regions to provide subsidies to Flooded Forest conservation
strategies, through botanic surveys on sites along the Solimões/Amazonas
Rivers channel with similar and different environmental characteristics.
In terms of diversity, the environmental behavior is homogeneous since
the indexes do not report large variations to standard record, either on
increase of reduction, along the collection sites. Regarding the community’s
analysis through ordering method, most of the sites are pooled in the
same area, and the composition of species in different points recorded
similarity index. The results confirm the homogeneity of environments in
relation to the macrophytes distribution. The results fail in presenting links
to explain the distribution patter, even considering data such as depth and
standardized connectivity. Moreover, these fail in justifying the dividing of
Solimões/Amazonas Rivers Flooded Forests in bio-geographic areas of
macrophytes, placing more emphasis to the aspect of uniformity of such
environment, thus enhancing even more the need of extra care when
defining management and conservation plans to those areas. Here, priority
should be attached to the Upper Solimões River, since any drastic change
on that environment will be reflected on the remainder areas because of
their link through the main river channel.
The study on the contribution to knoweldge about tree distribution aimed
126
127
Bases
científicas para
a conservação
da várzea
PV8
Evolução de
paisagens no
ROSSETTI, D. de F. et. al. Evolução de paisagens no neógeno da
Amazônia: implicações na origem e distribuição da biodiversidade.
[Landscapes evolution in the Amazonian Neogene: implication on the
origin and distribution of biodiversity]. Belém: Ibama, 2004. 26 p.
of the lack of deeper studies on elasmobranchii. Obtaining such data is
even more urgent when considering that the elasmobranchii life strategy
is very different from that of other groups of fish, demanding extra care to
management and conservation.
PV10
neógeno da
Amazônia
This work aims at introducing a geological map to the Amazonas River
channel and vicinities, additionally to the discrimination and characterization
of the Neogene sedimentary successions, by combining radar image analysis
and sedimentologic information collected in field and in the laboratory.
The investigation resulted in the characterization of five sedimentary
successions formed in different deposition settings. The Iça formation has
sedimentary aspects that allow attributing it to a continental environment
of shallow, energetic and with high migration rates channels, typical to
braided and anastomosed streams. The data presented point out gradual
humidity increase, besides significant changes in the deposition settings,
which played a core role in the development of the region’s landscapes,
inducing to changes from the prevailing lacustrine physical environment to
fluvial. Based on the results, it suggests that climatic and tectonic changes
were crucial to the development of the Amazon landscapes in the Neogene
and, therefore, to the increased level of stress in the biotic means. Such
factors, more than the influence of geological arcs, marine transgressions
or fluvial barriers seem to have been the main ones to the origin and current
distribution of the Amazon biodiversity.
PV9
Bases
científicas para
a conservação
da várzea
CHARVET-ALMEIDA, P.; ALMEIDA, M. P. de. Bases científicas para
a conservação da várzea – identificação e caracterização de regiões
biogeográficas: subestudo elasmobrânquios. [Scientific grounds to the Flooded
Forest conservation – identification and characterization of bio-geographic
regions: sub-study on elasmobranchii] Belém: Ibama, 2004. 45 p.
The sharks and rays are part of the Chondrichthyes Class and the
Elasmobranchii Subclass which comprise fish with cartilaginous skeleton.
This study introduces a brief survey on pre-existing information available in
literature about cartilaginous fish, with record for occurrence in the region
of Flooded Forest of the Solimões/Amazonas system channel and data
gathered during the aquatic part of the expedition of the study “Scientific
Basis to Flooded Forest Conservation identification and characterization of
bio-geographic regions”. The field work enabled gathering information on
elasmobranchii in the Solimões/Amazonas system’s Flooded Forest region.
The data collected during the expedition corresponded to 75 samplings
collected, 11 occurrence records, and 84 occurrence reports that could
be effectively regarded. The information collected during this sub-study
should be considered to be preliminary but of utmost relevance, because
128
HONEGGER, R. W. H; HUTCHINGS, R. S. G.; SALLUM, M. A. M. Bases
científicas para a conservação da várzea – identificação e caracterização
de regiões biogeográficas: subestudo mosquitos: distribuição de Culicidae
na várzea ao longo da calha do Rio Solimões/Amazonas. [Scientific grounds
to the Flooded Forest conservation – identification and characterization
of bio-geographic regions: Culicidae distribution along the Solimões/
Amazonas Rivers channel]. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 24 p.
Bases
científicas para
a conservação
da várzea
More than 3,200 species of mosquito (Culicidae) have been described
all over the world. The knowledge on the Culicidae biodiversity is usually
of epidemiological interest, since it enables deeper understanding about
the infectious agent’s transmission dynamic, and on the role played by
Culicidae vectors, thus facilitating the adoption of control measures.
However, in the ecological light the use of Culicidae as definer or indicators
of the environment where these live has been proved. Studies show that
some species or groups of species of Culicidae can serve as accurate
bio-indicators of different levels of degradation in forestry environments.
Considering the biological and ecological features of the mosquitos,
the distribution of Culiciade species could be used as indicators of the
potential geographic differentiation of the Flooded Forest environments
in the Amazon. Therefore, the study aimed at inventorying the Culicidae
in 50 different Flooded Forest sites along the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers
channel. The results reported therein stand for the largest standardized
inventory on Flooded Forest mosquitoes ever, identifying 58 taxons
distributed among 25 different sites.
PV11
VASCONCELOS, H. L. de. Bases científicas para a conservação da várzea
– identificação e caracterização de regiões biogeográficas: sub-estudo
formigas: padrões de distribuição de formigas na várzea amazônica.
[Scientific grounds to the Flooded Forest conservation – identification
and characterization of bio-geographic regions: sub-study on ants – ants
distribution patterns in the Amazonian Flooded Forest]. Manaus Ibama/
ProManejo, 2004. 34 p.
The report aimed at establishing the pattern of ant species distribution at
the Solimões and Amazonas River’s Flooded Forest forests, based on
the assumption that environmental changes ensuing from variations in
the geomorphology and distribution of habitats along the river’s channel
129
Bases
científicas para
a conservação
da várzea
affect the specie’s distribution. According to the methodology applied, the
sampling parcels were established in Flooded Forest forest with the minimum
anthropic impact as possible. To every specie or morpho-specie registered
in two or more parcels it determined the distribution amplitude, evidenced
in the analysis that these are species of restricted geographic distribution.
The diversity of ant species in the Flooded Forest forest was shorter than
in other Amazonian forestry formations, notably the dry land forest where
an equivalent or higher number of species is typically found in shorter
areas. This can be attributed to the effect of period floods in the Flooded
Forest, thus limiting the colonization of forest by ground species. It clearly
differentiates three regions according to the differences in the composition
of ant species and, therefore, the establishment of conservation units in
each region is essential, allowing for the maintenance of every species.
Establishing a unit in one single region would not comprise the remainder
regions with relatively different fauna which would then be endangered.
However, the data collected do not allow for establishing specific areas that
should be converted in conservation areas.
PV12
Bases
científicas para
a conservação
da várzea
ZUANON, J. et. al. Bases científicas para a conservação da várzea
– identificação e caracterização de regiões biogeográficas: padrões de
distribuição da ictiofauna na várzea do sistema Solimões-Amazonas,
entre Tabatinga (AM) e Santana (AP). [Scientific grounds to the Flooded
Forest conservation – identification and characterization of bio-geographic
regions: patterns of fish communities distribution in the Solimões/Amazonas
system’s Flooded Forest, from Tabatinga (Amazonas) to Santana (Amapá)].
Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 52 p.
The study was mainly aimed at analyzing the patterns of fish occurrence
along the Solimões/Amazonas system’s Flooded Forest, attempting to
assess the potential existence of a longitudinal zoning the distribution
of those species. The analysis on the existence of potential different
bio-geographic zones in the Flooded Forest is a key condition to define
conservation strategies to that environment in the Amazon. The work
gathered information on fish species distribution patterns along the
Solimões/Amazonas Rivers’ Flooded Forest, obtained from three main kinds
of source: published works on Taxonomic and Systematic review; database
maintained by the Inpa researchers; and collections with standardized effort
in beach and aquatic macrophytes environments, carried out during a great
field expedition. Depending on the characteristics of the fish community and
habitats shown, as well as on the presence of exclusive species, three great
areas were proposed: the Flooded Forest upstream Manaus (the richest
part in terms of species, housing the largest number of exclusive species
and highest internal fish community similarity); the area between Almeirim
and Santana (the most differentiated in terms of environment structure and
dynamic, with the fauna marked by the presence of fish species typical to the
estuary); and the intermediary area between the those areas (probably the
less well known, under strong influence of the clear-water affluent rivers).
130
PV13
ALBERNAZ, A. L. et. al. Bases científicas para a conservação da
várzea: identificação e caracterização de regiões biogeográficas e de
áreas prioritárias para a conservação [Scientific grounds to the Flooded
Forest conservation: identification and characterization of bio-geographic
regions and priority conservation areas] (Integration Report). Belém:
Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 28 p.
Bases
científicas para
a conservação
da várzea
The study aimed at employing techniques of systematic conservation
planning techniques, considered the investigation on the existence of
different bio-geographic regions along the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers
channel as the main contribution. It recommended some divisions, defined
by physical characteristics. This study is the first attempt to try the existence
of distinct areas and which would these be. It pursued the link between the
recommended divisions and the species distribution through bibliographical
surveys which have – with no exception – pointed out insufficient data and
the need of carrying out field surveys, integrating ten sub-studies resulting
from data collection. The results disclose strong evidences on the existence
of regions that differ in biodiversity, although other groups have undergone
gradual replacement of species, or replace with different limits. Therefore, to
include most of the biological communities found along the Flooded Forest, the
recommended Conservation Units should be distributed all along the Solimões/
Amazonas system, notably downstream Manaus. One of the most enabling
factors to planning is that less than 1% of the areas reported high values of
irreplaceability. This result can define the top-down goals and provide higher
flexibility to accommodate other relevant criteria such as ecological integrity,
and favorable political and social conditions. Finally, one should bear in mind
that the entire Flooded Forest could be considered to be one single system.
Therefore, conservation should not be thought only as Conservation Units,
but through the promotion of more sustainable ways of using it as a whole,
placing special attention to areas closer to the headwaters, since the impacts
upstream the river impact other areas of the basin.
PV14
ALBERNAZ, A. L. (Coord.). Bases científicas para a conservação da
várzea: identificação e caracterização de regiões biogeográficas e de
áreas prioritárias para a conservação [Scientific grounds to the Flooded
Forest conservation: identification and characterization of bio-geographic
regions and priority conservation areas]. Ibama/ ProVárzea/ MPEG/
FADESP, [s.d.]. 10 p.
This study aimed at employing conservation systematic planning techniques
to contribute to the Amazon Flooded Forest environment conservation. It
aimed not only at protecting the biological diversity, but also at maintaining
important duties performed, and promoting the region’s environmental and
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Bases
científicas para
a conservação
da várzea
social sustainability. The methodological definition was anchored in the
response to what would be more relevant in terms of species distribution.
Therefore, it prioritized the longitudinal sampling, electing the most regular
sampling sites along the Solimões/Amazonas channel. The inclusion of
the perimeter modifier tended to pool the areas, pointing out the nuclei
favorable to the establishment of larger Conservation Units. When the cost
function was included, it changed some of the areas initially recommended,
which could lead to reduced value of the areas closest to the cities whose
biodiversity is already endangered. The results have expanded the
knowledge on biodiversity and the detailed geological map at the Amazon
western region. Moreover, it innovated offering the first opportunity of
employing support algorithms to select priority conservation areas in
the Brazilian Amazon, since up to then the best contributions included
representativeness analyses.
Notebooks
PV15
DAMASCENO, J. M; MACHADO, J. O.; ALMEIDA, L. H. Manejo Comunitário
do Pirarucu: organização e acordo resultam em fartura. [Communitybased Management of the Pirarucu (freshwater cod): organization and
agreement lead to abundance.] Manaus Ibama/ProVárzea, 2008. 28 p.
(Iniciativas Promissoras, 5)
This notebook is a tool to publicize and disseminate the actions developed
by the Participatory Community-Based Fishery Resources Management
Program in Maiana Sector (Manejo Comunitário Participativo dos Recursos
Pesqueiros no Setor Maiana). The project was developed by the Fonte Boa
Municipal Institute of Sustainable Development (Instituto de Desenvolvimento
Sustentável do Município de Fonte Boa) and supported by the ProVárzea/
Ibama. The project has emphasized the community-based management of
Pirarucu fishing – the biggest freshwater fish in the world. The indiscriminate
exploitation of that species until early in 2000 brought about two serious
problems: reduced number of animals in nature, endangering the species, and
the deterioration of the riparian people’s quality of life, leading them to migrate
to the cities. Therefore, the introduction and dissemination of communitybased organization were toiled, also considering the strengthening of natural
resources conservation actions and the permanence of traditional peoples
in their lands. The first part of the notebook approaches the importance of
getting the community organized, holding meetings to discuss the fishery
situation. On the second part, it shows ways of dealing with conflicts and
enter agreements, how the working areas should be defined, how the
pirarucu stocks should be counted. The next part approaches the pirarucu
characteristics, the defeso (time when fishing is prohibited), threats and
management ways. The last part discloses the management system stages
and how to enter fishery agreements, and assess the system implemented.
132
In brief, the pirarucu management demands lakes characterization in
three types: 1) Procreation or Preservation Lakes – nobody is expected to
touch the waters; 2) Maintenance Lakes – serve to get food to the familie’s
everyday livelihood; and, 3) Management Lakes – where fishery for trading is
allowed, mediating the rules established by law and those agreed on through
community-based treaties.
PV16
BOCARDE, F.; LIMA, N. Construindo Acordos de Pesca: experiências
de gestão participativa em Parintins, Amazonas [Building Fishery
Agreements: experiences on participatory management in Parintins, state of
Amazonas]. Brasilia: Ibama, 2008. 28 p.
The publication works on the relevance of community-based management
and fishery agreements as strategies to maintain fishery stocks in the
Amazon. It brings information to facilitate the discussions, assist planning
and actions by those interested in managing fishing activities through fishery
agreements. In the first part, it explains what a fishery agreement stands for;
then, it introduces the fishery history and development in the Amazon with
the use of new technologies and changes in the political setting. The text
shows the emergence of fishery agreements and their legalization by the
command and control body, besides reporting on fishery agreements in the
state of Amazonas. Moreover, it presents a case study on fishery agreements
in Parintins, concluding with the lessons learned from that process.
PV17
LARROBLA, R. Domesticando o Monitoramento e Avaliação: guia
para aproveitamento do monitoramento e avaliação, baseado nas lições
aprendidas na execução de projetos que envolvem recursos naturais e
comunidade. [Domesticating Monitoring and Assessment: a handbook to
use monitoring and assessment based on the lessons learned from the
execution of projects involving natural resources and community]. Manaus
Ibama/ProManejo, 2008. 32 p.
The notebook serves as a guide to better use Monitoring and Assessment,
drawing on the example of the ProVárzea and ProManejo projects
implementation. The publication aims at reporting the data gathered from
the project’s experiences, to assist the planning and execution of any
Monitoring and Assessment system to new projects. Both the ProVárzea
and the ProManejo have developed a monitoring system, with different
criteria and results, facing theoretical and practical difficulties that required
continuous decisions and prompt solutions. The systematization of that
knowledge was gathered in a publication to assist other technicians with
the monitoring and assessment of project’s results.
133
PV18
PV20
RASEIRA, M. B. Monitoramento Participativo de Acordo de Pesca:
como avaliar a captura de pescado. [Participatory Management of the
Fishery Agreement: how to assess the fishery capture]. Manaus Ibama/
ProManejo, 2007. 24 p.
The publication shows how the ProVárzea has monitored some fishery
agreements employing a simple and low-cost methodology. The proposal
is to engage communities in the monitoring of the fishery agreements. In
the last years many communities in the Amazon region have elaborated
fishery agreements that set the rules for accessing and using the fishery
resources in a given region or area. But little has been done to assess the
actual effectiveness of the fishery agreements, notably regarding the increase
of fishery productivity. The monitoring presented in the notebook could
assess the results, allowing for adjustments to improve even more the fishery
resources management.
SANTOS, M. O Desenvolvimento Rural de Parintins – 2005 a 2012.
[Parintins Rural Development – 2005 to 2012]. Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo,
2006. 28 p.
The notebook shows in simple language the result of the diagnosis carried
out on the municipality of Parintins, Amazonas. It shows the actions
proposed to reach 2012 with better rural development capable of better
meeting the needs of the region farmers’ families. Those actions are part
of the Parintins Municipal Plan on Rural Sustainable Development (Plano
Municipal de Desenvolvimento Rural Sustentável de Parintins), which was
prepared in a participatory way, containing data on the municipality reality
regarding infrastructure, transport, communication, health, education
and, above all, rural production. The actions recommended in the Plan
are divided in four major areas: sustainable uses of natural resources;
expansion of local production trading; incentive to social organizations;
and, improvement of rural infrastructure.
PV19
PV21
SCHMAL, B. et. al. Óleos da Amazônia – os cheiros da floresta em
vidrinhos: manejo comunitário de produtos florestais não-madeireiros
e fortalecimento local no município de Silves-AM. [Amazonian oils – the
forest scents in glasses: community-based management of non-timber
forestry products, and local strengthening of the municipality of Silves,
state of Amazonas] Manaus Ibama/ProVárzea, 2006. 28 p. (Iniciativas
Promissoras, 4)
The notebook approaches experiences on non-timber forestry management,
and local strengthening in the municipality of Silves, state of Amazonas. The
analysis carried out by the Amazonian Green Life Association (Associação
Vida Verde Amazônica – Avive) facilitates getting to know details on that
management, and learn a little more about some of the species used:
andiroba, copaíba, cumaru, breu and puxuri. The project develops the
sustainable use of the region biodiversity among Avive’s female members
and small farmers from 12 communities of Silves. The process involves
processing branches, leafs, seeds and resin of aromatic and medicinal
plants to extract scent oils to produce soap, candles, incenses, creams
and aromatic sachets which are traded to other states and countries.
134
IBAMA. PROVÁRZEA. Manejo comunitário de camarões. [Communitybases shrimp management] Manaus 2005. 27 p. (Coleção Cartilhas
Iniciativas Promissoras)
The sub-project Community-based Management of Forestry and Fishery
Resources in Flooded Forest areas in the Municipality of Gurupá (state of Pará)
(Manejo Comunitário dos Recursos Florestais e de Pesca em Áreas de Várzea
no Município de Gurupá (PA)) works jointly with the riparian populations on
ways to use the forestry wealth that could entail benefits to local families, while
conserving nature in the areas where they live. It is trying ways of using products
like shrimp and forestry products like timber, açaí and andiroba. The notebook
intends to continue disseminating that work. It evidences that the Amazonian
resources conservation is also found in simple and efficient technologies. The
material also warns about the significant reduction of freshwater shrimps in
Brazil. Among others, the main reasons for that scarcity are: increased pollution;
destruction of reproduction areas, and overfishing. In 1998 the families from the
Flooded Forest area of the municipality of Gurupá, in the state of Pará, started
adopting traps (called matapis) and breeding sites after observing for years the
conditions for shrimps to survive in those devices. That is how the project on
Community-based Management of Freshwater Shrimp (Manejo Comunitário
de Camarão de Água Doce) was brought into existence. The project is now
present in eight communities, involving about 150 families from the Gurupá
islands. It is also being implemented in the municipalities of Abaetetuba,
Igarapé-mirim and Cametá, in the Lower Tocantins River region, and already
receives demands from other states. The notebook clearly shows how one
can organize the shrimp production, and the potential benefits to participants
and to the Flooded Forest environment at large.
135
PV22
PV24
IBAMA. PROVÁRZEA. Criação de abelhas sem ferrão. [Stingless
beekeeping] Manaus Ibama/ProVárzea, 2005. 27 p. (Coleção Cartilhas
Iniciativas Promissoras)
IBAMA. PROVÁRZEA. A vida da piramutaba e da dourada. [The
piramutaba and dourada lives]. Manaus Ibama/ProVárzea, 2005. 24 p.
(Coleção Cartilhas Iniciativas Promissoras)
This notebook ensues from a team work developed by the sub-project Bees
and Pollinization of Flooded Forests Plants [Abelhas e Polinização de Plantas
da Várzea] which is part of the ProVárzea Promising Initiatives component.
This sub-project aims at teaching riparian peoples of indigenous or nonindigenous community to keep stingless bees in wood boxes developed by the
Bee Research Group of the National Amazonian Research Institute (Instituto
Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia – Inpa). The wood boxes would allow bees
to easily produce and reproduce, preventing cutting trees to collect honey. This
manual intends to contribute with the dissemination of the stingless beekeeping
technology in the Amazon. The notebook starts by introducing the main groups
of stingless bees and the advantages of keeping them. Then it shows the
different kinds of management; teaches how to manufacture the box; local
preparation; how to capture the bees; the need for strengthening and multiplying
the colonies; and, the best way of collecting and trading.
ProVárzea carried out a study on the piramutaba’s and dourada’s lives,
also known as big migrating catfish. One of the main objectives was
to warn population about the capture of very young fish, showing the
specie’s life cycle. The target audience was mainly composed of artisanal
and industrial fishermen who can contribute to preserve the migrating
catfish. In the final remarks, the material discloses the need for a fishery
management plan comprising the Amazon region as a whole, from Belém
to Bolivia, Peru and Colombia – the sites where the piramutaba and
dourada population circulates.
PV25
IBAMA. PROVÁRZEA. A posse da terra no ambiente de várzea: debates
para uma possível solução. [Land ownership in the Flooded Forest
environment: debates toward a likely solution]. Manaus Ibama/ProVárzea,
2005. 24 p. (Coleção Cartilhas Iniciativas Promissoras)
PV23
IBAMA. PROVÁRZEA. Projeto Pé-de-Pincha: parceria de futuro para
conservar quelônios na várzea amazônica. [Pé-de-Pincha Project:
promising partnership to conserve chelonians in the Amazonian Flooded
Forest]. Manaus Ibama/ProVárzea, 2005. 27 p. (Coleção Cartilhas
Iniciativas Promissoras)
This notebook ensues from a team work developed by the Pé-de-Pincha
Project which is part of the ProVárzea Promising Initiatives component.
The Pé-de-Pincha Project teaches local students, teachers and riparian
populations to protect the chelonian eggs spawned on the beaches at the
Solimões/Amazonas River’s Flooded Forest so that the eggs can produce
offspring to nature. It also fosters the commercial raising in confinement.
The project reaches about 68 Flooded Forest communities in seven
municipalities of the states of Amazonas (AM) and Pará (PA): Parintins
(AM), Barreirinha (AM), Boa Vista do Ramos (AM), Nhamundá (AM), Terra
Santa (PA), Oriximiná (PA) and Juriti (PA). The notebook aims at contributing
to disseminate the chelonian management technique developed by the Péde-Pincha Project to expand the chelonian population in the rivers. Today,
the most threatening factors to the specie are as follow: larger number of
fishermen; cattle farming in the Flooded Forest, damaging the chelonian
nests; use to consumption and/or sale of eggs; natural predators; and,
increased illegal trading of wild life.
136
ProVárzea has carried out a study about the land ownership structure in
floodable areas that shows how the legal rules deal with the mater, and
how land ownership effectively takes place in the region. The study has
recommended solutions for residents to have rights to use the land where
they have been living for generations. The notebook points out the main
issues approached in the study, didactically presenting the how land
ownership works and is structured in Flooded Forest areas, as well as the
proposals on land ownership legalization in those areas. The publication
aims at subsidizing the communities and social agents involved in the
debate on Flooded Forest land legalization.
