SEL

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SEL
TOPICS OF THE DAY
- Basic Microscopic Anatomy
- Basic Growth & development
Berdasarkan ukuran dari bagian yang
dipelajari, anatomi dibagi menjadi :
• Anatomi makroskopik 
• Anatomi mikroskopik
( Histologi) 
• (nano)  [electron microscope]
Levels of Structural Organization
(Organisasi struktural)
• Atom
• Sel
• Jaringan
• Organ
• System Organ
• Organisme
UMUM
•
•
•
Sel  unit struktural dan fungsional dr kehidupan
KOMPONEN (Eukaryotik) : 1. Membran sel
2. Sitoplasma
3. Nucleus
FUNGSI UTAMA : - pemeliharaan
- pertumbuhan dan perkembangan
- reproduksi
1. Diferensiasi Sel
2. Komunikasi intercelluler : - langsung
- tidak langsung
3. Adhesi sel
• !!! Each cell is unique
• !!! Each tissue is unique
• !!! Each organ is unique
Gambaran &
4 Jaringan dasar :
- Epithel  menutupi
- Jaringan ikat  “mengikat”,
menghubungan, mengisi
- Otot  menggerakkan
fungsi
khusus
- Otot polos
- Otot skeletal
- Otot jantung
- Saraf  meneruskan impuls (“pesan”)
Body organs and structures contain two types
of tissues:
• The
parenchymal
tissues
contain
the
functioning cells of an organ or body part
(e.g., hepatocytes, renal tubular cells).
• The
stromal
tissues
consist
of
the
supporting connective tissues, blood vessels,
and nerve fibers
Gambaran &
fungsi khusus
- Epithel  saling melekat erat
- Jaringan ikat  sel dan serabut/matriks
- Otot  dapat berkontraksi, mengandung
filamen penggerak
- Otot polos
- Otot skeletal
- Otot jantung
- Saraf  meneruskan impuls (“pesan”)
√ Epithel

 Jaringan ikat
 Otot
 Syaraf
CIRI UMUM EPITHEL :
• dipisahkan dg jaringan di bawahnya oleh Lamina
basalis /basement membrane
• Avaskular
• melapisi pemukaan luar dan atau dalam
• selnya saling melekat satu sama lain
 dg
perangkat khusus (Intercellular Junction)
• ruang interseluler sedikit
• terdapat polarisasi
• Dapat terjadi differendiasi pada permukaan sel
 ex : microvilli, kinocilia, stereocilia.
Topografi  polarity
• Permukaan lateral (samping)
• Permukaan basal (“bawah”)
• Permukaan apikal (“atas”)
FUNGSI :
Umum : Membatasi permukaan/dalam cavitas
- TRANSPORT transeluler  difusi, karier,
vesikel
- Permeabilitas selektif  tight junction (*)
- Absorbsi  endocytosis. ex : intestin
- Sekresi  exocytosis. ex : kelenjar saliva
- Proteksi. ex : epidermis
Klasifikasi EPITHEL
• Selapis:
• Berlapis:
Epithelia Selapis
Epithel Berlapis
• Squamous
– E.g. epidermis
Human Anatomy, Larry
M. Frolich, Ph.D.
• Transitional
epithelium
– E.g. urinary structures-bladder
– Stretches from 6 cells
to 3 cells thick as
bladder fills and
expands
Kelenjar – Modifikasi dr epithel
Epithel
Cavity
Ep
A portion of an epithelium grows into the
underlying supporting connective tissue.
The downgrowth develops into a secretory
portion and a duct. This is an exocrine gland.
If the duct disappears, an extensive capillary
network collects the secretions in an ‘endocrine’
Gland (4).
1
3
2
Klj. exocrine
Klj. endokrin
4
 Epithel
√ Jaringan ikat

 Otot
 Syaraf
FUNGSI :
 Mengikat
 Membentuk kompartemen
 Penunjang
 Pelindung
 Penyimpanan
 Repair
 Transpor
• Tidak terpapar lingkungan luar secara
langsung
• Komponen dasar:
(1) specialized cells
[SELULAR]
(2) extracellular protein fibers, and
(3) a fluid known as the ground substance
KOMPONEN
( klasifikasi)
* KOMPONEN SELULER
 Sel :
 fibroblast
 Fibrocyte
 Makrofag
 Mast cell
 Plasma cell
 Adipocyte
 Sel2 derivat darah
• Fibroblast : berfungsi produksi, sekresi, dan
mempertahankan komponen matrix
extrasel. Bila inaktif  Fibrocyte
• Mast cell : berperan dlm respon inflamasi
• Sel Lemak : untuk penyimpanan lemak
• Makrofag : Fagositosis
• Sel Plasma : pembentukan Antibodi
• Sel lain derivat darah  p.u Lekosit.
