Scientificus - Emilio Aguinaldo College
October 2009 - March 2010
Vol. 4 No. 1
EMILIO AGUINALDO COLLEGE
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE
Eduardo T. Senajon, Ph.D.
Maria Fe G. Caldea
Richard Lemence, Ph.D.
Soledad L. Bautista, Ph.D.
Professor Ileana R.F. Cruz
Cesar M. Mendoza Jr. M.BioEd.
Alvin A. Ayque
Napoleon R. Caballero
Supachai A. Basit, Ph.D.
Dr. Macario A. Fadrigalan IV
Kristine Marie Lozada, Aizel Marasigan, Liezel Morales,
Ronald Ramos, Jessica Sarreal, Clement Joseph Agias, Grenelyn Bravo,
Sarita Mando, Michelle Christina Mulawin, Deanna Stephaine
Mendoza, Dexter Tenorio, Rolando Montano, Milbert A. Bicol, Jerwin
P. Embolode, Danica Anna C. Velasco and Miguel Atom G. Kobayashi
Michelle C. Carpio / Mark Joseph S. Oblena
Lay Out Design
Mary Ann V. dela Peña
SCIENTIFICUS is the official research journal of the
School of Science, Emilio Aguinaldo College, Manila, Philippines
To those who made this work posssible:
The Schools at EAC – Manila, who supported and willingly
contributed to the making of this journal by recommending
researches done by students and Faculty, in particular, the
Graduate School of Criminology,
School of Medical Technology, School of Dentistry,
School of Pharmacy and the School of PT/OT/RT.
The Marketing Communication Group of EAC –Manila, for their
essential help in the scanning of pictures, lay out design and
documentation and Mr. Sonny Villafania at the EAC- Cavite
Printing Press, who offered and made the last minute
adjustment and willingly accommodated our request with a
generous heart. Finally, a profound gratitude to the EAC
President Dr. Jose Paulo E. Campos for his continued assistance
& support to faculty & students’ programs.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 School of Medical Technology
“ONDOY”: Towards understanding disaster, public health, and issues governing politics economy, environment and culture. 1
The Two-hour Post-Prandial Effect of Commercial Malunggay (Moringa oleifera) Tea on Human Blood Glucose Level
School of Pharmacy
Evaluation of the Allelopathic Activity of Talahib (Saccharum spontaneum) against Cruciferous plants Raddish (Raphanus sativus) and Pechay
School of Dentistry
The Effectiveness of Pumice with Liquid Detergent in Polishing Heat-Cured Acrylic
School of Science
In-Vitro Sensitivity of Sarcoptes Scabiei to Moringa Oleifera (Malungay) Extracts and Virgin Coconut Oil
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2. EXTENDED ABSTRACT
2.2 School of Criminology
Protective Security Operations of the Police Security and Protection Group: Implications to the Security and Safety of the VIP.
The Level of Awareness of the Philippine National Police-Integrated Transformation Program
(PNP-ITP) in Muntinlupa City: An Assessment. 79
3.1 School of Physical, Occupational and Respiratory Therapy
An Evaluation of EAC Classroom Chairs: Implications to Users.
“ONDOY”: TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING DISASTER,
PUBLIC HEALTH, AND ISSUES GOVERNING POLITICS,
ECONOMY, ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURE
(An Integrative Essay)
Cesar M. Mendoza, Jr., RMT, M. Bio. Ed.
“Where were you when it happened?”
Tropical storm “Ondoy” with the international name:
“Ketsana” was a typhoon that they thought was weak. Nobody
predicted the rattling havoc it will bring. Not until that fateful day
of 26th of September when 90% of the entire Mega Manila and its
proximal provinces were totally immersed on flood water in just an
instance. It practically battered Luzon, leaving Metro Manila and 25
other provinces in state of calamitous condition. The extensive and
massive flooding in the metropolis that forced thousands of people out
of their homes and practically turning many areas into virtual lake drew
semblance and comparison with hurricane “Katrina” that devastated
New Orleans, a southern United States city on August, 2005 (Laude,
2009). An imminent disaster again clearly devastated the Philippines.
In the land of hope and prayers – what else could topple the Filipinos
resiliency on matters related to natural disasters and human-
induced catastrophe? But seeing and hearing the people in agony and
pain all over the print, television, radio and news over the demise of
a family member, loss of property, and the sad plights of children,
elderly, and helpless individuals who had to storm the floods for food,
shelter and most importantly valued lives were a sad plea to sight and
Figure 1. Waist-deep flood in residential
area in San Juan City.
A local network’s footage that showed a dramatic but real video
of a number of people perched on tattered roofs and fallen debris from
an uprooted shanty being swept away by strong current of Marikina
river and hit hardly the pillars of a bridge that caused them to drift
from each other was a sight that is most heartbreaking.
Many true-to-life stories still are unheard of and remain untold
but the pressing issues on disasters and management necessitate an
immediate response. How do we address the critical issue on natural
disasters and its immense impact on human lives? What elicited the
catastrophic impact of “Ondoy” in a nation that seem to never learn
from the deluge of the past? Or have we become too lax and insensitive
of our nature that it has decided for a pay back?
Figure 2 Heavy Traffic created by “Ondoy”
Historically, the first cycles of globalization began in the premise of
people trading goods, services, various products, technology and
migration across borders of geography. Recently however, it has
ballooned to sustain peoples’ living standards improvement
of the changing societies (Burkle, F., 2006). Disaster is an intricate
development, politics, environment, and health. In the Philippines,
we would see malls and condominium units patterned in American
and European architecture in almost every single space available.
Furthermore, we are all witness on the how illegal logs cut from the
mountain would reach the shores after a strong rain. More so, urbanbased subdivisions, skyscrapers, and buildings that have encroached
the critical areas previously used as watershed and draining areas are
now more seemingly apparent than ever. The use of plastics and nonbiodegradable materials that were originally thought of to be useful in
daily living now becomes a major problem in terms of disposal. The
floods that almost totally immersed Manila could also be attributed to
the sprawling and construction of human abode in almost every single
lot available in the urban areas.
As if these were not enough, the environmental issues and endless
debates on forest conservation, reforestation, and restoration would
cropped up only when this deluge like “Ondoy” throw havoc on the
already befallen Filipinos as if the sight of the people grappling for a
firm grip of help and rescue falls on deaf ears.
Some people in the know also contested that sustainable
development and efforts to keep these infrastructure development
coming somehow is indirectly connected with what is happening.
Apparently, these infrastructure and structural built-in is a metric gauge
of how the economy has fared in the race to development. Economy is
often given priority in policies and undertakings while environment is
viewed as a secondary factor to consider. They are interconnected with
the economy dependent on society and environment while human
existence and society are dependent on and within the environment
(Giddings, et. al., 2001).
As we managed to unravel the degree of losses we suffered from
“Ondoy”, public health became an apparent challenge to all of us.
The term no longer confined itself on medical care alone but has now
embraced issues anent to public safety, governance, communication
and transportation, technology and other domains in an effort to
protect the people from harm, diseases, and infection and maintain
health in general. We saw how people immersed themselves in flooded
Figure 3. A resident of San Juan City cleaning the debris in his
house from typhoon “Ondoy”
water for food, shelter, and relief goods even if it meant exposing
themselves to various microscopic creatures that may adversely
affect their health. It was indeed a survival of the fittest.
As of press time, thousands of people were reported to have
been afflicted and around 170 died of “leptospirosis”, the outbreak
that hit the heavily-flooded areas of Rizal, Metro Manila, and other
provinces of Luzon. It is a fatal infection that may cause complications
involving organs and brain damage and is usually acquired after
wading or immersing in contaminated water with the urine of infected
animals like rats. Threats of contagious infections were also identified
among the elderly, children, and immune compromised individuals
who were forced to live along with rest in the different evacuation
sites and resettlement areas. Consequently, the immense destruction of
their houses forced them to take temporary refuge despite of exposing
themselves to various health conditions such as diarrhea, pneumonia,
measles, and tuberculosis common in substandard evacuation centers.
Definitely, the inherent destruction of sanitary conditions for basic
necessities in life like shelter and food, purity of water, and inaccessibility
for health care among the affected areas provide an opportunity for
catastrophic public health concern in an aftermath of a disaster.
The aids and support coming from various international
organizations and network of countries from United Nation in the
form of cash donations, foods, and in kind including medications and
medical experts were sent here to help in post-Ondoy health–related
problems like “leptospirosis”. It is a clear indication that public health
in disaster knows no boundary and it transcends national sovereignty
and geography. It also promotes exchange of scientific researches,
close monitoring of outbreak and epidemic cases, and surveillance
of probable infectious spread of disease. The government however,
specifically the Department of Health and its’ affiliates should
also be vigilant in ensuring that public health remains a top most
Urban population and influx of people in the city has also
changed drastically the demographics of the urban setting with
the poor practically inhabiting the areas intended for flood control
and drainage. While the bridges and the
“esteros” have now
become a dwelling place of the people, human waste and garbage
from these areas has made the problem on flood imminent and
insurmountable. The culture that Manila is a haven for better life
and endless possibilities for greener pastures have made people stay
in their shanties despite of non-capacity to maintain a decent life.
But thinking aloud, why did the government allowed large and
spacious vacant lots allegedly owned by rich individuals and their
families to remain futile when a lot of our impoverished people are
living like animals housed in nearby creeks and “esteros”. So when
these natural and man-made calamities like “Ondoy” strike, these
urban poor and marginalized people suffer the most consequences.
coupled with issues on corruption among government officials
certainty has played a vital role on the havoc that we just had
and it’s a pity that we have to contend with this until
Lastly, for every disaster that we experienced in the last few
decades, we have global warming and climate change to equate it with.