PV26
IBAMA. PROVÁRZEA. A Pesca na Região Amazônica. [Fishery in the
Amazon Region] Manaus Ibama/ProVárzea, 2005. 24 p. (Coleção Cartilhas
Iniciativas Promissoras)
The notebook is mainly intended at showing the complex links between
fishermen and the remainder persons involved with fishery, as well as the
fishermen/environment relations along the Amazonas/Solimões Rivers
channel. Generally speaking, the work approaches: fishery demand;
agents involved in the fishery industry; socio-economic profile of the sector
137
stakeholders; and, environmental issues related to the fishery legislation.
First of all, it developed studies to identify where most of the production is
found, and most of the fishery is unloaded in the North region. Following
were the outstanding sites: Belém, Abaetetuba, Santarém, Manaus, Tefé,
Manacapuru, Parintins, Tabatinga/Letícia (the last two are municipalities
with strongly interlinked commerce). Another aspect approached is the
fishermen’s living conditions. It surveyed the main health conditions among
different profiles of fishermen and boat owners in the region, stressing out
that such conditions are worsened by the poor medical care in the region
and by the incompliance to occupational safety rules. It also presents other
day-to-day aspects: education, housing, water, electric power and waste.
Regarding the fishermen’s concern about fishery resources conservation,
the notebook discloses many suggestions like, for example, inspection on
predatory fishery and guidance to the community to assist preserving lakes
during the defenso (time when fishing is prohibited) period.
PV27
OVIEDO, A; VASQUEZ, R.; RUFFINO, M. L. Acordos de Pesca: a
comunidade é quem faz. [Fishery Agreements: the community does it].
Brasilia: WWF Brasil, Ibama/ ProVárzea, 2003. 24 p.
The uncontrolled fishing in the Amazon causes fish reduction in rivers
and lakes and the consequent scarcity of that important source of food
to riparian communities. Moreover, it worsens the conflicts among
fishermen. In the last few years non-governmental organizations,
universities and governments have endeavored to build more formal
management structures to reduce conflicts along the Amazonas and
Solimões River channel. The work is partnership between the WWF
Brazil and ProVárzea to disseminate the key role played by communitybased management and fishery agreements to keep the fishery
stocks in the Amazon. The material employs illustrations to show the
importance of management to all the community members. Another
aspect that is emphasized is the effort of communities that have
already development management experiences by their own. Ibama
has recognized the effort and enacted the Normative Instruction that
rules the fishery agreements. It also presents important suggestions
on aspects that should be approached in the agreements if these are
to be legitimated.
138
PV28
DALLEY, B.; NERY, C. (Resp.). Iniciativas Promissoras. [Promising
Initiatives] [S.l.]: Ibama/ProVárzea, [s.d.]. 40 p.
The notebook introduces – in English and Portuguese – the seven initiatives
supported by the ProVárzea Promising Initiatives component up to then.
Following are the projects supported: Project on Flooded Forest Natural
Resources Conservation through Ecological Tourism and Participatory
Management in the region of Silves, in the state of Amazonas; Communitybased Management of Forestry and Fishery Resources in Flooded Forest
Areas in the municipality of Gurupá, state of Pará; Flooded Forest Lakes
Management Project in the Region of Tefé, in Amazonas; Artisanal
Fishermen Capacity-building Center; Strengthening of Rood Institutions
to the Participatory Management of Fishery Resources: Strengthening
Communication and the Organization of Users and Institutions dealing with
the Sustainable Use of Flooded Forest Natural Resources; Environmental
Education and Sustainable Use of the Flooded Forest in the Ticuna and
Upper Solimões River Indigenous Areas.
Fishery Statistics
PV29
THOMÉ-SOUZA, M. J. F. (Org.). Estatística Pesqueira do Amazonas
e do Pará – 2004. [Fishery Statistics to Amazonas and Pará – 2004].
Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo, 2007. 74 p.
The Statistical Bulletin on Continental Fishery in the Amazonas and Solimões
Rivers (Boletim Estatístico da Pesca Continental nos rios Amazonas e
Solimões) provides consolidated data on fishery activities at the channels
of those important water basins. The data are oriented to authorities and
the civil society at large. From 2001 to 2004 the ProVárzea fishery statistics
have monitored the data on fishery unloading, as a result of a joint effort
by many institutions. The 2004 bulletin closes the publications cycle which
started in 2001. In those years the structure assembled allowed hiring
co-responsible institutions to collect data and input them to the central
database, which was managed by ProVárzea. By middle 2005 the Project
raised resources to survey data. But the end of the financial contributions
of some institutions has brought collections to an end. It provides fishery
information from 17 municipalities, nine of which in the State of Amazonas,
and eight in the State of Pará. The document gathers data and information
139
on the capture of main fishery species in the region; fishery effort; fishery
price; fishing fleet; fishing environments; and devices seized in the main
markets and fairs of the municipalities reached by the ProVárzea. The
Statistic Bulletin contributes to the formulation of sustainable use policies in
the Amazon region, meeting the expectation of different segments involved
with local fishing. In 2004 the bulletin confirmed the information provided in
the prior years. The Amazonas state accounts for 70% of the total fishery
unloaded, equivalent to 33 thousand tons of fishery. The main species
unloaded in Pará were the mapará, dourada and pescada. In Amazonas,
in turn, the main species unloaded were the jaraqui, pacu and curimatã.
PV30
RUFFINO, M. L. (Coord.). Estatística Pesqueira do Amazonas e do Pará
– 2003. [Fishery Statistics to Amazonas and Pará – 2003]. Manaus: Ibama/
ProManejo, 2005. 80 p.
The Statistical Bulletin on Continental Fishery in the Amazonas and
Solimões Rivers (Boletim Estatístico da Pesca Continental nos rios
Amazonas e Solimões) provides consolidated data on fishery activities at
the channels of those important water basins. The data are oriented to
authorities and the civil society at large. It provides fishery information from
17 municipalities, nine of which in the State of Amazonas, and eight in
the State of Pará. Supported by the Ibama/Difap/CGREP and under the
ProVárzea technical coordination, the existing databases were also used
in other institutions. The document gathers data and information on the
capture of main fishery species in the region; fishery effort; fishery price;
fishing fleet; fishing environments; and devices seized in the main markets
and fairs of the municipalities reached by the ProVárzea. The Statistic
Bulletin contributes to the formulation of sustainable use policies in the
Amazon region, meeting the expectation of different segments involved
with local fishing. The Amazonian system is a peculiar region that houses
complex factors and variables that determine the fishing characteristics,
among which the changed to environment caused by the demographic
growth of the Flooded Forest areas; innovative capture techniques;
diffuse fishing; and, large number of vessels involved in the sector. The
methodology employed was the filling-in of forms. Data consistence was
analyzed, avoiding failures or recording errors. In 2003 the total unloading
in the 17 municipalities along the Amazonas and Solimões Rivers reaches
little more than 51 thousand tons, of which 37,289 t (72.6%) is from the
state of Amazonas, and 14,061 t (27.4%) from the state of Pará.
140
PV31
RUFFINO, M. L. (Coord.). Estatística Pesqueira do Amazonas e do Pará
– 2002. [Fishery Statistics to Amazonas and Pará – 2002]. Manaus: Ibama/
ProManejo, 2005. 77 p.
The second fishery bulletin to the states of Amazonas and Pará ensued
from a service contract between Ibama and the Emílio Göeldi Museum
of Pará (Museu Paraense Emílio Göeldi – MPEG), the Federal University
of Amazonas (Ufam), the Amazon Institute of Environmental Resources
Management (Instituto Amazônico de Manejo dos Recursos Ambientais –
Iara) and the Mamirauá Civil Society (SCM). The fishery statistic system
implemented by ProVárzea has been developed since 2001. It employed
a multi-institutional approach to monitor – through a data collection system
in the main markets – the unloading of fishery in 17 municipalities from
the states of Amazonas and Pará, within the ProVárzea working area.
The project directly contributes to the fishery management and system
in the Amazon region, since the information on capture monitoring foster
the enforcement of a proper policy to the fishery sustainable development,
thus facilitating the decision-making process of the governmental bodies
in charge of fishery management. The document pools data in five kinds
of tables (species, fishing environment, fishing art, kind of vessel and
average price in the first trading), represented by comparative graphs
that complement a series of information on the fishery unloading at the
municipalities monitored. Data was collected after the fishery unloading in
each municipality, through structured interviews with proper questionnaires
applied to the officers in charge of the vessels. In 2002 the total unloading
in the 17 municipalities along the Amazonas and Solimões Rivers reaches
little more than 40 thousand tons, of which 24,138 t (60.13%) is from the
state of Amazonas, and 16,000 t (39.87%) from the state of Pará.
PV32
RUFFINO, M. L. (Coord.). Estatística Pesqueira do Amazonas e do Pará
– 2001. [Fishery Statistics to Amazonas and Pará – 2001]. Manaus: Ibama/
ProManejo, 2002. 73 p.
ProVárzea has supported institutions and projects that historically collect
data on fish capture and effort, notably along the Amazonas River channel.
In a systematized and consolidated way the study informs on the fishery
production unloaded at the municipalities monitored by the Project, and
assists discussions and definitions of political-administrative measures
that facilitate the sustainable exploitation of fishery resources in the
Brazilian Amazon Flooded Forest. However, gathering data on fishery
production was a hard task, notably due to large distances and the complex
141
geography of the Amazon. Another outstanding point in that work was the
huge proportion of artisanal fishing observed in the region. The following
municipalities have directly participated in the report: Abaetetuba, Alenquer,
Alvarães, Belém, Coari, Fonte Boa, Itacoatiara, Manacapuru, Manaus,
Monte Alegre, Óbidos, Oriximiná, Parintins, Prainha, Santarém, Tabatinga,
and Tefé. Ando ProVárzea hired the services of institutions that were
already monitoring the fishery unloading, like the Emílio Göeldi Museum
of Pará (Museu Paraense Emílio Göeldi – MPEG), the Federal University
of Amazonas (Ufam), the Amazon Institute of Environmental Resources
Management (Instituto Amazônico de Manejo dos Recursos Ambientais –
Iara) and the Mamirauá Civil Society (SCM).
PV33
Censo Estatístico
Comunitário – CEC nas
Comunidades de Várzea
da Área Piloto do
ProVárzea no Município
MOTA, S. Q. C.; AQUINO, A. S.; RUFFINO, M. L. Censo Estatístico
Comunitário – CEC nas Comunidades de Várzea da Área Piloto do
ProVárzea no Município de Parintins-AM [Community Statistic Center
(CEC) at the Flooded Forest Communities in the Pilot Pro-Várzea Pilot
Area in the Municipality of Parintins – state of Amazonas] (Preliminary
Report). Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2002. 136 p.
de Parintins-AM
The Community Statistic Census at Flooded Forest communities in the pilot
area of Parintings, state of Amazonas, was integral part of the ProVárzea
Monitoring and Control component. Following were the main objectives:
collect socio-economic data at Flooded Forest communities in Parintins;
and, training local technicians and partner institutions. The ProVárzea
project tried to fill in the knowledge gap found in the Flooded Forest region
of Parintins, recommending measures of sustainable management and
development. It visited 29 communities from eight Flooded Forest regions.
The meetings with the communities were booked in such a way as to
enable mobilizing everyone. Regarding socio-economic and organizational
aspects of the Parintins Flooded Forest communities, it found that the region
population is mostly composed by migrants from Pará, Maranhão, Ceará
and other regions of Parintins. Some communities have been established
over 100 years ago. The current structure of many communities results
from the Catholic Church organization. The economic activities developed
in the region are for livelihood and comprise fishing, agriculture, extractive
activities, and small livestock farming. The report also discloses other data
like housing, water, health, electric power and education.
142
Flooded Forests Natural Resources Management
PV34
VIDAL, M. D. (Org). Experiências de Manejo dos Recursos Naturais
na Várzea Amazônica. [Experiences on the Amazonian Flooded Forests
Natural Resources Management] Manaus Ibama/ ProVárzea, 2008. 64 p.
(Documentos Técnicos, 5)
Despite the productive capacity and the natural resilience of the Flooded
Forest areas, the occupation and use of soil and water resources in those
areas are leading to the gradual degradation of that ecosystem. In order
to change the scenario being outlined in the last decade, the Flooded
Forests Natural Resources Management Project (Projeto Manejo dos
Recursos Naturais da Várzea – ProVárzea/Ibama) has promoted, though
it’s Component 2 – Promising Initiatives, the support to projects that could
develop innovative natural resources management systems and which
were potentially sustainable in the social, economic and environmental light.
Moreover, the projects should be replicable not only in other areas of the
Amazon Flooded Forest, but also in other regions of the country. The projects
have developed actitivies in thirteen municipalities of the state of Amazonas,
and five municipalities of the state of Pará, directly reaching about 9,750
persons. The supported project’s actions have fostered the implementation
of many fishery agreements. The agreements were formalized through
ten Normative Instructions issued by Ibama and outlined and/or re-issued
influenced by the project’s actions. The fishery agreements have contributed
to reducing conflicts between fishermen, since they participate directly
in the formulation of management proposals aimed at meeting their own
interests. Moreover, those agreements have played an important role in the
development of fishing communities, besides contributing to decentralize the
natural resources management procedures. That is to say that the process of
intensifying management and local organizational development practices gave
rise to a new model of shared natural resources management. Additionally
to conserving fishery stock and fostering social mobilization, the supported
projects have facilitated the dissemination of technologies developed
through interchanges between fishermen from different communities and
municipalities. The most comprehensive experiences have allowed the
establishment of partnerships between root institutions and public bodies,
facilitating the referral of the social, economic and environmental demands
of the riparian populations.
143
PV35
PV38
MITLEWSKI, B. Co-gestão na terra das águas: sistematização final
do Projeto Manejo dos Recursos Naturais da Várzea - ProVárzea [Comanagement in the waters land: final systematization of the Flooded
Forests Natural Resources Management Project – ProVárzea/PPG7].
Manaus: Ibama/ Provárzea, GTZ, 2007. (CD-Rom)
The book starts by characterizing the environmental and social aspects of
the Amazonas/Solimões system. It introduces the main problems that led
to the ProVárzea implementation. The publication also details the planning
stage and then reconstituted the Project’s execution and impacts. It ends
by showing the systematization of information focusing on the perspectives
to continue the actions started by the ProVárzea.
VIDAL, M. D.; Souza, M. T. Iniciativas Promissoras: um Caminho para
Sustentabilidade na Várzea Amazônica. [Promising Initiatives: a Way to
Sustainability in the Amazon Flooded Forest]. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo,
2007. 46 p.
The publication was designed with the purpose of disseminating the
main achievements, lessons learned and the economic, social and
environmental impacts of 23 projects supported by the ProVárzea. The
publication is oriented to technicians, decision-makers linked to projects
and institutions that develop natural resources management activities in
the Amazonian Flooded Forests.
PV39
PV36
ANDRADE, P. C. M.(Org.). Criação e Manejo de Quelônios na Amazônia.
[Farming and Managing Chelonian in the Amazon]. Manaus Ibama/
ProManejo, 2007. 528 p.
The book discloses the results of studies carried out by the Federal University
of Amazonas (Ufam) and Ibama with the chelonian farmers in the Amazon
in the last ten years. It aims at serving as didactic and consultation material
to producers and technicians willing to obtain compiled information on the
techniques of farming and managing chelonian in the Amazon Flooded
Forest areas.
Fortalecimento do
de Desenvolvimento
Rural Sustentável de
Parintins
The book discloses the outputs achieved by the Municipal Sustainable
Rural Development Council of Nhamundá in its path toward building a
shared development project to the municipality. More than the designed
plant, it shows the efforts by civil society representatives, family-based
farmers, extractive workers, technicians from different institutions
in the mediation, reflection and decision-making process to define a
sustainable future. The strategy to effectively reaching that future is
to foster the economic development grounded on social justice and
solidarity-based relationships.
PV40
PV37
Conselho Municipal
COUTO, R. (Org.). Plano Municipal de Desenvolvimento Rural Sustentável
de Nhamundá. [Municipal Sustainable Rural Development Plan of
Nhamundá]. Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo, 2007. 528 p.
AQUINO, A. (Org.). Fortalecimento do Conselho Municipal de
Desenvolvimento Rural Sustentável de Parintins. [Strengthening the
Municipal Sustainable Rural Development Council of Parintins]. Manaus
Ibama/ProManejo, 2007. 88 p.
The book was elaborated with the participation of rural communities
and governmental and non-governmental organizations from the rural
sector of Partintis. Besides describing the experience of the Municipal
Sustainable Rural Development Council of Parintins, the publication
discloses the Council’s achievements, potentialities and limitations, and
the contact network as well. Therefore, the book aims at subsidizing the
experience expansion, and strengthen other municipal sustainable rural
development councils.
144
FLOODED FORESTS NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PROJECT
- PROVÁRZEA Workshop: geotecnologias aplicadas às áreas de várzea da
Amazônia. [Worshop: geotechnologies applied to the Amazonian Flooded
Forest areas] Manaus Ibama, 2007. 104 p.
The Geographic Information System to the Flooded Forest is part of the
ProVárzea component on monitoring and control. It is in charge of storing
and analyzing data capable of subsidizing the Flooded Forest natural
resources management process. The use of geotechnology to generate
data allows designing maps that are crucial to the zoning and categorization
of lakes, providing inputs to the discussion on and elaboration of fishery
agreements, por example. The book introduces 15 cases of use of that
technology, lay the modeling of ProVárzea geographic information system;
145
the project Atlas; the use of a geographic information system and fishery
statistics bank to monitor fishing in the Amazon; and, the hydrological
monitoring of critical events: flow and low-waters in the Western Amazon.
PV41
PETRERE JÚNIOR, M. (Coord.). O Setor Pesqueiro na Amazônia:
situação atual e tendências. [Fishery Sector in the Amazon: current
situation and tendencies]. 2 ed. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2007. 122 p.
The publication develops a socio-economic characterization of the fishery
activity, the fishery trading structure at the Solimões/Amazonas channel,
and the fishery industry in the Amazon. It surveys the exploitation of stocks
of curimatão, jaraqui, surubim and tambaqui fish, through a critical analysis
on the enforceability of the fishery-related legislation. It also analyzes the
public policies oriented to enable fishing. The book is composed of five
chapters. Its general purpose is to analyze the socio-economic development
tendencies in the Brazilian Amazon fishery sector to provide subsidies to
the design of public policies proposals.
PV43
COSTA, F. de A. A Agropecuária na Economia de Várzea da Amazônia:
os desafios do desenvolvimento sustentável. [Agriculture and livestock in
the Amazonian Flooded Forest Economics: challengs to the sustainable
development]. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2006. 202 p.
The publication discloses the diagnosis and analysis of productive
processes in the agricultural sector at the Solimões/Amazonas River
Flooded Forest, showing the main social and economic players. It analyzes
the public policies and incentives to the agricultural and livestock sector
in the region, forecasting the tendencies of different economic systems in
the Flooded Forest, thus outlining potential scenarios of resources use in
the forthcoming years. In part I, the book presents the Flooded Forest’s
human occupation background, its current use, agriculture and dynamic
macroeconomics of the Flooded Forest, as well as the rural production
status. Part II approaches the region-oriented public policies, and the
Flooded Forest economic tendencies and perspectives, as well. In the
conclusion, the work summarizes the outputs and drafts the strategic
needs to the region’s development, besides making recommendations to
subsidize public policies focusing on local development.
PV42
PV44
FLOODED FORESTS NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PROJECT
- PROVÁRZEA Conferência Internacional – Manaus (4-7/dez. 2006) –
Conservação e desenvolvimento na Várzea: aprendendo com o passado,
construindo o futuro – relatório final. [International Conference – Manaus
(Dec 4-7 2006) – Conservation and Development in the Flooded Forest:
learning from the past, building the future – final report. Manaus Ibama/
ProManejo, 2007. 50 p.
The book gathers the main findings and proposals on the topics presented,
discussed and systematized during the International Conference on
Conservation and Development in the Flooded Forest: Learning from the
Past, Building the Future”, held in Manaus in December 2006. The Conference
aimed at assessing and discussing the progress achieved regarding the
knowledge about biodiversity conservation projects and Flooded Forest
development one decade after the conference held in Macapá in December
1994. The document also discloses the proposals ensuing from the
Conference which should now compose a new agenda of recommendations
on surveys and public policies to the Flooded Forest areas at the Solimões
and Amazonas Rivers.
146
ALMEIRA, O. T. de. A Indústria Pesqueira na Amazônia. [Fishery Industry
in the Amazon] Manaus Ibama/ ProVárzea, 2006. 110 p. (Coleção Estudos
Estratégicos)
The publication introduces the Amazonian fishery industry diagnosis,
with information about the market and products. The work ensues from
a secondary data survey and interviews with 20 freezer warehouses in
the states of Amazonas and Pará. The authors analyze the introduction
of new products and species in the market, as well as the associated
tendencies, and conclude by characterizing the existing and potential
labor force. The text concludes that despite the good market perspectives,
natural resources management plays an increasingly important role to
the fishery stocks sustainability. It has also assessed the sector economy.
In brief, there are signs that investments should be related and/or
depend on the management of good fishery resources management
practices. By the end, the authors make some recommendations on the
sector sustainability, since the main problems are related to the reduced
abundance of fishery resources.
147
PV45
PV47
RUFFINO, M. L. Gestão do uso dos recursos pesqueiros na Amazônia.
[Fishery resources use management in the Amazon] Manaus Ibama/
ProManejo, 2005. 120 p.
The book approaches fishery development in the Amazon, approaching
historical fishing conflicts, the fish crisis, overexploitation of fishery stocks,
besides showing ways to solve the conflicts. It brings water resources
management elements, focusing on community-based management, lakes
reserve model, and the mediated agreements between social players. It
also approaches the risks of amateur fishing. It explains what means fishery
system, how it should be done, required strategies, players and organizations.
The command and control mechanisms and participatory management, with
fishery agreements, are presented as part of the fishery systematization
process. In general, the publication brings a set of information crucial to
maintain open, lucid and responsible links between the public power and
the society that uses the fishery resources. Altogether, the book facilitates
understanding the elements that make up the participatory management
process, conflict mediation, fishery agreement and control mechanisms.
PV46
COUTO, R. (Org.). Plano Municipal de Desenvolvimento Rural
Sustentável: Parintins - Amazonas, 2005-2012. [Municipal Sustainable
Rural Development Plan: Parintins – Amazonas, 2005 - 2012]. Manaus
Ibama/ProManejo, 2005. 174 p.
The local development perspective considers the municipal and microregional spaces as different and heterogeneous spaces, with a wide
diversity of players and interests and particularities that characterize local
identities. This fact is determinant to actions and strategies that place
priority to participation and shared management models. This concept
has expanded along time and has been strengthened by the establishment
of governmental public policies, standing for a change on the focus and
practices of different national and international projects. The Municipal Rural
Development Council has outlined the Sustainable Rural Development Plan
of Parintins was built anchored in those concepts. The study on the social,
economic and environmental reality was developed using the Participatory
Quick Diagnosis (DRP) methodology that places priority on qualitative
data obtained directly from local development agents, in a quick and lowcost way. The diagnosis gave rise to workshops with the communitie’s
representatives and municipal, state and federal government’s technicians
to build a vision of future and outline strategies to development.
COUTO, R. (Org.). Plano Municipal de Desenvolvimento Rural
Sustentável: Parintins - Amazonas, 2005-2012. [Municipal Sustainable
Rural Development Plan: Parintins – Amazonas, 2005 - 2012]. Manaus
Ibama/ProManejo, 2005. 174 p.
The local development perspective considers the municipal and microregional spaces as different and heterogeneous spaces, with a wide
diversity of players and interests and particularities that characterize local
identities. This fact is determinant to actions and strategies that place
priority to participation and shared management models. This concept
has expanded along time and has been strengthened by the establishment
of governmental public policies, standing for a change on the focus and
practices of different national and international projects. The Municipal Rural
Development Council has outlined the Sustainable Rural Development Plan
of Parintins was built anchored in those concepts. The study on the social,
economic and environmental reality was developed using the Participatory
Quick Diagnosis (DRP) methodology that places priority on qualitative
data obtained directly from local development agents, in a quick and lowcost way. The diagnosis gave rise to workshops with the communitie’s
representatives and municipal, state and federal government’s technicians
to build a vision of future and outline strategies to development.