(Eosinofil, Limfosit). P.u berperan dalam
sistem imun
KOMPONEN
* KOMPONEN INTERSELULER (= matrix):
Ground substace
Fungsi : Penunjang, pengikat, penyimpanan,
media, dan mencegah invasi substansi asing,
dan menahan tekanan.
Terdiri dari : Glikoprotein,
dan proteoglikan.
glikosaminoglikan,
Secara kasat mata substansi dasar ini tidak
berwarna, transparan, dan nampak seperti gel. Di
dalamnya terdispersi serabut dan sel jaringan ikat.
KOMPONEN
* KOMPONEN INTERSELULER (= matrix):
Serabut :
• Kolagen : dominan, meliputi puluhan tipe.
memberikan kekuatan/ketahanan terhadap
tarikan, membantu kekuatan & fleksibilitas.
• Elastik : tersusun atas elastin dan fibrilin.
kemampuan untuk melenting & meregang
• Reticular : lebih tipis dan membentuk jala-jala
halus, kaya akan karbohidrat
membentuk arsitektur beberapa organ &
kelenjar.
KLASIFIKASI
• Embryonal
• Adult
Adult
J.I padat teratur
J.I longgar
Jaringan ikat sejati
( connective tissue proper)
J.I padat TIDK teratur
Adipose
tissue
Ji Elastik
Cartilago
Supporting
connective tissue
osteon
Supporting connective tissue
Cartilago
-
Hyalin
Elastic
Fibrocartilage
Fungsi : kekuatan, elastisitas, dan ketahanan terhadap
tekanan.
Komponen seluler cartilago terdiri dari:
Chondroblast, Chondrocyte, chondroclast
Komponen ekstraseluler berupa serabut kolagen
(terutama Type II ) dan
substansi dasar (ground
substance).
Tdd : hylaluronic acid, proteoglycan, chondronectin dan
Chondroitin sulfat.
!!! avascular dan tidak memiliki innervasi saraf.
*** diliputi oleh jaringan ikat padat dengan vaskular 
perichondrium.
1. Cartilago Hyalin
 paling banyak ditemui dalam tubuh manusia
 Ex : permukaan sendi pada sendi gerak, dinding
saluran nafas (trachea dan bronchus), ujung
depan iga yang menempel sternum, dsb
 dibungkus oleh perichondrium
2. Cartilago Elastis
• memiliki sebaran lokasi yang lebih terbatas, yaitu di
auricula telinga, dinding liang telinga luar, sebagian
dinding Tuba Eustachii, dan Epiglottis
• lebih banyak serabut elastis yang membentuk anyaman
sehingga secara fungsional lebih mampu untuk
meregang (distensible).
3. Fibro Cartilago
 gambaran antara Jaringan ikat colagen padat dan
Kartilago Hyalin.
 Lokasinya sangat terbatas, yaitu di intervertebral disc
(annulus fibrosus) dan simfisis pubis.
 tidak memiliki perichondrium
Supporting connective tissue
osteon
Fungsi : membentuk kerangka  menegakkan tubuh,
melindungi jaringan lunak, serta tempat perlekatan otot /
tendon
Matrix Tulang
• bahan inorganik : 65% dari berat kering tulang, yang
terdiri dari calcium, phosphate, bicarbonate, citrate,
magnesium, potassium, and sodium. Kebanyakan tersusun
berupa kristal hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4).6(OH)2).
• bahan organic kurang lebih 35% dari berat bkering, yang
terutama tersusun atas kolagen tipe I (95%). Termasuk
di dalamnya ground substance yang mengandung
chondroitin sulfate dan keratan sulfate.