But is it really climate change that has brought upon what “Ondoy”
did to us? This question will remain unanswered until we come up
with better disaster mitigation protocol that will provide us with a
more comprehensive and in-depth discussion for the development of
disaster-related infrastructure and social policies that will address the
challenges of nature in the future. According to Oshikawa et. al., social
disaster management infrastructures, disaster reduction among the
people, societal facilities and tools and resistance of nature to disaster are
four factors that can increase resistance to disaster based on experience.
climate change that resulted to Manila Declaration attended by
participants all over the world, it showed that disasters related
to climate change cross the boundaries of race and social class.
Ironically, the highly industrialized and modern societies of the
First World caused much of the global warning, depletion of the
ozone layer, and climate change but obviously it is the Third World
that reaps the most nightmares from its consequences. Needless to say,
these environmental stand offs are further aggravated by the culture of
corruption and politics that reign supreme in a society that never learn
from the catastrophic issues of the past.
With the country still reeling from the onslaught of the destructive
typhoons, “Ondoy” and “Pepeng” that tremendously ravaged the
country, we should now realize that something has to be done and
that we are faced with a dilemma on either to keep what we have been
doing and suffer the wrath of future “Ondoys” or take another path
and ensure that better plans be made and mitigation on disasters be
Likewise, it is now imperative that we involve ourselves in issues
on climate change and global warming and the plans to include it with
other salient issues on environment in elementary and high school
curricula is a bold step towards inculcating in the youth that the future
of the nations greatly depends not only on economic matters but also of
Looking back, we also realized that there are different domains
that are critical in addressing these aftermaths of disasters to which we
can gain a lesson or two and stop counting on the cost of losses but add
in blessing in disguises instead.
In these modern times, we must realize that “the nature” is not
natural anymore and is not the same with the nature of the yester years
but “the nature affected by human beings” since we have considerably
altered its natural state. Taking this into account, disasters prevention
and control must not deal with the nature alone but the society to fully
perform its responsibility (Ishii, 2009). Otherwise, we will peril along
with the trees and the nature that supported human life from time and
The author wishes to express gratitude and appreciation to the
Instruction, College of Education, University of the Philippines,
Diliman for the opportunity to do field immersion research in
Loob Bunga, Botolan, Zambales and to do integrative essay
on “Ondoy” and the interconnectedness of politics, education,
economy, and environment. And the entire class of EDFD 331 for
support and guidance.
Note: All still photos were originally taken by the author.
About the author: Cesar M. Mendoza, Jr. is a full-time faculty of the School
of Medical Technology-Emilio Aguinaldo College. A registered medical
technologist, a regular member of the Philippine Association of Medical
Technologist and Public Health (PAMET) and a life member of the Philippine
Society of Microbiologist (PSM). He is currently taking his Ph. D. in Science
Education major in Biology at the University of the Philippines, Diliman.
Burkle, F.(2006, April 1). Globalization and Disasters: Issues of Public
Health, State Capacity and Political Action. Journal of International
Affairs. Retrieved Oct 24, 2009, from
B. Hopwood, and G. O’Brien. (2001). Environment,
Economy and Society: Fitting them together into Sustainable
Development. Journal on Sustainable Development. 10 (4). Abstract
retrieved Oct 24, 2009 from Wiley InnterScience database.
Ishii, Y.(2009). Infrastructure’s Role Against Climate Change. Journal of
Disaster Research. 4(1) 24-31.
Oshikawa, H., K. Asai, K. Tsukahara, and T. Komatsu (2009). “Disaster
Imunity” – A New Concept for Disaster Reduction in Adaptation to
Disaster Hazard Intensification. Journal Disaster Reseach. 4 (1): 7-11.
THE TWO-HOUR POST-PRANDIAL EFFECT OF
(Moringa oleifera) Tea on Human Blood Glucose Level
Supachai A. Basit, RMT, PhD, Kristine Marie Lozada,
Aizel Marasigan, Liezel Morales, Ronald Ramos and Jessica Sarreal
Over the past years, the Philippine government through
the concerted efforts of the agencies likes the Department of
Health and the Philippine Information Agency (PIA) had been
aggressive in the promotion of indigenous herbal medicines due
to the increasing cost of medicines manufactured pharmaceutical
In fact, the PIA had released information campaigns
as regards to the benefits of medicinal plants like the Moringga
oleifera (MO) or locally known as the malunggay (PIA, 2007). The
said plant is a member of the Morigaceae family and was first introduced
in the Philippine soil way back from the pre-historic era (Guevarra et
Quisumbing (1978) had included the said plant as having a
significant role in the folklore medicine and various studies have
been made to validate the ethno-botanical practices of indigenous
people. Among the various medicinal properties of (MO) plants are
its antitumor properties (Guevarra, et al., 2009) and its ability to reduce
blood level of lipids (Mehta, et al., 2003 and Chumark, et al., 2003).
MO was also found to have more vitamin C as compared to oranges
thereby can reduce phlegm, scurvy and catarrhal condition (Donovan,
2007). Moreover, the extract from its leaves and bark was found to have
antimicrobial properties particularly against Staphylococcus aureus
(Mehta, et al., 2003) and against cutaneous mycoses (Chuang, et al.,
2003). MO was also found to be beneficial in controlling disorders of
the endocrine system. Tahiliani and Kar (1999) had also reported the
ability of the MO tea to regulate thyroid hormone. Finally, the said
plant was also reported to significantly reduce blood glucose level
(Anwar, et al., 2007 and Ho & Ples, 2009).
Among the aforementioned benefits of MO, this study had
focused on its hyperglycemic activity since there are 1,807, 270 afflicted
with diabetes in the Philippines, based on the 2004 US Census Bureau
International Database from a total population of more than 86 million
at that time the study was made. Hence, it could be surmised from
that figures that one of five Filipinos is a potential diabetic. In fact,
the National Diabetes Statistics (2007) had also reported that there are
approximately 3.8 million reported cases and the numbers have grown
since then. Of the reported number, 25% were diagnosed, and of those
diagnosed only 23% are treated. The control of diabetes in the treated
group is average to poor leading, ergo, leading to a reduced quality of
life and high mortality incidence. Diabetes had inadvertently grown
into one of the most costly diseases on a global basis in both human and
economic terms (National Diabetes Statistics, 2007).
With these precepts, the main objective of the study is to determine
the 2-hour post-prandial affect of malunggay tea extract on blood
glucose. We had also determined the baseline blood sugar level prior
to the intervention and the post intervention blood sugar level both in
the control and experimental groups.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Research Design. The authors had utilized experimental method of
research design in which the relationship between the experimental
and control groups were being established.
Locale and Study Population.
The study was conducted at the
laboratory of the School of Medical Technology in Emilio Aguinaldo
College. The study participants were a mixture of male and female and
have an age range between 19-23 years of age. An informed consent
was also given to the participants at the start of the study. They were
also asked to fast for eight hours prior to the extraction of blood. On
the day of the test, a 5-ml venous blood sample was extracted from the
participants. Study population was asked to drink a cup of hot MO
tea extract and warm distilled water for the experimental and control
groups, respectively. The venous blood sample was also extracted
from the same study population two hours after the consumption of
MO tea and warm water.
Glucose Oxidase Determination. The serum sample was collected from
the venous blood after it has been allowed to stand and centrifuged
for 5 minutes at 3,500 rpm. The blood glucose was determined using
the photometric glucose oxidase method wherein the absorbance of the
serum sample and standard were read against reagent blank at 500 nm.
Data Analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized
to analyze the data in this study. The t test for paired samples was
also used to compare means of the blood glucose level before and after
the interventions was given. All date were generated using the SPSS
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Blood Glucose Level of the Study Population. Shown in Figure 1 is the
baseline blood glucose level of the two groups prior to the intervention.
It could be surmised that the mean blood glucose level of the control
group (97.22 mg/dL) is higher as compared to the experimental group
(82.62 mg/dL). However, the mean blood glucose level of the two
groups is still within the normal range (70-110 mg/dL). Both groups
had a reduction of the mean blood glucose level after the intervention
The two-hour post prandial effects. The two hour post prandial effects
of the malunggay tea in comparison with that of the control group was
shown in Table 1. The mean difference of the pre and post interventions
were compared and analyzed using the t test for paired samples
Table 1. Two-hour post prandial difference of the experimental and
It could be gleaned from Table 1 that there was indeed a significant
difference in the mean difference of the blood glucose level (pre and post
interventions) from the experimental group, t = 0.023(19), p = 0.023. On
the other hand, there was no significant difference in the blood glucose
level in the control group, t = 2.023 (22), after they were allowed to drink
warm distilled water only. This also implies that the administration
of the MO tea could help in the metabolism of carbohydrates as seen
in the results of the post-prandial test. The results of our study was
consistent with that of Ho and Ples (2009) wherein they were able to
report a significant drop in blood glucose level after the hyperglycemic
participants were given the commercial MO tea.
Ndong et al (2007) had also reported the effects of the oral administration
of MO tea on glucose tolerance among Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar rats
in which they have also reported significant reduction in blood glucose
level after the administration of glucose load. Thus, they were able
to surmise that indeed, MO has an ameliorating effect for glucose
intolerance, and the effect might be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside
and fiber contents found in the MO leaf powder. Moreover, Jaiwal et al
(2009) had also found the same hypoglycemic potentials of the aqueous
leaf extract when tested among hyperglycemic rats.