148
PV48
BENATTI, J. H. et. al. A questão fundiária e o manejo dos recursos
naturais da várzea: análise para a elaboração de novos modelos jurídicos.
[Land issue and the Flooded Forest natural resources management:
analysis to outline new legal frameworks]. Manaus Ibama/ ProVárzea,
2005. 104 p. (Coleção Documentos Técnicos Estudos Estratégicos)
The social and economic use of Flooded Forest areas which are periodically
flooded is a complex issue under the legal light. The rules on appropriation
and use of natural resources in those areas are not standardized in the
Brazilian legislation. The work analyzes reference legal aspects to the
Flooded Forest regarding issues of ownership, concept and legal nature of
Flooded Forest. It identifies the different types of land appropriation and the
implication on the use of renewable natural resources from the Amazonian
Flooded Forest in rural properties. It also addressed a proposal on land
legalization and renewable natural resources management to the Flooded
Forest, to provide inputs to public policies that facilitate overcoming the
existing social, legal and environmental disputes. The works are presented
in different chapter by author: 1) legal study to the Amazonian Flooded
Forest; 2) Land situation of the Amazonas River Flooded Forest and
experiences on land regulation in the states of Pará and Amazonas; 3)
149
Identification and analysis of different kinds of land appropriations and
consequent implications to the use of renewable natural resources of the
Amazonian Flooded Forest in rural properties in the region of Gurupá
(Pará); Legal and land-related aspects of the Flooded Forest: a proposal
on legalization and natural resources management.
PV49
BENATTI, J. H. et. al. A questão fundiária e o manejo dos recursos
naturais da várzea: análise para a elaboração de novos modelos jurídicos.
[Land issue and the Flooded Forest natural resources management:
analysis to outline new legal frameworks]. Manaus Ibama/ ProVárzea,
2005. 104 p. (Coleção Documentos Técnicos Estudos Estratégicos)
The social and economic use of Flooded Forest areas which are periodically
flooded is a complex issue under the legal light. The rules on appropriation
and use of natural resources in those areas are not standardized in the
Brazilian legislation. The work analyzes reference legal aspects to the
Flooded Forest regarding issues of ownership, concept and legal nature of
Flooded Forest. It identifies the different types of land appropriation and the
implication on the use of renewable natural resources from the Amazonian
Flooded Forest in rural properties. It also addressed a proposal on land
legalization and renewable natural resources management to the Flooded
Forest, to provide inputs to public policies that facilitate overcoming the
existing social, legal and environmental disputes. The works are presented
in different chapter by author: 1) legal study to the Amazonian Flooded
Forest; 2) Land situation of the Amazonas River Flooded Forest and
experiences on land regulation in the states of Pará and Amazonas; 3)
Identification and analysis of different kinds of land appropriations and
consequent implications to the use of renewable natural resources of the
Amazonian Flooded Forest in rural properties in the region of Gurupá
(Pará); Legal and land-related aspects of the Flooded Forest: a proposal
on legalization and natural resources management.
PV50
COSTA, F. de A.; INHETVIN, T. A agropecuária na economia de várzea
do rio Solimões/Amazonas: diagnósticos e perspectivas. [Agriculture and
livestock in the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers Flooded Forest: diagnoses and
perspectives]. Ibama/ProManejo, 2005. 330 p.
This work aims at diagnosing and analyzing the productive processes in
cattle farming sector at the Amazonas/Solimões Rivers Flooded Forest,
anticipating the tendencies to different economic systems in the Flooded
Forest. Because of the large geographic extension of ProVárzea, it decided
to use secondary data to perform the statistical analysis of economy and
agrarian units in 46 Flooded Forest municipalities. To characterize the
conformation and dynamic of interactions between economic agents, and
the qualitative analysis on productive processes in the cattle farming sector,
it employed primary data gathered by the Development Agency (Agência de
Desenvolvimento – ADA) in cooperation with the High Amazonian Studies
Center (Núcleo de Altos Estudos Amazônicos – ANAEA) on the chain of 36
products. The Flooded Forest occupation background and differentiation
between rural production agents, as well as the production ways, are part
of different axes of the cattle farming analyses within the context of the
Amazonian Flooded Forest’s economics.
PV51
BENATTI, J. H. Aspectos políticos e fundiários da utilização social,
econômica e ambiental da várzea: análise para elaboração de modelos
de gestão. [Political and land-related aspects of social, economic and
environmental use of the Flooded Forest: analysis to outline management
models]. Manaus Ibama, 2004. 49 p.
The study targets to establish the technical and scientific grounds to formulate
public policies to conserve and manage the Amazonian Flooded Forest
natural resources, emphasizing the fishery resources. The analyses aimed
at developing innovative Flooded Forest natural resources management
systems, and implementing an intergrated pilot system of monitoring and
control. The final output of the document intends to outline proposals on
land legalization and renewable natural resources management. Three
works are analyzed in an integrated way to reach the expected outputs of
the study. The first two ones address different appropriations, land uses
and implications on the renewable resources management. The third work
has researched the concept, ownership, legal nature and definition of
administrative and legal competencies among the Federal Government,
the State and Municipality as regards the use and management of Flooded
Forest natural resources. Among the work conclusions, one could highlight,
for examples, that the land legalization process should consider some basic
assumptions like ecological integrity of the Flooded Forest environments
and different agriculture and forestry management patterns.
Through its Component 1: Strategic Studies, the ProVárzea Project supports
the generation of strategic knowledge about human activities of natural
resources use and management at the Amazonian Flooded Forest, in an
attempt to influence public policies on the region’s sustainable development.
150
151
Aspectos políticos
e fundiários da
utilização social,
econômica e
ambiental da várzea
PV52
Diversidade
sócio-ambiental
nas várzeas dos
Rios Solimões e
Amazonas
LIMA, D. et. al. Diversidade sócio-ambiental nas várzeas dos Rios Solimões
e Amazonas: perspectivas para o desenvolvimento sustentável. [Socioenvironmental diversity at the Solimões and Amazonas Rivers Flooded Forests:
perspectives to sustainable development]. Manaus Ibama, 2004. 16 p.
The study was developed in five Flooded Forest regions of the Amazon basin
central basin, comprising 17 muncipalities: Upper Solimões (municipalities
of Tabatinga, Benjamin Constant, São Paulo de Olivença and Amaturá),
Medium Solimões (municipalities of Tefé, Alvarães and Coari), Medium
Amazonas (Silves, Parintins, Maués and Itacoatiara), Lower Amazonas
(Alenquer, Óbidos and Santarém) and Lower Amazonas, mouth region
(Gurupá, Porto de Moz and Almeirim). The areas were selected based on
the existence of promising initiatives supported by the ProVárzea. Another
study was carried out simultaneously – an analysis on public policies in
the Amazon focusing on the promotion of sustainable development to the
Flooded Forest populations. The first study was detailed in three parties: I.
General characterization of the study region, II. General characterization of
rural settlements and domiciles; and, III. Organization of five local workshops.
The parallel survey analyzed the interface between public policies and
the Flooded Forest population, notably regarding the fishery legal system
and ownership at the Flooded Forest, and the popular expectations on
participation, equity, social inclusion and poverty eradication. Following
were the main outputs and findings of the study: I. Socio-environmental
diversity; II. Shared issues – it observed the conditioning to a social
calendar based on the river waters level; III. Perspectives to the Flooded
Forests sustainable development.
PV53
AZEVEDO, C. R. de; APEL, M. Co-gestão: um processo em construção
na várzea amazônica. [Co-management: a process underway in the
Amazon Flooded Forest]. Manaus Ibama/ ProVárzea, 2004. 100 p. (Série
Documentos Técnicos, 4)
This work aims at systematizing a process of constructing co-management
in a specific region of the Brazilian Amazon: the Amazonas/Solimões
Rivers Flooded Forest. The text is divided into three parties: The first one
contextualizes the region and the social organization process developed
in the last four decades, trying to analyze the influence of different
social players, notably the work developed by the Catholic Church in
the Movement of Basic Education (Movimento de Educação de Base –
MEB) and the Federation of Social and Educational Assistance Bodies
(Federação dos Órgãos de Assistência Social e Educacional – Fase), as
well as the fishermen’s movement to win back the Z-20 Fishermen Colony
152
in Santarém. Moreover, the text analyzes two specific organizations: the
Iara Project that worked in the region of Santarém from 1990 to 1998,
and the Amazon Environmental Research Institute (Instituto de Pesquisa
Ambiental da Amazônia – Ipam) which has been working in Santarém
since 1992. The second part analyzes the experience of three Regional
Fishery Councils in the regions of Ituqui, Maicá and Lago Grande do
Curuai – all of which in Santarém. The Fishery Councils synthesize the
lessons learned from this process, and the social consolidation of comanagement in Santarém. The third part, in turn, addresses the strategic
conceptual lines to approach the Flooded Forest natural resources comanagement, proposed by ProVárzea.
PV54
ISAAC, V. J.; CERDEIRA, R. G. P. Avaliação e monitoramento de
impactos dos acordos de pesca: região do Médio Amazonas. [Assessment
and monitoring of fishery agreement impacts: Medium Amazonas region].
Manaus Ibama/ ProVárzea, 2004. 64 p. (Série Documentos Técnicos, 3)
The work analyzes the impacts ensuing from fishery agreements in the
municipality of Santarém, regions of Maicá and Ituqui. The establishment
of “lake reserves” and “fishery agreements” by the riparian communities to
rule fishing activities and restrict captures in the Amazon can be considered
to be the most interesting expressions of fishery management in the last
years in Brazil. Among the main medium and short time impacts of fishery
agreements, the communitie’s strengthening and enhanced social and
institutional organization of the region are outstanding. The establishment of
Regional Fishing Councils as bodies to mediate conflicts can be considered
to be one of the main positive effects ensuing from the process. Some
negative impacts on fishermen’s profitability and the region’s revenue
and total production were also observed. That socio-economic cost of
the environmental preservation should be compensated by programs
on income diversification, and added value to fishery products. Although
promising, the management systems recommended by the Flooded Forest
communities at the Medium Amazonas Rivers still face issues that are yet
to be responded. For the short time since its implementation, poor efficiency
and lack of continuity to monitoring, one cannot affirm if in practice the
restriction to fishing art, area, time of the year, etc., it’s enough to efficiently
manage resources and achieve the intended environmental sustainability.
However, if agreements keep on properly working and being monitored
to ensure compliance, one can expect long term positive impacts on
environment ensuing from the reduced effort on stocks.
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PV55
PEREIRA, H. S. Iniciativas de co-gestão dos recursos naturais da
várzea: Estado do Amazonas. [Initatives on Flooded Forest natural
resources co-management: state of Amazonas] Manaus Ibama/ ProVárzea,
2004. 130 p. (Série Documentos Técnicos, 2)
The book is based on a study on three root organizations: the Environmental
Preservation Group (Grupo de Preservação Ambiental - GPD), the Silves
Association to Environmental and Cultural Preservation (Associação de
Silves para Preservação Ambiental e Cultural - Aspac) and the Live Nature
Environmental Group (Grupo Ambiental Natureza Viva - Granav) which
develope co-management activities in Tefé/Amazonas, Silves/Amazonas
and Parintins/Amazonas, respectively. The publication is divided into
four chapters. The first one carries out a theoretical analysis on the topic,
disclosing empirical and practical examples registered in the three case
studies from each institution. The next three chapters bring reports transcribe
from interview with core social actors of the path of those local environmental
groups, additionally to explanatory comments associated to the documental
references. The reports on local experiences of decentralization of
management of collective use resources depict the difficulties, progresses
and steps backward that civil society, local groups and governments have
experienced in different political contexts, attempting to implement local
schedules of natural resources decentralized management.
PV56
SANTOS, M. Iniciativas de desenvolvimento das comunidades da
várzea do rio Amazonas/Solimões. [Initiatives to development the
Amazonas/Solimões Rivers Flooded Forest communities] Manaus Ibama/
ProManejo, 2004. 28 p.
The publication aims at disseminating how the local community perceives
the Flooded Forest, while publicizing the actions developed and supported
by ProVárzea. The analysis on initiatives implemented by civil society
and that generate economic alternatives employed the Sustainable
Livelihood (Meios de Vida Sustentáveis – MVS) methodology. It works
like a way of thinking on the objectives, opportunities and priorities to
development, with the goal of abolishing poverty. It also enables better
understanding about the existing resources in the Flooded Forest, and
the local population’s survival strategy. It interviewed community leaders,
presidents of civil society organizations, researchers, the ProVárzea’s,
Ibama’s and Ministry of Environment’s team. The respondent pointed out
an actual institutional strengthening of public organizations and the civil
society toward achieving more sustainable development, as a result of
154
the mobilization process carried out at the Amazonas/Solimões Rivers
channel. Some areas have already shown impacts on the people’s life
quality, like improved eating habits and family income, notably through
the sustainable organization of production means. The implementation
of projects that enable leadership capacity-building, rood organizations
mobilization, fishery agreement and training to Volunteer Environmental
Agents is being strengthened. This can be considered the first step toward
approximating governmental bodies and the community. In this area, the
most evident impact was people’s empowerment and the optimization
of ecotourism, fishing, environmental education, lakes management,
vegetal and animal species management activities.
PV57
SANTOS, M. Initiatives in sustainable development in Amazon River
communities. Manaus Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 28 p.
The publication aims at disseminating how the local community perceives
the Flooded Forest, while publicizing the actions developed and supported
by ProVárzea. The analysis on initiatives implemented by civil society
and that generate economic alternatives employed the Sustainable
Livelihood (Meios de Vida Sustentáveis – MVS) methodology. It works
like a way of thinking on the objectives, opportunities and priorities to
development, with the goal of abolishing poverty. It also enables better
understanding about the existing resources in the Flooded Forest, and
the local population’s survival strategy. It interviewed community leaders,
presidents of civil society organizations, researchers, the ProVárzea’s,
Ibama’s and Ministry of Environment’s team. The respondent pointed out
an actual institutional strengthening of public organizations and the civil
society toward achieving more sustainable development, as a result of
the mobilization process carried out at the Amazonas/Solimões Rivers
channel. Some areas have already shown impacts on the people’s life
quality, like improved eating habits and family income, notably through
the sustainable organization of production means. The implementation
of projects that enable leadership capacity-building, rood organizations
mobilization, fishery agreement and training to Volunteer Environmental
Agents is being strengthened. This can be considered the first step toward
approximating governmental bodies and the community. In this area, the
most evident impact was people’s empowerment and the optimization
of ecotourism, fishing, environmental education, lakes management,
vegetal and animal species management activities.
155
PV58
Addressing
common demands
of community
fisheries in the
Brazilian Amazon
OVIEDO, A.; RUFFINO, M. L. Addressing common demands of
community fisheries in the Brazilian Amazon. In: The Second
International Symposium on the Management of Large Rivers for Fisheries:
Sustaining Livelihoods and Biodiversity in the New Millennium. Phnon
Penh, Kingdom of Cambodia: Feb 2002. 11 p.
This article approaches fishery issues in the Amazon, in an attempt to
record the local communitie’s co-management-oriented efforts, presenting
proposals to subsidize the public policies focused on the region. The
proposal to gather fishermen from different Amazonian regions and
promote exchange of experiences on communitie’s management, to assess
and updated the situation observing the main problems, lessons learned
and needs, would enable the development of actions to reinforce and
consolidate the management practice adopted by traditional populations.
The applied management failed in solving the existing problems, not
only because of the way it was executed but, above all, because of the
problems of proximity to the community since the Federal Government
was in charge of all aspects, from elaboration to execution, including the
establishment of regulatory objectives and legislations on fish population
preservation. The main surveys carried out among fishermen reveal that
local communities are better equipped to face internal problems and adjust
to the fishery technologies, than to deal with external problems. That is so
because of the local institutional capacity in communicating and accessing
information. Therefore, the reports on the community management initiative
have shown that fishery could decline as consequence of the institutional
and environmental changes pace, or of the internalization of problems.
Nonetheless, it trusts the communitie’s capacity of efficiently responding to
environmental or institutional changes, notably through the established of
NGOs dealing with local situation.
PV59
Participatory
management of
RUFFINO, M. L. Participatory management of fisheries in the Brazilian
Amazon. In: The Second International Symposium on the Management of
Large Rivers for Fisheries: Sustaining Livelihoods and Biodiversity in the
New Millennium. Phnon Penh, Kingdom of Cambodia: Feb 2002. 11 p.
fisheries in the
Brazilian Amazon
The Iara Project is a fruit of the cooperation between Ibama and the GTZ,
and aimed at developing environmental management strategies capable
of ensuring the sustainable use of Flooded Forest natural resources. In
principle, it adopted the participatory approximation methodology, integrating
the target groups of the fishery management system, fishermen and riparian
populations, as well as institutions’ dealing with fishery, considering that
sustainability is not achieved through decree; instead, it should be adopted
156
when all the stakeholders are familiar to the measures to be adopted. The
results show that the new management model carried out by Ibama – as
a product of Iara Project – succeeded in developing the participatory comanagement dynamic among local organizations. For that, it has fostered
meetings between small fishermen of different municipalities in an attempt
to fine solutions that are more responsive to all.
PV60
RUFFINO, M. L. ProVárzea – A natural resource management project
for the Amazon floodplains. In: The Second International Symposium on
the Management of Large Rivers for Fisheries: Sustaining Livelihoods and
Biodiversity in the New Millennium. Phnon Penh, Kingdom of Cambodia:
Feb 2002. 11 p.
A natural resource
management project
for the Amazon
floodplains
The issue of land ownership in the Amazon is complex, considering that
the Brazilian legislation places Flooded Forests as permanent preservation
areas that, therefore, are free of human occupation or economic activities.
However, the population living along the Amazonas and Solimões Rivers
cannot be displaced. Apparently, the solution to this problem is the
development of sustainable system of the Flooded Forest natural resources.
For that, a specific project was developed as part of the Pilot Program
for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests: the Flooded Forests Natural
Resources Management Project (ProVárzea). An initiative formulated in
a very participatory way, involving consultations held for many years with
all the interested groups, mainly aimed at promoting means to conserve
the Flooded Forest and emphasizing the fishery resources. ProVárzea has
successfully influenced the formulation of public policies, by disseminating
the action among volunteer environmental agents, and which Ibama
adopted as national pattern. The program should keep on promoting
initiatives, fostering work groups and exchange of experiences to serve as
example in the attempt to efficiently influence other public policies to the
Flooded Forest sustainable development.
PV61
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Iº Encontro "Rumo à Co-Gestão
dos Recursos Naturais em Santarém, PA: Relatório de Trabalho. [1st
Meeting “Toward Natural Resources Co-Management in Santarém, Pará:
Work Report]. Alter do Chão: Ibama/ProManejo, 2002. 24 p.
On March 16, 2002, at the Belo Alter Hotel, ProVárzea and the Ibama
Executive Management in Santarém promoted a meeting among institution
dealing with the environmental issue in Santarém (state of Pará) to “seek an
157
integrated action among different institutions regarding inspection actions
in the municipality”. Following were the specific objectives of the event:
1) get to know the competences, attributions, experiences, procedures,
tools and difficulties faced by the institutions in charge of environmental
preservation and natural resources control at federal, state and municipal
levels; 2) outline recommendations and suggestions to implement a comanagement natural resources system in the municipality of Santarém.
The practical exercise addressed a case study that simulated a situation
of fishery conflict, community-based inspection and material seizure. The
participants were divided in three groups, and answered many questions on
topics like, for example, institutional competences, Volunteer Environmental
Agents, and users of resources. Despite the divergences in the responses –
which have fostered even more the discussions – the participants achieved
consensual definitions. Another stage of the dynamic is the elaboration of
a script of strategies to solve the case presented.
PV63
IBAMA. Projeto Manejo dos Recursos Naturais da Várzea- ProVárzea:
conceitos e estratégias. [Flooded Forest Natural Resources Management
Project – ProVárzea: concepts and strategies]. Manaus Ibama, 2001.
This publication discloses the ProVárzea objectives. It brings definitions
on Flooded Forest, project costs, roles and responsibilities, additionally
to analyzing the implementation risks. It itemizes the four components of
the project: 1) strategic studies; 2) promising initiatives; 3) monitoring and
control; and, 4) project coordinator. In the annexes the publication presents
the project logical framework; detailed description; execution schedule;
institutional analysis; participation in the project elaboration; integration
with other PPG7 projects; and, project reports and documents.
PV64
PV62
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Desdobramentos do Iº Encontro
"Rumo à Co-Gestão dos Recursos Naturais em Santarém, PA":
relatório de atividades. [Unfolding of the 1st Meeting “Towards Natural
Resources Co-Management in Santarém, Pará: Activities Report] Belém:
Ibama/ProManejo, 2002. 29 p.
The document presents a series of events resulting from the 1st Meeting
Toward Natural Resources Co-Management in the Municipality of Santarém
(Pará) held in Alter do Chão – Pará, on March 16, 2002. Each event is
summarized, disclosing the main points discussed, outputs and conclusions
achieved with the current players. Following are the related events: Meeting
between ProVárzea and PGAI-PA (Belém, March 26, 2002); Course on
Control and Inspection (Santarém, June 10 to 21 2002); 1st Meeting on the
Implementation of the Integrated Unit of Environmental Policing in Santarém
(Santarém, July 02, 2002); 2nd Meeting on the Implementation of Integrated
Unit of Environmental Policing in Santarém (Unipoma) (Santarém, July 16,
2002); 3rd Meeting on the Unipoma Implementation (Santarém, July 23,
2002); 4th Meeting on the Unipoma Implementation (Santarém, August 05,
2002); 5th Meeting on the Unipoma Implementation (Santarém, August 20,
2002); 1st Unipoma Inspection Action – Report (August 19 to 24, 2002).
158
IBAMA. Projeto Manejo dos Recursos Naturais da Várzea- ProVárzea:
grupos de interesse e atores da várzea amazônica. [Flooded Forest Natural
Resources Management Project – ProVárzea: stakeholders and players in
the Amazonian Flooded Forest]. Manaus Ibama, 2001.
The publication addresses the survey on stakeholders and actors in
the Amazonian Flooded Forest region, analyzing their activities with
emphasis on their influence on the process of establishing policies on the
Flooded Forest use. The survey served to adjust the specific objectives
and expected outputs of the ProVárzea Strategic Studies component.
Considering the key importance of the institutional integration to ensure
successful implementation and sustainability to ProVárzea, countless
governmental institutions and stakeholders in the Flooded Forest were
identified and contacted, identifying their activities. Among the institutions
tracked, there are rural farmers associations, research institutions, great
projects in the region, federal and state institutions, financing agents and
private sector groups. The information was surveyed in March 1999. The
publication serves as guidance tool on the institutional characteristics of
the organizations and different stakeholders, and their activities pursuing
the region development.
159
PV65
Regional Profile
IBAMA. PROVÁRZEA. Regularização fundiária na várzea: uma
proposta de política pública para as várzeas dos rios Solimões/Amazonas.
[PROVÁRZEA. Land legalization in the Flooded Forest: a proposal on
publication policy to Solimões/Amazonas Rivers Flooded Forests]. Manaus
Ibama, 2005. (Notas Política Pública, 1)
This note addresses the basis of a proposal on land legalization to the
Flooded Forest in Solimões/Amazonas Rivers, as a model to be tested and
further applied to the remainder Flooded Forests in the Brazilian Amazon.