Sel-sel tulang
 Sel Osteoprogenitor
 Osteoblasts
 Osteocyte
 Osteoclast
 Epithel
 Jaringan ikat
√ Otot

 Syaraf
KARAKTERISTIK
Sel = berbentuk serabut
Dalam sarcoplasma terdapat contractile filament
(myofibril)
Komponen extrasel relatif sedikit
(terminologi)
* sitoplasma  sarcoplasma
* membran plasma  sarcolemma
* endoplasmic reticulum  sarcoplasmic reticulum
* mitochondria 
sarcosome
………Characteristics of Muscle
• Contractility - ability to contract (develop tension)
• Excitability (Irritability) - ability to respond to a stimulus
• Extensibility - ability to be stretched
• Elasticity - ability to recoil to normal length
Tipe otot :
• Otot bergaris (skeletal muscle)
• Otot polos (smooth muscle)
• Otot jantung (cardiac muscle)
STRUKTUR
SEL
•
Ukuran sel : P : s/d 30 mm Ф : 10 – 100 µ
•
Serabut : Silindris, panjang, tidak bercabang
•
Unique SR
•
Inti :
Lonjong,pipih,
multinucleated
tepi (di bawah sarcolemma)
Actin
Myosin
SEL :
• P : 85-100 µ,Ф : 15 µ
•
Serabut : Silindris,
panjang, bercabang
•
Inti : 1-2, ovoid, pucat,
central
• Sarcoplasma :
 >> mitokhondria &
granul2 glikogen &
pigmen lipofuscin
STRUKTUR:
Sel : - bentuk spindle, dibungkus basal lamina & serabut
retikuler
- susunan : bag.sempit menempel di bagian terlebar sel
sebelah
Inti : tengah, dpt multinuclear, bulat lonjong (ovoid)
- Sitoplasma :terdapat organella & bundel2 myofilamen
Sarcoplasmic reticulum rudimenter
MYOFILAMEN
• Filamen TIPIS
- actin & tropomyosin
- stabil, berkaitan dg dense body di membran plasma oleh
α-actinin
• Filamen TEBAL
- myosin,kurang stabil
- responsif thd stimulus
• Ratio filamen tipis : tebal = 12:1
 Epithel
 Jaringan ikat
 Otot
√ Syaraf

KLASIFIKASI
Secara STRUKTURAL : - neuron
- neuroglia
Secara ANATOMIS :- CNS (otak dan medula spinalis)
- PNS ( serabut saraf & ganglia)
Secara FUNGSIONAL : - ANS : * Parasimpatis
* Simpatis
- Somatis
FUNGSI
 penunjang struktur
 membantu nutrisi neuron
 insulasi elektrik
 memperceepat konduksi impuls sepanjang axon
 pembentukan dan transmisi impuls (pasif)
 mempertahankan kompartemen
 memonitor material yg melintas
Antara pembuluh darah
Type :
• Macroglia :
* astrocyte
* oligodendroglia Utk
• microglia
CNS
• sel ependym
# sel Schwann
Utk
# sel Satelit
PNS
Contoh :
System GIT
System CVS
terdiri dari organ2 :
terdiri dari organ2 :
 Esophagus
 Jantung
 Gaster
 Arteri
 Duodenum
 Vena
 Jejunum
 Kapiler
 Ileum
 Caecum
Contoh :
Pembuluh darah (Arteri dan
vena)
 Dilapisi jaringan epithel
selapis pipih di bagian
dalam
 Di lapisan tengah dilapisi
jaringan otot polos
 Di sisi luar terdapat
jaringan ikat longgar
 Dipersarafi oleh jaringan
saraf
Any question ???
dr.Indriati Dwi R, M.Kes
Lab. Anatomi-Histologi
FKUB
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Fertilization
Development Before Birth
Development of Male and Female Sex
Birth
Development After Birth
Fertilization
1st : Production of egg and sperm = gametogenesis  Transport gametes
sperma vs ovum
VIABILITY OF GAMETES
• the oocyte cannot be fertilized after 24 hours
and that it degenerates shortly thereafter .
• Most human sperms probably do not survive
for more than 48 hours in the female genital
tract
(1) Sperm penetration of
corona radiata
(2) Sperm binding and penetration
of the zona pellucida
(3) one sperm enters the egg 
Fuse  zygote
Acrosome reaction :
• Occurs after binding
zona pellucida(zp)
• Release of enzymes
(acrosin & trypsin
like substance )
needed to
penetrate zp.
Clinical Correlates
• Contraceptive methods :
– Barrier technique, ex : condom, diaphragm, cervical cap,
contraceptive sponges.
– Hormonal contraceptive :pills, Depo-provera, cyclofem, morningafter
– The intra uterine device(IUD).
– Vasectomy and tubal ligation
• Infertility :
= problem for 15%-30% couples :
– Males : insufficient number of sperm and/or poor motility
– Females : occluded oviduct, hostile cervical mucus,immunity
spermatozoa, absence of ovulation.