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
Our study had concentrated on the comparison of the two-
hour post prandial effects of the MO tea and warm distilled water on
experimental and control groups, respectively. The results had indeed
clearly indicated a significant reduction in the blood glucose level after
the administration of the MO tea. Although there was also a reduction
in the mean of the blood glucose level for the control group, the mean
difference of the pre and post interventions was not statistically
With these tenets, it could be concluded that the MO plant has a potential
usage as food supplement for hyperglycemic and diagnosed diabetic
patients. Further researches should also be done in the inclusion of
the MO leaf extract as part of the management of diabetes. It is also
recommended that standardization of the MO tea consumption
must be made in future studies. Other parameters for carbohydrates
metabolism such as the oral glucose tolerance test, urine glucose, assays
for ketone bodies and glycosylated hemoglobin must be included in
The authors wished to acknowledge our beloved dean, Dr. Soledad
Bautista; Ms. Catherine Lim, the research methodology lecturer; Mr.
Cesar Mendoza, our Clinical Chemistry laboratory professor; the
members of the oral defense panel, namely, Mr. Antonio Laude, Mr.
Jason Mirasol, Mr. Paul Aldrin Hung and Ms. Jacqueline Hung; Ms.
Ferryvic Mercado, the laboratory technician and the volunteers who
participated in our study.
Anwar, F. S Latif. M. Ashraf. AH Guillani. (2007). Moringa oleifera:
a food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytotherapy Res. 21(1): 17-25
Baltazar, JC. CA Ancheta, IB Aban, RE Fernando and MM Bacilod
(2004). Prevalence and correlates of diabetes mellitus and impaired
glucose tolerance among adults in Luzon, Philippines. Diabetes
Res Clin Pract. 64(2): 107-15
Chuang, PH, CW Lee, JY Chou, M Murugan, BJ Shieh and HM Chen.
(2007). Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of
Moringa oleifera Lam. Biosource Technology. 98: 232-236
Chumark, P., P Khunawat, Y Sanvarinda, S Phornchirasilp, NP
Morales, L Phivthong-ngam, P Ratachamnong, S Srisawat and KS
Pongrapeeporm. (2008). The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant
properties, hypolipademic and antiatherosclerotic activities of
water extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves. J Ethno-phamacology.
Guevara, AP., C Vargas, H Sakurai, Y Fujiwara, K Hashimoto, T Maoka,
M Kozuka, Y Ito, H Tokuda and H Nishino. (1999). An antitumor
promoter from Moringa oleifera Lam. Mutational Research. 440:
Jaiswal, D., PK Rai, S Mehta and G Watai. (2009). Effect of Moringa
oleifera leave aqueous extract on hyperglycemic rats. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology. DOI. 10.1016/J.Jeo.2009.03.036
Ndong, M., M Uehara, S Katsumata, K Suzuki. (2007). Effects of oral
administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on glucose tolerance test
in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar rats. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry.
Mehta, LK., R Balaraman, AH Amin, PA Bafna and OD Gulati. (2003).
Effect of fruits of Moringa oleifera on lipid profile of normal and
hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. J Ethno-pharmacology. 86: 191195
Philippine Information Agency. (2007). Feature: Malunggay a must
have veggie. PIA Press Release. August 11, 2007
Quisumbing, E. (1978). Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Philippines:
Katha Publishing. 346-349
EVALUATION OF THE ALLELOPATHIC ACTIVITY OF
TALAHIB (SACCHARUM SPONTANEUM) AGAINST
CRUCIFEROUS PLANTS RADDISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS)
AND PECHAY (BRASSICA RAPA)
Roland M. Montano
Agricultural sustainability depends greatly on the development
of strategies that reduce both the need for costly internal inputs and
the environmental impact often associated with the excessive use of
these inputs. Allelopathy is discussed in the interdisciplinary context
of sustainability as a means of approaching such problems. Example is
the reduction of both crops specie through the action of a specific weed.
Phytochemical screening of the existing chemical constituents is also
presented. The importance of these practices for reducing inputs and for
reducing adverse environmental impacts are discussed in the context of
long-term agroecosystem sustainability. Necessary research plans and
directions are proposed.
Grasses, exemplified by talahib (Saccharum spontaneum Linn. Subsp.
indicum Hack) are found almost everywhere: abundantly in waste
places or vacant lots and areas where other species of plants may be
found. Often, grasses are found at low and medium altitudes, ascending
to 1,500 meters, and often living ARTICLES
competitively with other plants and crops (Barnes, J. P., 1986).
Talahib also occurs in India to southern China and through Malaya
to Polynesia. It is a course, erect, perennial, usually more or less tufted
or gregarious grass, attaining a height o 1 to 3.5 meters, and rising from
stout underground rootstock. The leaves are linear, harsh and measures
0.5 to 1 meter long, 6 to 15 millimeters wide. The panicles (a pyramidal
loosely branched flower cluster) are white, erect, 15 to 30 centimeters
long. Its branches are slender, whorled, fragile, and joints covered with
long, sot white hairs. The spikelets (the primary inflorescence of grasses)
are about 3.5 millimeters long, very much shorter than the copious,
long, white hairs at the base (Brown, B. J. et al., 1987). A decoction of the
roots is used in the Philippines as a diuretic. The warm pulp of the stem
is used as a poultice and applied to painful parts of the legs in cases of
suffering from beriberi (Quisumbing 1978). In Bengal the roots are used
as a galactogogue (a substance which is used to increase the production
of milk in humans and other animals) and diuretic (Quisumbing 1978)
It has been observed that talahib was growing competitively affecting
the growth of other species. This gave the researcher the idea that
talahib might be containing “something”, thus this particular species
of grass may exhibit allelopathic activity, which can open new studies
on herbicides and weed management for production of good crops in
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Fig 1. Talahib in its natural habitat
Allelopathy refers to the beneficial or harmful effects of
one plant on another plant, both crop and weed species, by the
release of chemicals from plant parts through leaching, root
processes in both natural and agricultural systems. It is also defined
as the direct influence from a chemical released of one plant on the
development and growth of another (Kim, K.U. & Shin, D.H. 1998).
The importance of chemical interference, including allelopathy, mostly
in crop competition has often been discussed in a number of literature
(Rice, 1995 and Wu, et al., 1999). The possibilities of genetically
improving crops with allelopathic potential can play an important
role in future weed management. Allelopathic substances, if present in
crop varieties, may reduce the need for weed management particularly
the use of herbicides though may not be a perfect weed management
It is extremely difficult to demonstrate allelopathy in nature
because of the complexity of plant interference, which includes
positive, negative and neutral effects on each other (Christensen,
1993). Interference is a combination of the processes of competition for
resources and production of allelopathic compounds, which suppress
competitors (Duke, et al. 2001). Thus, allelopathy differs from resource
competition. First widely studied in forestry systems, allelopathy can
affect many aspects of plant ecology including occurrence, growth,
and plant succession, the structure of plant communities, dominance,
diversity, and plant productivity. Initially, many of the forestry
species evaluated had negative allelopathic effects on food and fodder
crops, but in the 1980s research was begun to identify forestry species
that had beneficial, neutral, or selective effects on companion crop
plants. Early research grew out of observations of poor regeneration
of forest species, crop damage, yield reductions, replant problems
for tree crops, occurrence of weed-free zones, and other related
changes in patterns of vegetation. Our purpose here is to introduce
the concept of allelopathy, cite specific examples, and to mention
potential applications as an alternative weed management strategy.
Commonly cited effects of allelopathy include reduced seed germination
and seedling growth. Like synthetic herbicides, there is no common
mode of action or physiological target site for all allelochemicals.
However, known sites of action for some allelochemicals include cell
division, pollen germination, nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, and
specific enzyme function. Allelopathic inhibition is complex and can
involve the interaction of different classes of chemicals like phenolic
compounds, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates,
and amino acids, with mixtures of different compounds sometimes
having a greater allelopahtic effect than individual compounds
alone. Furthermore, physiological and environmental stresses,
pests and diseases, solar radiation, herbicides, and less than optimal
nutrient, moisture, and temperature levels can also affect allelopathic
weed suppression. Different plant parts, including flowers, leaves,
leaf litter and leaf mulch, stems, bark, roots, soil and soil leachates
and their derived compounds, can have allelopathic activity that
varies over a growing season. Allelopathic chemicals can also persist
in soil, affecting both neighboring plants as well as those planted in
succession. Although derived from plants, allelochemicals may be more
biodegradable than traditional herbicides but may also have undesirable
effects on non-target species, necessitating ecological studies before
widespread use (Kruse and Strandberg 2000 and Quisumbing 1978).
Phytochemical screenings were done to find the constituents that made
up the extracts. Extracts were then treated to test plants (raddish and
pechay) to evaluate for allelopathic activity of inhibition and toxicity.
Collection and Identification
Talabib leaves were collected at Fort Bonifacio, Taguig, Metro Manila.
For identification purposes, samples were sent to the Deaprtment of
Botany of the National Museum.
Preparation of Plant Material for Extraction
Carefully selected fresh talahib were washed and cut into smaller
pieces with the use of blender. The blended grass was weighed and
soaked in petroleum ether for 2 days. Extract was filtered and residue
is dried until no more scent of the solvent was observed. The same
procedure was used to get the extracts using the other solvents
(chloroform and ethanol).
