new window, pdf 1 MB, accessible

Comments

Transcription

new window, pdf 1 MB, accessible
Health, Education, Social Protection
News & Notes 18/2014
A bi-weekly newsletter supported by GIZ
(Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit)
31 August 2014
You can download back issues (2010 - 2014) of this newsletter at:
http://www.health.bmz.de/en/services/newsletters/HESP_News_Notes/index.jsp
Table of Contents:
HIGHLIGHTS from Healthy DEvelopments ...................... 5
Germany’s commitment to health and social protection ......................................................... 5
Germany will pledge additional one million euros to WHO to fight Ebola virus ...................... 5
Towards The World: South African-German exchange strengthens HIV and AIDS youth
leadership ................................................................................................................................ 5
BOOKS ................................................................................ 5
World Social Protection Report 2014-15: Building economic recovery, inclusive
development and social justice ............................................................................................... 5
2014 Global Peace Index: Measuring Peace and Assessing Country Risk ........................... 5
Germany - Health System Review .......................................................................................... 6
Can Earth’s and Society’s Systems Meet the Needs of 10 Billion People?............................ 6
ONLINE PUBLICATIONS .................................................... 6
Global Health.............................................................................................................. 6
Measurement Obstacles to Achieving Value for Money at the Global Fund: A Problem
Statement ................................................................................................................................ 6
The application of systems thinking in health: why use systems thinking? ............................ 7
The GAVI Alliance and the ‘Gates approach’ to health system strengthening ....................... 7
HIV - AIDS - STI ......................................................................................................... 7
Data Watch: Closing a Persistent Gap in the AIDS Response ............................................... 7
HIV Noncommunicable Disease Comorbidities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries in the
ART era ................................................................................................................................... 8
Comprehensive HIV prevention, treatment, care and support: Good practice examples from
India......................................................................................................................................... 8
Arguments for and against HIV self-testing............................................................................. 8
A Review of the Evidence of Harm from Self-Tests ................................................................ 9
Conceptualizations of Heterosexual Anal Sex and HIV Risk in Five East African
Communities ........................................................................................................................... 9
Sexual & Reproductive Health .................................................................................... 9
Hormonal contraceptive methods for women at high risk of HIV and living with HIV ............. 9
Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Adolescent Girls Before Reported Sexual Debut.. 10
Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on
Immunization Practices (ACIP) ............................................................................................. 10
Out of the Shadows: Child marriage and slavery.................................................................. 10
Combating sexual violence in conflict: recommendations to states at the Global Summit to
End Sexual Violence in Conflict (10-13 June 2014).............................................................. 11
Scaling up male circumcision service provision: results from a randomised evaluation in
Malawi ................................................................................................................................... 11
Bridging the Gap: IEC 4 LGBTI – Handbook ........................................................................ 11
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 1
Maternal & Child Health............................................................................................ 12
Essential interventions of maternal, newborn and child health ............................................. 12
Effect of implementation of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness
programme on treatment seeking practices for morbidities in infants: cluster randomised trial
............................................................................................................................................... 12
Action plan for healthy newborn infants in the Western Pacific Region (2014-2020) ........... 13
Can traditional birth attendants be trained to accurately identify septic infants, initiate
antibiotics, and refer in a rural African setting? ..................................................................... 13
Micronutrient Supplementation and Deworming in Children with Geohelminth Infections ... 13
The Cost of Inaction for Young Children Globally: Workshop Summary .............................. 14
Global Trends in Child Marriage ........................................................................................... 14
Birth defects surveillance: Atlas of selected congenital anomalies....................................... 14
Malaria ..................................................................................................................... 15
First antimalarial treatments produced with semisynthetic artemisinin enter market............ 15
Ethics, Economics, and the Use of Primaquine to Reduce Falciparum Malaria Transmission
in Asymptomatic Populations ................................................................................................ 15
High-Throughput Ultrasensitive Molecular Techniques for Quantifying Low-Density Malaria
Parasitemias.......................................................................................................................... 15
Characterizing, controlling and eliminating residual malaria transmission ........................... 16
Increasing role of Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis in malaria transmission in
the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania ............................................................................................ 16
Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge...................... 16
Malaria control strategies in French armed forces ................................................................ 17
Tuberculosis ............................................................................................................. 17
Companion handbook to the WHO guidelines for the programmatic management of drugresistant tuberculosis............................................................................................................. 17
Preventing Tuberculosis Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Lesotho: The Case for
Rolling Out Active Case Finding and Isoniazid Preventive Therapy..................................... 17
Isoniazid plus antiretroviral therapy to prevent tuberculosis: a randomised double-blind,
placebo-controlled trial .......................................................................................................... 18
Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Network Meta-analysis................................. 18
A systematic review of missed opportunities for improving tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS
control in Sub-saharan Africa: what is still missed by health experts? ................................. 18
Tuberculosis control in the South-East Asia Region ............................................................. 19
Ebola / Other Infectious Diseases............................................................................. 19
Ebola Response Roadmap ................................................................................................... 19
WHO: Ebola Response Roadmap Situation Report 1 .......................................................... 19
Ebola Resource Centre ......................................................................................................... 20
Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of Ebola and Marburg virus disease
............................................................................................................................................... 20
Ethical considerations for use of unregistered interventions for Ebola viral disease ............ 20
Largest-Ever Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease Thrusts Experimental Therapies, Vaccines
Into Spotlight ......................................................................................................................... 21
Ebola and Marburg virus disease epidemics: preparedness, alert, control, and evaluation. 21
Ebola Outbreak on NEJM.ORG ............................................................................................ 21
Psychosocial support during an outbreak of Ebola virus disease......................................... 22
Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C ................................... 22
China’s sustained drive to eliminate neglected tropical diseases ......................................... 22
Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental
control.................................................................................................................................... 23
A Screen-and-Treat Strategy Targeting Visceral Leishmaniasis in HIV-Infected Individuals in
Endemic East African Countries: The Way Forward?........................................................... 23
Epidemiological Alert: Chikungunya and dengue fever in the Americas .............................. 23
Non-communicable Diseases ................................................................................... 24
Heart Failure Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and MetaAnalysis ................................................................................................................................. 24
Can China diminish its burden of non-communicable diseases and injuries by promoting
health in its policies, practices, and incentives?.................................................................... 24
Food & Nutrition........................................................................................................ 24
Why Worry About the Politics of Childhood Undernutrition?................................................. 24
Reducing Child Undernutrition: Past Drivers and Priorities for the Post-MDG Era............... 25
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 2
Nutrition in emergencies: Do we know what works?............................................................. 25
Essential Medicines .................................................................................................. 25
Falsified medicines in Africa: all talk, no action..................................................................... 25
WHO Drug Information Vol. 28 No. 2, 2014.......................................................................... 26
Improving Access to Essential Medicines for Mental, Neurological, and Substance Use
Disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa........................................................................................... 26
The usefulness and scientific accuracy of private sector Arabic language patient drug
information leaflets ................................................................................................................ 26
Social Protection....................................................................................................... 27
Assessing long-term impacts of conditional cash transfers on children and young adults in
rural Nicaragua...................................................................................................................... 27
Social Protection, Poverty and the Post-2015 Agenda ......................................................... 27
Social protection and growth: Research synthesis ............................................................... 27
Social protection for the elderly as a development strategy: A case study of Kenya’s old
persons cash transfer programme ........................................................................................ 28
Water, Sanitation & Hygiene..................................................................................... 28
Factors influencing knowledge and practice of hygiene in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
(WASH) programme areas of Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee ........................ 28
The Effect of India's Total Sanitation Campaign on Defecation Behaviors and Child Health in
Rural Madhya Pradesh: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.......................................... 29
Human Resources.................................................................................................... 29
The Current State of CHW Training Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: What
We Know, What We Don’t Know, and What We Need to Do ............................................... 29
Addressing the shortage of health professionals in South Africa through the development of
a new cadre of health worker: the creation of Clinical Associates ........................................ 29
Dual Practice by Health Workers in South and East Asia: Impacts and Policy Options....... 30
Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: exploring dual practice and its
management in Kampala, Uganda........................................................................................ 30
Health Systems & Research ..................................................................................... 31
Series on “Advancing the application of systems thinking in health” .................................... 31
Guidelines for HIV Mortality Measurement ........................................................................... 31
The use of continuous surveys to generate and continuously report high quality timely
maternal and newborn health data at the district level in Tanzania and Uganda ................. 31
Information & Communication Technology ............................................................... 32
Information and Communication Technologies for Women’s and Children’s Health............ 32
The Use of Smart phones in Ophthalmology ........................................................................ 32
Pan American Journal of Public Health - Special Issue on eHEALTH in the Americas........ 32
Education ................................................................................................................. 33
The Trouble with Universal Education .................................................................................. 33
Harm Reduction & Drug Use .................................................................................... 33
Early evidence about the predicted unintended consequences of standardised packaging of
tobacco products in Australia ................................................................................................ 33
E-cigarette Virtual Collection ................................................................................................. 33
Electronic nicotine delivery systems ..................................................................................... 34
Electronic Cigarettes: A Policy Statement from the American Heart Association................. 34
Development Assistance .......................................................................................... 34
What is the evidence on the impact of research on international development?.................. 34
Theories of Change in International Development: Communication, Learning, or
Accountability? ...................................................................................................................... 35
Unsafe Passage: Road attacks and their impact on humanitarian operations ..................... 35
Others ...................................................................................................................... 36
Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) 2013 Annual Report.................................................... 36
Towards Universal Eye Health: A Regional Action Plan for the Western Pacific (2014-2019)
............................................................................................................................................... 36
The Health of Older People in Selected Countries of the Western Pacific Region............... 36
ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ............................................ 37
Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program Application Programming Interface (API)
............................................................................................................................................... 37
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Vol 8, No 08: August 2014 ........................... 37
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 3
INTERESTING WEB SITES .............................................. 37
Community Health Workers (CHW) Central.......................................................................... 37
Inroads – International Network for the Reduction of Abortion discrimination and Stigma... 37
TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES............................................ 37
A Guide to Training Resources on the Internet..................................................................... 37
Executive Training: Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) in the Health Care Sector ............. 38
CONFERENCES................................................................ 38
rd
3 International One Health Congress.................................................................................. 38
CARTOON ......................................................................... 39
On Twitter… .......................................................................................................................... 39
TIPS & TRICKS ................................................................. 39
Bypass the Windows 8 Lockscreen ...................................................................................... 39
World Lens Translator ........................................................................................................... 39
Tech Speak Decoded............................................................................................................ 40
Fair Use:
This Newsletter is produced under the principles of 'fair use'. We source relevant news articles, resources and research
documents and strive to attribute sources by providing reference and/or direct links to authors and websites.