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Fertilization
Development Before Birth
Development of Male and Female Sex
Birth
Development After Birth
Development Before Birth
• developmental stages
- pre-embryonic : fertilisasi s.d menjelang implantasi
- embryonic : mulai implantasi
- fetal
pre-embryonic
zygote
embryoblast
Approximately 6 days after fertilization, the cell mass is termed a blastocyst. Human chorionic
gonadotropin now is produced in amounts that may be detected by commercial laboratories.
Pre-embyonic
developmental
stages
Inner cell mass = embryo
Outer cell mass = trophoblast
pre-embryonic
Cleavage
Cleavage is a series of mitotic
division that result in increase in
cells, blastomere, which become
smaller with each division
• Fertilization zygote  2 cell stage
mitotic divisionnumber of cells
Blastomeres
pre-embryonic
Blastocyst Formation :
• At the time morula enter the uterine cavity,
fluids penetrate through zona pellucida into
intercellular spaces of inner cell mass(icm).
Single cavity (blastocele)
• Embryo =blastocyst
• Inner cell mass = embryo
• Outer cell mass = trophoblast
pre-embryonic
Blastocyst Formation :
• Early pregnancy factor, an
immunosuppressant protein, is secreted by
the trophoblastic cells and appears in the
maternal serum within 24 to 48 hours after
fertilization
Heading to
Implantation
• Zona pellucida is covering the embryo until its
reach uterus preparation for implantation
• Four to 5 days after fertilization, the zona
pellucida is shed and the trophoblast adjacent to
the embryoblast attaches to the endometrial
epithelium.
embryoblast
Approximately 6 days after fertilization, the cell mass is termed a blastocyst. Human chorionic
gonadotropin now is produced in amounts that may be detected by commercial laboratories.
embryonic
Implantation
• = kontak fisik & fisiologis pertama; antara blastocyst
vs mucosa uterus (6th -8th day),
• 3 phase :
– Preparation of the uterus for adhesion and
implantation
– Trophoblast-uterus adhesion
– Blastocyst movement into the uterus (mid portion
of the posterior/anterior)
Implantation
embryonic
zona pellucide disappear →
polar trophoblast touch the endometrium→
secrete proteolytase → dissolve the endometrium →
embedded into endometrium→ coagulation plug
embryonic
HLA-G
Tcell
Th1Th2
Apoptosis
Bcell
Ab anti
HLA-G
NKcell
Inhibisi
toksisitas
Inhibisi
cytitoxic
Supresi
Eliminasi -
Resistensi
trophoblast
APC
Sekresi :
PgE2, IL-10,
TGF
Supresi
embryonic
Implantation
Clinical corellation 3
Abnormal implantation :
•Immunorejection
•Placenta praevia
•Ectopic pregnancy
Embyonic
developmental
stages
Organogenesis
2 to 2
What happened?
embryonic
embryonic
4 to 8 week of development (organogenesis)
• Differentiation of ectoderm:  CNS
• Differentiation of mesoderm:  dermis,
bone, cartilage, CT, muscles, pleura,
peritoneum and pericardium,
cardiovascular and lymph system
• Differentiation of endoderm: digestive,
respiratory and urinary system
Fetal
developmental
stages
Fetal Development
During fetal development, the fetus has a human appearance,
but refinements are still taking place.
Extraembryonic Membranes
1. Chorion. The chorion develops
into the fetal half of the placenta,
2. Yolk sac. The yolk sac has little
yolk and is the first site of blood
cell formation.
3. Allantois. The allantois blood
vessels become the umbilical
blood vessels.
4. Amnion. The amnion contains
fluid to cushion and protect the
embryo.

embryonic period lasts from approximately 2 weeks after
fertilization until 8 weeks after fertilization, THEN  FETUS
!!! Most body structures are formed during the embryonic period

Continue to grow and mature during the fetal period.
Path of Fetal Blood
embryonic
PLACENTA :
- Mulai akhir mgg I
- 100 % : akhir embryo, awal fetal
The placental membrane
• separates maternal blood from fetal blood.
• Some substances that cross can be either beneficial or harmful.
Some substances do not cross the placental membrane.
• The composition of the placental membrane changes during
pregnancy.
A. In early pregnancy, the placental membrane has four layers:
syncytiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast (Langhans cells),
connective tissue, and endothelium of fetal capillaries.
Hofbauer cells (large, sometimes pigmented, elliptical cells
found in the connective tissue), are most numerous in early
pregnancy and have characteristics similar to those of
macrophages.
B. In late pregnancy, the placental membrane has two layers: the
syncytiotrophoblast and the endothelium of fetal capillaries.
TRANSPLACENTAL DRUG TRANSFER
• Most drugs move from the maternal circulation to
the fetal circulation by diffusion.