It approaches some basic issues like: “What is a Flooded Forest?”; “Is
the Flooded Forest a Permanent Preservation Area?” synthesizing some
Brazilian legislations on the topic, “Human Settlements and land use”; “Uses
of resources”; “Who is competent to rule the Flooded Forest” and, concluding
“A regulation proposal”. The last item introduces the basic assumptions to
be considered during the land legalization process, additionally to the steps
to be taken to mobilize all the stakeholders.
PV66
Experiência,
lições e desafios
da co-gestão
no município de
Santarém/PA
PV67
ALBUQUERQUE. E.; ALBUQUERQUE, F.; LINS, F. O Homem em
sintonia com a natureza. [Men in tune with nature] Manaus Ibama/
ProVárzea, 2005. 80 p. (Coleção Retrato Regional)
The Regional Profile Collection (Coleção Retrato Regional) attempts to
recover and register the five resources used by the sustained livelihood
means approach adopted by ProVárzea: human resources, social and
political resources, physical resources, financial resources and natural
resources. This publication shows examples of the sustained livelihood
means approach that recovers the skills and knowledge of the riparian
populations in the Paraná de Parintins region. * The histories of Paraná
Parintins communities are told in the light of local leaderships, disclosing
different life experiences marked by the effort to overcome different daily
difficulties, notably the conflicts ensuing from the fishery activity expansion
The work stands for the visualization of the communities’ capacity through
solidarity-based ties, and the process for reaffirming their socio-cultural
identities, valuating the ancient culture and encouraging youths toward
environmental preservation to the generations to come.
RUFFINO, M. L. Experiência, lições e desafios da co-gestão no
município de Santarém/PA. [Co-management experiences, lessons and
challenges in the municipality of Santarém/Pará]. [S.l.: s.n.], [s.d]. 9 p.
The article approaches the emerging local development that is becoming
quite noticeable in the Brazilian context, focusing on social players,
management practices and debates. However, it considers that Brazil
is still in an embryonic stage in this matter. Jointly with the experiences
reported during the Improvement Course on Water Participatory
Management, promoted by the International Education Institute of Brazil
(Instituto Internacional de Educação do Brasil – IIEB), the study aims at
recording and displaying some new experiences that could be considered
to be potential transformers and fosterers of new links But, above all, that
could serve as examples to adjust the new ways of assembling the Basin
Committees to comply with the National Water Resources Policy. The
author also emphasizes that the experiences recorded ensue from works
on mobilization and strengthening of local communities toward formulating
more comprehensive references called Integrated and Sustainable Local
Development (Desenvolvimento Local Integrado e Sustentável – DLIS).
160
PV68
GALUCIO, M. D. R. Amazônia: pescadores contam histórias. [Amazon:
fishermen tell stories]. Manaus: Ibama/ ProVárzea, 2005. 132 p. (Coleção
Retrato Regional)
This publication registers and describes the Amazonian popular culture and
knowledge: the legends, geography, landscapes, biodiversity, practices
and livelihoods of people living on the Flooded Forest. Dorenilce Galúcio is
a fisherwoman in the Lower Amazonas River and Pará’s West region. The
fishermen and fisherwomen stories that she collected and organized show
different popular languages, disclosing how the Portuguese language is
fragmented by dialects. However, talking about fishermen and fisherwomen
in Santarém means talking about the Z-20 Fishermen Colony - an entity
that has long supported the fights and achievements of that category. The
sequence of testimonials organized by the author makes up a panorama
of the history of the everyday of the fishermen’s families whose beliefs,
dreams, deceptions and hopes are reproduced in the relation with space
and time that characterize the Flooded Forest areas. The book stands for a
valuable contribute to reaffirm those citizens as subjects in the constructing
of their own history, highlighting their social experiences and the close
relation with environment.
161
PV69
CAVALCANTE, J. Histórias de uma vida dedicada à preservação da
natureza. [Stories of a life devoted to nature preservation]. Manaus: Ibama/
ProVárzea, 2004. 76 p. (Coleção Retrato Regional)
The publication pays homage to a leader of the Medium Solimões region
which strongly influenced and participated in the social organization of
riparian communities as a factor that fosters changes, recovers citizenship
in the fight for conserving natural resources, and in the defense of traditional
populations. The innovative aspect of this historical documentation is that
besides being a leader, João Cavalcante is also a popular poet and tells
the nature preservation storie in verse and prose. The author devoted his
life to small-scale fishery and family-based agriculture, always fighting for
environmental preservation and education. The publication “Histórias de
Uma Vida Dedicada à Preservação da Natureza” paid homage to João
Cavalcante who has seeded lots of environmental values in the traditional
communities at the Solimões River Flooded Forest. To the Project, the
publication stood for an opportunity to disseminate the ethical principles
of nature preservation based on one of the baseline communities of
the Preservation and Development Group (Grupo de Preservação e
Desenvolvimento - GPD).
Forestry Sector
PV70
Setor florestal
MACEDO, D. S. (Coord.). Setor florestal: valorização, manejo, uso e
conservação dos recursos naturais da várzea. Subestudo II – Caracterização
da produção, comercialização e o potencial da certificação de madeira nas
florestas de várzea (Relatório Complementar). [Forestry Sector: valuation,
management, use and conservation of the Flooded Forest natural resources.
Sub-study II – Characterization of the production, trading and the potential
timber certification in the Flooded Forest forests (Complementary Report).
Manaus: Ibama/ ProVárzea, MPEG, 2005. 51 p.
This publication ensues from a study carried out in two regions: the Amazonian
estuary, notably the municipalities of Breves, Afuá, Portel and Gurupá, which
are traditional Flooded Forest timber extraction pools; and the region of Belém
that gathers the main export corporations. The second region is composed
by Tefé and Juruá at the Medium and Upper Solimões River. Moreover, it
collected data in the municipality of Manaus. Among the main findings of
the study, those evidencing that the Flooded Forest forests generally report
total timber volumes lower than those of dry land forests, and the seasonal
timber exploitation mainly during the rainy season should be highlighted.
162
Another relevant finding is the ascending curve of timber logs production,
with good perspectives of having this activity consolidated in the State of
Amazonas. Other relevant findings refer to the production characterization,
trading structure and potential timber certification. The study also presents
some recommendations to improve public policies in that sector.
PV71
SALOMÃO, R. P. (Coord.). Setor florestal: valorização, manejo, uso
e conservação dos recursos naturais da várzea. Subestudo I – Manejo
florestal na várzea: caracterização, restrições e oportunidades para a sua
adoção (Relatório Final). [Forestry Sector: valuation, management, use and
conservation of Flooded Forest natural resources. Sub-study I – Forestry
management in the Flooded Forest: characterization, restrictions and
opportunities for adoption (Final Report). Belém: Ibama/ ProVárzea, MPEG,
FADESP, 2004. 159 p.
Setor florestal
The Emílio Göeldi Museum of Pará’s Research Unit was appointed executing
agency to the ProVárzea project. This technical report is one of the outputs
generated by Sub-project I, Forestry Management in the Flooded Forest –
characterization, restrictions and opportunity for adopting it, to characterize
the experiences related to Flooded Forest forestry management regarding
the intensity, productivity, logging system, ecological impacts reduction,
maintenance of timber stocks and forestry treatments, besides identifying
and analyzing the economic, technical, land-related and institutional factors
that hinder the economic and social agents from adopting the Flooded Forest
forests management. The data and information presented were extracted from
information obtained through written and recorded interviews, specialized
literature and Internet search. The preliminary data analysis let us conclude that
entrepreneurs perceive that the main benefit ensuing from forestry management
is the forest timber production sustainability. But they are strongly concerned
about the slowness to approve the forestry management plans, since the
foreign and domestic markets seem to be interested in certification. Regarding
the professionals, it clearly shows that most of them were not employed by the
firms, but hired as consultant to outline the management plans and, therefore,
have failed in complying with the good management practices.
PV72
ALMEIDA, S. S. de (Coord.). Setor florestal: valorização, manejo, uso e
conservação dos recursos naturais da várzea. Subestudo III – Avaliação
da situação das espécies de árvores de valor madeireiro nas florestas
de várzea (Relatório Final). [Forestry Sector: valuation, management,
use and conservation of the Flooded Forest natural resources. Sub-study
III – Assessment of the situation of tree species of timber value in the
Flooded Forest forests (Final Report). Belém: Ibama/ ProVárzea, MPEG,
FADESP, 2004. 88 p.
163
Setor florestal
ProVárzea presents the technical report of the strategic Sub-study 3, current
situation of tree species of timber value in the Flooded Forest forests, to disclose
the findings of the analyses and assessments on the current conservation
and knowledge about timber forest species at the Amazonas/Solimões River
channel. For that, it recovered information from databases, herbariums, live
and visited collections in areas of timber pools and projects and experiences
on forestry management in Flooded Forest areas in the Amazon. Moreover,
it assessed the state of conservation of species using seven ecological and
phytogeographic parameters, additionally to an economic parameter. To the
geographic distribution analysis, the species were separated by segment
or zone, and assessed by similarity. Moreover, it outlined distribution maps
along the channel, where 24 inventories were observed and 675 species
and morphospecies of trees were identified. 120 assessed species were
selected according to the commercial or potential timber use, in the light of
the local, regional, national or even international market. The analyses on
the conservation status 17 were filtered with high level of endangerment or
vulnerability because of ecological limitations, geographic distribution and
high exploitation pressure. Then, strategies and recommendations were
outlined focusing on the conservation, management and further studies to
improve the conservation status, enabling the sustainable use of species.
PV73
OLIVEIRA, R. (Coord.). Manejo de produtos não-madeireiros nas
florestas de várzea: obstáculos e oportunidades. [Management of nontimber products in Flooded Forest forests: obstacles and opportunities]
Belém: Ibama/ ProVárzea, MPEG, FADESP, 2004. 85 p.
ProVárzea presents the final report of the Sub-study IV, Management of nontimber products in Flooded Forest forests – obstacles and opportunities, to
identify and assess promising NTFP management experiences focusing
on açaí, copaiba and andiroba. It has also assessed the obstacles and
opportunities to adopt forestry management in the Flooded Forest. The first
methodological stage was to carry out an inventory on the main experiences
in the area reached by the ProVárzea learned from programs and projects.
In that stage, it tracked what was underway on the use and exploitation of
NTFP, besides defining the criteria to outline semi-structure questionnaires,
and the process of assessment and identification of existing opportunities
and obstacles to subsidize the formulation of recommendations to public
policies on the NTFP sustainable use. The questionnaires were applied in
the second stage, to assess the experiences identified during the mapping,
164
through interview with those in charge of the projects. The third stage, in turn,
consisted of organizing and tabulating the data gathered in each dimension,
for comparison purposes. The examples of successful organizations and
projects point out the governmental and non-governmental subsidies
as the only way to improve the life quality, community organization and
environmental responsibility. Therefore, it recommends granting direct
non-reimbursable subsidies – as payment to environmental services
provided - to those community associations and small business that keep
and even expand forest, biodiversity and knowledge, through partnerships
with education, research and extension institutions.
PV74
IBAMA. Estudos estratégicos: setores florestal e agropecuário. [Strategic
studies: forestry and agricultural and livestock sectors]. Manaus: Ibama/
ProVárzea, [s.d.]. 16 p.
Estudos
The study is divided in five parts: 1) forestry management in the Flooded
Forest: characterization, restrictions and opportunities for adoption – The
information presented was extracted from interviews with actors linked
to the timber sector, and specialized literature. Generally speaking, this
topic emphasizes the forestry management adoption - either at industrial
or community scale - at the Flooded Forest forest areas, aiming at the
timber exploitation sustainability. 2) Characterization of the production,
trading and the potential timber certification in the Flooded Forest forests
– This study was mainly aimed at: characterizing timber production in
the Flooded Forest regarding the timber resource used; characterize the
current Flooded Forest timber market; and, assess the potential forestry
certification to the timber activity in the region. 3) Assessment of the
situation of tree species of timber value in the Flooded Forest forests –
This stage approached the following topics: characterization of the species
geographic distribution; synthesis of information on forestry inventories of
the Flooded Forest species; analysis on the strategic species to improve
management and conservation; and establish means to provide technical
information to guide the management plans. 4) Management of non-timber
products in the Flooded Forest forests: obstacles and opportunities – This
part of the study addresses the criteria and procedures adopted to select the
experiences on managing the non-timber forestry products (NTFP) trading
in the Flooded Forest. 5) Agriculture and livestock within the economic
context of the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers Flooded Forests: diagnoses
and perspectives. In brief, the text discloses conclusions that guide the
recommendation of political actions to develop the rural-based economics
at the Flooded Forest macro-systems at Solimões/Amazonas Rivers.
165
estratégicos
Fishery Sector
PV75
A estatística
pesqueira no litoral
do Pará
ISAAC, V. J.; SANTO, R. V. do E.; NUNES, J. L. G. A estatística pesqueira
no litoral do Pará: resultados divergentes. [Fishery statistics at the Pará
coast: diverging results]. Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences –
Panamjas. [S.l.: s.n.]:3 (3), 2008. p. 205-213.
The state of Pará is one of the main national fish producers. Recently, the
production increased in 120%, pointing out potential errors in the estimative
procedures employed. The official values are based only on a part of the
total unloading. Total production is estimated based on the average capture
by trip of the controlled vessels. On the other hand, the total production
of all fish unloading procedures observed in Bragança was four times
lower than that reported in official statistics for the same period. This work
used the survey data to simulate stratified samplings and calculate total
production. The relative error was estimated by comparing estimates and
the actual value. According to the results, fishing is an activity with varied
and opportunistic strategy. The production by trip widely varies and is
asymmetrically distributed. Those characteristics lead to biased estimates
on total capture. Only a sampling of 70% of the fleet could stabilize the
estimate error. It concludes that, even if it implies higher costs, the data
collection systems to small-scale fishing should comprise the entire fleet,
whenever applicable.
PV76
Sistema de
estatística Pesqueira
para a Amazônia
of the data collected from 17 municipalities. The system has generated
information that was further published in annual statistic reports and made
available at Internet. And has also assisted fishery management in the
region, by establishing periods of defeso (time when fishing is prohibited)
and community management based on fishery agreements. The system
was expanded to other states, but was interrupted in 2005 when the
financing was suspended.
PV77
ANGELINE, R.; FABRE, N. N.; SILVA JÚNIOR, U. L. Trophic analysis
and fishing simulation of the biggest Amazon Catfish. African Journal of
Agricultural Research. [S.l.: s.n.]: v.1, December, 2006. p. 151-158.
fishing simulation of
The consensus now is that the ecosystemic approach strongly contributes
to the assessment and management of fish stock, and to the aquatic
ecosystem sustainability. This work aims at quantifying the Amazon
Flooded Forest flow and simulates the increased fishing effort in relation
to great predators, like the Catfish, and reduced flooded forest cover. It
employed the Ecosim and Ecopath software to build the Catfish model,
which allowed assessing its interference on the ecosystem stability. The
results showed that: 1) the Catfish model showed that this Flooded Forest
ecosystem is mature enough to stand disturbances; 2) in the simulation
of Flooded Forest forest deforestation (with non-natural regeneration) all
species are damaged (with no exception), including the group of catfish that
do not use the flooded environment. Therefore, the indirect consequence
of deforestation is an overfishing that increases even more the fishing
effort. The Catfish model findings entail important implications to the policymaking focusing on continental fishing in Brazil which is currently based on
defeso, suggesting the need for incorporating the impacts ensuing from the
Amazon Flooded Forest deforestation.
RUFFINO, M. L. Sistema integrado de estatística Pesqueira para a
Amazônia. [Integrated Fishery Statistic System to the Amazon]. PanAmerican Journal of Aquatic Sciences – Panamjas. [S.l.: s.n.]: 3 (3), 2008.
p. 193-204.
ProVárzea – which is executed by Ibama – has integrated institutions
and projects that historically collect data on fish capture and fishery effort,
notably along the Amazonas/Solimões Rivers channel. The system was
implemented because the contracted institutions already had a fishing
activity monitoring system, with the following characteristics: i) worked
with the total universe of unloading in the respective collection sites, rather
than with sampling-based estimates; ii) data were processed through a
relational database; raw data could be interchanged in different formats;
and, iv) the collection generated similar information, thus facilitating the
standardization of most of the categorical variables. The system enabled
constructing a shared database and carrying out integrated analysis
166
Trophic analysis and
PV78
SANTOS, G. M.; FERREIRA, E. J. G.; ZUANON, A. S. Peixes comerciais
de Manaus. [Commercial Fish in Manaus]. Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo,
2006. 144 p.
The publication registers in details the main species unloaded and traded at
Manaus port. The work contributes to improving knowledge on the Amazon
aquatic fauna that still has a lot to be surveyed. At the port of Manaus, over
20 thousand tons/years are unloaded, on average, and a diverse number of
species which were analyzed in the work. The information presented was
extracted from a project financed by the National Council of Scientific and
Technological Development. Fortnightly visits were paid to three different
kinds of fairs, from March 1998 to April 1999: market-place; fairs at residential
167
the biggest Amazon
Catfish
districts; fairs downtown. In each visit was prepared an estimate on the
relative participation of each fish group in relation to the total production
volume for sale. The relative participations or grade of importance to groups
and species of fish were pooled in the following categories: Outstanding:
above 20%; Moderate: From 5 to 20 %; Insignificant: below 5%. Fresh and
well preserved samplings of each species were purchased to illustrate and
confirm the identification in the laboratory. The team has also registered
the common name of each biological species.
PV79
FABRÉ, N. N.; BARTHEM, R. B. O manejo da pesca dos grandes
bagres migradores: Piramutaba e Dourada no eixo Solimões-Amazonas.
[Management of big migrating catfish fishery: Priamutaba and Dourada at
the Solimões-Amazonas Rivers axis.] Manaus: Ibama/ ProVárzea, 2005.
114 p. (Coleção Estudos Estratégicos)
From the 1970’s onwards, the incentive to opening freezer warehouses and
expanding the fishing fleet has intensified the capture of catfish in the Amazon
estuary region. Simultaneously, started the industrial exploitation of those
fish in the Amazonian Rivers, notably the piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma
vaillantii.) In the following years, the small-scale fishermen also started
capturing catfish, and this activity became one of the main income sources
to the riparian populations in the Western Amazon. Despite the current
importance of catfish fishery in the Amazon region, the distribution and
biogenetic characteristics of the main species explored (piramutaba and
dourada), and the current situation of those catfish fishery on the Solimões/
Amazonas axis remain little known. Therefore, it is necessary to develop
studies on the topic, within the ProVárzea scope. This study approaches
the bio-ecological, social and economic components to explain the dynamic
of these species, and characterize the catfish fishery in the region. The
Technical Document aims at disseminating the lessons learned about the
bio-ecology of the piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii) and dourada
(Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii) species, and the current status of fishing of
those species, and consequent social and economic benefits to the riparian
populations from the Amazon basin. This publication serves to subsidize
the formulation of public policies to ensure sustainable management of
fishery resources in the region.
168
PV80
PETRERE JÚNIOR, M. Setor pesqueiro: análise da situação atual e
tendências do desenvolvimento da indústria da pesca. [Fishery sector:
analysis on current situation and development tendencies of the fishing
industry]. Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 97 p.
Fishing activity could be considered as a chain of inter-related processes
comprising capture, processing, trade and consumer’s demand for fish.
Some of those aspects can be controlled by the individuals, while others
are out of the individual control. Thus, the collective action of fishermen is
necessary to face some difficulties, as well as the governmental intervention
to optimize the activity or protect the resources it explores. To establish
a fishing management strategy in the Amazon is important to define the
objectives, the category of fishermen and fish stocks to be included in
the management program. In that light, this study was mainly aimed at
analyzing the initial situation of the fishery economy and the fishing sector
development tendencies in the Brazilian Amazon, to provide subsidies to
outline public policies through the analyses and consolidation of the four
sub-studies outputs: Socio-economic characterization of the fishery activity
and fish trading structure; Economic characterization of the regional fishing
sector; Critical assessment of the fishing legislation enforceability; and
Survey on the exploitation of surubim, jaraqui, tambaqui and curimatão
stocks. The text addressed five guidelines to outline public policies
proposals: sector-oriented política actions (health, education, fishing,
environment and credit); inclusive policies to the segments concerned
(urban and riparian fishermen, workers); fishing regulation (regulation and
zoning); support to strengthen the fishermen’s political organization and
actions that contemplate the need for integrating public policies.
PV81
RUFFINO, M. L. (Coord..) A grilagem de terras públicas na Amazônia
brasileira. [Public land grabbling in the Brazilian Amazon] Manaus: Ibama/
ProManejo, 2004. 272 p.
The collection is mainly focused on the freshwater fishing in the Amazon.
Contents comprise the biological dynamic and biodiversity structure of
fishery resources, approaching specific issues related to the activity and
fishery production in different channels of the Solimões and Amazonas
Rivers. The contribution of many experts on the matter is divided into
articles. Generally speaking, following are the themes approached: 1)
Biology and diversity of fishery resources in the Amazon. 2) Exploitation
169
Setor pesqueiro
and management of fishery resources in the Amazon. 3) Unloading in the
region of Belém and fishing on the Amazonian headwaters. 4) Fishing in
the Lower Amazonas River. 5) Fishing in the Central Amazon. 6) Fishing in
the Medium Solimões River: the Medium Solimões River region has about
300 km in length. The great relevance of fish in the region leads to conflicts
for the access to resource, just like happened in other Amazonian regions.
The points raised are useful to outline policies to the entire region, and to
insert the profile in the sub-regions of the general context of that region.,
PV82
ARAUJO-LIMA, C. A. R. M.; RUFFINO, M. L. Migratory fishes of the
Brazilian Amazon. In: CAROSFIELD, J.; HARVEY, B.; ROSS, C.; BAER,
A. Migratory fishes of South America. Manaus: World Fisheries Trust/World
Bank/IDRC, 2004. p. 233-301.
The article approaches fisheries in the Amazon Region, notably regarding
the migratory fish, highlighting the Brazilian legislation’s negligence to the
small-scale fishing. Above all, the studies intend to reduce the impact of
young fish catching in the meadow and, therefore, reduce the impact on
the food stock. For that, the work describes the main migratory species.
Considering that Ibama – as the official regulatory agency – was open to the
scientific community’s suggestions, the study approaches the programme
recently proposed to manage basins. It concludes observing the need for
further studies, when referring to the impact ensuing for the destruction
of those specie’s habitat and its direct link to the reduced number of
individuals. There is the need of carrying out studies on the link between
habitat changes and fishery. It also stresses out the need for re-thing the
management that is centralized in one environmental body, involving other
public institutions dealing with the issue.
170
PV83
RUFFINO, M. L. Impact of the fresh water fish of the brazilian. In:
Boletín especies amenazadas. UICN: Peru, 2004. p. 5-6.
Impactos de las
The text addresses a discussion on the impact of deforestation, water
contamination from agricultural and mining activities on the freshwater
fish in the Brazilian Amazon. It also refers to the impacts ensuing from
hydroelectric projects that impair the migratory flow of fish, preventing these
from reaching their final destination. The article concludes that integrated
processes of natural resources management could assist finding feasible
solutions to balance impact and conservation, allowing the sustainable
use of that resource. Moreover, it affirms that a fishery resourcesoriented strategy to the Amazon implies sustainable social and ecological
development, where fishing management should be considered as one of
the components that form the ecosystem integrated management.
especies de peces
de agua dulce de la
Amazonia brasileña
PV84
PETRERE JÚNIOR, M. et. al. Setor pesqueiro – análise da situação atual
e tendências do desenvolvimento da indústria da pesca: caracterização
socioeconômica da atividade pesqueira e da estrutura de comercialização
do pescado na calha Solimões-Amazonas (Relatório Final.) [Fishery
sector – analysis on current situation and development tendencies of the
fish industry: socio-economic characterization of the fishing activity and the
fisheries trading structure at the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers channel (Final
Report.) Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 225 p.