Disclaimer:
The views expressed in this newsletter, do not necessarily represent those of GIZ or the editor of HESP-News & Notes.
While we make every effort to ensure that all facts and figures quoted by authors are accurate, GIZ and the editor of the
Newsletter cannot be held responsible for any inaccuracies contained in any articles. Please contact [email protected]
if you believe that errors are contained in any article and we will investigate and provide feedback.
To subscribe for free to the newsletter send an e-mail to:
[email protected]
leave the ‘Subject’ line empty with the following commands in the body of the message:
subscribe hpn-news-notes
end
(If you have problems subscribing, send me a note ([email protected]) that you would
like to receive the newsletter).
We encourage you to share the newsletter with your friends & colleagues.
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 4
HIGHLIGHTS from Healthy DEvelopments
Germany’s commitment to health and social protection
Germany will pledge additional one million euros to WHO to fight Ebola virus
Towards The World: South African-German exchange strengthens HIV and
AIDS youth leadership
More at: http://health.bmz.de/
BOOKS
World Social Protection Report 2014-15: Building economic recovery, inclusive development and social justice
by Isabel Ortiz, Krzysztof Hagemejer, Anne Drouin et al.
International Labour Organization (ILO), 2014
364 pp. 18.8 MB(!):
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/--dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_245201.pdf
This ILO flagship report provides a global overview of the organization of social protection systems, their coverage and benefits, as well as public expenditures on social pr otection. The report follows a life-cycle approach, starting with social protection for children, followed by schemes for women and men in working age, and closing with pensions and other support for older persons. It also assesses progress towards universal
coverage in health. The report further analyses trends and recent policies, such as the
negative impacts of fiscal consolidation and adjustment measures, and urgently calls to
expand social protection for crisis recovery, inclusive development and social justice.
***
2014 Global Peace Index: Measuring Peace and Assessing Country Risk
Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP), 2014
110 pp. 9.4 MB:
http://www.visionofhumanity.org/sites/default/files/2014%20Globa
l%20Peace%20Index%20REPORT.pdf
We are living in the most peaceful century in human history; however
the 2014 Global Peace Index (GPI) shows that the last seven years has shown a not able deterioration in levels of peace. This is the eighth edition of the GPI, which ranks n ations according to their level of peace. The Index is composed of 22 qualitative and
quantitative indicators from highly respected sources and ranks 162 independent states,
covering 99.6 percent of the world’s population. The index gauges global peace using
three broad themes: the level of safety and security in society; the extent of domestic or
international conflict; and the degree of militarisation.
***
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 5
Germany - Health System Review
by Reinhard Busse and Miriam Blümel
The European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, 2014
331 pp. 3.1 MB:
http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/255932/HiTGermany.pdf?ua=1
Today the German health care system has a generous benefit basket, one of the highest levels of capacity as well as modest cost-sharing. Expenditure per capita is high and
access is good. However, the system also shows areas in need of improvement when
compared to other countries and has low satisfaction figures with the health system in
general and issues around quality of care, if the outcomes of individual illnesses are a nalysed. This new health system review (HiT) on Germany examines changes and r eforms that have taken place and discusses challenges for the new government that
came to power at the end of 2013.
***
Can Earth’s and Society’s Systems Meet the Needs of 10 Billion People?
Summary of a Workshop
by Maureen Mellody
The National Academies Press, 2014
103 pp. 1.5 MB:
http://download.nap.edu/cart/download.cgi?&record_id=18817
The Earth’s population, currently 7.2 billion, is expected to rise at a rapid rate over the
next 40 years. Current projections state that the Earth will need to support 9.6 billion
people by the year 2050, a figure that climbs to nearly 11 billion by the year 2100. At the
same time, most people envision a future Earth with a greater average standard of living
than we currently have - and, as a result, greater consumption of our planetary resources. How do we prepare our planet for a future population of 10 billion? How can
this population growth be achieved in a manner that is sustainable from an economic,
social, and environmental perspective?
ONLINE PUBLICATIONS
Global Health
Measurement Obstacles to Achieving Value for Money at the Global Fund:
A Problem Statement
by Rachel Silverman and Amanda Glassman
Center for Global Development, October 2013
24 pp. 822 kB:
http://www.cgdev.org/sites/default/files/Measurement%20Obstacles%20to%20Ac
hieving%20Value%20for%20Money%20at%20the%20Global%20Fund_0.pdf
The Global Fund’s New Funding Model (NFM) includes a focus on strengthened mea surement and an impact-based investment strategy. The authors first consider the inherent measurement challenges faced by programs to address HIV, tuberculosis, and m aHESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 6
laria, including those that arise from the competing demands for data by a broad range
of constituencies. Next, they attempt to define a clear problem statement by outlining the
Global Fund’s heavy reliance on data and measurement as core components of its
business model, while identifying critical deficiencies in the Global Fund’s historical system of measurement. Finally, they situate the Global Fund within different perspectives
on how measurement in health financing should operate, including the benefits and lim itations of each vision.
***
The application of systems thinking in health: why use systems thinking?
by David H Peters - Health Research Policy and Systems 2014, 12:51 (26 August 2014)
6 pp. 185 kB:
http://www.health-policy-systems.com/content/pdf/1478-4505-12-51.pdf
This paper explores the question of what systems thinking adds to the field of global
health. Observing that elements of systems thinking are already common in public
health research, the article discusses which of the large body of theories, methods, and
tools associated with systems thinking are more useful. The paper reviews the origins of
systems thinking, describing a range of the theories, methods, and tools.
***
The GAVI Alliance and the ‘Gates approach’ to health system strengthening
by Katerini T. Storengab
Global Public Health - Published online: 26 August 2014
17 pp. 180 kB:
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/17441692.2014.940362
Lauded for getting specific health issues onto national and international agendas and for
their potential to improve value for money and outcomes, public-private global health initiatives (GHIs) have come to dominate global health governance. Yet, they have also
been criticised for their negative impact on country health systems. This article critically
analyses this development through an ethnographic case study of the GAVI Alliance,
which funds vaccines in poor countries. Despite GAVI's self-proclaimed ‘single-minded’
focus on vaccines, health system strengthening (HSS) support is fronted as a key pri nciple of GAVI's mission. GAVI's HSS support has become emblematic of the so-called
‘Gates approach’ to global health, focused on targeted technical solutions with clear,
measurable outcomes.
HIV - AIDS - STI
Data Watch: Closing a Persistent Gap in the AIDS Response
American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR) and AIDS Vaccine
Advocacy Coalition (AVAC), 2014
22 pp. 337 kB:
http://www.avac.org/sites/default/files/resourcefiles/DataWatchAugust2014.pdf
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 7
The report outlines the need for a new approach to tracking data to guide the key decisions that shape the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Critical and expensive dec isions made with incomplete data are undermining the response - even as the systems
for collecting this data continue to improve. The report outlines corrective steps to sustain and expand the progress made in the past few years in the AIDS response and lays
out key areas where better, more complete data is needed.
***
HIV Noncommunicable Disease Comorbidities in Low- and Middle-Income
Countries in the ART era
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (JAIDS), September 1, 2014, Vol. 67 - Supplement 1, pp. S1-S103
Free access to all articles at:
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/toc/2014/09011
Identification of effective treatments for HIV and expanded access to antiretroviral therapy has now resulted in a new global health challenge: increased noncommunicable
disease (NCD) comorbidities in those living and aging with HIV/ AIDS. The articles in
this supplement articulate an agenda from which we can begin to address the spectrum
of research, training, effective implementation, and evidence-based policy needed to
confront this new challenge.
***
Comprehensive HIV prevention, treatment, care and support: Good practice examples from India
by Nina Urwantzoff, Ellen Schmitt and Piet Reijer
MISEREOR – The German Catholic Bishops’ Organization for Development Cooperation, 2014
36 pp. 2.5 MB:
http://www.misereor.org/fileadmin/redaktion/Misereor_Comprehensi
ve_HIV-Prevention_Treatment_and_Care_Good_Practice_Examples.pdf
The document gives an overview of the HIV epidemic in India and efforts to organise
HIV prevention, and treatment, care and support for people living with HIV, focusing on
centres that provide medical and community care. It highlights the work of three community care centres (two in Andhra Pradesh and one in Tamil Nadu) which are me mbers of the Catholic Health Association of India and supported by Misereor. For each of
these centres, it describes the history and current activities, illustrated by stories of the
centre’s staff and the patients who benefit from their services. The document concludes
by identifying some key aspects that have led to the centres’ success.
***
Arguments for and against HIV self-testing
by Brian R Wood, Carl Ballenger, Joanne D Stekler
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care, August 2014, Vol. 2014:6 pp. 117-126
10 pp. 272 kB:
http://www.dovepress.com/getfile.php?fileID=21038
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 8
Approximately 60% of human immunodef iciency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are unaware of their infection, and stigma and discrimination continue to threaten acceptance
of HIV testing services worldwide. Self-testing for HIV has garnered controversy for
years and the debate reignited with the approval of a point-of-care test for over-thecounter sale in the US in 2012. Here, the authors present arguments for and against
HIV self-testing.
***
A Review of the Evidence of Harm from Self-Tests
by Annette N. Brown, Eric W. Djimeu, Drew B. Cameron
AIDS Behav (2014) 18:S445-S449 - Published online: 3 July 2014
5 pp. 272 kB:
http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10461-014-0831-y.pdf
Although HIV self-testing may overcome some barriers to HIV testing, various stakeholders have expressed concerns that HIV self-testing may lead to unintended harm, including psychological, social and medical harm. The paper reviews the literature on a
set of self-tests that share some characteristics with HIV self-tests to determine whether
there is any evidence of harm. The authors conclude that although the potential for
harm is discussed in the literature on self-tests, there is very little evidence that such
harm occurs.