• Drugs with molecular weights less than 500 Da
readily cross the placenta, whereas larger molecules
(600–1,000 Da) cross more slowly.
• Drugs with molecular weights greater than 1,000 Da,
such as insulin and heparin, do not cross the
placenta in significant amounts.
TRANSPLACENTAL DRUG TRANSFER
• Lipophilic drugs, such as opiates and antibiotics,
cross the placenta more easily than do water-soluble
drugs.
• Maternal plasma albumin progressively decreases
while fetal albumin increases during the course of
pregnancy, higher concentrations of certain
protein-bound drugs in the fetus.
• Fetal pH is slightly more acidic than maternal pH, 
permitting weak bases to more easily cross the
placenta.
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Fertilization
Development Before Birth
Development of Male and Female Sex
Birth
Development After Birth
• Development of Male and Female Sex
• During weeks 1–6, the embryo remains in a sexually
indifferent or undifferentiated stage.
 genetically female embryos and male embryos are
phenotypically indistinguishable.
• During week 7, the indifferent embryo begins phenotypic
sexual differentiation.
• By week 12, female or male characteristics of the external
genitalia can be recognized.
Development
of Sex organs
Phenotypic sexual
differentiation is
determined by
the SRY gene (di
kromosom Y)
The SRY gene
encodes testesdetermining
factor [TDF]
In the presence of
TDF, testosterone,
and MIF 
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Fertilization
Development Before Birth
Development of Male and Female Sex
Birth
Development After Birth
Birth
Time of birth
• The length of pregnancy is considered to be 280
days or 40 weeks after the onset of last normal
menstrual period or more accurately 266 days or
38 weeks after fertilization
• The age of embryo determined by combining data
of the onset last menstrual period with fetal
length, weight, and morphological characteristic
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Fertilization
Development Before Birth
Development of Male and Female Sex
Birth
Development After Birth
Development After Birth
life stages in humans
• Neonatus : s.d 30 hari (*)
• Bayi 1
• Batita
• Balita
• Anak
• Pubertas
• Adolescence : puberty to reproduction
• Elderly
Terminology
• Abortion:
Interruption of pregnancy before pregnancy 28 weeks with the
death of her fetus
• Perinatal period:
The period since pregnancy 28 -7 mgg days after birth.
• Neonatal period:
The period from birth until the age of 4 weeks (28 days) after birth.
• Preterm:
Babies born with a gestation <37 weeks (<259 days)
• Term:
Babies are born with a gestational age between 37-42 weeks (259293 days)
• Post-term:
Babies born with gestational age> 42 weeks (294 days)
• Low birth weight:
Babies born weighing <2500 grams. Small for gestational age (SGA)
• BBLR dapat disebabkan obat2an, a.l :
Antikonvulsan, warfarin, antagonis asam folat,
anti neoplasma
TERATOGEN
A teratogen is any infectious agent, drug, chemical, or
irradiation that alters fetal morphology or fetal function if the fetus
is exposed during a critical stage of development.
1. The resistant period (week 1 of development)  the “all-ornone” phenomenon (i.e., the conceptus will either die as a
result of the teratogen or survive unaffected).
2. The maximum susceptibility period (weeks 3–8; 18 to 60 days
postconception = embryonic period). All organ morphogenesis
occurs at this time. Teratogenic exposures may result in
structural anomalies.
3. The lowered susceptibility period (weeks 9–38; fetal period) All
organs systems have already formed;
Teratogen exposure at this period generally results in a
functional derangement of an organ system. may result in
structural anomalies.
X-drugs : absolut c.i
• Thalidomide
• Antagonis as.folat : ex:aminopterin, MTX
• Alkylating agent : ex : busulfan
• Fenitoin
• Warfarin
• Clomiphene
• Nicotine
• Alcohol
• etc
D-drugs : risky (by evidence)
 Diazepam
 Hct
 Tetra
 Fenobarbital
 As.valproat
 etc
MATERNAL PHARMACOKINETIC CHANGES
• maternal plasma volume, cardiac output, and glomerular
filtration increase by 30% to 50%, potentially lowering the
concentration of renally cleared drugs
• body fat increases during pregnancy, the volume of
distribution of fat-soluble drugs may increase
• Plasma albumin concentration decreases, which increases
the volume of distribution of drugs that are highly protein
bound. However, these unbound drugs are more rapidly
cleared by the liver and kidney during pregnancy, resulting in
little change in concentration
DILARANG MENGHITUNG JUMLAH SLIDE !
Gratias.....