Phytochemical screening of the plant (Cantoria, 1994)
A. Screening for Alkaloids
evaporated to dryness on a steam bath and the residue was
dissolved in 7mL of 1% hydrochloric acid, aided by warming on
the steam bath for 1 or 2 min. The residue was cooled, filtered and
the volume of filtrate was adjusted to seven milliliters by washing
the residue on the filter paper with a sufficient quantity of one
percent hydrochloric acid. Few grains of powdered sodium chloride
were added to the filtrate before shaking and then refiltered.
One milliliter of the filtrate was placed into each of four small test
tubes. Three drops of modified Mayer’s reagent (mercury potassium
iodide TS), Valser’s reagent (mercury iodide TS), Wagner’s reagent
(iodine and potassium Iodide TS), Bouchardat’s reagent (2% iodine in a
4% solution of potassium iodide) were added to each of the four small
B. Screening for Unsaturated Sterols and Triterpenes
Thirty milliliters of the 80% ethanolic extract were evaporated
to dryness in a water bath. The residue was cooled to room
temperature and 15mL of light petroleum ether was added
(30-60ºC) and then it was mixed well and filtered. Additional
volumes of petroleum ether can be repeated if needed until the
last volume of petroleum ether is colorless. Ethereal filtrates were
combined and the defatted residue was set aside for screening of
flavonoids and leucoanthocyanins. The combined ethereal filtrates
were evaporated to dryness and the residue was dissolved to fifteen
milliliters of chloroform. Chloroformic solution was dried over
anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and the filtrate is divided equally
into three dry test tubes, which were tested using the following tests: (1)
Liebermann-Burchard Test, (2) Salkowski Test and (3) Color Control.
C. Screening for Flavonoids and Leucoanthocyanins
Defatted residue was dissolved in 30 mL of 50% ethanol, filtered,
and placed 1-2 of the filtrate in each of three semi micro test tube. 0.5 mL
of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to the first test tube and
warm in a steam bath for about five minutes to observe color changes.
The development of a red-violet color is indicative of the presence of
leucoanthocyanins. The test solution was allowed to stand at room
temperature for 1 hour before recording the result as negative because
production of color was slow.
The same amount of concentrated hydrochloric acid with 3-4
magnesium turnings was added to the second test tube. It was carefully
observed within 10 min for color change (to green, red, etc.) to indicate
the presence of flavonoids. Test tube number 3 served as a control.
D. Screening for Saponins
Thirty milliliters of the 80% ethanolic plant extract was evaporated
on a steam bath. 30 mL of hot saline solution was added to the residue,
stirred to mix well, and continued to heat on a steam bath for 1-2
min. 2g of magnesium oxide was added, mixed by stirring for 5 min.
The mixture was filtered, fresh saline solution was added so that the
final filtrate measured 20 mL. The filtrate was divided into two equal
Two to three drops of the saline extractive was dropped on top
of one area of a blood agar plate. To another area of the same plate, all
an equal volume of saline solution as control. Formulation of a clear
zone around the area of the test solution and that of the control saline
solution is observed at the end of 3, 10, 15, 30 min to ensure positive
Ten milliliters of the saline extractive was quantitatively transferred to
a 20 ml test tube was quantitatively transfer, stoppered, and shaken
vigorously. Foam height was measured after letting it stand for 3 min
using a metric ruler. At the end of 30 min, foam height is once more
E. Screening for Anthraquinone Heterosides
Borntrager Test – 5 ml of the 80% ethanolic extract was transferred to an evaporating dish and dried over a steam bath. The residue in the evaporating dish was defatted with 5-10 ml of petroleum ether. Fifty milliliters of distilled water is added to the defatted residue, mixed well, and the two phases were allowed to separate. The aqueous layer (bottom
layer) was drained and mixed well and was observed
for color changes.
Modified Borntrager Test – 0.3g of the plant
powder with 10 ml of 0.5 N potassium hydroxide
peroxide for 10 min was heated on a steam bath.
5 ml of the solution was cooled, filtered and acidified
by adding approximately 10 drops of glacial acetic
acid. The pH of the solution was checked by
pHydrion indicator paper and the acidified solution
was transferred to a small separatory funnel and
partitioned with 10 ml of benzene. Filter the benzene
phase was filtered and 5 ml was transferred to a test
tube containing 2.5 ml of ammonia TS. Benzene
phase is mix well and observed for color changes.
G. Screening for Tannins and Phenolic Compounds
One hundred milliliters of the 80% ethanolic extract (from
section A) was evaporated to dryness on a steam bath. After drying,
the evaporating dish was removed from the steam bath and 25 of hot
distilled water is added to the residue. The residue is mixed well with
a stirring rod and allowed to cool to room temperature simultaneously.
The coolest extract was centrifugated for several minutes and the upper
half is decanted and transferred from each tube used. Three to four drops
of 10% sodium chloride solution is added to the decanted supernatant &
and 3 ml of the filtrate was transferred to three semi-micro test tubes.
Two to three drops of a 1% gelatin is added to the first test tube,
same amount of gelatin-salt(1% gelatin and 10% sodium chloride) is
added on the second test tube and same amount of ferric chloride is
also added to the third test tube.
Evaluation of Allelochemic Property
Three talahib extracts will be evaluated: petroleum ether,
chloroform, and ethanol. Fifty (50) viable seeds of raddish and pechay
will be placed on eight petri dishes laid in a moisture tissue paper.
The tissue paper from six of the eight petri dishes will be moisten
with petroleum ether extract of talahib and this will serve as the three
replicates. Two of them will be used as a control and will be moisten only
with water. The treated seeds of raddish and pechay with petroleum
ether extract will be observed for seed germination and parameters
for growth and development will be determined as compared to the
untreated control. This process will be repeated using chloroform and
ethanol extracts of the plant.
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
These are the only test that shows positive result after
Table 1. Summary of Phytochemical Screening result
Screening for Alkaloids
Formation of precipitate
Screening for Unsaturated
Sterols and Triterpene
(+) change in color
(-) change in color
(-) change in color
(-) change in color
Screening for Flavonoids and
(+) change in color
(+) change in color
(+) change in color
(+) change in color
(+) change in color
(+) change in color
(+) change in color
(+) change in color
Screening for Phenolic
(+) change in color
Screening for Saponins
(+) change in color
Table 1 shows positive results in flavonoids, saponins, phenolic
compounds (ethanol extract only) indicating the presence of these
compounds in the extracts while negative results in alkaloid,
unsaturated sterols and triterpene, flavonoids and leukoanthocyanin,
and anthraquinone heterosides indicating the absence of these
Table 2. Summary of Evaluation of Allelochemic Activity result
• Day 1
• Day 5
• Day 7
• Day 1
• Day 5
• Day 7
• Day 1
• Day 5
• Day 7
• Day 1
• Day 5
• Day 7
• Day 1
• Day 5
• Day 7
• Day 1
• Day 5
• Day 7
(-) = no seeds germinate
(+) = seeds germinate
(++) = seeds germinate but not same as the control
(+++) = seeds germinate same as the control (leaves developed and stems elongated)
Based on the data, only petroleum ether extracts show inhibition of
growth while chloroform and ethanol extracts show toxicity effect.
Conclusion, and Recommendations
In all evaluation described above, Talahib does exhibit allelopathic
and toxicity activity and can play a potential role in the management of
unwanted weeds in the agroecosystem. There is enough evidence in the
literature supporting its effectiveness to expand the use of allelopathy
for the benefit of weed inhibition and crop production. The replacement
of costly and damaging synthetic agrichemicals is certainly a goal of a
sustainable agriculture. But it is doubtful that strict replacement will
provide the incentive or the means by which allelopathy will find
its greatest use in agroecosystem management. A follow up study is
recommended to focus on the chemical constituents that cause growth
inhibition and toxicity to tested crops.
Barnes, J. P., Putnam, A. R, & Burke, B. A. 1986. Allelopathic
activity of Rye (Secale cereal L.). “The Science of Allelopathy”. Wiley
Interscience, New York. pp. 271-278
Brown, B. J.; Hanson, M. H.; Liverman, D. M.; Merideth, R. W.
Jr. 1987. Global Sustainability: Towards Definition. Environmental
Management. pp. 713-719
Gliessman, S. R. 1983. Allelopathic Interactions in Crop-weed
Mixtures: Applications for Weed Management. J. Chem. Ecol., 9, 991-999
Cantoria, M. C. 1994. Selected Topics in Pharmacognosy, National
Academy of Science and Technology, Metro Manila, xxi, 484
Quisumbing, E., Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, 1978, Katha
Publishing Co., Inc., Quezon City, iv, 1262p.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PUMICE WITH LIQUID DETERGENT
IN POLISHING HEAT-CURED ACRYLIC RESINS
Danica Ana C. Velasco and Miguel Atom G. Kobayashi
THESIS ADVISOR: DR. MACARIO A. FADRIGALAN IV
Since the pumice will not adhere between the surface of the acrylic
and the lathe machine, a matrix is needed while polishing. Liquid
detergent is used as a matrix to hold the pumice in longer contact while
polishing compared to water. The use of liquid detergent mixed with
pumice was tested and evaluated through SEM to view closely the
surface of the acrylic after polishing with the said slurry to check its
Results showed a significant difference on the surface of the heat-cured
acrylic resin polished with pumice and liquid detergent as compared with
that of the one polished with water and pumice. Photographically, the image
obtained from the SEM revealed shallower serrations on the former and deeper
serrations on the latter. This was further supported by statistical analysis
using one-way ANOVA to prove the effectiveness of the use of liquid detergent
and pumice in polishing heat-cured acrylic resins.
