Recipe Book - Hunyadi János Általános Iskola

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Recipe Book - Hunyadi János Általános Iskola
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Content
RECIPE BOOK
PROLOGUE 5
RECIPES
Austria 6
Belgium 11
Germany 19
Hungary 28
Italy 38
Portugal 47
Spain 57
ANALYSIS 66
DICTIONARY 73
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WHAT YOU EAT IS WHAT YOU ARE
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Dear friends of Comenius,
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this book is an excerpt of the work of the last three years.
A Comenius team of seven different European countries has worked on the topic
“What you eat is what you are”.
Pupils and teachers from BORG, Deutschlandsberg (Austria),
Technish Institut Onze-Lieve-Vrouw, Tongeren (Belgium),
KGS Kirchweyhe, Weyhe (Germany),
Hunyadi János Általános Iskola, Budapest (Hungary),
Liceo Scientifico Statale Battista L.B. Alberti, Cagliari (Italy),
EB 1,2,3/PE Prof. Francisco Manuel Santana Barreto, Madeira (Portugal) and
C.P. Uribarri, Bilbao (Portugal) want to give you an insight into their work.
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Within our work on the project we have learned a lot about the eating habits of the participating
countries. And we have tried to implement a healthier way of eating. A first step has been done. May the
book give you an inspiration for the following steps!
Thank you for all the hard work on our Comenius project.
Christian Marohn, Coordinator
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WHAT YOU EAT IS WHAT YOU ARE
Dear Europeans,
Working in education can be so nice.
Passing on knowledge to pupils is our mission; forming them into good human beings is the ultimate
goal. But they must learn to live together and care for each other’s happiness through experiences not
just inside the classroom, but outside as well. Broadening the horizon; crossing the borders, raising
awareness…
This is what a European project is all about.
These ideas, together with our concern about our pupils’ eating habits, brought us together.
Using the partner finding site “Socrates” we came into contact with each other and, after a few months
and a preparatory visit to Bilbao, our Comenius 1 project was born.
WHAT YOU EAT IS WHAT YOU ARE.
Looking back on three years of project work we feel grateful for
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all the international contacts and friends we have made
the new atmosphere it created and the activities it inspired in our schools
the broader knowledge about education in Europe we have gained
the opportunities we could offer to our pupils.
This book shows a part of our work. Its goal is to encourage you to
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discover the richness and diversity of European food
improve our eating habits and those of our pupils
to have a look at our website http://whatueat.weebly.com
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WIENER SCHNITZEL
Austria
(Breaded Pork Cutlets)
Ingredients:
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1 cup of lard, heated in skillet until hot
4-6 veal or pork cutlets
enough flour to coat cutlets
2 slightly beaten eggs
1/3 cup of milk
1 1/2 cups of plain bread crumbs
Preparation:
Dip cutlets into flour. Mix eggs and milk. Dip cutlets into egg-milk mixture. Carefully coat with bread
crumbs, not too heavily.Let stand for 5 to 10 minutes to seal coating. Deep fry cutlets until browned
on both sides, about 3 or 4 minutes. Turn cutlets several times during cooking. Do not pierce.
Remove cutlets from lard with tongs and drain over pan for a few seconds before removing to absorbent paper.
Serve with mixed salad, fresh vegetables, boiled potatoes or French fires and plenty of lemon slices.
Time: 20 minutes
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ECHTE SALZBURGER NOCKERL
Austria
(Salzburg Soufflé)
Ingredients:
Preparation:
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3/4 cup sugar
10 egg yolks
1/2 cup flour (scant)
10 egg whites
1 cup milk
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2- 10” skillets or one large oven-proof dish
Cream together butter and sugar. Add 2 or 3 egg yolks at a time, beating well after each addition until
light and fluffy. Fold flour and very stiffly beaten egg whites into batter. (The success of this recipe
depends mostly on the stiffness of your egg whites).
Cover bottoms of two 10-inch skillets with milk. Bring to a boil and immediately pour batter into hot milk.
Place skillets in preheated oven (450 F). Reduce heat to 400 F and bake for 6-8 minutes until golden.
Nockerln should be firm outside, but light and fluffy inside. With a serving spoon, quickly cut off large
pieces, place on a preheated plate, and dust with very fine vanilla sugar. Serve at once, since Nockerln
ado not tolerate waiting; they will collapse.