***
Conceptualizations of Heterosexual Anal Sex and HIV Risk in Five East African Communities
by Zoe Duby & Christopher Colvin
The Journal of Sex Research, 0(0), 1–11, 10 March 2014
11 pp. 155 kB:
http://www.rectalmicrobicides.org/docs/Duby%20&%20Colvin%202014.pdf
Heterosexual anal sex is under-researched and little understood, particularly in the African context. The findings suggest that penile-anal sex is practiced by men and women
in Africa for a range of reasons, including virginity maintenance, contraception, fulfil lment of male pleasure, relationship security, menstruation, in the presence of vaginal
complications, financial gain, fidelity, and prestige. Despite anal sex being the most efficient way to transmit HIV sexually, there is widespread lack of knowledge about its risks.
In light of its frequency and risks, greater attention must be paid to heterosexual anal
sex in Africa to ensure a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention.
Sexual & Reproductive Health
Hormonal contraceptive methods for women at high risk of HIV and living
with HIV
Guidance statement - Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, 2014
16 pp. 549 kB:
http://www.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/128537/1/WHO_RHR_14.
24_eng.pdf
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 9
For Annex 1-5 to the guidance see:
http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/HC_and_HIV_2014/en/
In March 2014 WHO convened a meeting of the Guideline Development Group (GDG)
for the purpose of reviewing, and where appropriate, revising its Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, fourth edition (MEC) guidance. Recommendations concerning
the use of hormonal contraceptive methods by women at high risk of HIV and women
living with HIV, including women taking antiretroviral therapy (ART), were among the
many topics reviewed at this meeting. Given the public health importance of this topic,
and at the encouragement of the GDG, the World Health Organization is issuing its contraceptive eligibility guidance for women at high risk of HIV and women living with HIV,
in advance of the entire guideline revision.
***
Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Adolescent Girls Before Reported
Sexual Debut
by Catherine F. Houlihan, Silvia de Sanjosé, Kathy Baisley et al.
J Infect Dis. September 15, 2014 210 (6): 837-845
9 pp. 345 kB:
http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/210/6/837.full.pdf+html
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are recommended for girls prior to sexual debut
because they are most effective if administered before girls acquire HPV. The authors
enrolled girls aged 15–16 years who reported not having passed sexual debut. This cohort of adolescent Tanzanian girls had a high HPV prevalence prior to self-reported
sexual debut, and this was associated with intravaginal cleansing. This most likely r eflects underreporting of sexual activity, and it is possible that intravaginal cleansing is a
marker for unreported sexual debut or non-penetrative sexual behaviours.
***
Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: Recommendations of the Advisory
Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)
by Lauri E. Markowitz, Eileen F. Dunne, Mona Saraiya et al.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), August 29, 2014/63;
1-30
36 pp. 776 kB:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr6305.pdf
Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types can cause cervical cancer in women as well as other anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers in women
and men. HPV also causes genital warts. This report summarizes the epidemiology of
HPV and associated diseases, describes the licensed HPV vaccines, provides updated
data from clinical trials and post-licensure safety studies, and compiles recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for use of HPV
vaccines.
***
Out of the Shadows: Child marriage and slavery
by Catherine Turner - Anti-Slavery International, April 2013
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 10
50 pp. 793 kB:
http://www.antislavery.org/includes/documents/cm_docs/2013/c/c
hild_marriage_final.pdf
This report sheds light on the striking links between slavery and slaverylike practices and many child marriages. Based on a thorough analysis
of the most relevant UN and International Labour Organization (ILO)
standards, and the wealth of material already available on the subject of
child marriage, this report presents how many of these real-life incidents, in fact, amount
to slavery and slavery-like practices under international law.
***
Combating sexual violence in conflict: recommendations to states at the
Global Summit to End Sexual Violence in Conflict (10-13 June 2014)
Amnesty International Publications, May 2014
24 pp. 455 kB:
http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/IOR53/006/2014/en/621b
b5a4-b0b0-41c6-98cc-33ffdce90c3b/ior530062014en.pdf
What can states do to end sexual violence in conflict? In the run up to
the 2014 Global Summit to End Sexual Violence in Conflict, Amnesty International made
a series of recommendations to the 150+ nation states represented at the summit.
These recommendations are intended to assist states to develop practical outcomes for
the prevention and punishment of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) crimes
committed during conflicts, the provision of reparations and support to survivors, and to
address the lack of women’s participation in peace building and related processes.
***
Scaling up male circumcision service provision: results from a randomised
evaluation in Malawi
by Rebecca Thornton, Susan Godlonton, Jobiba Chinkhumba et al.
International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, July 2014
66 pp. 8.6 MB:
http://www.3ieimpact.org/media/filer_public/2014/07/23/ie_13scaling_up_male_circumcision_malawi-final.pdf
This publication analyses the impact of price and information on voluntary medical male
circumcision in Malawi. Findings show that the overall up take was low. Price and information were still barriers. However, the main barriers to male circumcision – cultural
norms and fear of pain – were not affected by price or information. Qualitative research
on male decision-making on circumcision showed that social networks play an important
role. Significant demand-generation efforts are needed for this HIV prevention strategy
to be effective.
***
Bridging the Gap: IEC 4 LGBTI – Handbook
A Handbook to Support Strengthening of Organisational Capacity in Developing Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Materials for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual,
Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) People in Southern Africa
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 11
by Mary Leakey, Rouzeh Eghtessadi, Juliet Mkaronda et al.
Southern African AIDS Information and Dissemination Service (SAfAIDS), 2014
48 pp. 688 kB:
http://catalogue.safaids.net/sites/default/files/publications/Bridgin
gTheGap_IEC4LGBTI_Handbook_300813%20(3).pdf
This Handbook has been developed to support organisations working with lesbian, gay,
bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people in southern Africa to develop effe ctive information, education and communication (IEC) materials with a focus on HIV,
sexual and reproductive health (SRH), and broader health issues.
Maternal & Child Health
Essential interventions of maternal, newborn and child health
Reproductive Health, Vol. 11, Supplement 1, (21 August 2014)
http://www.reproductive-health-journal.com/supplements/11/S1
In this supplement of five papers, the authors aim to systematically assess and summarize essential interventions for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health from
relevant systematic reviews. The introductory paper details the background and met hodology used for grading interventions. The following three papers summarize the evidence on essential interventions for pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, childbirth, postnatal
(mother and neonatal) and child health while the last paper describes the essential i nterventions as per the level of health care delivery and their proposed packages of care.
***
Effect of implementation of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness programme on treatment seeking practices for morbidities in
infants: cluster randomised trial
by Sarmila Mazumder, Sunita Taneja, Rajiv Bahl et al.
BMJ 2014; 349:g4988 (Published 29 August 2014)
15 pp. 2.1 MB:
http://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/349/bmj.g4988.full.pdf
The authors evaluated the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness
strategy in a cluster randomised trial and found that it resulted in a reduction in infant
mortality by 15% and in neonatal mortality beyond the first 24 hours by 14%. They conclude that implementation of the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness programme was associated with timely treatment seeking from appropriate providers and reduced morbidity, a likely explanation for the reduction in mortality observed
following implementation of the programme in this study.
***
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 12
Action plan for healthy newborn infants in the Western Pacific Region
(2014-2020)
World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia and
UNICEF, 2014
48 pp. 1.6 MB:
http://www.wpro.who.int/publications/regional_action_plan_newb
orn_infants.pdf?ua=1
This Regional Action Plan identifies bold steps that can be taken to provide all newborn
infants with a set of appropriate health-care interventions. WHO Western Pacific Region
and UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Region are committed to supporting national action
based on the Regional Action Plan. It shows how governments, United Nations age ncies, and other stakeholders can contribute to a healthy start for every newborn infant in
the Region.
***
Can traditional birth attendants be trained to accurately identify septic infants, initiate antibiotics, and refer in a rural African setting?
by Christopher John Gill, William B MacLeod, Grace Phiri-Mazala et al.
Glob Health Sci Pract 2014;2(3):318-327.
10 pp. 481 kB:
http://www.ghspjournal.org/content/2/3/318.full.pdf#page=1&view=FitH
Despite having limited training, TBAs were able to accurately identify
critically ill neonates, initiate treatment in the field, and refer for further care. Given their
proximity to the mother/infant pair, and their role in rural communities, training and
equipping TBAs in this role could be effective in reducing neonatal mortality.
***
Micronutrient Supplementation and Deworming in Children with Geohelminth Infections
by Selvi Rajagopal, Peter J. Hotez, Donald A. P. Bundy
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8(8): e2920 (August 07, 2014)
3 pp. 180 kB:
http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2
Fjournal.pntd.0002920&representation=PDF
Soil-transmitted helminth (also known as “geohelminth”) infections are among the most
common chronic infections worldwide. In this paper the authors focus on iron and vit amin A deficiencies, two major micronutrient deficits which have been causally linked to
geohelminthiases. They specifically explore the relative benefits of vitamin A supplementation for children with ascariasis infection and iron supplementation for children
with trichuriasis and hookworm infections, with and without deworming, and consider
whether there are circumstances in which deworming programs should be complemented by micronutrient programs.
***
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 13
The Cost of Inaction for Young Children Globally: Workshop Summary
by Kimber Bogard and Maureen Mellody
Institute of Medicine (IOM), National Research Council, 2014
109 pp. 1.5 MB:
http://download.nap.edu/cart/download.cgi?&record_id=18845
The publication is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of
Medicine Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally in April 2014 to focus on investments in young children and the cost of inaction. Participants explored existing,
new, and innovative science and research from around the world to translate this evidence into sound and strategic investments in policies and practices that will make a difference in the lives of children and their caregivers. This report discusses intersections
across health, education, nutrition, living conditions, and social protection and how investments of economic, natural, social, and other resources can sustain or promote early childhood development and well-being.