Acrylic resin in Dentistry is one of the materials used to
construct complete dentures and removable partial dentures.
It serves as the denture bases of these prostheses where the
artificial teeth are embedded. It consists of a powder and liquid,
which when mixed, will produce a doughy material that is placed in
a mold to create the shape of the base of the dentures. There are three
kinds of acrylic resin based on the induction or the initiation period,
or the manner of how it sets: (1) self-cured or the chemically activated;
(2) heat-cured or the heat activated; and (3) the light activated resin.
The main difference of these three is in the hardening process. In
the self-curing or the chemically activated acrylic resin, it hardens by
means of chemical setting. This is usually used as temporary denture
bases, trial denture bases, and fabricating individual trays. The heatcured acrylic resin on the other hand, needs to be placed in boiling
water in order for the material to harden. This is usually used in
final denture bases because it is more temperature stable and more
durable than the self cured resin. The light activated resin uses visible
light for it to harden, usually used in fabricating individual trays.
Heat-cured resin is somewhat superior to the self-cured
when used as denture bases.
Microscopically, the heat-cured
resin is less porous than that of the self-cured.
can trap bacteria and food debris that can cause staining of the
denture base with accompanying unpleasant taste and odor. Because
of this, color stability of the heat-cured is better than self-cured resin.
Also, heat-cured resin exhibits less distortion, less monomer content,
and it is much stronger than the self-cured, making it the material of
choice for final denture bases.
Regardless of how the acrylic resin sets, it usually has rough and
dull surfaces. Polishing these surfaces is necessary to prevent oral
tissue irritation and bacterial growth on the surfaces of the dentures
rendering it unhygienic for the patient to use.
The conventional way of polishing acrylics according to
Nallaswamy (2003) is with the use of pumice (powder) mixed with
water. This process produces “slurry”, which will be applied on the
surface of the acrylic that will be polished. A motor with rag rotating
at a low speed will contact the acrylic and will polish the surface. There
are different ways on how acrylic resins can be polished. Other authors
would suggest the use of different pumice, stones, and rags to obtain a
accustomed with the use of liquid detergent mixed with pumice
powder to polish their acrylic denture bases.
The said practice
was passed on from the upper clinicians to lower clinicians,
will render the surface of the acrylic smoother. This prompted the
researchers to conduct the present study.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study determined the effectiveness of liquid detergent mixed
with pumice in polishing heat-cured acrylic resin. Specifically, it sought
answers to the following:
Is there a significant difference between the use of liquid
detergent or water mixed with pumice in polishing heat-
cured acrylic resin?
Which of the two slurries will give a smoother surface on
heat-cured acrylic resins?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study may be helpful and advantageous to the
1) To the clinicians since polishing of the acrylic resin will be easier
to do and will take less time, thus the slurry that will be used becomes
effective in giving surface smoothness to the acrylic resin. Likewise, it is
cost saving since they will no longer seek the help of dental laboratories
to achieve an ideal smoothness to the surface of their dentures.
To the patients since having a denture with a well-polished
surface will be to their advantage because lesser bacteria
will adhere to the surface of their dentures. The dentures
will be more hygienic to use and cleaning the dentures will
be easier. Tissue irritation will also be prevented since they
are wearing a denture with a surface that is smooth and
friendly to their oral cavity.
To the dental technology students since results from this
study will serve as additional knowledge particularly in
techniques of polishing heat-cured acrylic resins.
Fine grain pumice is used as an abrasive for acrylic resins to smoothen
its surface. But pumice alone will not adhere to the surface of the acrylic
during polishing with the lathe machine. A matrix is needed to keep the
pumice in longer contact between the rotating rag and the surface of the
acrylic. The use of liquid detergent serves as a matrix that will hold the
pumice in place for a longer time while polishing, compared to water.
The effectiveness of the liquid detergent as a matrix will be tested and
evaluated through the use of a scanning electron microscope to view
closely the surface rendered after polishing with the said slurry.
Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Polymers, more commonly termed as plastics, are used in prosthetic
dentistry. The acrylic resin, whether chemically cured or heat cured
represent 95% of the plastics used in prosthetics, finding their way as
a complete or partial denture base to support artificial teeth . One of
the major problems experienced with acrylic resin denture is porosity
brought about by manufacturing processes (www.encyclopedia.com).
Prostheses to be seated on the oral cavity should present smooth and
polished surfaces; retain less organic debris; offer less risk of microbial
imbalance, appearance of caries, periodontal disease,
hygiene, the article added.
Manapilil (2001) states that abrasive materials and instruments
are designed according to their grits and bonding. Bonded abrasives
consists of abraded particles that are incorporated through a binder to
form grinding tools such as points, wheels and separating disk and other
shapes. The type of bonding method employed for the abrasive greatly
affects the grinding behavior of the tool on the substrate. Bonded abrasives
that tend to disintegrate rapidly against a substrate are too weak.
An ideal binder holds the abrasive particles in the tool sufficiently
long enough to cut, grind, or polish the substrate; yet release the
particle before its cutting efficiency is lost. Binders for abrasives are
specifically designed to prevent particle loss rather to degrade at
certain point and release the particles. Other forms of abrasives are
coated; they are fabricated by securing particles to a flexible backing
material (plastic or heavy duty paper) with a suitable adhesive.
quartz, sand, Tripoli and zirconium silicate. Pumice is a lightgray, highly siliceous material produced from volcanic activity.
Flour of pumice is an extremely fine grained volcanic rock
In a research study conducted by Ulyusoy, et al. (1996), it
found that the best surface finish is obtained when abrasive stones;
coarse, medium, and fine abrasive disks; rotating felt cone with
pumice slurry; and rotating soft brush with chalk powder are
sequelae of roughness is produced on the acrylic resin surfaces
Various studies have also been conducted to determine the surface
roughness of acrylic resin material (Sofou and Owall, 1996). The study
evaluated three methods of polishing on acrylic denture base materials.
Specimens of three commercial heat-cured acrylic resin materials
were finished using burs, sandpaper discs and rubber wheels, and
polished with polishing soap, paste or by application of a UV-lightactivated resin sealant. The resulting surface roughness was examined
by scanning electron microscopy and measured by means of a stylus
profile Perthometer. It was concluded further that polishing paste
and UV-light activated resin sealant were more and equally effective
in reducing surface roughness compared to polishing soap.
In the study conducted by Maalhagh-Fard, et al (2003), which
evaluated the effects of two finishing techniques and pumice polishing
on the surface roughness of eight differentprovisional
both PMMA based and composite based. Results from this study
revealed that pumice application did not smooth the surface finish
for all materials. It was further concluded that the different types of
provisional materials required finishing techniques to produce the
Other study conducted by Samson (1990) concluded that there
was no significant difference in terms of porosities produced in heatcured acrylic resin using two different curing techniques. In this study,
the researcher compared curing acrylic resin through a rapid curing
technique and the use of a pressure cooker.
It has been proven that
whether the resin was cured in a short time using a pressure cooker or
the conventional way using rapid cure technique, porosities found on
the outer and inner part of the sample were the same. To gather data
for this study, the researcher used magnifying glass to examine the
porosities produced in the acrylic resin blocks after it has been cured.
Studies done in the Philippines about surface roughness
were not found, especially those that concentrate on the use of
different types of slurry for polishing the surface of an acrylic resin.
This study made use of an experimental design. Fifteen samples
of processed acrylic blocks were used, five of which served as control
samples, which were unpolished with the prepared slurry. The
remaining ten samples (the experimental group) were divided into
two and subjected to two different slurries, water and pumice and the
combination of water, pumice and dishwashing liquid for polishing
Processing/Polishing of Acrylic Blocks
The acrylic blocks were first trimmed to remove any excess using
a micromotor and bullet-shaped carbide acrylic trimmer bur. Green
stone bur was also used to trim and smoothen the surface a little. The
samples were further trimmed and manually finished using sandpapers
with three different grits; grit 600 was used for seven minutes, grit
1200 for five minutes, and grit 2500 for four minutes, respectively.
The use of sandpaper was timed to assure all the acrylic blocks were
finished in the same manner. The direction of the movements of
the sand paper was random so that the surface analyzed will simulate
the real conditions in denture base fabrication. Only one surface was
trimmed and smoothened. Using a disc-shaped bur, each block was
sectioned into three to make one-inch by one-inch block until thirty
(30) samples were produced. These thirty samples were randomly
divided into three groups, which are the control group, group A,
and group B. Five specimens per group were utilized in this study.
Likewise, ten (10) wax molds of 1” height x 3” length x
2ply thickness were prepared and placed in flasks. Petroleum jelly was
applied on the inside surface of the flask. A mixture of plaster of Paris
and water was poured in the flask and the wax mold for the acrylic
block pushing it enough to submerge a part of it in the plaster of Paris.
The plaster of Paris is allowed to set before another coat of separating
medium was applied. The flask was covered and pressed using the
presser with enough pressure to ensure that the plaster of Paris flowed
evenly. Wax elimination followed after the plaster of Paris had set.
The first pressed of flask had cellophane in between
and pressed using hydraulic presser under 1,500-2,500 psi, until
the excess ceased to exit. The upper and lower member of the
flask was removed and excess resin was trimmed using a sharp
instrument. The flask was again covered and subjected to the same
amount of pressure with the hydraulic presser. The flask was then
placed in a pan with tap water and allowed to boil within thirty
minutes and added another twenty to thirty minutes after boiling
point to allow curing of the acrylic resin. The flask was removed from
the pan and bench cooled in room temperature for deflasking. When
the flask was cool enough, the acrylic blocks were carefully removed.