This document stands for the final report required in the term of reference
to item 1 of the strategic study: “Fishery sector: analysis on current situation
and development tendencies of the fish industry” which reports the findings
of the study developed within the research project named “Caracterização
socioeconômica da atividade pesqueira e da estrutura de comercialização
do pescado na calha Solimões-Amazonas (Pará e Amazonas – municípios
de Belém, Santarém, Manaus, Tefé, São Paulo de Olivença, Tabatinga).”
The survey’s general objective is to characterize the socio-economic profile
of the fishing fleet and commercial fishermen in the region, describing
the fish trading process in the main regional markets. The document
discloses the results of the socio-economic data collection held for one
year, starting in September/October 2002. It also discloses methodological
aspects, collection tools and the database. It placed great emphasis on the
populations’ perceptions and the important role played by those actors to
build new knowledge, since they hold a set of skills that traditional science
has denied along history.
171
Setor pesqueiro
PV85
Setor pesqueiro
PETRERE JÚNIOR, M. et. al. Setor pesqueiro – análise da situação
atual e tendências do desenvolvimento da indústria da pesca: a indústria
pesqueira na Amazônia. [Fishery sector – analysis on current situation and
development tendencies of the fish industry: fish industry in the Amazon]
Manaus: Ibama/ProManejo, 2004. 223 p.
The report aims at contributing to understand the insertion of the Amazon
region’s fish production in Brazil and abroad. The document discloses
important information on the estimated fish production to the sector. This
final report was divided into five chapters. Chapter 1) Fish industry market
assessment in the Amazon; Chapter 2) New commercial species and
new fish products in the Amazon: research institutions and the industry;
chapter 3) Fish industry: labor force in the corporation’s and in the labor
force’s perspective; chapter 4) Characterization and financial analysis of
the fish industry; chapter 5) Fiscal incentives to the fish industry. Following
were the methodologies employed to approach the different aspects of fish
industry in the Amazon: questionnaires and interviews; freeze warehouse
data survey; fish industry historical survey; economic analysis; and,
fiscal legislation survey. The study was also based on secondary data,
using data provided by Ibama and statistic bases. Corporations from the
states of Amazonas and Pará have been interviewed to understand the
current markets, and the future markets tendencies. Moreover, different
stakeholders were interviewed, like Fish Industry Trade Unions; resellers
of Amazonian fisheries, both locally and at other regions of Brazil; and
government servants dealing with the sector.
PV86
Setor pesqueiro
PETRERE JÚNIOR, M.; SURGIK, A. C. S. Setor pesqueiro – análise da
situação atual e tendências do desenvolvimento da indústria da pesca:
avaliação crítica da aplicabilidade da legislação do setor pesqueiro
(Relatório Final.) [Fishery sector – analysis of current situation and
tendencies of the fish industry development: critical assessment on the
fishery sector legislation enforceability (Final Report)] Manaus: Ibama/
ProManejo, 2004. 36 p.
Following were the main objectives of the work: survey the legislation
regarding hygienic-sanitary aspects, defeso periods and environment;
analysis on existing legislation and its enforceability at the Amazonas/
Solimões Rivers channel; identification of uses and costumes contrary to the
fish regulation, anchoring in the results of other sub-studies; consolidation
of the findings in a final report. The report was divided into three parts, to
achieve the expected outputs: legislation survey (systematization of 231
fish resources rules); legislation analysis and enforceability (for example, it
noticed the lack of standardized basic definitions in the fishery legislation);
172
and, uses and costumes contrary to fishery regulation. The report records
the lack of compatibility of the intention units of federal and state rules.
It also observes the lack of clear specification and guidance in the legal
provisions set forth by the state rules. Another highlight deals with the
fiscal incentives to the fish sector, since few are oriented to small-scale
fishermen and small-size industries. In the conclusion, the work presents
recommendations, emphasizing the incentive to fishermen’s participation
in the decision-making process on fishery activities, and improvement of
the information system.
PV87
BARROSO, A. L. F. A pesca e a conservação das áreas alagáveis nas
calhas dos rios Solimões-Amazonas. [Fish and conservation of floodable
areas in the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers channels]. Manaus: Centro
Universitário Luterano de Manaus – ULBRA, 2004. 38 p. (Graduation
Monograph)
In the Amazon region, fishing is characterized both by quantity and
richness of explored species. Meadow influences the aquatic flora’s life
cycle. Therefore, it is very important to assess the link between meadow
conservation and fish productivity. This work aims at presenting that
information by comparing the Capture by Effort Unit (CPUE) at different
regions of the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers channel, which have different
conservation degrees, since the improper use of the meadow can
serious affect the system productive chain, causing irreversible damages
to fish stocks. To asses the meadow degradation level at the channel
(municipalities) of Solimões and Amazonas Rivers, the selected parts
should be on well known areas, presenting CPUE data. It used satellite
images of the radar L JERS-1 band, classifying the municipalities in: with
degraded meadow area; with conserved area; and with partially conserved
area. Thus, it warned about the need for the study on the qualitative link
between vegetation and fish abundance.
PV88
ISAAC, V. J. et. al. Atividades pesqueiras no Lago Grande de Curuai.
[Fishing activities in Lago Grande de Curuai]. Manaus: IBAMA/ProVárzea/
EDUA, 2003. 45 p. (Série Documentos Técnicos, 1)
This study aimed at providing inputs to the discussion and insertion of
different groups of users of the Lago Grande de Curuai, in the Medium
Amazonas River, to elaborate the usage rules of the fishery agreement to
that lake. The Lago Grande de Curuai on the eastern part of Santarém.
That is a large flooded area that occupies the municipalities of Santarém,
Óbidos and Juruti. Just like in other lake systems in the region, the historical
173
A pesca e a
conservação das
áreas alagáveis
nas calhas dos rios
Solimões-Amazonas
development of commercial fishery is marked by conflicts. After years of
fight for fish resources and a long negotiation process that started by the
end of the 1990’s, fostered by extension projects active in the region, the
fishermen’s communities, colonies and class association entered a fishery
agreement to the lake. The study observed a noticeably increase in the
number of fishing units in the last few years, mainly due to the financing
granted by the Banco da Amazônia (North Constitutional Fund – FNO)
to the purchase of motor boats for commercial fishing in the region. That
is one of the main reasons of conflict these days. According to the survey
findings, one of the measures to be adopted through Ministerial Directives
to rule captures in the lake would be a fishing areas zoning, to track sites
to be preserved with different restriction grades, ensuring the spawning
and breeding area, establishing some specific sites for fishing. It also
recommends more detailed study on the profits earned by the FNO-financed
vessels, to avoid over-capitalization and lack of sustainability to fishing.
PV89
Setor pesqueiro
PETRERE JÚNIOR, M.; SURGIK, A. C. S. Setor pesqueiro – análise da
situação atual e tendências do desenvolvimento da indústria da pesca:
levantamento do estado de exploração dos estoques de curimatã, jaraqui,
surubim e tambaqui. [Fishery Sector – analysis on current situation and
tendencies of the fishery industrial development: survey on the exploitation
of curimatão, jaraqui, surubim and tambaqui fish stocks]. Manaus: Ibama/
ProManejo, 2003. 159 p.
In the first part, the text describes the biology and analyzes the statistics
on unloading of each target species (curimatã, jaraqui, surubim and
tambaqui), and in the last part it attempts to simulate the fishing of target
species, linking capture to the respective fishing efforts, to assess the
stocks. Moreover, the publication makes recommendations based on
the recognition of the need for biological, economic, environmental and
statistic information as requirements to develop public policies oriented to
foster the activity expansion. Therefore, the article concludes that industrial
scale fishing is not recommendable to the Amazon Basin, and public and
private investments should be allotted to increase productivity instead of
production. Moreover, it is necessary to consolidate – in an articulated
fashion – the fishery management strategies and those to foster the activity,
always considering the fishermen’s knowledge.
174
PV90
RUFFINO, M. L. Strategies for managing biodiversity in Amazon Fisheries.
World Fisheries Trust/IDRC, UNEP, 2001. 24 p.
This document introduces different stages of the Iara Project, to disclose
the lessons learned and recommend future actions related to participatory
management at the Medium Amazonas River, to conserve fish resources and
the meadow biodiversity. The civil society has developed its own measures,
since the Brazilian fishing and environmental legislation are not responsive
to the aquatic resources conservation. For that, the project used participation
to integrate the stakeholders, anchored in the idea that sustainability is not
achieved through decree, but through a co-management system where all
groups feel identified to the proposed measures. It developed methodologies
to collect information on fishing and the socio-economic situation of the
riparian populations, observing ecological and cultural aspects in a multidisciplinary proposal that applied classic models and the communities’
knowledge. The Iara project carried out many studies that led to reviewing
regulations to consider the riparian population’s practices, evidencing that
the management strategy proposed to the Amazon leads to the sustainable
development of the ecosystem as a whole.
PV91
MEIER, W. Aspectos econômico-financeiros da pesca artesanal no
Baixo Amazonas. [Economic-financial aspects of small-scale fishing in
the Lower Amazonas River]. Manaus: IARA, [s.d.]. 5 p.
The debate on economic-financial aspects of small-scale fishing in the
Lower Amazonas River started during the 2nd Congress of small-scale
fishermen and fisherwomen from the east portion of Pará and Lower
Amazonas River, held in 2004. This study aims at deepening the debate.
The text analyzes the fishing cost-benefit relation in the region, dividing
fishermen into five categories, according to the kind of vessel: canoe,
motorized canoe, small fishing boat, big fishing boat and big freezer vessel.
The main finds are that canoes, motorized canoes and small fishing boats
have access to subsidized credit, facing no problems to repay it. Meanwhile,
the big fishing boats face more difficulties, because these have no access
to subsidized resources. Therefore, working with capital lent at interest
rates above 10% strongly jeopardizes the activity. To achieve profitable
and low-risk small-scale fishery in the region, the interest rates should
not exceed to 6%, since higher interests would increase risks, making the
activity unfeasible, notably to smaller vessels.
175
Aspectos
econômicofinanceiros da
pesca artesanal no
Baixo Amazonas
9
RMA
Atlantic Forest NGOs Network – Project on
Institutional Support to the RMA
The Atlantic Forest NGOs Network was established in 1992,
during the Rio ’92 held in Rio de Janeiro. It is composed of 46
NGOs dealing with the Atlantic Forest, and focuses on the
Biome preservation, conservation and recovery through social
mobilization, strategies, coordinated political actions, and support
to the NGOs part of the Network. In 2001 the PPG7 started fostering
the RMA by means of the Institutional Support Project, to strengthen
the society organizations to effectively work on the formulation,
implementation and assessment of project and programs related to
natural resources management.
Following are the main objectives of the Project: 1) articulate
and monitor Atlantic Forest-oriented governmental programs; 2)
foster the NGO’s institutional enhancement; and, 3) generate and
disseminate information on the Biome and actions developed by the
network. The main achievements of the Institutional Support Project
were: 1) the Network member’s presence at official forums created
to discuss, assess and recommend strategic policies to the Country;
2) the RMA headed the dialogue between the region’s government
and civil society to assemble two work groups, namely the Atlantic
Forest and the Araucária WG. Both work on the planning of actions
and policies oriented to environmental conservation.
The Project has also ensured to the RMA a key role in the definition
to foster more active participation of the PDA in the Atlantic Forest
Biome, in its second stage. The Network promoted meetings,
seminars and conferences to debate the strategies on the region,
like the implementation of environmental command and control
measures. The strategy to the Network communication with the
Project included the creation of an Internet webpage, newsletter
publication, and production of scientific articles, additionally to
the promotion of campaigns to raise awareness on the Biome’s
importance.
176
177
RMA1
RMA3
NEAL, B. W. (Org..) A Mata Atlântica e sua biodiversidade no contexto da
mitigação das mudanças climáticas: a contribuição da sociedade civil. [The
Atlantic Forest and its biodiversity within the context of climatic changes
mitigation: the civil society contribution]. Brasilia: RMA, 2008. 80 p.
The book was designed to be part of the capacity-building workshops
held by the Project “A Mata Atlântica e sua biodiversidade no contexto da
mitigação das mudanças climáticas – a contribuição da sociedade civil”
(The Atlantic Forest and its biodiversity within the context of climate changes
mitigation.) The publication intends to assist the Nags affiliated to the network
to disseminate knowledge and articulate with the local public power the
elaboration and implementation of project with potential to conserve and
recover the Atlantic Forest and mitigate the global climatic change’s effects.
The book is divided into six chapters, and the first one approaches the Atlantic
Forest. The second one approaches the climate and climatic change, focusing
on the carbon cycle and the Greenhouse Effect Gases. The third chapter
addresses the political panorama regarding climatic change in Brazil and in
the world. The fourth part introduces the carbon market. The fifth chapter gives
some clues to develop a project on carbon sequestration, while the sixth part
presents the carbon market current status.
CAMPANILI, M.; PROCHNOW, M. Mata Atlântica: uma rede pela floresta.
[Atlantic Forest: a network for the forest.] Brasilia: RMA, 2006. 22 p.
The book intends to show some of the diversity found in the Atlantic Forest
biome, not only the biological one, that of the fauna and flora, but also of
populations, cities, different sectors and opinions. The publication shows
the Biome richness, the destruction process, the need for conservation, a
little about its history and the legislation that protects it. Through texts and
images, it shows the reality of 17 states that house the Atlantic Forest.
It points out current threats, while reporting some positive initiatives in
many sectors: scientists, corporations, governments and NGOs that
are increasingly committed to contribute with the Biome protection and
recovery. The book also explains some important concepts on protected
areas and processes employed to promote the sustainable use of natural
resources, disclosing a list of institutions member of the Atlantic Forest
NGOs Network.
RMA2
REDE DE ONGs DA MATA ATLÂNTICA – RMA. Rede de ONGs da Mata
Atlântica: trajetórias, ações e perspectivas. [Atlantic Forest NGOs Network:
paths, actions and perspectives.] Brasilia: RMA, 2006. 22 p.
This publication introduces the Atlantic Forest NGOs Network (RMA),
approaching from its birth to future perspectives. The Network as created
as a result of the debates during the Global Forum in Rio ’92, to assemble a
net to defend, conserve, preserve and recover the Atlantic Forest fostering
the interchange of information, mobilization, coordinated policy action and
mutual support among the NGOs. The RMA has worked to strengthen local
and regional actions developed by its member, through the monitoring and
articulation of public policies that directly or indirectly influence the Atlantic
Forest. Currently, the Network gathers 257 member entities spread in 17
Brazilian states comprised by the Biome (RS, SC, PR, SP, ES, MG, RJ,
MS, GO, BA, SE, AL, PE, PB, RN, CE and PI.)
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10
SPCT
Science and Technology Subprogramme
The Science and Technology Subprogramme (SPC&T) is a
governmental initiative, supported by the international community
through the PPG7, and was divided in two phases. The Phase
I started in 1995 and was implemented by the Studies and
Research Financing Agency (Finep.) It had two components: 1)
oriented survey, and 2) Science Centers with the basic objective
of promoting generation and dissemination of scientific and
technological knowledge relevant to the region, and building
conditions to transform the Amazonian research institutions into
reference/excellence centers. The first component of this phase
supported 53 projects, and the second component invested
resources to the institutional strengthening of two research centers
in the Amazon: National Institute of Amazonian Studies (INPA) and
the Emilio Göeldi Museum of Pará (MPEG.)
The SPC&T second phase started in 2005 and was executed by
the CNPq. The model executed in this phase was anchored in
debates with many institutions in the Amazon region about research
gaps, important characteristics and potential designs to work in
research networks. Phase II tried to integrate the new demands
and the needs for scientific and technological development to
basic issues related to the ecosystem sustainability and rational
exploitation. The general objective of this phase was to promote
and disseminate, in a coordinated and cooperative way, scientific
and technological surveys in relevant fields of knowledge, to
contribute to the conservation and sustainable development of the
Amazon Region.
Phase II was structured with three components: I) Research Projects
in Strategic Topics; II) Dissemination of Information and Surveys
Findings; III) Management, Monitoring and Assessment. Among
the main achievements one could mention the consolidation of the
research networks to the Amazon region, in a multi-disciplinary
way, with cooperation among consolidated and emergent groups,
optimizing resources and generation integrated and high quality
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181
scientific surveys. The surveys can subsidize the Amazon
region’s conservation and sustainable use regarding Ecology
and Management of Aquatic Organism; Timber and Non-Timber
Products; Recovery of Degraded Areas; and, Water Management
in the Amazon.
The scientific production of the SPC&T Phase II researches
consistently increase, being disseminated through articles in
international and national magazines, journals, chapters of
books, books, integral assays in Congress Minutes, dissertations
defended, abstracts in congresses. Although the exact number of
publications in not known, the volume and quality of information
evidence its potential to future publications. Because of the quality
of the material produced and the short space of this catalogue, we
should not summarize all scientific products. We have selected
only 31 publications in both phases. The information on Phase
II should focus on the 11 research sub-network established.
Those interested in getting to know the results should contact the
researchers involved in the SPC&T Phase II.
SPCT1
M I N I S T RY O F S C I E N C E A N D T E C H N O L O G Y S C I E N C E A N D
TECHNOLOGY SUB-PROGRAMME – SPC&T. Conferência do
Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia SPC&T Fase II/PPG7 – Anais.
[Conference of the Science and Technology Sub-Programme SPC&T Phase
II/PPG7 – Minutes]. Brasilia: CNPq, 2009. 579 p.
The book is the publication of the Minutes of the Conference of the Science
and Technology Sub-programme (SPC&T, Phase II) held in Belém, in
December 2008. The Minutes provide information on the SPC&T, Phase II,
including the presentation of the thematic survey groups prepared by the
consultants member of the Assessment Commitment of the MCT/CNPq/
PPG7 Call for Bid 48/2005 - except for the Thematic Group “Recovery
of Degraded Areas in the Amazon which counted on the assistance of
CNPq analysts; sub-network abstracts of the lectures by sub-network
coordinators during the thematic round tables; and the research projects
findings abstracts presented during the panel sessions. It also included
abstracts of reports prepared by the scientific dissemination projects, whose
outputs (DVDs, notebooks, books) were presented during the exhibition of
scientific dissemination products. The launching of this book is yet another
mechanism to record the Sub-programme outputs and contributions. This
publication is expected to increase the dissemination of those results and
promote access to knowledge on water management; degraded areas
recovery; use and management of aquatic (fish, chelonian, alligators, etc.)
and terrestrial resources (timber and non-timber products) in the Amazon.
It is also expected to enhance the successful experience of implementing
the model of research networks within the S&T policy scope, and subsidize
public policies related to the sustainable use and conservation of natural
resources in the Amazon.
Conservamazônia Sub-network: Biodiversity and forest environmental
services conservation: grounds to the Amazonian sustainable development
– coordinator Phillip Martin Fearnside (Inpa – AM)
The Amazon Forest provides valuable environmental services to the human
population in the Amazon, Brazil and the world. The services include
biodiversity maintenance, water cycle and carbon stocks that prevent the
release of greenhouse effect gases. Despite the wide recognition that such
services are much more valuable that the monetary earnings yielded by the
forest destruction to timber exploitation and pasture cropping, the consistent
advancement of deforestation in that region reflects the lack of mechanisms
to transform environmental services into a competitive alternative regarding
the decisions on the land use in most of the Amazonian territory. There
is an urgent need for changing the regional economy, replacing the
destructive base that prevails now for an economy based on the supply
of environmental services. It demands progress in many fields, ranging
from the diplomatic and political sphere to scientific research. To contribute
to that effort, the Conservamazônia sub-network focuses its surveys on
different key aspects of the dynamic of untouched forests, forests disturbed
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183
by fragmentation and climatic change, and the deforested areas. The subnetwork tries to integrate information from different levels; recommend
actions to maximize the supply of environmental services by the forests
and deforested landscape; and analyze different decisions to the future
development, considering the consequences to environmental services.
The sub-network focuses its studies in the Amazonas State because it
houses large areas which are still conserved in comparison to other states
and, therefore, is a critical site to the future path of deforestation and loss
of environmental services. The Conservamazônia develops five research
projects.
Hidro-Purus Sub-network: The effects of anthropic interventions on the
Purus Basin: analysis of the links among environmental functions, social
actors and water management in the Legal Amazon – coordinator: Andrea
Viviana Waichman (Ufam – AM)
The objective of the proposal prepared by this sub-network was to integrate
different areas of knowledge to understand the socio-environmental
dynamic at the Purus River water basin, reporting the challenges posed to
integrated management involving the Amazonian waters. The Purus River
basin was elected as the study object, because it is considered to be a
reserve and is object of conservation policies that, nonetheless, can be
affected by the potential paths to be taken by the public policies on regional
development. This basin gathers several characteristics relevant to the
study on spatial dynamic and anthropic impact on natural ecosystems: it is
transboundary; most of its natural environments are conserved; houses a
large mosaic of conservation units; has been pressured by the agricultural
frontier expansion; and is located in an area that is influenced by important
infrastructure projects in the Amazon. Such characteristics, associated to
the large number of habitats defined according to the river flow, and the
connectivity between those – based on the floods and low waters regimes
– assign to the Purus River basin high environmental relevance. Within that
context, the Purus river is not only a priority to the forest and water resources
planning and conservation actions, but is also a model to understand the
specificities of the environmental, political, economic, social and cultural
factors that exist at local level. Although the project focused on a large area,
the field research was specially oriented to the Purus River channel, its main
tributaries and adjacent systems. Therefore, issues related to water quality,
soil use and lakes are intertwined with institutional issues, becoming more
complex since the human dimension introduced uncertainties related to
the access and use of water resources and remainder natural resources in
the region. According to the study, the Purus River basin hydrological cycle
could be sold as an umbrella service; but the potential future to properly
implement the Payment for Environmental Services strongly depends on
the institutional arrangements to be established. The Hidro-Purus develops
four research projects.
H2O Limpa Sub-network: Multiple uses of water, its contamination
and effects on public health at the Madeira River Sub-basin: subsidies
to environmental conservation and zoning – coordinator: Wanderley
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Rodrigues Bastos (Unir – RO)
The main decisions in the forthcoming year, notably in the Amazon, should
consider the exchanges between agricultural production and water quality,
land use and aquatic biodiversity, current water use for irrigation, and
future agricultural production. In this context, this sub-network participated
in the investigation carried out by other institution on the link between
environmental conditions and life quality of the Amazon’s population at
the Madeira River water basin, states of Rondônia and Amazonas. The
cooperation between researchers has facilitated the outlining of strategies
to approach the issue of “human interference on the water quality at the
Amazonian water systems.” The project fostered emerging research,
and has provided positive inputs to the planning and implementation of
public policies, by warning authorities about the environmental problems
that affect the Amazonian population’s lives quality. Moreover, it is also
subsidizing the introduction of this problem in the agenda of debate on
governmental policies, and is still starting to bear fruits. The H2O Limpa
develops five research projects.
Baspa sub-network: Grounds to fishery sustainability in the Amazon –
coordinator: Carlos Edwar de Carvalho Freitas (Ufam – AM)
Since it was conceived, this sub-network stood for an attempt to articulate
complementary studies, as cause and effect. In that spirit, the six subnetwork’s projects have mutually contributed to collect data and make it
available. By the end, the Fishery Management Strategies in the Amazon
project tried to gather the results to build public policies on the sustainable
use of fishery resources. At the same time, this project provided feedback to
the remainder projects, referring the demands posed by resource’s users,
identifying conflicts, the inefficiency of the ruling tools, and so on. Our initial
decision of developing a joint work in a focal area – the Lago Grande de
Manacapuru – has facilitated the interaction achieved. After exhaustive
field work and data analysis, we have achieved some extremely relevant
results: (i) obtention of parameters to the population dynamic of different
species of commercial importance; (ii) deeper knowledge on the biology of
many fish species in the lakes of the Amazon meadow; (iii) consolidation of
the ethno-biological knowledge about the populations living on the meadow
lakes at the Central Amazon, regarding fish and fishery; (iv) identification of
the territorial perception among riparian populations in the Central Amazon
meadow lakes; (v) accomplishment of a method to valuate the no-use of fish
resources to the biota of the Amazonian meadow lakes; (vii) development
of technologies responsive to the use of fish resources from the meadow
lakes adding value to fisheries; (ix) development of a calendar of speciestechnological products; (x) development of an ecosystem management
proposal to the Amazonian meadow lakes.