***
Global Trends in Child Marriage
by Minh Cong Nguyen and Quentin Wodon
World Bank, August 6, 2012
15 pp. 287 kB:
http://www.ungei.org/files/Child_Marriage_Trends3.pdf
Child marriage has various negative impacts on the education, health, and psychological wellbeing of the girls who marry early. These negative impacts explain why, in many
countries, child marriage has been prohibited by law, but often with little practical effect.
Building on results from literature on poverty measurement, this paper provides new estimates of child marriage trends globally, aiming to take a more precise and complete
measurement approach than has been taken previously. The results suggest that, while
the incidence of child marriage, as well as the child marriage gap and the squared child
marriage gap, have all been reduced over time, this has taken place relatively slowly.
***
Birth defects surveillance: Atlas of selected congenital anomalies
World Health Organization (WHO), National Center on Birth Defects
and Developmental Disabilities from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), International Clearinghouse for
Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR), 2014
38 pp. 2.3 MB:
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/127941/1/978924156476
2_eng.pdf?ua=1
This Atlas of selected congenital anomalies is a companion tool to “Birth defects surveillance: a manual for programme managers”, and is intended to help in the development,
implementation and ongoing improvement of a surveillance programme for congenital
anomalies, particularly in countries with limited human and financial resources. It pr ovides selected illustrations and photographs of congenital anomalies that are severe
enough to have a high probability of being captured during the first few days following
birth.
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 14
Malaria
First antimalarial treatments produced with semisynthetic artemisinin enter
market
Read online at: http://www.path.org/news/post.php?i=685
Sanofi and PATH announced the delivery of the first large-scale batches of antimalarial
treatments manufactured with a new semisynthetic artemisinin derivative to malariaendemic countries in Africa. The shipment signals a new era of lifesaving drugs made
with safe, high-quality, and affordable artemisinin that is non-seasonal. By complementing botanically derived supplies, the new option can widen access to treatment for mi llions sickened by malaria every year - most of them young children in African countries.
***
Ethics, Economics, and the Use of Primaquine to Reduce Falciparum Malaria Transmission in Asymptomatic Populations
by Yoel Lubell, Lisa White, Sheila Varadan et al.
PLoS Med 11(8): e1001704 (August 19, 2014)
4 pp. 190 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.13
71%2Fjournal.pmed.1001704&representation=PDF
Primaquine is the only licenced antimalarial that kills mature Plasmodium falciparum
gametocytes, but it is associated with a dose-dependent risk of haemolysis in G6PDdeficient individuals. The authors discuss ethical and economic considerations pertaining to mass primaquine administration in malaria elimination programmes, which go b eyond those encountered in other public health interventions. These include the lower direct benefit for individuals at higher risk, the increasingly available diagnostic tests for
G6PD deficiency, and the economic implications of testing.
***
High-Throughput Ultrasensitive Molecular Techniques for Quantifying
Low-Density Malaria Parasitemias
by Mallika Imwong, Sarun Hanchana, Benoit Malleret
J. Clin. Microbiol. September 2014, Vol. 52, No. 9 3303-3309
4 pp. 554 kB:
http://jcm.asm.org/content/52/9/3303.full.pdf#page=1&view=FitH
The epidemiology of malaria in “low-transmission” areas has been underestimated. Molecular detection methods have revealed higher prevalence of malaria than conventional
microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, but these typically evaluate finger-prick capillary
blood samples (∼5 μl) and therefore cannot detect parasite densities of <200/ml. A very
sensitive and specific high-throughput high-volume quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for
the detection of low-density parasitemias (>20 parasites/ml) was developed, described
and validated.
***
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 15
Characterizing, controlling and eliminating residual malaria transmission
by Gerry F Killeen
Malaria Journal 2014, 13:330 (23 August 2014)
44 pp. 9.8 MB:
http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-13-330.pdf
Residual malaria transmission is defined as all forms of transmission that can persist after achieving full universal coverage with effective long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs)
and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS) containing active ingredients to which local vector
populations are fully susceptible. In order to eliminate malaria from most endemic regions of the tropics, concerted investment is required, not only to sustain and consolidate recent gains with LLINs and IRS, but also to select, develop and rigorously eval uate supplementary vector control strategies that address residual transmission by deliberately targeting the mosquito behaviours which enable it. A very wide diversity of novel
or improved strategies for controlling vectors of residual transmission is now emerging.
***
Increasing role of Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis in malaria
transmission in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania
by Dickson W Lwetoijera, Caroline Harris, Samson S Kiware et al.
Malaria Journal 2014, 13:331 (24 August 2014)
22 pp. 1.4 MB:
http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-13-331.pdf
This longitudinal study demonstrates the trends in malaria vector dynamics and their
relative contribution to malaria transmission in hyperendemic transmission settings in
Tanzania. The results indicate the continuing role of An. arabiensis and the increasing
importance of An. funestus in malaria transmission, and pyrethroid resistance development in both species. Complementary vector control and surveillance tools are needed
that target the ecology, behaviour and insecticide resistance management of these ve ctor species, in order to preserve the efficacy of long-lasting, insecticidal nets.
***
Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge
by Joaniter Nankabirwa, Simon J. Brooker, Sian E. Clarke et al.
Tropical Medicine & International Health - Article first published online: 21
August 2014
16 pp. 696 kB:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tmi.12374/pdf
School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special
measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the
level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus,
it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence
of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously
highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 16
the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in Afr ican school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects
school performance is reviewed.
***
Malaria control strategies in French armed forces
by R. Migliani, B. Pradines, R. Michel et al.
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, Vol. 12, Issue 4, July–August
2014, pp. 307-317
11 pp. 1.2 MB:
http://www.malarianexus.com/_common/updateable/files/articles/635441656624998862.pdf
Each year, 40,000 French soldiers deploy or travel through malaria-endemic areas. This
article describes the malaria control strategy in French armed forces which is based on
three combined strategies: i) Anopheles vector control to prevent infection with the implementation of personal protection against vectors (PPAV) adapted to the field living
conditions of the troops. ii) Chemoprophylaxis (CP) to prevent the disease based on
prescription of effective and well tolerated doxycycline. iii) Management of cases
through early diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent death. These measures
are associated with constant education of the military, epidemiological surveillance of
malaria cases and monitoring of parasite chemosensitivity.
Tuberculosis
Companion handbook to the WHO guidelines for the programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis
by Ernesto Jaramillo, Karin Weyer, Mario Raviglione et al.
World Health Organization, August 2014
420 pp. 2.3 MB:
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/130918/1/9789241548809_
eng.pdf
National TB programme managers, clinicians, nurses, all care providers and affected
people themselves need guidance on how best to bring together different elements of
health systems and services needed to effectively address the Multidrug-resistant TB
(MDR-TB) challenge. To facilitate this, WHO launched a Handbook that has been developed for the purpose of describing ways to implement established WHO policies re levant for the management of MDR-TB. This Handbook should be seen as an implementation guide that requires adaptation in the local context without departing from WHO’s
general policy guidance.
***
Preventing Tuberculosis Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Lesotho:
The Case for Rolling Out Active Case Finding and Isoniazid Preventive
Therapy
by Appolinaire Tiam, Rhoderick Machekano, Celine R.Gounder et al.
JAIDS - Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: 1 September 2014, Vol.
67, Issue 1, pp. e5-e11
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 17
7 pp. 281 kB:
http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/jaids/2014/09010/Preventing_Tuber
culosis_Among_HIV_Infected.18.pdf
The Lesotho Ministry of Health issued guidelines on active case finding
(ACF) for tuberculosis (TB) and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in
April 2011. ACF has been recommended in maternal and child health
(MCH) settings globally, however, the feasibility of implementing IPT
within MCH in countries with high concurrent HIV and TB epidemics is unknown. The
authors conclude that implementation of ACF and IPT is feasible within the MCH setting.
Uptake of IPT during pregnancy among HIV-positive women was high, but with a high
rate of loss to follow-up.
***
Isoniazid plus antiretroviral therapy to prevent tuberculosis: a randomised
double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
by Molebogeng X Rangaka, Robert J Wilkinson, Andrew Boulle et al.
The Lancet, Vol. 384, Issue 9944, pp. 682-690, 23 August 2014
9 pp. 619 kB:
http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS01406736
14601628.pdf
Antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk of tuberculosis, but tuberculosis is more common
in people with HIV than in people without HIV. The authors aimed to assess the effect of
isoniazid preventive therapy on the risk of tuberculosis in people infected with HIV-1
concurrently receiving antiretroviral therapy. They conclude that isoniazid preventive
therapy should be recommended to all patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in moderate or high incidence areas irrespective of tuberculin skin test or interferon gamma r elease assay status.
***
Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Network Meta-analysis
by Helen R. Stagg, Dominik Zenner, Ross J. Harris et al.
Ann Intern Med. - Published online 12 August 2014
11 pp. 177 kB:
http://annals.org/data/Journals/AIM/0/0000605-201409160-00903.pdf
Effective treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important component of
tuberculosis (TB) elimination programs. Promising new regimens that may be more effective are being introduced. Comparison of different LTBI treatment regimens showed
that therapies containing rifamycin for 3 months or more were efficacious at preventing
active TB, potentially more so than isoniazid alone. Regimens containing rifamycin may
be effective alternatives to isoniazid monotherapy.
***
A systematic review of missed opportunities for improving tuberculosis
and HIV/AIDS control in Sub-saharan Africa: what is still missed by health
experts?
Basile Keugoung, Florent Ymele Fouelifack, Richard Fotsing et al.
The Pan African Medical Journal, 2014;18:320 (21 August 2014)
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 18
Read online at: http://www.panafrican-med-journal.com/content/article/18/320/full/
Many opportunities for improving TB and HIV/AIDS prevention and care are not seized
by patients, populations, communities, health professionals, and managers of general
health services and of vertical programmes. Missing such opportunities reduces prevention, early detection and treatment of TB and HIV/AIDS, and thus undermines the control of both diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. However, what is still missing in the analysis
of health experts is the identification of health system strengthening's missed opportun ities as a leading factor undermining disease control in sub-Saharan Africa. Studying
why these opportunities are missed will help to understand the rationales behind the
missed opportunities, and customize effective strategies for seizing them.