The first slurry was prepared by mixing water and fine
dental pumice on a ratio of 10 grams of pumice is to 7 ml of water.
Each specimen was polished on a wet rotating rag for three (3) minutes
with intermittent contact to prevent abrasion of the surface of the
acrylic and placement of the slurry on the surface from time to time
to prevent friction and heat build up between the rag and the acrylic.
This was done for the entire specimen included in group A.
On a separate bowl, the second slurry was prepared
by mixing 6 ml of liquid detergent and 10 grams of pumice.
The same procedure was done for Group B. Three minutes of
intermittent contact with the wet rotating rag, and placement
of the slurry to the surface of the acrylic from time to time.
The specimens were thoroughly washed under running water to
remove any debris from the slurry and were dried completely using
paper towel. The specimens were then covered with plastic wrap to
prevent external damage that may bias the data.
Testing the Surface Roughness of the Acrylic Blocks
A piece of each samples were cut and placed on the
sample holder and were sputtered with Gold in a JEOL JFC-1200 Fine
Coater for 45 seconds and read with JEOL JSM-5310 Scanning Electron
Microscope. The coated samples were placed inside the Scanning
Electron Microscope and were tilted to 60 degrees. Image captured
was under 3,500 magnification and were transferred to a computer
for measurement. Number and depth of serrations for each viewed
samples were identified recorded.
Statistical Treatment of Data
After pertinent data were gathered, organized, and
tabulated, they were subjected to statistical analysis. Analysis
of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significant
difference between the use of water and liquid detergent mixed
reliability of the experiment based on the number of samples, and
Arithmetic Mean, Standard Deviation, and 95% Confidence Interval
to determine which of the two polishing technique is more effective.
PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
Analysis of the data shows that there is a significant difference
between the use of water and liquid detergent mixed with pumice to
the surface of the acrylic resin, as revealed by the computed F-value
of 61.68 (Table 1), which exceeds the critical value of 3.05 at the 0.05
level of significance of 2 and 172 degrees of freedom (df). This implies
that water and liquid detergent mixed with pumice have considerable
diverse effect to the surface roughness of each of the acrylic resin blocks.
Table 1. Analysis of Variance between Control Group and
Table 2 shows the reliability of the experiment and the standard
of error of measurement of the two polishing techniques using
water and liquid detergent mixed with pumice. Analysis of the
data shows that both polishing techniques had a high reliability
as revealed by the computed reliability, rtt and standard of error
of measurement of 0.95 and 0.12, respectively.
This implies that
the stand ard of error of measurement the more
reliable the test. In its simplest form, reliability means consistency.
Table 2. Reliability of Polishing Techniques between Control
and Experimental Groups
The comparative analysis of arithmetic mean, standard deviation
and other variables of the surface roughness of the heat-cured acrylic resin
blocks polished between water and liquid detergent mixed with pumice
on unpolished acrylic resin blocks is shown in Table 3 below. Among the
three groups, detergents mixed with pumice had the lowest degree of
roughness as revealed by highest and lowest depth of scratches to
the exterior of acrylic resin of 1.25 µm and 0.250 µm respectively.
This is further supported by the computed 95% confidence interval
for mean of 0.4939 µm thru 0.7185 µm and the computed median of
0.588 µm. However, the standard deviation (0.338 µm) and arithmetic
mean (0.829 µm) of water mixed with pumice are slightly higher than
detergent mixed with pumice of 0.178 µm and 0.606 µm respectively.
This implies that detergent mixed with pumice is more effective in
reducing the surface coarseness to the acrylic resin than water mixed
with pumice. This could be attributed to the following reasons:
The highest and the lowest depth of scratches
are very minimal ascompared to water mixed with
The 95% confidence interval for mean is slightly
lower than water mixed with pumice which implies
that the depth of scratches on the surface of the
acrylic resin must not be smaller than 0.4939 µm but
not larger than 0.7185 µm.
The median, which is the midpoint of a distribution,
4. Detergent mixed with pumice do not exhibit variability.
Table 3. Analysis of the surface roughness between Control and
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
After the gathered data were subjected to statistical analysis, the
researchers came up with the following findings:
The highest depth of serration for the control group is
5.01μm. The blocks polished with water and pumice yielded a higher value of 1.82μm compared to that of the
blocks polished with pumice and liquid detergent which is
The lowest depth of serration for the control group is
0.593μm. The blocks polished with water and pumice
yielded a higher value of 0.340μm compared to that of the
blocks polished with pumice and liquid detergent, which is
The two polishing techniques yielded significant different
values for the mean depth of serrations. The mean depth of
serration for the blocks polished with water and pumice is
higher which is 0.829μm while that of the blocks polished
with pumice and liquid detergent is 0.606μm. There is a
two-fold decrease compared to that of the control group,
At 95% confidence interval for mean, the specimens
polished with pumice and water had serrations not
shallower than 0.6859μm but not deeper than 0.9727μm.
The specimens polished with pumice and liquid detergent
revealed serrations of the following interval from 0.4949μm
Fischer’s test showed a value of 61.68, which exceeded the
critical value of 3.05 rendering the diverse effect of the
two polishing techniques to the surface of the heat-cured
acrylic resin significant.
Reliability test showed a high value of 0.95 with standard
error of measurement of 0.12 indicating that the experiment
In addition, scanning electron microscopy images revealed
decreased depth of roughness from the control group to
the specimens polished with water and pumice and to the
group of specimens polished with water and liquid
Within the limitations of this research study, based on the present
methodology and statistical analysis the following conclusions were
There is a significant decrease in the depth of serrations
thus on the surface roughness of the heat-cured acrylic
resin blocks when polished with water and pumice and
liquid detergent and pumice. The coarse serrations have
been obliterated and replaced by finer serrations.
Among the two polishing method, polishing with liquid
detergent and pumice gave a smoother finish to the polished
surface of the heat-cured acrylic resin blocks.
The present recommends the following:
An evaluative study using different ratios and proportions of pumice and liquid detergent to give a smoother finish to the acrylic denture surface.
Utilization of other brands of soaps or liquid
detergents, which could act as a matrix for the
3. Grain size of the pumice used can also be modified.
Alves, Patricia Valeria Milanezi, et al. 2007. Surface Roughness of Acrylic Resins after Different Curing and Polishing Techniques. Angle Orthodontist.; 77: 528-531
I.M. Watt. 1985. The Principles and Practice of Electron Microscopy. Cambridge University Press
Hilgenberg, Segio Paulo, et al. 2008. Evaluation of Surface Physical Properties of Acrylic Resins for Provisional Prosthesis. Materials Research ; 11: 1516-1 439
Maalhagh-Fard et al. 2003. Evaluation of Surface Finish and Polish of Eight Provisional Materials Using Acrylic Bur and Abrasive Disk With or Without Pumice
Sofou, Emmanouil, Peutzfeldt and Owall. 2001. The Effect of Differing Polishing Techniques on the Surface Roughness of Acrylic Resin Materials.
IN-VITRO SENSITIVITY OF SARCOPTES SCABIEI TO
MORINGA OLEIFERA (MALUNGAY) EXTRACTS
AND VIRGIN COCONUT OIL
Alvin A. Ayque, DVM
Gerardo C. David, MS
With the emphasis on organic drug therapies, there has been
an increase in the number of products in the market today claiming
to have therapeutic properties. In most of these products very little
experimental data is available to support these claims.
Scabies is a common problem in low income households where
there is close contact among family members and their pet dogs. The
practice of sharing towels, bed sheets and other personal belongings
are also quite rampant.
Scabies is an intensely pruritic disorder induced by the immune
allergic response to infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei.
The drug of choice is oral Ivermectin and 5% Permethrin.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Limited effective treatment, coupled with recent observations of
emerging drug resisitance to oral Ivermectin and 5% Permethrin, raise
concerns regarding the future control of scabies, especially in severe
cases and in endemic areas where repeated community treatment
programs are in place. There is consequently an urgent need to develop
and assess alternative therapeutic options, such as virgin coconut oil and
Moringa olefeira. Active concentration levels will also be determined
to ensure maximum utilization of resources.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study will attempt to:
Assess the in vitro acaricidal activity of virgin coconut oil
and Moringa olefeira on the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei
Assess the in vitro synergistic acaricidal activity of virgin
coconut oil and Moringa olefeira
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Scabies or better known as “galis-aso” is caused by Sarcoptes
scabiei. It is a contagious type of ectoparasitic skin diseases that caused
intense itchiness or pruritus. (Belizario, V.Y. et al 2004). It is one of the
common problems in many developing countries, like the Philippines,
which is related also to poverty and over population. Most of the
varieties of S. scabies that causes sarcoptic mites are found in dogs that
also may have contact with humans that lead to burrowing in human
skin. Current treatment for ordinary scabies consists of primarily of
various topical creams as well as oral intake of ivermectin. The skin
disease is very common among city dwellers especially along the
crowded shanties where access to health care is inaccessible or very
At present most scabies are found among children who
normally play with their common household pet dogs. Treatments
as well as preventions are not provided especially to indigenous poor
families, whose everyday spending are on meager food. Treatment for
scabies is expensive.
The DOH has launched many government health
programs, and among them
the promotion on the use of
traditional medicine, that would cater to the needs of the less
The traditional use of medicinal plant to cure
common ailment has been proven effective. Most of these are use
as dietary supplement for everyday meals and among the most
promising among them, is a lowly vegetable known as malungay.