Mapevam Sub-network: Integrated management of fish resources in the
Amazonian meadow. Comparative study of two regions: Medium Amazonas
and Purus Rivers – coordinator: David Gibbs McGrath (UFPA – PA)
This sub-network aims at contributing to the conservation and sustainable
185
management of aquatic resources, through the development of four research
projects. The projects were developed in two meadow regions characterized
by different territorial management systems: Santarém in Lower Amazonas
River, and Lower Purus River. The four projects have employed different
methodologies, responsive to their objectives. The studies findings have
contributed to answer four specific questions of the sub-network. Project
1: In an open system like the Amazonas River meadow, which would be
the proper scale to ensure conservation to aquatic species? The Project
1: identified three patterns to the genetic structure of the aquatic species
populations analyzed. The first pattern was the lack of genetic structuring
of the species sampled in both regions, pointing out a broad genetic
flow in the Central Amazon meadow. The second was isolation due the
distance, observed for some species. Project 2: Do fish management
systems entail positive effects to local stocks? The findings confirm the
importance of fish to the riparian population’s eating habits, besides
revealing important differences regarding fish consumption in communities
and regions. Project 3: Would it be possible to sustainably manage aquatic
species populations of commercial value like chelonian, alligators and the
pirarucu? This project shows the importance of chelonian to the eating
habits – and sometimes even to the income – of the riparian population.
Project 4: Are the community organizations capable of managing aquatic
species in a sustainable way? The problem is that in the setting of current
policies and institutional structures of aquatic species co-management the
potential community-based management cannot be assessed because,
except for some works of experimental natural, the government prohibits
wild animals’ management. The finds of the set of studies carried out by
the sub-network reveal the potential sustainable management of aquatic
species, and the contribution to the aquatic biodiversity and sustainable
development of riparian communities in the meadow.
Propeixe Sub-network: Conservation and management of fish species in
the Amazon, aimed at a sustainability scenario – coordinator: Vera Maria
Fonseca de Almeida e Val (Inpa – AM)
In the Amazon, fish farming was disregarded because of the high volume
of fish stocks. It was not until recently, when some species were reduced
around big cities, and due to the shorter size of the species captured, the
population started paying attention to the need for farming some species
like tambaqui, pirarucu and matrinxã. Bearing that in mind, and aiming at
changing the practice of just putting some fish in a small lake or tank, and
let these grow free of any monitoring, the Propeixe network was conceived
with projects that could started studies that would entail outputs applicable
to fish farming. Every project tried to combine those factors and modern
techniques of molecular biology, population genetic, nutritional metabolism
and hematologic physiology to identify genes; identify populations in genetic
terms; improve the animals performance with food from natural byproducts
of the Amazon; characterize animals with pathological conditions to improve
reproduction; hasten growth and improve the fattening of four species. The
perspective of generating products to farmers and public policy-makers is
very good, and expected to be achieved in a near future. Data generated
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by the five research projects developed by the sub-network have provided
important responses to the breeding of all species.
Manflor Sub-network: Management and conservation of timber and nontimber forestry resources – coordinator: João Olegário Pereira de Carvalho
(Embrapa Amazônia Oriental – PA)
Manflor sub-network has been working for 30 months to reach the following
objectives: promote interchange of information on ecology and natural forests
management, between governmental and non-governmental institutions,
thus enabling partnerships to develop complementary studies at regional
level; promote the development and adaptation of management systems to
natural and planted forests in the Brazilian Amazon, considering aspects like
multiple use of forest, most adequate species, production scale, intensity
and land property; recommend sustainable management practices to
forestry products in the Amazon; validate methods to assess the ecological
sustainability to manage forestry species; generate socio-economic data
of different forestry products; generate new forestry products and add
value to the existing ones; subsidize sustainable forestry management
programs, providing information on conservation of arboreous species in
managed forests; organize and systematize the knowledge on existing links
among agents part of the productive arrangements ensuing from forestry
raw material. The forest-based sector has actively participation in the subnetwork’s activities, providing significant contributions to achieve goals, and
is now taking advantage from the results achieved by the concluded surveys.
The five sub-network projects have disclosed the interest of researchers,
students and even forestry entrepreneurs in somehow participating in
the research activities or getting to know the findings. Some projects
have attracted more collaborators, notably researchers and students.
The involvement of governmental institutions like Ibama, the Brazilian
Forestry Service and environment secretariats, as well as a large number
of scholarship holders, technicians, teachers and students, who worked as
collaborator partners, was extremely positive. Many achievements were
possible thanks to the cooperation of those partners who have greatly
contributed to the projects quality and dissemination.
APAFBIO Sub-network: Use of Amazonian plants as sources of biodefensives – coordinator: José Luiz Martins do Nascimento (UFPA – PA)
The seek for agricultural defensives of vegetal origin that do not damage
the environment, and can add value to vegetal resources found in the
Amazonian region was an important focus adopted by this sub-network.
Hence, it employed two species of timbó (fish poison) and one of cipó
d’alho (garlic creeper.) The timbós verdadeiros, plants of the Derris
gender, Leguminosae family, from the Brazilian Amazon are among the
most efficient shellfish poison and insecticide plants. The most common
timbós in the Amazon are the timbó-vermelho (Derris urucu) and the timbóbranco (Derris nicou.) The cipó d’alho was identified as Mansoa standleyi
(Steyerm) A. H. Gentry (Bignoniaceae.) Therefore, the work was developed
in two phases. The first stage was oriented to generate a technologically
feasible product that was relatively harmless to animal health when
187
properly used. For that, it employed three oxidative stress assays, such as
the acetylcholinesterase activity; glutathione and lipid peroxidation levels;
and mitotic index assays to check the gene-toxicological impacts since
most of the products used for agriculture and cattle farming are harmful
to the environment. The second stage was developed in an agricultural
community in the Amazon, recommending an intervention on the way how
farmers develop their productive activities, aiming at encouraging the use
of natural biodefensives. We would like to emphasize that the community
involved in the project is habitat to the plants studied. Therefore, the
identification of active principles and effects; potential economically feasible
uses; potential sustainable use of the natural resources; and the possibility
of being transferred to the community converted the bio-prospection into a
sub-network focused on cross-cutting topics.
Uatumã sub-network: Vegetal and bioactive molecules diversity in the
Uatumã Biological Reserve, Central Amazon – coordinator: William Ernest
Magnusson (Inpa – AM)
To carry out the surveys, the four projects of this sub-network had to build
a grid in the Biological Reserve (ReBio) of Uatumã, following the sampling
design of the Biodiversity Surveys Program, where teams have developed
all studies, or part of these. The grid is a 5 x 5 km area, with trails at
every 1 km crossing the grid north-southward and east-westward, resulting
the 60 km of trails. To inventory the vegetal diversity found in the area, it
carried out qualitative surveys mainly along the 60 km of trails in the grid,
resulting in the collection of about 2,700 specimens of vascular plants. The
woody specimens collected were mapped and can be accessed at any
time. The images of collections and pictures of the living plant parts, as
well as the project database, are available at www.floradouatuma.com.br.
Based on the floristic survey, the project prepared a list of 106 species
potentially ornamental, distributed in 22 families. The list served as basis to
future works on domestication and/or genetic improvement. The survey on
vegetal diversity to herbs and trees also employed quantitative surveys in
the 30 parcels. The studies have also enabled the elaboration of illustrated
field guides to three groups of herbs found in the Biological Reserve of
Uatumã: Bracken, Lycophyta and Marantaceae. The survey on bioactive
molecules diversity employed studies on the chemical composition and
biological activity of the plants. Cytotoxic, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiplatelet and anti-malarial activities have been studies in extracts, fractions,
isolated substances and semi-synthetic substances. The studies led to the
request of patent on anti-malarial substances, and to the publication of a
book chapter in the field of green chemistry about productive chains of
semi-synthetic byproducts based on the cropping, processing, extraction,
isolation and derivation of active principles of three Amazonian plants.
Two manuscripts were accepted to be published in indexed journals of
international standard, approaching the isolate active principles of antimalarial plants and anti-malarial semi-synthetic byproducts. A manuscript
was submitted to an international journal. The sub-network also participated
in the elaboration of five Master’s Degree dissertations and one Doctor’s
theses defended.
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Recovery sub-network: Alternatives to recover degraded areas in the
Amazon – coordinator: Cláudio José Reis de Carvalho (Embrapa Amazônia
Oriental – PA)
The objectives of this sub-network were as follows: (a) outline a diagnosis
on the current situation and causes of degradation in different land use
systems; (b) recommend agroforestry systems to different scenarios of soil
degradation; (c) employ participatory strategies to outline and implement
agroforestry systems as alternative to recover degraded areas; and,
(d) establish a minimum set of soil degradation indictors to agroforestry
systems. It developed activities to make a diagnosis on the current situation
and causes of degradation in different land use systems, including a wide
range of actions primarily in the field of remote-sensing, using different ways
to assess the landscape (non-conventional and panoramic air pictures,
satellite images, etc.), and equipment test using special cameras with
embedded GPS. It developed “on-site” surveys and zoning of agroforestry
systems established, besides identifying management practices adopted by
small farmers of bacuri (Platonia sp.) and strengthened the local technical
competences to disseminate those practices. The chemical, physical and
biological attributes of the soil were assessed in different land use systems
in family-owned rural properties, to assess the system’s impact on the soil
quality. The use of fire is a common practice in family-based agriculture in
most of the production units and recently, with the problems associated
to climatic changes, has been considered to be the agricultural segment
that more contributes to the emissions of greenhouse gases. Moreover,
the use of fire was proved to cause significant losses of nutrients when the
vegetation biomass is burnt, reducing the potential agricultural production.
The survey findings show the advantages of those systems based on the
fire-free air biomass management of secondary vegetation with potential
to improve the agricultural systems’ sustainability – Tipitamba System.
In the areas where secondary vegetation has lost the productive and
reproductive capacity, it developed the Bragantino System. That system
consists in building soil fertility through liming, chemical fertilization and
associated crops to promote production diversification. To enhance the
land use systems’ efficiency and, therefore, reduce the negative effects
opening new areas, it recommends the assembling of SAFs after the crop
in the Tipitamba and Bragantino systems. The Recuperamaz develops four
research projects.
Recovery sub-network: Management and recovery of natural resources
in human-altered landscapes in the Eastern Amazon – coordinator: Oriana
Trindade de Almeida (Ipam – PA)
The sub-network goal is to integrate and strengthen the ecological and
economic research, and the simulation of future scenarios on the family
agriculture frontier (the so-called Transamazônica) and an industrial
agricultural frontier (headwaters of the Xingu River in the state of Mato Grosso)
to subsidize the conservation proposals oriented to private properties. The
189
sub-network proposal is anchored in the strategy of compiling biological
and socio-economic field data, formulating models, providing the scientific
grounds to elaborate the proposals on environmental regulation, practices
of recovery and regulation on the soil use in the Amazon. The sub-network
is composed by five projects that observed that the landscape changes
processes in the Amazon report different levels of complexity, and count on
the participation of different productive sectors and transformation actors,
with different perspectives and needs. Understanding the mechanisms to
recover degraded areas, establishing new management techniques and
the economic feasibility of those processes, depend on different fields
of knowledge. Therefore, a proposal on natural resources management
must, above all, pass by the integration of biological, economic and social
integration of the systems involved. To successfully integrate the knowledge,
the research groups part of this sub-network have focused the studies on
two regions, which significantly contribute to change the land use in the
Amazon, namely the Xingu River Headwaters and the Transamazônica.
SPCT2
ANTUNES, A. M. de S. Gestão do conhecimento, monitoramento
e disseminação de resultados de pesquisas do subprograma de
C&T que foram incorporados por usuários de recursos naturais.
[Knowledge management, monitoring and dissemination of the S&T subprogramme surveys’ findings incorporated by users of natural resources].
Rio de Janeiro: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Ministry of Science and
Technology, 2004. 108 p. (Technical Report)
The technical report meets the demands of the S&T Sub-program, of the
Ministry of Science and Technology, to survey and analyze the successful
experiences to disseminate the PPG7 Oriented Survey – Phase I project’s
results, and highlight the communication means employed to disseminate,
replicate or transfer knowledge. The results could subsidize the PPD/PPG7
Phase II, considering that the project implementation assessed by the
Ministry of Science and Technology recommended considering the research
outputs dissemination as a strategic objective, establishing the researcher’s
mandatory presentation of proposals to disseminate the results of their
projects. The methodology matches literature review and field works based
on semi-structured interview with the projects representatives and users in
the states of Amazonas, Acre and Pará, considering the dissemination of
projects results; communication process; knowledge dissemination traits;
barriers; successful experiences; lessons learned; and, recommendations.
The major contribution of those projects were the new knowledge stocks
that incorporated concepts, arguments and methodologies, some of which
can be replicated in other situations, followed by the elaboration of policies
and personnel training that can be replicated and lead to changes. The
trainings are delivered in class, laboratories, through scientific documents
like specialized journals, in governmental institutions, to government
Secretaries, and NGOs. The knowledge generated gathers national
experiences, and result in the proposal of a dissemination model in tune with
the projects characteristics which are quite similar to foreign studies and
practices. This can be considered to be the first step toward fostering the
discussion on this topic, and further policies recommendations.
SPCT3
BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and Technology – MCT. INPA Report. In:
Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/
Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da Fase Emergencial
e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the Brazilian Rainforests
/ Science and Technology Sub-program: results of the Emergency Phase
and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 11-60.
The report aims at introducing the achievements of the PPG-7 Science
and Technology Sub-program, proposed by the Brazilian Government,
to consolidate the National Institute of Amazonian Studies – Inpa as a
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191
Gestão do conhecimento,
monitoramento e disseminação
de resultados de pesquisas do
subprograma de C&T que foram
incorporados por usuários de
recursos naturais
Scientific Excellence Center, since it observed that foreign financing had
failed in bringing benefits to the Amazon region because these missed a
sound research structure. The Inpa presents in numbers what it reached as
long-term goals: the establishment of Institutional Programs and Research
Coordination Offices expanded through increased budget and national and
international agreements that have cooperated to the research structures
modernization, and to the institutional strengthening as well. The report
also discloses figures related to scientific production from 1995 to 1998.
Considering the dissemination policy, the Inpa updated its scientific
journal – Acta Amazônia – and published books, notebooks, manuals
and folders with information about the region. Moreover, it held scientific
events, participated in events on environmental education, implemented
the science woods counting on the participation and involvement of the
population living in the vicinities. Regarding infrastructure, the investments
to improve the physical and laboratorial structure led to investments in the
academic qualification, through the capacity-building of researchers in
Brazil and abroad. Finally, it lists the difficulties ensuing from the lack of
experience of booster’s and the institute's in dealing with projects of that
size. The final result is the research agendas organization promoted by
the Inpa and by the allotment of individual budgets to projects of interdisciplinary and inter-institutional nature.
SPCT4
BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and Technology – MCT. Projeto Centros de
Ciência: MPEG – Relatório, 1a fase. [Science Centers Project: MPEG
– Report, 1st phase.] In: Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas
Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da
Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the
Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of
the Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 61-100.
The Emílio Göeldi Museum of Pará (MPEG) was incorporated to the
PPG7 Science Centers Project, after the Strategic Planning proposed by
the World Bank, as a pre-investment activity to adjust the institution to
the external environment. Therefore, the project ensues for the priorities
identified during the planning, and aims at enhancing the MPEG institutional
development to adjust it to the standard of International Reference Center
in research, dissemination and education in science. Articulations were
based on two components: scientific policy, where results exceeded the
objectives; dissemination policy, where objectives were fully achieved
and the production of information material stands out, placing priority on
scientific publications and consolidating the Information Center; institutional
strengthening policy, registering significant progress toward strengthening
the institutional management and administration duties; infrastructure
adjustment, where the goals have been fully fulfilled. The report underlines
the main problems faced to implement the actions, and the relevant impacts
ensuing from the results. The output’s sustainability should be accomplished
192
through the opportunities of enhancing the intellectual capital, while lessons
learned consider the Ministry of Science and Technology’s and the CNPq’s
vague stance, additionally to the everyday bureaucratic difficulty.
SPCT5
KRUG, T. et. al. Tecnologias avançadas de geoprocessamento e sensoriamento
remoto para apoio ao desenvolvimento e utilização sustentadas da Amazônia.
[Geo-processing and remote-sensing advanced technologies to support
the development and sustainable use of the Amazon]. In: BRAZIL. Ministry
of Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas
Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da
Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the Brazilian
Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of the Emergency
Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 103-118.
The Project on Geo-processing and Remote-sensing Advanced Technologies
to Support the Development and Sustainable use of the Amazon was proposed
by the National Space Research Institute – Inpe to the MMA/PPG7. It comprised
two objectives. Firstly, it attempted to develop, assess and implement
methodology and innovative technologies of geo-processing and digital image
processing, to foster sustainable development in the Amazon. Secondly, it is
aimed at providing such technologies to institutions in the region, assisting the
human resources qualification and implementation of minimum infrastructure
required to apply those technologies to socio-environmental studies and to
monitor natural resources. The proposed goals have been achieved and
exceeded with no additional financial resources, expanding the programme
to every nine states in the Legal Amazon, surpassing the initial forecasts to
activities related to technology transfer and effective transfer of knowledge.
SPCT6
OLIVEIRA, J. et. al. Universo Ticuna: território, saúde e meio ambiente.
[Ticuna Universe: territory, health and environment.] In: BRAZIL. Ministry
of Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas
Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da
Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the
Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of
the Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 119-126.
The Ticuna Universe Project: Territory, Health and Environment tries to find
out how the concepts of indigenous peoples living in the Upper Solimões
River (state of Amazonas) are expressed in the discourses and everyday
practices on their territory, notably due to the lack of systematized data;
the epidemiological profile considering the inter-ethnical links between the
culturally determined processes of disease and death; and in proposals
of economic and socio-cultural development. The selected research
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methodology was the action anthropology to avoid the empty discourse
of the target population’s participation, promoting the generation of new
research products to adjust it to the demands of the Ticuna population,
notably regarding the projects on sustainable development and recovery
of the Magütta Museum collection. Moreover, it employed quantitative data
collection tools seeking an objective view of reality based on anthropology.
The Ticuna Settlement General Council (CGTT) was strengthened, and
actively supported the continuity of the research multi-disciplinary team’s
works in the integrated analysis of environmental issues involving both
natural and socio-cultural domain. When the Project was concluded, the
proposed goals were considered to have been fully reached. It has also
enabled deeper knowledge about the relation of the Ticuna society and its
culture with the environment.
SPCT7
BATISTA, G. T. B. et al. Seqüestro e emissões de carbono em função da
mudança no uso e cobertura da terra amazônica. [Carbon sequestration and
emissions due to changes in the use and cover of the Amazonian land]. In:
BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção
das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia:
resultados da Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection
of the Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of
the Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 127-156.
The Project on Carbon Sequestration and Emissions due to Change on the
Use and Cover of the Amazon Land aimed at studying in representative
Brazilian Amazonian sites, using remote-sensing techniques and field works,
the dynamic of land use and cover. That dynamic was understood as the
changes occurred from 1973 to 1996 on the vegetal cover in three classes
(forest, use and secondary vegetation) due to different carbon stocks. The
dynamic of use and cover implies emission or sequestration of carbon to
the atmosphere, besides estimating the biomass of primary and secondary
vegetation areas. The data analysis comprised image digital processing
techniques and geographic information systems to produce maps of land use
and cover, through inter-comparison of a series of multi-temporal images,
using images by the Thematic Mapper (TM), Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS)
orbital sensors – both of the Landsat satellite – and the radar images available
(JERS and RADARSAT), additionally to on-site observations to refine the
results that include floristic inventory and collection of structural parameters
of the primary and secondary vegetation, to estimate the biomass. The work
was developed at intensive-occupation areas. Marabá and Tapajós, in the
state of Pará, the Landsat TM scene in the state of Rondonia, and Manaus in
the state of Amazonas were the test areas, and the additional test areas were
Tucumã and Sena Madureira, in the state of Acre, and the main highway’s
vicinities. The project contributed to improve knowledge on carbon balance in
the Amazon and to socio-economic studies. Moreover, it provided subsidies to
the study on hydrological and bio-geochemical cycles in the region.
194
SPCT8
TADEI, W. P. et. al. Entomologia da Malária em áreas de colonização da
Amazônica. [Malaria Entomology in colonization areas in the Amazon. In:
BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção
das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia:
resultados da Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection
of the Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of
the Emergency Phase and Phase I. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 157-168.
Malaria is an endemic considered to be ‘resurgent’ and is one of the serious
global public health problems. In 1993, 483,367 cases were registered in
the Brazilian Amazon. The situation justifies the introduction of new control
strategies, and it important to know the species of Anopheles involved in
the malaria transmission in the region. This project was designed to that
purpose, and is an integrated study by Inpa, the FNS and the IMTM of
Manaus to be developed in the Municipality of Novo Airão, Amazonas.
This Municipality is considered to be an intervention area, with periurban
expansion and agricultural settlement due to the building of a highway.
Therefore, malaria has been expanding every year, and become
hyperendemic, reaching an 82.6 I.P.A. in 1994. The project aimed at
answering three basic questions related to malaria entomology, relevant to
the Control Campaigns: 1. The entomological parameters involved in the
transmission dynamic in the localities; 2. the levels of differentiation of the
most relevant Anopheles species to transmission; and, 3. the effectiveness
of the control measures adopted by the National Health Foundation (FNS) in
this area. The results of this project provide inputs to the FNS to implement
specific measures to control malaria in the Municipality of Novo Airão and
other sites of the Amazonas. Therefore, the activities will be carried out
to complement the assessments on control measures, considering other
sites in the municipality of Novo Airão, comprising 212 communities spread
over a 37,940 Km2 area. If we know the malaria behavior we can reduce the
number of cases a year.
SPCT9
MIRANDA, I. de P. Caracterização dos ecossistemas florestais e de áreas
manejadas com cultivo do dendê. [Characterization of forestry ecosystem
and managed areas cropped with dendê palm. In: BRAZIL. Ministry of Science
and Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais
do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da Fase
Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the Brazilian
Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of the Emergency
Phase and Phase I. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 169-180.
To assess the diversity of natural environments and those subject to anthropic
action, and to establishing a strategy of rational use of altered lands in the
195
Amazon, studies were carried out at the Embrapa’s Experimental Station
of Urubu River in the state of Amazonas. The area vegetal cover was
composed of humid tropical primary jungle, secondary jungle, and dendê
crops associated to leguminous covers. The proposal is based on the need for
expanding knowledge about the forest dynamic, natural reservoir of biological
diversity, where degradation can hasten the worsening of the productive
land capacity. The methodology aimed at conserving the genetic resources
through pollen and seeds banks. It assessed parameters related to floristic
and phytosociological inventory on the primary and secondary vegetation,
through means of quantitative and qualitative analysis of species; taxonomic
studies; physical-chemical and biological characterization of the soil to
allow for management, aiming at the ecological and economic sustainability
of the dendê palm in the Amazon. The inventories disclosed the structural
distribution of species and the floristic inventory to detect species that are
resistant to environmental impacts. The botanic material collected was
incorporated to the reference Herbariums to the Amazon, Inpa and MPEG. It
has also observed the edge effect or influence of the clearing on the forestry
environment, additionally to the dendê cropping and soil fauna.