***
Tuberculosis control in the South-East Asia Region
World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2014
198 pp. 8.6 MB:
http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/annual_tb_report_2014.pdf
The WHO South-East Asia Region continues to make significant contribution to the global efforts towards the elimination of tuberculosis (TB). National TB co ntrol and national AIDS control programmes in most countries in the Region are jointly
implementing a comprehensive package of interventions against this problem. This is
helping them cover an estimated over 1500 million people. While much has indeed been
achieved, the national TB control programmes continue to face a number of challenges.
To enable universal access and continue scaling-up of critical interventions, there is an
urgent need to sustain current financial commitments and to advocate for additional financial resources.
Ebola / Other Infectious Diseases
Ebola Response Roadmap
World Health Organization, 28 August 2014
27 pp. 694 kB:
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/131596/1/EbolaResponseRoadmap.pdf
The aim of the roadmap is to stop ongoing Ebola transmission worldwide within 6-9
months, while rapidly managing the consequences of any further international spread. It
also recognizes the need to address, in parallel, the outbreak’s broader socioeconomic
impact. It will serve as a framework for updating detailed operational plans. Priority is
being given to needs for treatment and management centres, social mobilization, and
safe burials.
***
WHO: Ebola Response Roadmap Situation Report 1
World Health Organization, 29 August 2014
7 pp. 1.1 MB:
http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/WHO%20Ebola%20Respons
e%20Roadmap%20Situation%20Report%201.pdf
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 19
This is the first in a series of regular updates on the Ebola Response Roadmap. The
update contains a review of the epidemiological situation and response monitoring. This
first update provides a baseline against which progress on the full implementation of the
roadmap can be measured against core Roadmap indicators over time. Additional ind icators will be reported as data are consolidated.
***
Ebola Resource Centre
http://ebola.thelancet.com/
The current outbreak of Ebola in west Africa constitutes the largest and most complex to
date. Declared a public health emergency of international concern by WHO, the outbreak of a disease with no known treatment or vaccination is proving difficult to contain
given the already fragile and under resourced health systems in the affected areas. The
Lancet wishes to assist health workers and researchers working under difficult and dangerous conditions to bring this outbreak to a close. This Ebola hub contains all related
resources from The Lancet family of journals offered with free access to support their vital work.
***
Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of Ebola and
Marburg virus disease
http://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-pathogenesisand-clinical-manifestations-of-ebola-and-marburg-virus-disease
The natural history, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations of Marburg and Ebola
infections will be presented here. The diagnosis and treatment of these infections and a
general approach to diseases acquired in this geographic region are discussed elsewhere. (See "Diagnosis and treatment of Ebola and Marburg virus disease" and
"Diseases potentially acquired by travel to sub-Saharan Africa".)
***
Ethical considerations for use of unregistered interventions for Ebola viral
disease
Report of an advisory panel to WHO
World Health Organization, 17 August 2014
12 pp. 301 kB:
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/130997/1/WHO_HIS_KER_GHE_14.1_en
g.pdf?ua=1&ua=1
West Africa is experiencing the largest, most severe, most complex outbreak of Ebola
virus disease in history. On 11 August 2014, WHO convened a consultation where the
participants concluded that in the particular context of the current Ebola outbreak in
West Africa, it is ethically acceptable to offer unproven interventions that have shown
promising results in the laboratory and in animal models but have not yet been evaluated for safety and efficacy in humans as potential treatment or prevention.
***
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 20
Largest-Ever Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease Thrusts Experimental Therapies, Vaccines Into Spotlight
by Tracy Hampton
JAMA. Published online August 27, 2014
2 pp. 126 kB:
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/data/Journals/JAMA/0/jmn140074.pdf
As efforts to successfully contain the largest outbreak of Ebola
virus disease in history prove elusive, the mounting number of cases and deaths has
brought research to develop much-needed treatments and protective vaccines into the
spotlight. Although the approval process for drugs and vaccines is typically slow and d eliberate, the latest outbreak, declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) on August 8 as an international health emergency, has galvanized regulatory officials to consider proposals for providing as-yet unproven treatments under special emergency New
Drug Applications.
***
Ebola and Marburg virus disease epidemics: preparedness, alert, control,
and evaluation
INTERIM version 1.2
by Pierre Formenty, Yokouidé Allarangar, Alain Epelboin et al.
World Health Organization (WHO), August 2014
123 pp. 2.5 MB:
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/130160/1/WHO_HSE_PE
D_CED_2014.05_eng.pdf
For annexes to this document see:
http://www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/manual_EVD/en/
In order to provide health-care workers in risk areas with a working tool to combat Ebola
Virus Disease (EVD) or Marburg Virus Disease (MVD) effectively, the WHO and their
partners have produced this document. The main target audience are district-level
health-care workers (doctors, nurses, and paramedics), as well as intermediate- and
central-level health-care workers responsible for epidemic control, and International
Health Regulations (IHR) National Focal Points (NFPs). The objective of this document
is to describe preparedness, prevention, and control measures that have been implemented successfully during previous epidemics.
***
Ebola Outbreak on NEJM.ORG
http://www.nejm.org/page/ebola-outbreak
A new page on the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease, with Perspective and research articles, an interactive map of confirmed and
suspected cases, and links to the latest updates, including clinical
reports, management guidelines, and commentary.
***
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 21
Psychosocial support during an outbreak of Ebola virus disease
Briefing note prepared by the International Federation of Red Cross
Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) Reference Centre for Psychosocial
Support, August 2014
15 pp. 699 kB:
http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/20140814Eb
ola-briefing-paper-on-psychosocial-support.pdf
This briefing note provides background knowledge on the psychosocial aspects related
to Ebola and suggests psychosocial support activities that can be implemented. The
target group is primarily psychosocial support delegates who work to support patients,
affected communities and staff and volunteers. At the same time, the messages in this
briefing note can be helpful for all staff and volunteers who are in contact with patients,
relatives and personally feel the strain of working and living during the epidemic.
***
Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C
The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), August 11, 2014
124 pp. 680 kB:
http://www.hcvguidelines.org/fullreport
The goal of the Guidance is to provide up-to-date recommendations to health care practitioners on the optimal screening, management, and treatment for adults with HCV i nfection in the United States, considering the best available evidence. The Guidance will
be updated regularly at http://www.hcvguidelines.org/full-report-view, as new data, information, and tools and treatments become available.
***
China’s sustained drive to eliminate neglected tropical diseases
by Guo-Jing Yang, Lu Liu, Hong-Ru Zhu, Sian M Griffiths, Marcel Tanner et al.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 14, Issue 9, pp. 881-892, September 2014
12 pp. 784 kB:
http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473309
914707273.pdf
Non-communicable diseases dominate the public health arena in China, yet neglected
tropical diseases (NTDs) are still widespread and create a substantial burden. The a uthors review the geographical distribution, prevalence, and epidemic characteristics of
NTDs identified in China caused by helminths, protozoa, bacteria, and viruses. They
conclude that rigorous surveillance, followed by immediate and integrated response
packages tailored to specific social and ecological systems, is essential for progress towards the elimination of NTDs in China.
***
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 22
Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on
environmental control
Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O’Donahoo et al.
Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine 2014:5 55-63 (20 August 2014)
9 pp. 310 kB:
http://www.dovepress.com/getfile.php?fileID=21271
Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical
context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps
that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host.
This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling
Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment.
***
A Screen-and-Treat Strategy Targeting Visceral Leishmaniasis in HIVInfected Individuals in Endemic East African Countries: The Way Forward?
by Johan van Griensven, Ermias Diro, Rogelio Lopez-Velez et al.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8(8): e3011 (7 August 2014)
8 pp. 226 kB:
http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2
Fjournal.pntd.0003011&representation=PDF
In the wake of the HIV epidemic, visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a disseminated protozoan
infection caused by the Leishmania donovani complex, has been re-emerging, particularly in North Ethiopia where up to 40% of patients with VL are co-infected with HIV.
Management of VL in HIV co-infection is complicated by increased drug toxicity, and
high treatment failure and relapse rates with all currently available drugs, despite initi ation of antiretroviral treatment. A screen-and-treat approach targeting latent or the early
stage of infection has successfully been implemented in other HIV-associated opportunistic infections. While conceptually attractive in the context of VL-HIV, the basic understanding and evidence underpinning such an approach is currently lacking.
***
Epidemiological Alert: Chikungunya and dengue fever in the Americas
Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), 29 A ugust 2014
8 pp. 181 kB:
http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/2014-aug-29-cha-epi-alertchik-dengue-americas.pdf
Given the continued spread of chikungunya virus in the Americas, and the start of the
period with higher dengue circulation in Central America and the Caribbean, PAHO/WHO advises Member States who have the vector mosquito of both viruses (Aedes
aegypti), to increase vector density reduction efforts, based on the Dengue Integrated
Management Strategy (Dengue-IMS), in addition to establishing and maintaining dengue and chikungunya case management capacity, and to implement effective public
communication strategies to eliminate mosquito breeding sites.
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 23
Non-communicable Diseases
Heart Failure Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Thomas Callender, Mark Woodward, Gregory Roth et al.
PLoS Med 11(8): e1001699 (12 August 2014)
41 pp. 7.7 MB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.13
71%2Fjournal.pmed.1001699&representation=PDF
Heart failure places a significant burden on patients and health systems in high-income
countries. However, information about its burden in low- and middle-income countries
(LMICs) is scant. The authors thus set out to review both published and unpublished information on the presentation, causes, management, and outcomes of heart failure in
LMICs. They conclude that the presentation, underlying causes, management, and ou tcomes of heart failure vary substantially across LMICs. On average, the use of evidence-based medications tends to be suboptimal. Better strategies for heart failure surveillance and management in LMICs are needed.
***
Can China diminish its burden of non-communicable diseases and injuries
by promoting health in its policies, practices, and incentives?
by Cheng Huang, Hai Yu, Jeffrey P Koplan
The Lancet, Vol. 384, Issue 9945, pp. 783-792, 30 August 2014
10 pp. 110 kB:
http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673614612149.pdf
China has rapidly progressed through epidemiological and demographic transitions and
is now confronting an increasing burden from non-communicable diseases and injuries.