Moringa olefiera or commonly known as malungay, has
been used mainly in the third world countries like the Philippines,
to combat malnutrition especially among breast feeding mothers.
A large volumes of this reports are found on both the scientific and
the popular literature. (Funglie, L.J. 1999) and (Price, M.L. 1985).
The most important benefit that can be derived from
the use of Moringa is for the treatment or prevention of diseases
or infection along with either as dietary supplement or topical
administration of Moringa preparations like extract, decoctions,
poultices, creams, oil, emollients, salves, powders, and porridges.
(Palada, M.C. 1996).
A number of this studies are countless, one
such review is found in the article entitled “Moringa oleifera : A
Review of the Medical Evidence for its Nutritional, Therapeutic
and Propylactic properties. Part 1” authored by Jed W. Fahey
of Johns Hopkins University. (Fahey, J.W. 2005).
studies on literature dealing with medicinal use of moringa.
Among the scientific literature cited in the article is the
use of morienga preparations of having an antibiotic properties,
antispasmodic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic and
hypoglycemic activities and for considerable used in water purification
by flocculation, sedimentation, antibiosis and even for reduction of
Schistosome cercariae titer. However a lot of these studies have not been
supported by clinical trials. In addition to the supported document on
the medicinal use of moringa, there are claims, on the prescribed use of
moringa on purgative and antiscabies properties, however, such claims
has not been supported by scientific research. It is for this purpose
that we endeavor to pursue research on such claim by traditions.
This study will provide new insights on Moringa olefeira
extract and virgin coconut oil for the treatment of scabies. Monitoring
the scabies mite sensitivities will allow a more rational use of these
compounds singly or in combination to minimize the development of
drug resistance. The study will also provide a tool for the assessment of
these novel compounds’ effective acaricidal concentrations.
Preparation of Test Products
At the Biology laboratory of the School of Science,
Emilio Aguinaldo College, sample materials (leaves)
of Moringa olefeira will be cut, dried, and weighed
at 100 g and then extracted with ethanol, filtered,
evaporated, and prepared for bioassay at
concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%. Water
extraction will also be done to compare it with the ethanol method.
Virgin coconut oil at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20,
and 25% will also be prepared in the usual manner.
Equal volumes of Moringa olefeira extract and
virgin coconut oil will be combined and
concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% will likewise
The common acaricides Ivermectin (100ug/g) and
Permethrin (5%) will also be tested.
II. Data Collection Tool
Using #10 surgical blades, skin scrapings will be
taken from dogs of different ages and sexes suffering
from crusted scabies from various clinics, kennels,
and dog pounds in Metro Manila.
Skin scrapings will be placed in slides with a drop of
distilled water and placed in protective containers
for transport to the Biology laboratory, School of
Science, Emilio Aguinaldo College.
The slides will be examined under 100-250 X
magnification for the presence of larval nymphal
instars and adult mites and the number of adult
mites will be recorded.
Ten to fifteen mites per slide will be used per test
product and per concentration.
Within three hours of collection, scabies mites
will be placed in continuous direct contact with the
virgin coconut oil, moringa ethanol extract, moringa
water extract, control (distilled water), and acaricides
and will be observed at regular intervals.
Mortar and pestle
Filter paper, funnel and ring stand
Screw cap bottles
Percentage of mites dead at regular intervals between 5
minutes and 24 hours during continuous exposure to virgin coconut
oil, moringa ethanol extract, moringa water extract, control, and test
acaricides, will be measured.
Results will be analyzed as interval survival data using Graph Pad
Prism software using the log-rank test to examine the null hypothesis
that the survival curves are identical.
SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES (12 months)
1. Extraction & Preparation of
2. Collection of Specimens,
Testing & Observation
3. Analysis & Interpretation
4. Writing of Research Paper
5. Refinement of Research
6. Submission of Research
June to July 2009
August to November 2009
December 2009 to February
1. Research (3 units each teaching load equivalent
1.1 Dr. Alvin A. Ayque (334/hr)
334 x 3 = 1,002 x 4 = 4,008 x 12
1.2 Gerardo C. David (220/hr)
220 x 3 = 660 x 4 = 2,640 x 12
2.1. Bond paper (2 reams)
2.2. Photocopying of data/files
2.3. Printing (ink
3. Equipment/chemicals/plant products
3.1 Glass slides (100 pcs.)
3.2 Permethrin (4 oz.)
3.3. Ivermectin (20 cc.)
3.4. Ethanol (1 liter)
3.5 Virgin coconut oil (250 ml.
3.6. Malungay leaves (1 kg.)
4.1 Public transport
Fefi, B. 2004. The Coconut Oil Miracle, 4th Ed., Avery,
Penguin Group (USA) Inc., New York, N. Y., USA.
Holt, DC. 2008. Scabies: Molecular Perspective and
therapeutic Implications. Future Microbiology, 3(1): 57-76.
Fahey, JW. 2005. Moringa Olefeira: A Review of the Medical
Evidence for Its Nutritional, Therapeutic, and Prophylactic
Properties. Part 1. Tree for Life Journal, 1:5.
PROTECTIVE SECURITY OPERATIONS OF THE POLICE
SECURITY AND PROTECTION GROUP: IMPLICATIONS TO
THE SECURITY AND SAFETY OF THE VIP
Jerwin P. Embolode
(Graduate Thesis: M. Sc. in Criminology major in Police
Thesis Advisor: Oscar G. Soriano, Ph.D.
This study was anchored on the vision, mission, and functions of the
Police Security and Protection Group (PSPG), a National Operational
Support Unit (NOSU) of the PNP tasked with the primary mission of
providing protective security to authorized government officials, private
individuals and visiting foreign dignitaries, physical security to key
government vital installations and assists the Presidential Security Group
(PSG) in securing the President and the members of the First Family.
The Protection and Escort Unit (PEU), which is the focus of the study,
is one of the operating units of the PSPG with the mission of providing
protective security to authorized government officials, private individuals.
Results of the study show:
Demographic-profile of police personnel assigned at the Protection
and Escort Unit, Police Security and Protection Group in terms of: 1.1) age
– the highest was 31 to 35 years of age with 296 or 34.58% while the lowest
was 21 to 25 years of age with 25 or 2.92%; 1.2) sex – 818 or 95.56% are
male while 38 or 4.44% are female; 1.3) civil status – the highest was married
with 724 or 84.58% while the lowest was widower with 13 or 1.52%; 1.4)
rank – the highest was Police Officer III with 328 or 38.32% while the lowest
was Police Inspector with 3 or 0.35%; 1.5) years in service – the highest
was 11 to 15 years in the service with 420 or 49.07% while the lowest was
1 to 5 years in the service with or 29 or 3.39%; 1.6) in-service training – the
highest was junior leadership course with 382 or 44.63% while the lowest was
officers advance course with 2 or 0.23%; and 1.7) specialized training – the
highest was VIP Security and Protection Course with 573 or 67.28% while the
lowest was Modified VIP Security and Protection Course with 16 or 1.87%.
operations of the Protection and Escort Unit, Police Security and
Protection Group in terms of: 2.1) close-in security – the overall weighted mean was 3.53 and over-all verbal description of very
effective; 2.2) convoy security – the over-all weighted mean was 3.39
and over-all verbal description of effective; 2.3) area security – the over-all
weighted mean was 3.32 and over-all verbal description of effective; 2.4)
residence/billet security – the over-all weighted mean was 3.24 and over-all verbal
description of effective; and 2.5) protective intelligence and threat assessment –
the over-all weighted mean was 3.32 and over-all verbal description of effective.
Degree of the problems met in the protective security operations
of the Protection and Escort Unit, Police Security and Protection Group in
terms of: 3.1) personnel resources – the over-all weighted mean was 2.45 and
over-all verbal description of moderately serious; 3.2) logistical requirements
– the over-all weighted mean was 2.50 and over-all verbal description of
moderately serious; 3.3) inter-agency snipping – the over-all weighted
mean was 2.38 and over-all verbal description of moderately serious; 3.4)
VIP’s cooperation – the over-all weighted mean was 2.41 and over-all verbal
description of moderately serious; and 3.5) lateral coordination – the over-all
weighted mean was 2.39 and over-all verbal description of moderately serious.
Significant relationship between the degree of the problems
met and the extent of the effectiveness of the protective security
operations of the Protection and Escort Unit, Police Security and
Protection Group show a chi-square or X2 value of 75.80, which was
lower than the critical-value of 79.08, thus not significant at 0.05 level.
Based on the above findings the following conclusions were
The mean of the age of police personnel assigned at the PEU,
PSPG was 30.5 years old, majority were male, married, with the rank of Police
Officer III, the mean of years in service was 16 years, completed the mandatory
career course commensurate to their rank, and all have attended different
specialized training in relation to the performance of its powers and functions.
personnel of the PEU, PSPG is very effective with regards to close-insecurity and effective in terms of the following: convoy security, area
security, residence/billet security, protective intelligence and threat
assessment. These are all pre-requisites in the fulfillment of the vision,
mission and of the said national operational support unit of the PNP.
personnel of the PEU, PSPG had met moderately serious problems in
terms of the following: personnel resources, logistical requirements,
inter-agency snipping, VIP’s cooperation, and lateral coordination.
existence of these problems affects the performance of the mandated
powers and functions of the said national operational support unit of
the PNP but not to the extent affecting its efficiency and capability in
providing the VIP with a well-rounded protective security operation.