Time: 25 minutes + bake for 6- 8 minutes
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LEBERKNOEDELSUPPE
Austria
(Liver Dumpling Soup)
Ingredients:
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Preparation:
8 bread rolls, thinly sliced
Salt
3/4 cup milk, warm
1 tablespoon butter
1/2 onion, finely chopped
2 tablespoons parsley, chopped
3/4 lb beef liver, ground
• 2 eggs, slightly beaten
• 1/8 teaspoon marjoram, dried
• 1/8 teaspoon white pepper
• 2 quarts water
• Breadcrumbs, dry
• • 3 1/2 cups beef stock
• Parsley, chopped
Place bread slices in large bowl, sprinkle with 1 teaspoon salt. Pour milk over top, cover, let stand 1 hour.
Sauté onion and 2 tablespoons parsley in butter until limp. Set aside to cool.
Stir onion & parsley, liver, eggs, marjoram and pepper into bread mixture. Blend thoroughly.
Bring water and 1/2 teaspoon salt to a gentle boil. Make 1 teaspoon of the liver mixture into a
dumpling. If it falls apart, work in a few tablespoons of bread crumbs. Shape into 8 dumplings.
Add to gently boiling water, simmer 20 minutes uncovered. Dumplings will float when done. Remove with slotted spoon and keep hot.
Serve hot dumplings in heated stock, garnish with parsley.
Serves 4
Time: 40 minutes
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Austria
KAISERSCHMARREN
Emperor’s Omelette
Ingredients:
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6 eggs
200 g cake or pastry flour
50 g sugar
250 milliliters milk
pinch of salt
40 g raisins
butter
confectioners sugar
plum puree.
Preparation:
Separate the egg whites from the yolks. Thoroughly mix the yolks, sugar, milk and flour. Whisk the
egg whites, add a pinch of salt and continue whisking until stiff. Now, carefully fold into the egg yolk
mixture. Melt butter in a large pan, pour in the mixture and sprinkle in raisins. Let cook on one side for a
few minutes, turn over and tear into pieces with a fork. Now let finish cooking. Be especially careful not
to overcook the pancakes, otherwise they will dry out. Sprinkle with confectioner’s sugar and serve with
plum puree.
Time: 20 minutes
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Austria
APFELSTRUDEL
(Viennese Apple Strudel)
Ingredients:
Pastry
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Preparation:
300 grams bread flour
pinch of salt
30 ml vegetable oil
0,2 l water (lukewarm)
Filling
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2 kg apples (Golden Delicious)
150 grams granulated sugar
30ml dark rum
150 grams raisins
1/8 tsp. ground cinnamon
2 lemons (juice and peel)
Buttered breadcrumbs
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300 grams butter (unsalted)
300 grams bread crumbs
Knead flour, salt, oil and water into a medium-firm dough. Divide into 3 small round loaves, brush each
loaf with melted butter and let sit for 1 hour. Peel, core and slice apples. Mix in granulated sugar, raisins,
grated lemon peel, lemon juice, rum, cinnamon. Roast butter and bread crumbs. Roll the dough loaves
with a rolling pin, then stretch rolled dough on a strudel sheet with the backs of your hands.
Coat 2/3 of dough sheet with buttered breadcrumbs, spread apple filling over remaining 1/3 of dough.
Tear off edges, shape strudel into roll by lifting strudel sheet. Place strudel on a buttered baking sheet and
brush with melted butter. Bake strudel for 25 to 35 minutes in a 400 degrees F to 425 degrees F
(200 to 220 degrees Celsius) oven. Time: 30 minutes + 25 to 35 minutes to bake
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TOMATENSOEP MET BALLETJES
Tomato soup with meatballs
thout soup
Belgium
A meal isn’t complete wi
Ingredients for 4 persons:
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0,5 k of tomatoes;
1 stock cube (chicken or beef);
1 leek;
half a celery;
3 carrots;
0,26 gallons of water;
pepper;
salt.