SPCT10
CINTRA, R. et. al. Dinâmica biológica de fragmentos florestais. [Biological
dynamic of forest fragments. In: BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and Technology
Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/
Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da Fase Emergencial e
Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the Brazilian Rainforests /
Science and Technology Sub-program: results of the Emergency Phase and
Phase I. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 181-190.
This project aimed at studying the ecological effects resulting from forest
fragmentation in some important groups like trees, palm trees, frogs and
ants. Fragmentation is the size reduction and isolation of residual forest
areas, as a result of deforestation. Moreover, it analyzes the effect of the
land use history on the forest regeneration at the areas surrounding the
fragments. Fragmentation has drastically changed the forest dynamic. The
rates of mortality and damage to trees have greatly increased in a strip of up
to 100 m from the fragment edge. There was also an increase on the density
of lianas nearby the edge. The large number of species of palm trees, frogs
and ants were not significantly affected by the size of the forest fragment.
However, most of those groups had the species composition changed - an
indication that the relation species/area is, per se, insufficient to predict the
ecological consequences of the forest fragmentation. The land use history
strongly influenced the forest regeneration, affecting the plants species that
have colonized the abandoned areas.
196
SPCT11
OLIVEIRA, E. P. de et. al. Impactos ambientais das atividades
agro-silvipastoris sobre ecossistemas amazônicos e opções de
sustentabilidade. [Environmental impacts of agricultural and ranching
activities on the Amazonian ecosystems and sustainability options. In:
BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção
das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia:
resultados da Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection
of the Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of
the Emergency Phase and Phase I. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 191-204.
The objective of this study is to assess the effects of agricultural and ranching
activities on the ecosystem, and connect those effects to the degradation
level; regeneration capacity and possibility of recover the environment through
changes on the traditional crop system’s management. The areas selected
to have the survey developed were rural property of small size farmers in the
region of Marabá, in the state of Pará (Eastern Amazon) approximately 500
km southward Belém, and the region of Manacapuru, in the state of Amazonas
(Central Amazon), 60 km northward Manaus. In Marabá the survey approached
parcels of primary forest, secondary forest and pasture of different ages in five
properties in the community of Santa Maria, and six properties in the community
of Pau Seco. The excursions to collect material were developed from 1996
to 1998 during rainy and dry seasons. In Manacapuru it selected parcels of
cassava, primary forest and agricultural systems installed after primary forest
and after secondary forest in five properties at the Laranjal, and four properties
at Boa Esperança. The samplings were collected in 1997 and 1998, during
the rainy and dry seasons. The study concludes that pastures in Marabá are
really degraded. However, the degradation can be reverted introducing the
Andropogon that allows for recovering pastures. In Manacapuru deforestation
caused important changes to the physical and biological characteristics of the
soil. But, apparently, the degradation can be smoothened and transformed by
installing forestry systems.
SPCT12
BARRET, T. V. et. al. Phlebotominae, Triatominae e Trypanosomatinae
associadas: diagnóstico e monitoramento de diversidade biológica
na Amazônia e interações com as populações humanas. [Associated
Phlebotominae, Triatominae and Trypanosomatinae: diagnosis and
monitoring of biological diversity in the Amazon, and interactions with human
populations. In: BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and Technology Programa
Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma
de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot
Programme for the Protection of the Brazilian Rainforests / Science and
Technology Sub-program: results of the Emergency Phase and Phase I].
Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 205-212.
197
The project targets to contribute to characterize the diversity and distribution
of blood-eating reduviid and psychodids in the Amazon, and study the
interaction among those insects, trypanosome parasites and human
populations. Field studies in the Amazon were integrated to molecular
taxonomy assays in laboratories, and the techniques employed were
numeric analysis, zimo-taxonomy and ribosomal nucleic acid sequencing.
The fauna analysis of sand flies, the samplings to analyze the fauna diversity
and distribution were collected and identified, including material from the
municipalities of Barcarena, Repartimento, Bragança, Oriximiná and
Santarém (state of Pará); Chapada dos Guimarães, Barão de Melgaço and
Cáceres (state of Mato Grosso); and both sides of the Negro and Amazonas
Rivers (state of Amazonas), in ancient forest and forest changed by logging
activities. A base to characterize the faunas of sand flies in micro- and macrogeographic scales in the Legal Amazon is being constructed anchored in
those samplings and data of previous collections. At the level of species, the
most relevant ones include an isolated population, xerophile, at the North of
Pará, possible substitute of the African species of Sergentomyia and other
new species in the description stage. The partial results were relevant to
the basic research on zoo-geography and applicable to the development
of programs on entomological and epidemiological surveillance of Chaga’s
disease and Leishmaniasis in the Region.
SPCT13
SILVA, V. M. F. da et. al. Conservação e manejo do peixe-boi da Amazônia
(Trichechus inunguis) em cativeiro. [Conservation and management of
the Amazonian marine manatee (Trichechus inunguis) in confinement.
In: BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a
Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e
Tecnologia: resultados da Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme
for the Protection of the Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology
Sub-program: results of the Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT,
1999. p. 213-232.
This project attempts to study some aspects on nutrition, eating habits, health
(hematology) and reproductive physiology of confined marine manatee in
the Amazon. Due to the shy behavior of that animal, the study could not
be carried in nature. The results should allow for monitoring reproduction
in confinement, providing inputs to know the reproductive cycle of those
animals in nature. Those results are crucial to outline adequate plans on
management and conservation of the Amazonian marine manatee and
minimize the threat to that species. This project has studied aspects on
eating habits, health and reproductive physiology of the marine manatee in
confinement, developing techniques to raise orphan offspring. The studies
can only be carried out in confinement because of the unsociable behavior
of that species, and the turbid Amazonian waters.
198
SPCT14
ALFAIA, S. S. et. al. Desenvolvimento de tecnologias agrícolas
adaptadas às condições amazônicas. [Development of agricultural
technologies adapted to the Amazonian conditions]. In: BRAZIL. Ministry
of Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas
Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados
da Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the
Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of the
Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 233-248.
The project to develop agricultural technologies adapted to the Amazonian
conditions intended to study agricultural cropping systems adapted to the
Amazonian humid tropic conditions and, thus, provide rural farmers with
materials and information enabling to the region’s sustainable development,
respecting its peculiarities. The sub-projects have developed several studies
in the field of soil science, fruit growing and olericulture. The main objective of
soil studies is to build conditions to the sustainable soil use and management
in the region, where soils are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. The
enrichment employs partial or integral replacement of fertilizers obtained
through the maximization of biological processes that occur naturally on
the soil, like biological fixation of nitrogen and absorption of phosphorus by
mutual associations between fungi and roots (mycorrhizas). The olericulture
studies target the genetic improvement of vegetables to develop crops in
the Amazonian ecosystems, multiply reproductive material and use by the
population, notably upon the methodological strategy surveyed and adapted
to the social and cultural organizations in urban and rural areas. The studies
performed with native Amazonian fruit trees consider from preservation of
fruit genetic resources to the development of production systems adapted to
the humid tropic conditions, to make it an agricultural option. The Amazonian
population – both rural and urban - would be the direct beneficiary of the survey
actions and findings, since the wide range of possibilities offered to producers
has improved the productivity and quality of edible plants, allowing for offering
better quality vegetables for trading. As consequence, the increased inflow
of financial resources, better work quality and improved income could be
observed in given areas. This model could be expanded to reach other areas.
SPCT15
LEEUWEEN, J. van L. et. al. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de sistemas
agroflorestais para a Amazônia. [Development and assessment of
agroforestry systems to the Amazon. In: BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and
Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais
do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da Fase
Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the Brazilian
Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of the
Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 249-264.
199
The outputs of traditional agroforestry surveys have limited practical
interest. To fight that, a research programme was started upon the active
participation of producers. The core activity is the outlining, installation,
monitoring and assessment of pilot agroforestry crops in agricultural
facilities. Farmers are in charge of final decisions and crop management. It
worked with more than 100 pilot crops in almost 80 agricultural facilities that
use 76 arboreous species, representing 14 agroforestry systems. Crops
are on the dry lands and meadows at the region of Manaus (Amazonas),
sites of traditional agriculture, and on the dry lands northward Rondônia, at
the recent settlements of the agricultural frontier. The method proved to be
highly relevant to adapt agroforestry proposals to the farmer’s conditions,
and get to know the species development. This publication reports the
initial findings. According to the data, leaving the decisions on the farmer’s
hands gave rise to differentiated crops, in terms of composition, previous
use and management. That great diversity of situations is a valuable basis
to formulate recommendations on production.
SPCT16
BURHNHEIM, P. F. et. al. Dinâmica populacional e produção de
endemias em Novo Airão, Amazonas. [Population dynamic and endemic
production in Novo Airão, state of Amazonas]. In: BRAZIL. Ministry of
Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas
Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da
Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the
Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of
the Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 265-276.
The project is assessing the impact of population dynamic on the recent
human colonization areas in the municipality of Novo Airão, state of
Amazonas, and its effects on the risk factors that condition the production
of endemics, to monitor the vulnerability and receptiveness to endemic
diseases. From 1997 to 1999 three population samplings subjected to
different conditions were surveyed: two dry land populations – one from a
rural area along the Manacapuru-Novo Airão highway and another in the
vicinities of the municipality urban area -, and a population of residents from
seven traditional riparian communities on the right edge of the Negro River,
upstream Novo Airão. Each community participated in three epidemiological
inquiries focusing on Malaria, American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis,
Chaga’s Disease, Hepatitis, Arthropod-borne Viral Disease, Intestine
Parasites, Snakebite and Scorpion Bite. Moreover, it collected vectors
and venomous animals in the areas occupied by the target populations to
assess those risk factors. The inquiries reached 528 families interviewed
and 2,599 individuals, filling in forms and collecting 1953 samplings of feces
and 1928 of serum, all upon consented donation. The coprology exams
revealed 91.5% positive tests to at least one kind of intestinal parasite.
The serum tests are being carried out at the laboratories of the Amazonas
200
Tropical Medicine Institute (IMT) Research Bureaus, and the information
collected is inputted in a database that is expected to enable broader and
deeper analysis on the endemic dynamic. The vector collection found, in
every area surveyed, disease-causing organisms of Malaria, American
Tegumentary Leishmaniasis, Chaga’s Disease and Arthropod-borne Viral
Disease. It also evidenced the occurrence of venomous animals – snakes
and scorpions - that can cause accidents with human beings, during the
retrospective and prospective monitoring of cases referred to the Novo
Airão Health Unit.
SPCT17
BASTOS, C. N. et. al. Conservação, caracterização, avaliação e utilização
de germoplasma de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.) silvestre da Amazônia.
[Conservation, characterization, assessment and use of the Amazonian
wild cacao germplasm (Theobroma cacao L.). In: BRAZIL. Ministry of
Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas
Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da
Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the
Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of
the Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 277-288.
The objective of the project was to identify and select cacao genotypes with
agronomic characteristics recommendable to be used to obtain higher level
cultivars of cacao trees. For that, in 27 years it held botanic expeditions
to collect wild cacao trees which are now maintained by Ceplac. The
expeditions covered 186 water basins (primary, secondary and tertiary)
in which the Brazilian Amazon was divided for collections purposes; 36
were explored to recover germplasm. That is how the programme on
preservation of the Amazonian wild cacao tree’s genetic diversity. The
project goals were: multiply 2,000 genotypes in at least three Experimental
Stations; characterize 400 clones - 100 a year – to let have the project
carried out by the Ceplac (Amazon and Bahia) researchers in cooperation
with researchers form the Agriculture Nuclear Energy Center (Cena-USP)
and Almirante Cacau, adopting the methodology of duplication of clonal
accesses through grafting; morphological characterization of fruits and
seeds; physical-chemical characterization of the almonds; extraction of DNA
from leafs; compatibility reaction by pollinization; sorting of clonal accesses
to resistance to witche's broom disease. Except for the physiological
characterization, all other research actions have achieved 100% of the
goals established, and the germplasm bank established by Ceplac now has
21,475 genotypes from different collection sites. The resources available
are not enough to satisfactorily carry out the conservation, characterization
and assessment. Therefore, it is necessary to establish cloning strategies,
considering the main materials kept at the germplasm bank, avoiding risks
of losing these.
201
SPCT18
GIANLUPPI, D. Desenvolvimento de sistemas agroflorestais para
recuperação de áreas de matas abandonadas no estado de Roraima.
[Development of agroforestry systems to recover abandoned woods areas
in the state of Roraima]. In: BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and Technology
Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/
Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da Fase Emergencial
e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the Brazilian Rainforests
/ Science and Technology Sub-program: results of the Emergency Phase
and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 289-308.
The shortage of itinerant agriculture alternatives, the search for components
to agroforestry systems (SAF), additionally to the interaction among these,
has led to the development of this study. Since 1995, the project is composed
by four research actions carried out at the Confiança Experimental Field,
municipality of Cantá. Research action 01: Agroforestry systems, aimed
at assessing two agroforestry system models: Agrosilvopastoral (ASP),
where arboreous species were associated to annual crops and pasture in a
sequential way, and Agrosilvocultural (ASC) in an association of arboreous
species with annual crops and fruit crops. Research action 02: Selection
of arboreous leguminous. The experience was assessed anchored in
random blocks design subdivided parcels, with five repetitions and 24
plants/parcel, with parcels constituted of leguminous species and the subparcels with presence or absence of phosphorus fertilization. Research
action 03: Characterization and assessment of weeds. The assessment on
the incidence of weeds in the SAF was carried out during the rainy season
in 1996 in the ASC and ASP systems, and in 1997 only at the ASP parcels.
Research action 04: Forest Arboretum. From 1995 onwards, parcels of
2.00 x 2.00 m with 30 plants/species were implemented to observe the
development at the Confiança Experimental Field.
SPCT19
LIMA, R. M. B. de et. al. Zoneamento edafo-climático para plantio de
espécies florestais de rápido crescimento na Amazônia. [Soil and climate
zoning to crop fast growing forestry species in the Amazon]. In: BRAZIL.
Ministry of Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção
das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia:
resultados da Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection
of the Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results
of the Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 309-332.
Knowing aspects related to the management, forestry and eco-physiology of
species to be indicated to projects on forestry reposition and the reproductive
material in quality and quantity required, is a response to limit the cropping
202
of forestry species as one of the most efficient alternatives to recover the
degraded areas in tropical areas with high rainfall rates, like happens in
the Amazon Region. To develop the actions, the Executing Units employed
methodology in experimental network considering the different units of
Embrapa, the research institutes and private companies in the region. The
species were selected according to the timber use demand. The prediction
on the species behavior under different environmental conditions was based
on the PLANTGRO software developed at CSIRO-Australia, through the
creation of three basic files: soil, climate and plant-soil-climate relation to
each species. As result, the seeds of 24 species were collected, forwarded to
the respective cropping sites (Amazonas, Acre, Pará, Amapá and Rondônia)
totaling about 80,000 seeds. 40,000 seedlings were produced, additionally
to 10,800 seedlings of eucalyptus and teak through vegetative propagation
to establish the experimental parcels. The seeds origin was then related
to the germination quality and quantity of seedlings produced, allowing for
recognizing the initial yielding of forestry species in contrasting environments,
and recommend potential species for forestation or reforestation tillage in
the region. To smooth the problem of shortage of forestry seeds to create
seedlings, the survey identified areas to collect native species, establishing
parcels of individuals from those genetically representative populations. In
the long run, the project results could allow for expanding timber production
from native species of planted forests, reducing the exploitation pressure on
native forests, thus enabling the biodiversity preservation.
SPCT20
SOUZA, N. R. et. al. Conservação e uso de recursos fitogenéticos da
Amazônia. [Conservation and use of Amazonian phytogenetic resources].
In: BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a
Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e
Tecnologia: resultados da Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme
for the Protection of the Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology
Sub-program: results of the Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT,
1999. p. 333-346.
Recognizing the Amazon as a priority ecosystem for conservation and
economic use, the use of genetic variability of flora species can be considered
to be modest when compared to its strategic value to the development of
new national products. The experiences regarding the genetic exploitation
of biodiversity started upon many inter-institutional collections of natural
populations of promising vegetal species under the risk of genetic erosion,
to enable valuing the genetic diversity through procedures of assessment,
characterization and use of the samplings of natural population recovered.
In that light, the Eastern Amazon Embrapa - in partnership with Embrapa
Acre and the National Amazon Survey Institute (Inpa) – has developed
203
research actions with shared objectives and goals focusing on the exsitu conservation of genetic resources of Amazonian vegetal species,
preventing the loss of genetic variability. The research actions have their
own methodologies to study each of the seven vegetal species, executing
agronomic practices that entail enabling conditions to the development and
expression of plant’s genetic potential.
SPCT21
MAIA, J. G. S. et. al. Banco de dados das plantas aromáticas e frutos
tropicais da Amazônia: seus óleos essenciais e aromas. [Database of
aromatic plants and tropical fruits in the Amazon: essential oils and aromas].
In: BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and Technology Programa Piloto para
a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e
Tecnologia: resultados da Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for
the Protection of the Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology Subprogram: results of the Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999.
p. 347-362.
The project intended to conclude the Database of Amazonian Aromatic
Plants, essential oils and aromas. The group that proposed it has inventoried
the Amazonian aromatic flora for about 15 years, gathering information on
scientific and common name; botanic family; popular use; collection sites;
essential oil or aroma yielding; organ of the plant studies; biology and botanic
characteristics; geographic distribution; chemical composition of volatile
components in essential oils and aroma; and bibliographic reference. It
expects further provide Internet-based access to the scientific and business
community. The introduction of studies on adaptability and feasibility of species
with proved economic potential to the areas impacted by land misuse, and
the establishment of work collections also aimed at inventorying the aromatic
flora of ecosystems like natural brush and corral and promote the selection of
aromatic species with economic potential. The collection, register and plant
identification methodology was based on distillation, extraction and analysis
of essential oils and aromas, gas-liquid chromatography techniques and gas
chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, assisted by computer and
reference libraries, containing data on mass spectrum and relative retention.
HPLC techniques and RMN spectroscopy assisted the identification of
volatile components. The Database that comprised 300 inputs with the
inventory of the states of Pará, Amazonas, Acre and part of Maranhão, now
has 723 inputs (specimens) and about 250 new specimens already analyzed
are expected to be inputted, totaling 1050 specimens until January 2000,
due to the collection and ethnobotanic observation in areas that had not yet
been inventoried, notably in the states of Amapá, Mato Grosso, Roraima,
Tocantins and Maranhão.
204
SPCT22
VERÍSSIMO, A. et. al. Geração de uma base de informações para a
utilização sustentável dos recursos florestais no Estado do Pará.
[Generation of information database to the sustainable use of forestry
resources in the state of Pará]. In: BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and
Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais
do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da Fase
Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the Brazilian
Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of the
Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 363-372.
This publication attempts to systematize the outputs of the Emergencial
Phase and Phase I of the PPG7 Science and Technology Sub-program.
The research project aims at generating a database of ecological and
economic information, to guide a proposal on sustainable development
of timber exploitation in the Amazon. The research was divided in three
integrated components. The first component characterizes the timber
resource in the Eastern Amazon. The second assesses the extension and
abundance of liana in forests exploited to timber purposes. And the last
one characterizes the timber activity tendencies in the region. The results
of this project were crucial to assess the link between timber exploitation
and forest fires; estimate the area affected by timber exploitation;
characterize the tropical timber market in Brazil; assist the elaboration
of criteria to establish production forests in the Legal Amazon; prospect
timber exploitation tendencies, based on economic scenarios and public
policies tools; subsidize the outlining of forestry development programme
in the state of Amapá; provide information to define forestry zoning in the
state of Acre; and, arrange the database to the project on forestry sector
reform, developed by the Ministry of Environment.
SPCT23
NOBRE, C. A. et. al. Balanço de energia, vapor d'água e CO2 em área
de floresta tropical na Amazônia Central. [Energy, water steam and CO2
balance in rainforest areas at the Central Amazon]. In: BRAZIL. Ministry of
Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas
Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da
Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the
Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of
the Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 373-386.
The report introduces the Energy, water steam and CO2 balance in
rainforest areas at the Central Amazon Project developed by Inpe and
Inpa from 1996 to 1999. The work aims at gathering data that allow for
deeply knowing the biosphere-atmosphere interaction physical processes,
205
observing the long-term measures. The experimental sites were the Adolfo
Ducke Forest Reserve and the Cueiras River Biological Reserve – both
with untouched tropical vegetation. The measures on flows and surfaces
were taken on the top of a micro-meteorological tower, considering sensible
and latent heat, momentum and CO2, using a sonic anemometer and
an infra-red gas analyzer. Calculations were made using the technique
of vortex correlation. It has also measured air temperature, atmospheric
pressure, specific humidity and winds, using a meteorological probe, and
transmitting data through telemetry. The kyte balloon measures were under
the responsibility of the Manaus Atmospheric CO2 Experiment Project
(Macoe), while the measures on flows and concentration of temperature,
humidity and CO2 in the canopy were carried out by the Joint Amazon
Carbon Experiment Project (Jacarex). The measures on sunlight in the
canopy used solarimeter tubes on the vertical; the flow of incident sun
radiation above vegetation was measured using pyranometer. The results
disclosed high values of atmospheric carbon fixation in the biomass. If
those results are confirmed in independent and continuous measures for
many years, those could indicate that forests worked like planetary filters to
the surplus of CO2 released by the anthropic burn of fossil fuels.
SPCT24
BASTOS, T. X. et. al. Alterações biofísicas associadas ao uso de
atividades agrícolas na Amazônia Oriental. [Biophysical changes
associated to the use of agricultural activities in the Eastern Amazon].
In: BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a
Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e
Tecnologia: resultados da Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme
for the Protection of the Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology
Sub-program: results of the Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT,
1999. p. 387-398.
The project was developed in the state of Pará, and aimed at assessing
changes to the rain regimen associated to the removal of natural vegetation
for agricultural use; assess physical, chemical and biological changes
at the tillable soil layer subjected to different use systems; and, analyze
the landscape dynamic through the integrated use of multi-temporal
remote-sensing and the geographic information system. The methodology
considered climatic, edaphic approaches and the landscape dynamic.
For that, it gathered and stored meteorological data of historical records
related to the study sites. It assessed the physic-chemical and biological
changes on soils subjected to different agricultural use systems, involving
field research and laboratory analysis. Moreover, it analyzed the vegetal
cover dynamic and land use in selected areas, using remote-sensing, geoprocessing and field work. The results achieved were not the expected
206
one. It has not observed any tendency of rainfall reduction in the areas
surveyed; the analysis on physic-chemical and biological properties of
soil under different land use systems disclosed that in the sites studies
the intensive use of soil by the agroforestry sector has not led to drastic
changes on the main properties; the assessment on landscape changes
associated to agricultural activities involving geo-processing showed that,
as regards the distribution of land use classes, the areas with secondary
vegetation are the prevailing landscape pattern, and the pasture areas are
more intensively used.
SPCT25
BROWN, I. F. et. al. Estudos ecológicos de manejo de florestas naturais
e de recuperação de pastos e roçados degradados no estado do Acre.
[Ecological studies on natural forest management and recovery of
degraded pastures and small scale farming sites in the state of Acre].
In: BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a
Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e
Tecnologia: resultados da Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme
for the Protection of the Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology
Sub-program: results of the Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT,
1999. p. 399-424.
The project objective was to generate and disseminate ecological knowledge
to manage different natural and anthropic ecosystems, typical to the Western
Amazon, in the stages of recovery of degraded pastures and small scale
farming sites; natural forests management; and knowledge dissemination
through professional training and capacity-building to local communities in
the use of management techniques, and subsidies to the regional planning
and development. The studies were concentrated in an area 50 km from
the city of Rio Branco, covering 800.000 ha with different land uses. The
results are reflected in the publications launched as notebooks, which were
used to the training of traditional communities, and scientific publications
as book chapter and scientific articles. The information on the degradation
process and recovery of degraded pastures and small-scale farming sites,
natural forest management, and actions on extension and environmental
education was focused on transferring technical knowledge and technology
on the sustainable use of natural resources to rubber tappers and rural
farmers. Moreover, it assisted the establishment of an agricultural credit
police to extractive workers; definition of a forestry policy; elaboration of
the Positive Agenda in Acre; the Economic and ecological Zoning of the
state; and, structuring of the Forest Technical School. By the end of the
project, partnerships were established with 19 national and international
institutions, both governmental and non-governmental, fostering interaction
through the use of current results. That has facilitated the execution of new
proposals of this unit.