China could take advantage of what has been learnt about prevention and control of
non-communicable diseases and injuries to improve individual and population health.
Implementation of these strategies could allow China to exceed the incremental gains in
decreasing non-communicable diseases and injury burdens of high-income countries,
and greatly shorten the interval needed to achieve decreased morbidity and mortality in
its population. With the lessons learnt from other countries and its own programmes and
policies, China could provide a health model for the world.
Food & Nutrition
Why Worry About the Politics of Childhood Undernutrition?
by Nicholas Nisbetta, Stuart Gillespieb, Lawrence Haddad et al.
World Development, Vol. 64, December 2014, pp. 420-433
14 pp. 1.8 MB:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X1400
1776/pdf?md5=3121bfd16207b254ed3b722243157e58&pid=1-s2.0S0305750X14001776-main.pdf
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 24
Undernutrition affects over 2 billion people; but most of the global policy focus has been
on technical solutions rather than an understanding of nutrition politics. This paper r eviews existing literature on nutrition politics and policy. The authors identify a number of
recurring themes surrounding knowledge, politics, and capacities. While the literature on
nutrition politics and policy is growing, they demonstrate how there are a number of
gaps in our understanding that might be addressed from wider development scholarship
on politics and related issues such as power and the state, participation, and account ability.
***
Reducing Child Undernutrition: Past Drivers and Priorities for the PostMDG Era
by Lisa Smith and Lawrence Haddad
Institute of Development Studies (IDS),April 2014
47 pp. 1.3 MB:
http://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789
/3816/Wp441R.pdf?sequence=4
As the post-MDG era approaches in 2016, reducing child undernutrition is gaining high
priority on the international development agenda, both as a maker and marker of deve lopment. The authors use data from 1970-2012 for 116 countries, finding that safe water
and sanitation, women’s education and empowerment, and the quantity and quality of
food available in countries have been key drivers of past reductions in stunting. Income
growth and governance played essential facilitating roles. Complementary to nutritionspecific and nutrition-sensitive programmes and policies, accelerating reductions in undernutrition in the future will require increased investment in these priority areas.
***
Nutrition in emergencies: Do we know what works?
by Patrick Webba, Erin Boyd, Saskia de Pee et al.
Food Policy 49 (2014) 33–40
8 pp. 254 kB:
http://www.cmamforum.org/Pool/Resources/Nutrition-inemergencies-do-we-know-what-works-2014.pdf
Nutrition actions in emergencies continue to be critical to mortality reduction and to
achieving broader humanitarian as well as livelihood goals in institutionally fragile environments. In the past decade, numerous innovations have enhanced the prevention and
treatment of many forms of malnutrition; these include wider adoption of new food products, protocols for their use, and programming guidelines. The quality and scale of inte rventions has improved despite many challenges, resulting in fewer avoidable deaths
and growing success in the management of severe and moderate wasting, as well as
micronutrient deficiencies.
Essential Medicines
Falsified medicines in Africa: all talk, no action
by Paul N Newton, Patricia Tabernero, Prabha Dwivedi et al.
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 25
The Lancet Global Health, Vol. 2, Issue 9, pp. e509-e510, September 2014
2 pp. 410 kB:
http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/langlo/PIIS2214109X14702797.pdf
Poor-quality medicines and medical products, both substandard and falsified, cause
avoidable morbidity, mortality, drug resistance, and loss of faith in health systems, e specially in low-income and middle-income countries. The authors report the analysis of
two falsified medicines from Angola and discuss what lessons such a discovery could
hold.
***
WHO Drug Information Vol. 28 No. 2, 2014
World Health Organization, 7 July 2014
http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/druginformation/issues/DrugIn
formation2014_Vol28_2/en/
WHO Drug Information communicates pharmaceutical information that
is either developed and issued by WHO or transmitted to WHO by research and regulatory agencies throughout the World. The journal also includes regular presentations of
newly proposed and recommended International Nonproprietary Names (INN) for Pharmaceuticals Substances. This volume contains the proposed INN List No.111.
***
Improving Access to Essential Medicines for Mental, Neurological, and
Substance Use Disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa
Workshop Summary
by Diane E. Pankevich, Sheena M. Posey Norris, Theresa M. Wizemann
et al.
Board on Global Health; Institute of Medicine, 2014
143 pp. 1.1 MB:
http://download.nap.edu/cart/download.cgi?&record_id=18380
This report examines challenges and opportunities for improving access to essential
medicines in four critical areas: demand, selection, supply chains, and financing and
pricing. The report also discusses successful activities that increase access to essential
medicines both within Sub-Saharan Africa and in other developing countries, and considers the role of governments, non-governmental organizations, and private groups in
procurement of essential medicines for mental, neurological, and substance use disorders.
***
The usefulness and scientific accuracy of private sector Arabic language
patient drug information leaflets
Sana R. Sukkari, Abdullah S. Al Humaidan, Larry D. Sasich
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, July 2012; 20(3): 211-215
5 pp. 360 kB:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744958/pdf/main.pdf
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 26
Inadequate access to useful scientifically accurate patient information is a major cause
of the inappropriate use of drugs resulting in serious personal injury and related costs to
the health care system. The Arabic language patient drug information leaflets for
celecoxib, paroxetine, and lamotrigine were obtained locally and evaluated using a
methodology similar to that used in previous quality content patient drug information
studies in the US. The Arabic leaflets failed to meet the definition of useful scientifically
accurate information. The celecoxib leaflet contained 30% of the required information
and the paroxetine and lamotrigine leaflets contained 24% and 20%, respectively. The
results have important implications for patients as access to a reliable source of drug information may prevent harm or limit the suffering from serious adverse drug reactions.
Social Protection
Assessing long-term impacts of conditional cash transfers on children and
young adults in rural Nicaragua
by Tania Barham, Karen Macours, John A Maluccio et al.
International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, July 2014
66 pp. 903 kB:
http://www.3ieimpact.org/media/filer_public/2014/08/20/ie17_nicaragua_cct.pdf
This study analyses the impacts of Red de Protección Social (Social protection network or RPS), a conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme targeting rural
households in impoverished regions in Nicaragua from 2000 to 2005. The findings show
that CCTs can lead to gains in human capital accumulation that last beyond the life of
the programme, suggesting they have potential to lead to long-term poverty reduction.
***
Social Protection, Poverty and the Post-2015 Agenda
by Ariel Fiszbein, Ravi Kanbur, Ruslan Yemtsov
The World Bank, Human Development Network, Social Protection and Labor Department, May 2013
46 pp. 1.0 MB:
http://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/pdf/10.1596/1813-9450-6469
Defining social protection as a collection of programs that address risk, vulnerability, inequality and poverty through a system of transfers in cash or in kind, this paper argues
that social protection needs to be on the post-2015 agenda as a key element of the discourse. It provides an overview of social protection around the world based on the World
Bank’s Atlas of Social Protection. Focusing on the goal of ending poverty, the paper e stimates that social protection programs are currently preventing 150 million people from
falling into poverty. It develops, for discussion, a set of candidate goals, indicators and
targets for the acceleration of poverty reduction through social protection.
***
Social protection and growth: Research synthesis
by Nicholas Mathers, Rachel Slater, Francesca Bastagli et al.
Commonwealth of Australia, 2014
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 27
32 pp. 593 kB:
http://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publicationsopinion-files/9099.pdf
Existing evidence suggests that social protection is an important policy
tool for low and middle-income country governments, not just for alleviating poverty and reducing vulnerability but for promoting inclusive growth.
Understanding and assessing the growth-enhancing impacts of social
protection and identifying the most appropriate design and implementation features to
achieve this should form part of policy and programme decisions.
***
Social protection for the elderly as a development strategy: A case study
of Kenya’s old persons cash transfer programme
by Philomena Mathiu and Elosy Kangai Mathiu
III IESE Conference: “Mozambique: Accumulation and Transformation in
a context of International crisis”, August 2012
24 pp. 1.6 MB:
http://www.iese.ac.mz/lib/publication/III_Conf2012/IESE_IIIConf_Paper32.pdf
This paper discusses a cash transfer programme for social protection as a development
strategy for the ageing in Kenya using a political economy approach within an enviro nment of increasingly policy institutional support. The paper further proposes a t ransformative thinking for planning social protection for the elderly by targeting the youth.
The paper concludes that Social protection development strategies are contributing to
poverty reduction and achievement of MDGs.
Water, Sanitation & Hygiene
Factors influencing knowledge and practice of hygiene in Water, Sanitation
and Hygiene (WASH) programme areas of Bangladesh Rural Advancement
Committee
by T. Akter and A.M. Ali
Rural and Remote Health 14: 2628 – Published online: 19 August 2014
10 pp. 215 kB:
http://www.rrh.org.au/publishedarticles/article_print_2628.pdf
Improved hygiene is one of the most effective means of reducing disease occurrence.
However, a complete understanding of the factors that contribute to such improvement
are not clear. The authors conclude from this study that the identified impeding factors
often act as barriers to transformation of hygiene-related knowledge into practice and
practice into habit. More motivational cluster meetings with large-scale participation and
periodic home visits by the programme organizers are imperative as they markedly i mprove hygiene behaviour.
***
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 28
The Effect of India's Total Sanitation Campaign on Defecation Behaviors
and Child Health in Rural Madhya Pradesh: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial
by Sumeet R. Patil, Benjamin F. Arnold, Alicia L. Salvatore et al.
PLoS Med 11(8): e1001709 (August 26, 2014)
17 pp. 675 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.13
71%2Fjournal.pmed.1001709&representation=PDF
Poor sanitation is thought to be a major cause of enteric infections among young children. However, there are no previously published randomized trials to measure the
health impacts of large-scale sanitation programs. India's Total Sanitation Campaign
(TSC) is one such program that seeks to end the practice of open defecation by changing social norms and behaviours, and providing technical support and financial subs idies. The intervention led to modest increases in availability of individual household latrines and even more modest reductions in open defecation. These improvements were
insufficient to improve child health outcomes (diarrhea, highly credible gastrointestinal
illness, parasite infection, anemia, growth). The results underscore the difficulty of
achieving adequately large improvements in sanitation levels to deliver expected health
benefits within large-scale rural sanitation programs.