Based on the assessments of the different groups of respondents,
the hypothesis of no significant relationship between the degree of
the problems met and the extent of the effectiveness of the protective
security operations of the PEU, PSPG was accepted, this means that the
moderately serious problems was not relevant to the effectiveness and
efficiency of the said national operational support unit of the PNP.
The extent of the effectiveness of the protective security
operations of the PEU, PSPG despite of the moderately serious problems
met were having favorable implications to the security and safety of the VIP
and the said national operational support unit of the PNP was able to ensure
the security and safety of the persons authorized by law to given protection.
In the light of the above findings and conclusions, the following
recommendations were made:
Require police personnel assigned at the PEU,
PSPG to undergo other specialized training such as comprehensive
intelligence and investigation course, foreign schooling and the likes,
which are considered as very relevant in enhancing individual and
not only for upward
mobility but also for more effective and efficient protective security operation
activities of the unit.
Conduct of continuous and honest to goodness assessment
and evaluation of individual and/or unit performance with the purpose of
identifying threats and weaknesses on the part of the PEU, PSPG affecting the
protective security operations being undertaken by the unit and transforming
these into opportunities and strengths.
Periodic and regular consultations/conferences with the different
stakeholders and end-users of the services provided by the PEU, PSPG to
discuss problems met in the performance of mandated powers and functions
and to encouraging their cooperation in the mitigation of the problem and
eventually draw possible solutions coupled with the proper representation
addressed to the NHQ, PNP. Likewise, acquisition of the needed state-of-theart communication equipments and the activation of Tactical Operation Center
(TOC) at the Office of the Operations and Management Division are highly
recommended to monitor the movements of the deployed protective security
Establishing linkage and liaison programs with different
and other sectors of the society who may play an important role in
enhancing the protective security operations to harness and elevate the
performance of the mandated powers and functions of the PEU, PSPG.
5. Similar study be conducted in another time and setting
which will focused on the extent of the effectiveness and degree of the
problems met in the protective security operations and its implication
to the security and safety of the VIP, purposely to confirm or negate the
findings and conclusions derived in the conduct of the present study.
THE LEVEL OF AWARENESS OF THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL
POLICE-INTEGRATED TRANSFORMATION PROGRAM (PNPITP) IN MUNTINLUPA CITY: AN ASSESSMENT
Milbert A. Bicol
(Graduate Thesis: M. Sc. in Criminal Justice major in Criminology)
Thesis Advisor: Oscar G. Soriano, Ph.D.
This study was anchored on the PNP-ITP ten (10) key result
areas (KRAs) as the roadmap for lasting reforms. The PNP-ITP is now being
implemented in order to (1) resolve organizational failure; (2) perform the
mandated powers and functions; (3) improve the quality of police services;
(4) strengthen law enforcement capabilities; and (5) enhance the welfare and
benefits of police personnel and dependents. It attempted to find the level of
awareness on the Philippine National Police-Integrated Transformation
The respondents of the study were seventy (70) police personnel
assigned at Muntinlupa City Police Station, Muntinlupa City. The descriptive
method of research was employed through normative survey utilizing the
questionnaires, checklist, personal interviews, and actual observations in the
research locale of the study. The study was conducted for a period of one (1)
academic year from June 2009 to March 2010 and was limited only to the items
and specific problems in the questionnaire with emphasis on the following:
demographic-profile of respondents, level of the awareness of the PNP-ITP,
and constraint met in the awareness of the PNP-ITP.
For purposes of simplifying the conduct of the study, only two
(2) questions had been formulated in each of the KRAs of the PNP-ITP, and
relatively with the above stated problem being studied. The said questions
were designed to help the researcher made first-hand information as regards
implementation of the PNP-ITP vis-à-vis with the reforms in the police service.
The following findings were obtained: (1) the highest educational
attainment of the respondents was college graduate with 65 or 91.42%, while
the lowest were those with masters units and masters graduate with 3 or
4.29%, respectively; (2) 40 or 57.14% of the respondents were PNP Entrance
Examination Eligible while the rest were Police Inspector Examination
Eligible and Police Superintendent Examination Eligible with 1 or 1.43%,
respectively; (3) the functional assignment of the respondents was highest in
the Patrol Section with 24 or 34.28%, while lowest in the VIP Security with 2
or 2.86%; (4) 26 or 37.14% have 1-5 years in service experience while only 1
or 1.43% have 26 to 30 years; (5) career courses completed was highest in the
Public Safety Basic Recruit Course (PSBRC) with 61 or 87.14% while lowest
in the Public Safety Officers Senior Executive Course (PSOSEC) with 1 or
1.43%; (5) the weighted mean level of awareness on the PNP-ITP was 2.90
verbal description of implemented; (6) the constraint met in the awareness of the
PNP-ITP was classified as serious having an overall weighted mean of 2.79; (7)
a significant relationship between the constraints met and the level of awareness
on the PNP-ITP was found to exist - a chi-square or X2 value of 80.97, which was
higher than the critical-value of 79.08 at 0.05 level; and (8) a favorable impact
towards reforms in the police service despite the seriousness of the constraint
met by the concerned police station in the implementation of the said program.
Based on the above findings the following conclusions were drawn:
majority of respondents were college graduates, all of them were with appropriate
eligibility, most were assigned at Patrol Section, majority were in the early years
in the police service, and all have completed the required career courses required
for career and professional advancement; the PNP-ITP was internalized by the
concerned police station at their own level despite some of the shortcoming
towards the full awareness of the KRAs as embodied in the said programs geared
towards the long lasting reform in the PNP; the awareness on the PNP-ITP in
the research locale of the study was meeting serious constraints serving as an
obstacle towards the full awareness of the said program, thus jeopardizing the
accomplishment of its purpose and objectives; the hypothesis of no significant
relationship between the constraint met and the level of awareness on the
PNP-ITP, based on the assessment of respondents was rejected, the constraints
met is serving as a significant factor in the present status of the awareness on
the PNP-ITP; and the results of the study were having favorable impact toward
reforms in the police service, this is owing to the fact that the awareness on the
PNP-ITP would be able to bring about changes in the delivery of policing
activities, more particularly with the active support of the community-members.
In the light of the above findings and conclusions, it is
recommended to conduct periodic seminars on (1) leadership and management
strictly adhering on the prescribed police-to-population ratio and (2) polices
on employment and deployment, and career management program of the PNP
including effective direction and control of human and material resources. A
study to initiate information drives as regards different KRAs of the PNPITP purposely to develop clear understanding, appreciation and participation
of the officers and members of the PNP towards the full implementation
of the said program at the police station level is also recommended.
in looking for the solutions of the serious constraint met in the full
awareness of the PNP-ITP, the local police executives taking the lead, in
close coordination with other stakeholders and local government units
must also be conducted. Moreover, a study in the formulation of action
plan for subsequent implementation at the said police station taking
into consideration some modifications in the programs, projects and activities
of the different key result areas of the PNP-ITP, and which is best fitted in the
present scenario at the particular locality. Finally, a similar study be conducted
in another time and setting which will focus on level of the awareness of the
different KRAs of the PNP-ITP, more specifically at the provincial, city and
municipal levels purposely to confirm or negate the findings of the present
AN EVALUATION OF EAC CLASSROOM CHAIRS:
IMPLICATIONS TO USERS
Clement Joseph Agias, Grenelyn Bravo, Sarita Mando,
Michelle Christina Mulawin, Deanna Stephaine Mendoza
and Dexter Tenorio
(School of Physical. Occupational & Respiratory Therapy)
Thesis Advisor: Napoleon R. Caballero
The purpose of the present study was two-fold: (1) to evaluate
the classroom chairs of students at Emilio Aguinaldo College using ChairUser Pain Questionnaire (CUPQ) and (2) to determine its implications to
the students. Multiple-staged or cluster sampling was used in selecting the
40 samples equally distributed among male and female students. Of these, 20
students were chosen in classrooms with red/green chairs, AVR chairs and
brown chairs; 10 students in classroom with monobloc chairs; and 10 students
were randomly selected in each type of chair. Demographic profiles show the
mean age of the samples as 20.40 years ± 2.20 (range 17-26 years old); mean
height of 165.90 cm ± 8.41 (range 149-180 cm); and mean weight of 135.7 lbs
± 26.5 lbs (range 88-188 lbs). For comparison, the study made use of BIFMA
Guidelines as chair dimension standard.
The study found that the AVR and monobloc chairs have the greatest
number of deviations when compared to BIFMA guidelines. Majority of the
AVR users (90%) and the monobloc users (80%) claimed to have experienced
occasional dull aching pain (mean aching pain was 4/10) on low back and
buttocks area with onset of pain beyond 45 minutes during lecture class hours.
Brown chairs, however, have the least number of deviations though 60% of the
samples complained of static dull aching pain during a 3-hour lecture with
pain onset during the first 15-30 minutes. 40% of the student samples were
found to experience an occasional throbbing pain (pain scale was 6/10) during
the 3-hour lecture period with pain onset during 30-45 minutes. Findings also
show that height and weight affect comfort in the use of chairs.
Based on the findings, the researchers concluded that AVR
and monobloc chairs offer least comfort to students. It is suggested that
chairs of this type must be replaced with the other types particularly the
red/green chairs. The study recommends future researchers to conduct a
follow up research correlating height and weight and the type of chairs.
Alvin A. Ayque, DVM
Supachai A. Basit, Ph.D
Gerardo C. David, MS.
Cesar M. Mendoza Jr