207
SPCT26
DARVICH, A. et. al. Influência do pulso de cheias e vazantes na
dinâmica ecológica de áreas inundáveis. [Influence of floods and ebb
tides flow on the ecological dynamic of floodable areas]. In: BRAZIL. Ministry
of Science and Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas
Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da
Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the
Brazilian Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of
the Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. p. 425-446.
In the ecological light, floodable areas are those which periodically receive
side input of waters from rivers, lakes, direct rainfall or underground
waters. In the Amazon region, the most relevant are those associated to
rivers and lakes. The biota in floodable areas is mainly controlled by the
river discharges flow. In that context, this survey developed studies on
vegetation and main components of the fauna that inhabits the floodable
areas, and their relation to that physical environment. The work assumption
is that in floodable areas the biota is mainly controlled by the hydrological
pulse, reacting in interaction with that physical environment, increasing the
nutritional and productivity levels in these areas. To test the assumption,
the survey analyzed: carbon balance; CO2 flow; adaptive mechanisms of
plants and animals; biomass; fruits production; photosynthetic activity of
vegetal communities; variation and abundance of benthic, zooplankton and
fish communities; and the effects of land use fashions on the main nutrients
and carbon balance during the aquatic and terrestrial phases. The results
show that vegetative phenophases in some arboreous species could
be related to the flood pulse dynamic. In that event, the environmental
changes imposed by the flood and ebb tide cycle are key elements to the
chronology of phenological events. The most important ecological factor
observed was the increased area and water volume in the lake which has
directly and indirectly changed water quality; diversity and abundance of
food; and, the conditions to carry out the reproductive processes. To the
species or groups studied, the flood pulse influence is sharp, confirming
the work assumption.
SPCT27
PERIN, R. et. al. Recuperação de áreas de pastagens abandonadas e
degradadas através de sistemas agroflorestais na Amazônia Ocidental.
[Recovery of abandoned and degraded pasture areas through agroforestry
systems in the Western Amazon]. In: BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and
Technology Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais
do Brasil/ Subprograma de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da Fase
Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot Programme for the Protection of the Brazilian
Rainforests / Science and Technology Sub-program: results of the
Emergency Phase and Phase I]. Brasilia: MCT, 1999. 447-462p.
208
The project aims at trying the assumption that agroforestry systems could
transform the abandoned and degraded pasture areas into productive
lands, as an alternative to minimize the deforestation pressure on
primary forests. That would also bring social, economic and ecologically
sustainable development to farmers in the Amazon Region. Hence, it
assessed agronomic, ecological and economic aspects of four agroforestry
systems implemented in 1992 at degraded pasture areas, in the Embrapa
Experimental Station at the Agricultural District of Suframa, state of
Amazonas, comparing those to witness parcels of secondary vegetation.
The results suggest secondary vegetation biomass management
practices alternative to the felling and burn, with improved fallow and
richer underbrush, additionally to consistent management through the
incorporation of organic matter, thus increasing the agroforestry systems
sustainability. The economic indicators point out agrosilvocultural system
models AS 1 and AS 2 as viable and alternative to the current land use
systems, with internal return rate higher than 14% a year, but considered
the implementation costs high and, therefore, recommend to provide
proper incentive to farmers for the environmental services they deliver,
until the activity becomes sustainable. Therefore, the agroforestry systems
are efficient to recover the landscape, but are slow to recover soils from
degraded areas. Soil sustainability depends on the reposition of nutrients
through disposal of leguminous pruning; permanent cover; presence of
species adapted to poor, acid and compact soils; practices to foster the biota
action on the soil, in the cycling of nutrients and soil physical condition.
SPCT28
MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - MCT Pesquisa da
floresta amazônica brasileira: Projeto Jacarandá (fase 1). [Survey on
the Brazilian Amazon forest: Jacarandá Project (phase 1)]. In: Programa
Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma
de Ciência e Tecnologia: resultados da Fase Emergencial e Fase I. [Pilot
Programme for the Protection of the Brazilian Rainforests / Science and
Technology Sub-program: results of the Emergency Phase and Phase I].
Brasilia: 1999. p. 463-471.
The project “Brazilian Amazon Forest Surveys” was re-named to
“Jacarandá” to pay homage to the Jacaranda copaia (caroba or parápará)
– a forestry species of unique beauty and easily adjustable to degraded
areas. The project general objective was to recover areas that were
abandoned and/or degraded due to different soil uses in the Amazon, using
agroforestry practices responsive to the region. The specific objectives
comprises furnishing the Inpa with a structure to carry out remote-sensingbased surveys to track the forestry typologies and alterations; promote
knowledge on the forestry ecosystems structures subject to change; assess
the dynamic of such changes and provide agricultural and management
alternatives to recover abandoned and/or degraded areas. In the first phase,
209
the efforts focused on strengthening the institutional infrastructure, providing
training to personnel, and implementing the research works. This publication
addresses the works, according to the structure and the project research
area: Remote Sensing; Natural Forest Management – including study on
the mammal’s fauna; and, Recovery of Degraded Areas. Some works have
entailed conclusive results, but most of the works achieved partial results,
and pointed out how the second stage should be executed. All works ensue
from the interaction between Brazilian and Japanese researchers.
SPCT29
MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY – MCT. Pilot Programme
to Conserve the Brazilian Rain Forest/ Sub-Programme of Science
and Technology: 1998 Report. Brasilia: MCT/ The Scientific Development
Secretariat, 1998. 80 p.
The 1998 report to the components of the PPG7 Science and Technology
Sub-program, considering the Oriented Research Projects and Science
Centers, reports some achievements of the 23 projects on oriented
researched contracted in August 1996, and being executed. For example,
it observed the first marine manatee born in confinement in the Amazon;
the possibility of outlining recommendations to agroforestry development
programs, based on the lessons learned from the agroforestry systems
(SAF); recommendation to use fogging as an effective way to control
malaria, as partial result of the entomological study in the municipality of
Novo Airão – AM. The monitoring and assessment consultants considered
the technical visits held from April to June as satisfactory, recognizing
the reliability of the ongoing surveys, and the need for continuing those.
However, the main achievement of this Sub-program, which changed the
execution and contracting processes to further research projects, was the
signing of the Financing Agreement between the European Communities
Commission and the Studies and Projects Financing Agency (Finep) that
will ensure higher efficiency to the means and processes, and better efficacy
to achieve the project final objectives, by optimizing the use of resources.
Since the contract is not guaranteed by the Brazilian Government, it is
expected to hasten the financial flows, bureaucratic procedures to release
resources to purchase goods and equipment, besides allowing for the
individual contracting of researchers.
SPCT30
BRAZIL. Ministry of Science and Technology – MCT. Programa Piloto
para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de
Ciência e Tecnologia: Report, 1998. Brasilia: MCT/ Scientific Development
Secretariat, 1997. 78 p.
The 1998 report to the components of the PPG7 Science and Technology
Sub-program, considering the Oriented Research Projects and Science
Centers, reports some achievements of the 23 projects on oriented
researched contracted in August 1996, and being executed. For example,
it observed the first marine manatee born in confinement in the Amazon;
the possibility of outlining recommendations to agroforestry development
programs, based on the lessons learned from the agroforestry systems
(SAF); recommendation to use fogging as an effective way to control
malaria, as partial result of the entomological study in the municipality of
Novo Airão – AM. The monitoring and assessment consultants considered
the technical visits held from April to June as satisfactory, recognizing
the reliability of the ongoing surveys, and the need for continuing those.
However, the main achievement of this Sub-program, which changed the
execution and contracting processes to further research projects, was the
signing of the Financing Agreement between the European Communities
Commission and the Studies and Projects Financing Agency (Finep) that
will ensure higher efficiency to the means and processes, and better efficacy
to achieve the project final objectives, by optimizing the use of resources.
Since the contract is not guaranteed by the Brazilian Government, it is
expected to hasten the financial flows, bureaucratic procedures to release
resources to purchase goods and equipment, besides allowing for the
individual contracting of researchers.
SPCT31
MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - MCT Programa Piloto
para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil/ Subprograma de
Ciência e Tecnologia: Report, 1997. Brasilia: MCT/ Scientific Development
Secretariat, 1997. 70 p.
The 1997 report to the components of the PPG7 Science and Technology
Sub-program, considering the Oriented Research Projects and Science
Centers, reports the relevance of generating and disseminating knowledge
to the sustainable conservation and development in the Amazon Region.
It specifies the administrative and financial difficulties, notably concerning
210
211
the budgetary issue, besides the positive consideration by the monitoring
and assessment missions regarding the Sub-programme development. It
summarizes the 23 oriented research projects contracted from August 1996
onwards, and developed during 1997 aimed at minimizing the deforestation
pressure on primary growth forests. The projects have enabled innovative
actions that enable improving life quality, and economic alternatives to
the population’s and the Amazon Region’s sustainable development. The
Science Centers component have promoted improvements to the physical
and services infrastructure, and to the training of the National Institute of
Amazonian Studies (Inpa) and the Emilio Göeldi Museum of Pará (MPEG),
to build the reference basis to develop scientific and technological surveys
focused on the Amazon forest conservation and sustainable use of its
resources.
11
SPRN
Natural Resources Policy Subprogramme
The National Resources Policy Subprogramme (SPRN) was
created in 1994 and concluded in 2008. It aimed at strengthening
the State Environmental Bodies (Oemas) in the states part of the
Legal Amazon to implement an integrated model of environmental
management in the region. The Sub-programme worked directly
with the Oemas, state General Attorney’s Office and other
important players in the Amazonian environmental policy.
The SPRN was tasked with the physical structuring and technical
capacity-building of many Oemas. Some of those did not
exist, or worked in a precarious way before receiving the Subprogramme support. The SPRN has mainly invested in building
digital cartographic basis on the states in that region; in promoting
ecological-economic zoning; and, in implementing automated
environmental licensing systems to rural properties.
Regarding the physical structuring of the Oemas, the Subprogram
invested in purchasing computers, vehicles, boats and even in
constructing public buildings. The SPRN has also granted resources
to the National Environmental Fund (FNMA) to strengthen the
municipalitie’s environmental management to establish the local
Agendas 21. The Sub-programme is developing its final stage
of building awareness among sustainable development actors
in the Amazon, to share decisions and use products, processes
and tools built by the SPRN, to achieve final results capable of
meeting the expectations and needs of those expected to continue
the environmental policy in the region.
212
213
SPRN1
Referências
metodológicas de
ZEE participativo
DELL PRETTE, M.; KRUGER, H. Referências metodológicas de ZEE
participativo. [Participatory EEZ Methodological References]. Manaus:
GTZ, 2007. 78 p.
The book presents the project’s experiences as raw material to build
concepts, develop techniques and improve procedures capable of entailing
significant impacts to the territorial planning, regulation and administration,
through ecological-economic zoning (EEZ). The ZEE is a tool that enables
territorial management, mainly because it places the social pacts in specific
territories. The first part of the book briefly introduces the ZEE history,
involving environmental and economic aspects, and shows how it oscillated
between distrust and dazzle. In the second chapter, the text presents the
EEZ as a territorial management tool, contextualizing the current debate
on zoning actions. In the third chapter, the book presents the zoning
macro and local dimensions; territorial management and its elements; and,
participation as element to carry out the environmental management. Then,
the text introduces the EEZ operational phases: articulation, diagnosis,
prognostic and implementation. In brief, the book shows the participatory
zoning as more than just a methodology to gather and analyze useful data
to divide space and plan the natural resources use. It is a broad set of
territorial management that gathers political consensus elements, economic
efficiency, social justice and environmental protection.
SPRN2
IBAMA. Manejo de fauna em florestas nacionais com atividades de
mineração: proposta metodológica para diagnóstico, monitoramento e
salvamento. [Fauna management in national forests with mining activities:
methodological proposal to diagnosis, monitoring and rescue]. Brasilia:
Ibama, 2006. 47 p.
The publication discloses the results of the “Workshop on National Forests
Management (Flonas) with Mining Activity” held in Brasilia, in 2006.
The workshop attempted to improve methodologies and outline term of
reference to guide the wild fauna management in the Flonas with mining
activities. The Flonas are basically aimed at the sustainable multiple
use of natural resources and the scientific research. Therefore, any
potentially impacting activity developed in those conservation units should
be controlled and monitored, toward achieving the sustainable use. The
Flonas of Carajás, Tapiapé-Aquiri, Jamari and Saracá-Taquera are subject
214
to mining exploitation activities, envisaged in the respective establishment
decrees and management plan. During the event, the discussion groups
were divided into arthropod, bird, fish, mammal and invertebrate fauna to
standardize the methodologies, enabling comparative analyses among
the different Flonas. The groups have standardized the methodologies to
diagnosis/inventory, monitoring and rescue.
SPRN3
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA Plano Regional de Capacitação
Ambiental do SPRN [SPRN Regional Environmental Qualification Plan]
Brasilia: MMA, 2006. 92 p.
The publication reports and assesses the Regional Environmental
Qualification Plan (PRCA) – an experience on political articulation to
strengthen strategic institutions working with environmental defense in the
Amazon, developed within the SPRN scope. The PRCA was negotiated to
serve the Oemas and state General Attorney’s Offices as priority audiences,
employing the approach of Diagnosis on Required Skills Improvement
(Cena) to identify the capacity-building demands. The following thematic
areas have been identified: conflicts management; forest valuation;
environmental law; participatory strategic planning; communication and
information strategies and mechanisms (integrated information system,
including rural properties social control and licensing); and, municipal
environmental management. On-site and distance training modalities have
been employed to implement the PRCA. Despite different achievements in
different lines of action, all trainings have succeeded in building awareness
among the institutions. The lines of forest valuation, environmental law,
and communication and information have reached higher degrees of
instrumentation and incorporation of the technical concepts and tools to
the institutions, if compared to the remainder thematic lines.
SPRN4
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT – MMA I Seminário de Sistemas
Implantados de Monitoramento e Controle do Desmatamento e
Queimadas na Amazônia Legal. [1st Seminar on Deforestation and Burn
Monitoring and Control Systems Implemented in the Legal Amazon] Brasilia:
MMA/ SPRN, 2006. 140 p.
This publication summarizes the debates held in the 1st Seminar of
Deforestation and Burn Monitoring and Control Systems Implemented in the
Legal Amazon, held in 2004 in the municipality of Macapá, state of Amapá.
It gathers the works presented by experts from the Ministry of Environment
(MMA), the Amazonian Protection System (Sipam) and State Environmental
Bodies (Oemas) of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima
215
and Tocantins. The Oemas from Mato Grosso and Maranhão, jointly with
the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
(Ibama) and the National Institute of Spatial Studies (Inpe) have also
reported their experience, but have not contributed with articles to this
publication. To contextualize the socio-environmental reality of the states
where the Environmental Licensing Systems in Rural Properties are being
implemented, an informative abstract with the basic data of each state
participating in the Seminar was prepared. Above all, this publication
records the advances and difficulties that intertwine the partnership
between government and society, and those permeating the sustainable
management of environmental resources in the Brazilian Amazon.
Programa de
de Mazagão
AMAPÁ. SEMA. Programa de Educação Ambiental de Mazagão.
[Environmental Education Program in Mazagão] Macapá: Sema-AP,
2005. 32 p.
The book introduces the Environmental Education Program in the Municipality
of Mazagão, state of Amapá, which aims at ensuring individual and collective
participation in the identification and solution of socio-environmental
problems, and promote awareness on the relevance of environmental
education as a means to recommend solutions to social-environmental
issues in face of the local reality. Moreover, the Program defined other
objectives, like the promotion of environmental education actions mainly
focused on the reduction of human-generated residues, and the elaboration
of projects to raise financial resources to develop sustainable practices. The
publication begins by introducing the background history and concept of
environmental education. Then, it specifies the Environmental Education
Municipal Program model establishing the objectives, master actions,
principles, recommendations, operational strategies, management ways, and
constructing of the Municipal Center of Environmental Education bylaws.
SPRN6
Programa de
Educação Ambiental
de Laranjal do Jari
SPRN7
BUSINESS EXHIBITION TO THE SUSTAINABLE AMAZON. Negócios
para a Amazônia sustentável: iniciativas produtivas, relações
comerciais justas, conservação da biodiversidade. [Businesses to
the sustainable Amazon: productive initiatives, fair commercial relations,
biodiversity conservation]. Brasilia: MMA/ PPG7, 2003. 94 p.
SPRN5
Educação Ambiental
The Municipal Program objectives are: promote environmental education,
fostering participation and pursuing behavioral changes to improve life
quality and the exercise of citizen rights; and ensure the rational biodiversity
use by current generations, and the generations to come. The publication
also discloses the specific objectives, lines of action, recommendations
and main actions.
AMAPÁ. SEMA. Programa de Educação Ambiental de Laranjal do Jari.
[Environmental Education Program of Laranjal do Jari] Macapá: Sema-AP,
2003. 34 p.
The publication introduces the Environmental Education Program in the
Municipality of Laranjal do Jari, Amapá, emphasizing that the proposed
model should promote environmental educations oriented to the municipality
development, as recommended by the National Program of Environmental
Education, the Agenda 21 and the State Environmental Education Program.
216
The Amazon forest houses socially and ecologically relevant economy
that, nonetheless, is not fully appraised by the Brazilian society. That
economy is practiced by culturally diversified populations, whose lives
have been adapted to the forest dynamic, and that have – for generations
– extracted fruits, oils, saps and vegetal fibers, besides cropping different
regional species of commercial value. However, despite the clear growth of
the market of forestry resources byproducts, the expansion of businesses
generated by Amazonian communities face some difficulties ensuing from
the production conditions. Most of the problems faced by these enterprises
come from the poor organization of the communities, business management
and technical difficulties found in the productive process. Recently, the
Amazonian Coordination Secretariat of the Ministry of Environment
has formulated and implemented policies to solve those problems, and
strengthen the production and trading conditions of that economy that is
flourishing in the forest. In 2002 the “Business to the Sustainable Amazon”
discloses 67 experiences based on the concept of “sustainable business”,
which is characterized by the adoption of measures to reduce the productive
process-related environmental impact; generation of social benefits to
the communities involved, based on fair commercial relations; allow the
farmers’ training, technologies transfer, payment of royalties, and social
investments involving a wide range of products and services. Additionally
to a large variety of quality artisanal products, it comprises enterprises
originated from partnerships between Amazonian producers and industries
in the sectors of pneumatic, cosmetic and phototherapeutic products. It also
encompasses successful initiatives in the servicing sector, like ecotourism
projects in protected areas, and advisory services to enhance businesses
in the Amazon.
217
SPRN8
TOCANTINS. SEPLAN. ICMS Ecológico: Tocantins. [Ecological ICMS
tax: Tocantins]. Palmas: Seplan-TO, 2003. 46 p.
ICMS Ecológico
This publication shows, in a simple way, what the ICMS Ecológico stands for,
how it works and the implementation stages, where one can find information.
In the annexes, it presents the integral texts of Law 1323 of April 4, 2002,
which establishes the Ecological ICMS in the Sate, and of Decree 1666
of December 2002, which enacts the law. With the new regulation, the
ICMS portion to be allotted to municipalities is calculated based on criteria
related to: I) municipal environmental policy, qualitative and quantitative,
i.e., count on environmental legislation and budgetary allotment to enforce
the legislation; II) conservation units and indigenous lands – recognition of
indigenous units and lands, categories of integral protection or sustainable
use, and extension of the respective areas; III) control and combat to
fire – existence of civil fire brigades to combat forest burns and fires,
environmental education practices and number of hot spots registered; IV)
basic sanitation, water conservation, waste collection and disposal – water
quality index, environmental and sanitary education, proper final waste
disposal, number of domiciles served with treated drinkable water, toilet,
waste collection and gallery jungles conservation; V) soil conservation –
projects aimed at using soils depending on its vocation and percentage of
tilled and not conserved municipal extension, and duly tilled.
SPRN9
Paisagens,
WIM, S. Paisagens, biodiversidade, solos e pluviosidade na Amazônia.
[Landscapes, biodiversity, soils and rainfall index in the Amazon]. Manaus:
GTZ, 2002. 96 p.
the Amazon, it observed that annual rain incidence in the Amazon region,
notably regarding its space and time modalities (zone and seasons) is little
known. The different rain incidences in different sub-regions are great,
and their importance is being discussed regarding the success or failure
of agricultural settlements; the risks of damages caused by large-scale
fires; the area relevance to store and capture CO2; and, the probability
to reduced biomass in secondary grow forests in abandoned agricultural
areas. It also discusses the El Niño effects on the biodiversity of natural
savannas in the Amazonian forests region.
SPRN10
SANTOS, F. A. A. dos. Cartografia e uso de GPS: noções básicas
[Cartography and GPS use: basic notions]. Manaus: GTZ, 2002. 62 p.
(Cadernos Técnicos, 4)
Cartografia
In the first part, the publication presents basic cartography notions, with
concepts, kinds of graphic representation, Earth representations, map
definitions, and the maps properties. The second chapter introduces the
GPS and its use, presenting basic information on the system. The third
chapter is a simplified manual to facilitate the GPS use, from turning on the
device, to its configuration. On the final part, the author shows the use of
GPS to environmental management, licensing and inspection, monitoring
and ecological-economic zoning (EEZ). The use of GPS by environmental
bodies to carry on environmental management activities is of utmost
relevance to allow more efficient control, providing minimum guarantee
to experts on the exact localization and identification of activities that
potentially change the environment. For example, the system facilitates
mapping the mining areas, timber extraction, rural properties mapping, and
assists monitoring deforestation and burns.
e uso de GPS
biodiversidade,
solos e pluviosidade
na Amazônia
This notebook gathers two translations of scientific articles by Dr. Wim G.
Sombroek: “Macro-landscapes in the Amazon and its Soils in Relation
with Biodiversity” and “Space and Time Modalities of Rain Incidence in
the Amazon: Consequences to the Agriculture Planning and Primary Grow
Forest Protection”, originally published in English. The critical issue is if
there is any natural limit of climate and soils that could block the agricultural
frontier indiscriminate advance, at least in the current economic and
agro-technical standards. The first article, about Micro-landscapes, have
differentiated 13 micro-landscape units all over the forested Amazon
and each unit held specific standards of soil and forest cover structure.
In the second article on Space and Time Modalities of Rain Incidence in
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SPRN11
CHAGAS, M. A. (Org.). Sustentabilidade e gestão ambiental no Amapá:
saberes Tucujus. [Environmental sustainability and management in Amapá:
the Tucujus’ knowledge]. Macapá: Sema-AP, 2002. 189 p.
The book gathers some texts that assess the subjects taught in the Master’s
Degree course of Environmental Policy and Management, enabled by a
partnership involving the CDS/UnB, Unifap, SPRN/Ministry of Environment
and Sema/Amapá. The publication is composed of different texts
219
Sustentabilidade e
gestão ambiental
no Amapá
approaching the topic of environmental sustainability and management,
emphasizing on issues found in Amapá. Altogether, there are 16 texts
about: pollutant activities licensing system; legal property arrangement and
environment in Brazil; biodiversity management; history of environmental
defense; fish resources management; environmental management in
Amapá; fishing community and their resources sustainability; perception
on the urban population’s living conditions in the meadow; introduction
of environmental education to the green paradigm; sustainable Amazon;
neo-liberalism; public policies and the environment; medicines to the third
world; meetings and tolerances; crisis, State and sustainable development;
emancipating science; and Jari: from slavery to emancipation.
220

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