Human Resources
The Current State of CHW Training Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa and
South Asia: What We Know, What We Don’t Know, and What We Need to
Do
by Cindil Redick, Hannah Sarah Faich Dini, Lesley-Anne Long
mPowering Frontline Health Workers, July 2014
39 pp. 358 kB:
http://mpoweringhealth.org/media/report_docs/140664465801305.pdf
It is evident from sources assessed for this review that more research is needed on
community health worker (CHW) training programs. CHW training occurs in a wide var iety of settings and varies in duration. The literature points to a need for mandatory, consistent evaluation of training programs. Among the programs surveyed, only a small
number actually implemented evaluation practices, and some of them did not implement
the practices consistently. Even fewer had data available to review. Although additional
information may exist in non-public forms such as internal reports, the lack of readily
available information about the programs hampers the ability to draw strong conclusions
on optimal CHW training methodologies.
***
Addressing the shortage of health professionals in South Africa through
the development of a new cadre of health worker: the creation of Clinical
Associates
by ID Couper and JFM Hugo
Rural and Remote Health 14: 2874 - Online 16 August 2014
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 29
8 pp. 199 kB:
http://www.rrh.org.au/publishedarticles/article_print_2874.pdf
South Africa made a decision in 2002 to develop so-called mid-level medical workers,
now known as clinical associates. This article describes the background to this decision,
and the national process of developing the profession and its scope of practice, which
was aligned with the needs of the health service, particularly those of rural district hosp itals. The first graduates are already making an important contribution to rural health
care, and are seeking ways in which the profession can be enhanced to ensure sustainability.
***
Dual Practice by Health Workers in South and East Asia: Impacts and Policy Options
by David Hipgrave, Matthias Nachtnebel, Krishna Hort
Asia Pacific Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, 2013
53 pp. 3.9 MB:
http://www.wpro.who.int/asia_pacific_observatory/resources/policy
_briefs/Policy_Brief_Dual_Practice_19072013.pdf?ua=1
Health professionals, especially doctors, often undertake private work while employed
by government. Such “dual practice” is found in both high-income countries and lowand middle-income countries (LMIC) around the world, with varying degrees of tolerance. Appropriately regulated dual practice can improve health service access, the
range of services offered, and doctors’ work satisfaction and retention in the public sector. Dual practice is most likely to have negative consequences in LMIC, where regul ation of doctors’ activities is often weaker. This brief proposes a framework for policy and
regulation options.
***
Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: exploring dual
practice and its management in Kampala, Uganda
by Ligia Paina, Sara Bennett, Freddie Ssengoobaet al.
Health Research Policy and Systems 2014, 12:41 (18 August 2014)
25 pp. 2.1 MB:
http://www.health-policy-systems.com/content/pdf/1478-4505-12-41.pdf
Many full-time Ugandan government health providers take on additional jobs - a phenomenon called dual practice. The authors conclude that dual practice prevails because
public and private sector incentives, non-financial and financial, are complementary. Local management practices for dual practice have not been previously documented and
provide learning opportunities to inform policy discussions. Understanding how dual
practice evolves and how it is managed locally is essential for health workforce policy,
planning, and performance discussions in Uganda and similar settings.
For more articles on “Advancing the application of systems thinking in health” see:
http://www.health-policy-systems.com/series/systemsthinking
***
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 30
Health Systems & Research
Series on “Advancing the application of systems thinking in health”
Editor Taghreed Adam
Health Research Policy and Systems, 2014
http://www.health-policy-systems.com/series/systemsthinking
Systems thinking provides an understanding of the complexity of health systems, which
is fundamental for strengthening the design, implementation and evaluation of health
systems interventions, policies and strategies. The primary objective of this Series is to
support the shift from abstract concepts to actual applications and experiences of systems thinking in health, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.
***
Guidelines for HIV Mortality Measurement
by Nyagura Amek, Mark Amexo, Cheryl Amoroso et al.
UNAIDS/WHO Working Group on Global HIV/AIDS and STI Surveillance, 2014
60 pp. 1.1 MB:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK236997/pdf/TOC.pdf
The overwhelming majority of low- and middle-income countries do not have reliable
mortality statistics. Out of 119 countries reporting causes of death to the World Health
Organization (WHO), only 34 countries – representing 15% of the world population –
produce high-quality cause-of-death data, and almost all of these countries are in Europe and the Americas. A further 85 countries – representing 65% of the world population – produce lower-quality cause-of-death data, while 74 countries, mostly in subSaharan Africa, lack such data altogether. This information paradox – where information
is lacking where it is needed most – has critically hindered the ability of governments
and country programmes to track progress in addressing the HIV epidemic.
***
The use of continuous surveys to generate and continuously report high
quality timely maternal and newborn health data at the district level in Tanzania and Uganda
by Tanya Marchant, Joanna Schellenberg, Stefan Peterson et al.
Implementation Science 2014, 9:112 (23 August 2014)
20 pp. 309 kB:
http://www.implementationscience.com/content/pdf/s13012-014-0112-1.pdf
The lack of high quality timely data for evidence-informed decision making at the district
level presents a challenge to improving maternal and newborn survival in low income
settings. To address this problem, the EQUIP project (Expanded Quality Management
using Information Power) implemented a continuous household and health facility su rvey for continuous feedback of data in two districts each in Tanzania and Uganda as
part of a quality improvement innovation for mothers and newborns. The authors conclude that the EQUIP continuous surveys were feasible to implement as a method to
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 31
continuously generate and report on demand and supply side indicators for maternal
and newborn health; they have potential to be expanded to include other health topics.
Information & Communication Technology
Information and Communication Technologies for Women’s and Children’s
Health
A Planning Workbook
by D. Hagan, S. Uggowitzer, A. De Francisco et al.
The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, 2014
76 pp. 1.9 MB:
http://www.who.int/pmnch/knowledge/publications/ict_mhealth.pdf
A number of key partners in the reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health
(RMNCH) community consider that information and communication technologies (ICTs),
particularly, mobile health (mHealth), are important in improving women’s and children’s
health. While there are hundreds of ICT and mHealth pilot projects being implemented,
there are relatively few large-scale examples. The workbook explores the issues that
need to be addressed when such projects are being scaled up.
***
The Use of Smart phones in Ophthalmology
by Edita Zvornicanin, Jasmin Zvornicanin, Bahrudin Hadziefendic
Acta Inform Med, Vol.22(3); June 2014
4 pp. 756 kB:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4130678/pdf/AIM-22-206.pdf
Smart phones are being increasingly used among health professionals. Ophthalmological applications are widely available and can turn smart phones into sophisticated medical devices. The use of smart phones especially as diagnostic tools is not standardized
and results should be carefully considered. Innovative role of smartphone technology
and its use in research, education and information sharing makes smart phones a future
of ophthalmology and medicine.
***
Pan American Journal of Public Health - Special Issue on eHEALTH in the
Americas
Vol. 35, Nos. 5/6, May/June 2014
http://www.paho.org/journal/index.php?option=com_content&view
=article&id=145&Itemid=259&lang=en
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines eHealth as “cost-effective and secure
use of information and communication technologies in support of health and healthrelated fields”. Today, ICT are present in arguably all aspects of health and healthcare,
making it of critical importance to gain a deeper understanding of how they can tran sform health services and the broader health systems in which they are embedded. DeHESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 32
voted entirely to eHealth, the special issue highlights the wide range of efforts currently
under way in the region and presents emerging evidence about key factors that determine their success.
Education
The Trouble with Universal Education
by Bjørn Lomborg
Copenhagen Consensus Center, 19 August 2014
Read online at: http://www.mareeg.com/the-trouble-with-universal-education/
With the deadline for the United Nations Millennium Development Goals fast approaching, the world is gearing up to establish a new set of goals for the next 15 years. Given
limited resources, policymakers and international organizations must ask themselves:
Where can we do the most good? Should a larger share of the US$ 2.5 trillion that will
be directed toward development aid over that period, and of developing -country budgets, be directed toward health, the environment, food, water, or education? In an ideal
world, universal, high-quality education at all levels would be worth pursuing. But, amid
competing demands for basic necessities like health care and potable water, narrower,
more cost-effective education targets are essential.
Harm Reduction & Drug Use
Early evidence about the predicted unintended consequences of standardised packaging of tobacco products in Australia
A cross-sectional study of the place of purchase, regular brands and use of illicit tobacco
by Michelle Scollo, Meghan Zacher, Sarah Durkin et al.
BMJ Open 2014;4:e005873, 18 July 2014
10 pp. 810 kB:
http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/4/8/e005873.full.pdf+html
One year after implementation, this study found no evidence of the major unintended
consequences concerning loss of smoker patrons from small retail outlets, flooding of
the market by cheap Asian brands and use of illicit tobacco predicted by opponents of
plain packaging in Australia.
***
E-cigarette Virtual Collection
http://oxfordjournals.org/our_journals/nictob/ecigarette_issue.html
One of the most important innovations in people’s tobacco smoking habits is the introduction of “electronic cigarettes,” perhaps better described
as Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS). The rapid global rise in
the use of these devices necessitates that emerging research on the topic be available
to researchers, policy makers, clinicians, and members of the general public. This free
collection of articles in the journal “Nicotine & Tobacco Research” was created with the
intent of meeting that need, and will be supplemented at regular intervals with the latest
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 33
research from the journal in order to provide those in the field with an up-to-date, authoritative, and accessible resource on the topic.
***
Electronic nicotine delivery systems
Report by World Health Organization (WHO), July 2014
13 pp. 232 kB:
http://apps.who.int/gb/fctc/PDF/cop6/FCTC_COP6_10-en.pdf
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) are the subject of a public health dispute
among bona fide tobacco-control advocates that has become more divisive as their use
has increased. Whereas some experts welcome ENDS as a pathway to the reduction of
tobacco smoking, others characterize them as products that could undermine efforts to
denormalize tobacco use. ENDS, therefore, represent an evolving frontier, filled with
promise and threat for tobacco control. Whether ENDS fulfil the promise or the threat
depends on a complex and dynamic interplay among the industries marketing ENDS,
consumers, regulators, policy-makers, practitioners, scientists, and advocates. The evidence and recommendations presented in this report are therefore subject to rapid
change.
***
Electronic Cigarettes: A Policy Statement from the American Heart Association
by Aruni Bhatnagar, Laurie P. Whitsel, Kurt M. Ribisl et al.
Circulation. 2014;130:00-00, 25 August 2014
20 pp. 661 kB:
http://circ.ahajournals.org/publisher/img/aha-logo.gif
This statement reviews the latest science concerning one of the newest classes of
products to enter the tobacco product landscape - electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes),
also called electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) - and provides an overview on
design, operations, constituents, toxicology, safety, user profiles, public health, youth
access, impact as a cessation aid, and second-hand exposure. On the basis of the current evidence, the authors provide policy recommendations in key areas of tobacco co ntrol such as clean indoor air laws, taxation, regulation, preventing youth access, marketing and advertising to youth, counselling for cessation, surveillance, and defining ecigarettes in state laws.
Development Assistance
What is the evidence on the impact of research on international development?
by Kirsty Newman, Will Evans, Stefan Dercon et al.
Department for International Development (DFID), July 2014
72 pp. 1.5 MB:
http://www.ukcds.org.uk/sites/default/files/content/resources/What%20is%20the%20evide
nce%20on%20the%20impact%20of%20research%20on%20international%20development.pdf
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 34
Governments of low-income countries and international development
donors are increasing their funding for research at least in part on the
assumption that research has positive impacts on socio-economic development. This literature review examines the evidence base related
to this assumption. It demonstrates that research does make important
and significant contributions to socioeconomic development but that
some commonly held assumptions about how research leads to
change are not backed up by the evidence.
***
Theories of Change in International Development: Communication, Learning, or Accountability?
by Craig Valters
Justice and Security Research Programme, International Development
Department, August 2014
29 pp. 1.3 MB:
http://www.lse.ac.uk/internationalDevelopment/research/JSRP/do
wnloads/JSRP17.Valters.pdf
Critically analysing assumptions is a much needed endeavour in international development policy and practice: existing management tools rarely encourage critical thinking
and there are considerable political, organisational and bureaucratic constraints to the
promotion of learning throughout the sector. The Theory of Change approach – an increasingly popular management tool and discourse in development – hopes to change
some of that. This paper provides a much needed analysis of how Theories of Change
are used in the day-to-day practice of an international development organisation.
***
Unsafe Passage: Road attacks and their impact on humanitarian operations
by Abby Stoddard, Adele Harmer, and Kathleen Ryou
Aid Worker Security Report - Humanitarian Outcomes, August 2014
16 pp. 628 kB:
http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Aid%20Work
er%20Security%20Report%202014.pdf
This fifth edition of the Aid Worker Security Report provides the latest verified statistics
on attacks against aid workers. The majority of aid worker victims were st affers of national NGOs and Red Cross/Crescent societies, often working to implement international
aid in their own countries. Year after year, more aid workers are attacked while traveling
on the road than in any other setting. The advances in humanitarian security management have failed to effectively address this most prevalent form of targeting. While some
good practice exists in protective and deterrent approaches to road security, more co llective thinking and action is required, particularly in developing ‘kinetic acceptance’
strategies for negotiating safe access in transit.
***
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 35
Others
Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) 2013 Annual Report
Physicians for Human Rights, 2014
32 pp. 13.9 MB(!):
https://s3.amazonaws.com/PHR_other/annual-report-2013.pdf
The report provides a comprehensive overview of PHR’s work between
July 2012 and June 2013. As mass atrocities and serious human rights
abuses continue around the world, PHR remains committed to exposing and preventing
such violations and ensuring that those responsible are brought to justice. In 2013, PHR
gained significant ground on a number of global human rights issues, while also making
successful transitions as an organization.
***
Towards Universal Eye Health: A Regional Action Plan for the Western Pacific (2014-2019)
World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2014
28 pp. 1.2 MB:
http://www.wpro.who.int/entity/blindness_prevention/info/towards_
universal_eye_health_.pdf
The lack of universal access to eye-care services has varying causes across the Western Pacific Region. Some countries lack the capacity to provide specialized health services and trained eye-care personnel. As a result, eye-care services may only be available in urban centres, beyond the reach of people who cannot travel far. Other countries
may have sufficient trained eye-care personnel and infrastructure to provide comprehensive service; however, these services may be privatized and unaffordable for those
most in need. While the main objectives of this publication are aligned with the global
action plan for the prevention of avoidable visual impairment, this Regional Action Plan
provides a regional context for WHO support to help address specific needs in Asia and
the Pacific.
***
The Health of Older People in Selected Countries of the Western Pacific
Region
by Julie Byles, Cassie Curryer, Natalie Edwards et al.
World Health Organization, 2014
54 pp. 3.9 MB:
http://www.wpro.who.int/topics/ageing/health_of_older_people_in
_selected_WPR_countries.pdf
This report provides an overview of population ageing and the health of people aged 60
years and above in the Western Pacific Region. The report highlights the extent and
pace of population ageing across a diversity of settings in the Region, and emphasizes
some key health challenges and opportunities that accompany these changes. Policy
implications are also discussed.
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 36
ELECTRONIC RESOURCES
Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program Application Programming Interface (API)
http://api.dhsprogram.com/#/index.html
Don’t let the technical acronym scare you!
The DHS Program Application Programming Interface (API) provides software develo pers access to aggregated indicator data from The Demographic and Health Surveys
(DHS) Program. The API can be used to create various applications to help analyze,
visualize, explore and disseminate data on population, health, HIV, and nutrition from
more than 90 countries.
***
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Vol 8, No 08: August 2014
The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries has
just published its latest issue at:
http://www.jidc.org/index.php/journal
You are invited to review the Table of Contents and then visit/download articles and
items of interest.
INTERESTING WEB SITES
Community Health Workers (CHW) Central
http://www.chwcentral.org/
CHW Central is an online community of practice that brings together program managers, experts, practitioners, researchers, and supporters of CHW programs. The website
is a virtual meeting place to share resources and experiences and to discuss and deve lop questions and ideas on CHW programs and policy. This site is available to all, however to participate actively in the conversations you need to register for a free membe rship.
***
Inroads – International Network for the Reduction of Abortion discrimination and Stigma
http://www.endabortionstigma.org/
Inroads is a global network of advocates, scholars, health providers, and donors with
the goal of shifting the global conversation on abortion to reimagine a world free of abortion
TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES
A Guide to Training Resources on the Internet
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 37
Compiled by Irina Ibraghimova
Library and Information Management Specialist, HealthConnect International, 2014
19 pp. 180 kB:
http://www.twinningagainstaids.org/documents/TrResGuide_July2014.pdf
The guide was produced by the American International Health Alliance as part of its
Knowledge Management Program. This guide provides information on how to obtain
access to a variety of free and low-cost online training resources in health care, social
work, medicine and related fields.
***
Executive Training: Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) in the Health Care
Sector
08-12 December 2014
Frankfurt am Main, Germany
This executive training on Health Care PPPs is built on three pillars:
 Interactive Lectures by world-class academic faculty and industry experts
 Moderated Case studies in teams with peers in similar positions
 Lively discussion of issues and options that allow countries to pursue sound public policy while making best use of private sector contributions
The course is aimed specifically at key public decision-makers and managers of
healthcare PPPs including also oversight agencies and private operators as well as officials from development agencies supporting PPP approaches. (Professional level)
Price: 4,300 EUR
The course fees include all training materials, visa support and full-board accommodation in single rooms for the time of training. Hand outs, documentation, and background
literature will be assembled in a comprehensive participant handbook, which will also be
provided on USB device at the end of the training. A colourful social programme as well
as industry site visits will also accompany the training.
For more information see:
http://www.frankfurtschool.de/content/en/education_programmes/executive/weeks/health/health-ppp.html
CONFERENCES
3rd International One Health Congress
15-18 March 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Congress Theme: “Prevention at the Source”
Prevention at the source is key in controlling (infectious) diseases that have a growing
impact on humans, animals and their ecosystems.
The congress brings science and policy together aiming at the early recognition and
control of emerging (infectious) diseases, now and in the years to come.
For more information see: http://www.iohc2015.com
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 38
CARTOON
On Twitter…
TIPS & TRICKS
Bypass the Windows 8 Lockscreen
This is a tip a lot of you are going to love. One of the pet peeves about Windows 8 is
having to sign in every time you turn on the computer.
In just a few easy steps, you can take care of that issue. But only do this if your computer is where other people are not going to be able to get their hands on it. If you have a
laptop that you take out and about frequently or a work computer with private info rmation, you should leave the password requirement on.
First, search for netplwiz in your search charm or by typing it in the Metro/Modern
screen. Then click on the icon for netplwiz.
The User Accounts window will open. Select the account you want to open without entering a password
and then uncheck the box next to “Users musts enter a username and password to use this computer”.
Then choose OK.
If your account is password protected, you will have
to enter the password, confirm it and hit OK. Restart
your computer and it should go straight to your start
screen.
***
World Lens Translator
There is a nifty little app that can be a great friend to travellers called “Word Lens Translator”. This free app for your Android or iPhone uses your phone’s camera to translate
signs in other languages.
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 39
You can go from English to Russian, Spanish, French, Italian, German or Portuguese
and vice versa. The app is not perfect, it works best on clear fonts. It does not recognize
handwriting or highly stylized fonts, and like all translators, you are not guaranteed a
perfect translation. But it can be very useful if you want to know what a sign says.
You can find Word Lens Translator for free in the Android and Apple App Stores.
***
Tech Speak Decoded
Ever tried to read a manual and wondered if it is actually written in English? Some good
folks have created this helpful infographic to help translate some of the toughest technobabble into everyday English.
See the complete page at:
http://www.geistglobal.com/sites/all/files/site/geist_infograph-page-001_1.pdf
Best regards,
Dieter Neuvians MD
HESP-News & Notes - 18/2014 - page 40

Similar documents