Preparation:
Peel the carrots and slice them together with the white of the leek. Cut the stalks of half a celery into
pieces. Mash the tomatoes and sieve them to remove the seeds. Put on a litre of water together with the
stock cube and boil it. Add the mashed tomatoes. Add the carrots to the broth. Wait untill everything is
boiling again to add the leek and celery. Flavour the soup with some pepper and salt if necessary and boil
it for another 4 to 5 minutes. The soup is ready to be served.
Small meatballs
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ASPERGEROOMSOEP
Belgium
Asparagus cream soup
Ingredients for 4 persons:
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0,26 gallons of asparagusbroth;
1 cube of chickenbroth;
5 ounces of asparagus;
a dash of cream;
cornflour;
pepper;
salt;
possibly smoked salmon.
Preparation:
Peel the asparagus and cut them into small pieces. Boil the peelings down in the asparagusbroth for a few
minutes. Sieve out the peelings and add the cube of chickenbroth. The easiest way to thicken the soup is
to add cornflour. You can add some until you think the soup is thick enough. Add the pieces of asparagus
to the soup and boil them until they are done. Right before serving, you add a dash of cream and some
parsley. To make the soup all festive, you can also add some small pieces of smoked salmon.
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WITLOOF IN DE OVEN MET PUREE
Chicory in the oven with mashed potatoes
getable and therefore
ry is a primal Belgian ve
Belgium
Chico
an.
this recipe is primal Belgi
Ingredients fefor 4 persons:
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8 bunches of chicory;
8 slices of ham;
2 k of patatoes;
5 ounces of butter;
6 tablespoons of flour;
17 ounces of milk;
7 ounces of grinded cheese (Gruyère)
Preparation:
Wash the chicory and boil it in some salty water for 20 minutes. Wrap up every bunch in a slice of ham.
Prepare a béchamel sauce including 3,5 of butter, 6 tablespoons of flour and 13,5 ounces of milk.
Mix it all and boil it. Add 5,3 ounces of cheese. Arrange the chicory into a heat-resistant oven dish and
pour it over with the béchamel sauce. Cover it all with some cheese. Peel the potatoes and boil them in
some salty water. Pour them off and mash them with a pat of butter and some milk. Arrange the mashed
potatoes in an oven pot with a pat of butter and some cheese on top of it. Place it all in a preheated oven
at 175°C for about 30 minutes.
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KONIJN MET PRUIMEN EN AARDAPPELEN
Belgium
Rabbit with prunes and potatoes
Ingredients for 4 persons:
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1 rabbit (of 1,5 k);
9 ounces of dried prunes;
1 dark ale (trappist);
1 stock cube,
2 onions;
2 bay leaves;
thyme
salt
pepper
possibly some cornflour
Preparation:
Divide the rabbit into small pieces and cut up the onion. Fry the onion and brown the pieces of rabbit at
all sides.Put the spices, onions, the rabbit, the stock cube and the beer into a bowl and add some water
until everything is flooded. Let it simmer for about an hour and a half until the meat is juicy.
Add the prunes 20 minutes before time.
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STOOFVLEES OP VLAAMSE WIJZE MET FRIETJES
Belgium
Carbonade Flemish way with French fries
Ingredients for 4 persons:
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14 ounces of beef;
1 onion;
1 beef cube;
7 ounces of water;
1.7 ounces of dark ale;
thyme;
bay;
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pepper and salt;
1 slice of white bread;
1 teaspoonl of mustard;
potatoes.
Preparation:
For the fries: peel the potatoes and cut them into chips. Wash the chips twice until there is no more starch
coming out (to prevent they become too mushy). Dry the chips. Heat up the fat till 160 degrees and
fry the chips for 4 minutes. Leave them to cool. Method of preparation: Cut the meat into cubes with a
size of 2 lumps of sugar. Burn the meat at high heat, (not to much at the same time!), until it is nicely
brown. Cut up the onion and add it to the meat. Add the water, beer, stock cube, thyme, bay and pepper.
Butter the bread with the mustard and put this on the meat. Let everything simmer at reduced heat
with a slanting lid for at least an hour. Check the taste after 30 minutes and season it some more.
Do not add too much salt, as the stock cube is already very salty. Add some water once in a while,
the meat just has to be flooded. When the meat is almost ready, the chips can be fried for the second
time, at 180 degrees now.
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STAMPPOT VAN WORTELEN MET WORST
Belgium
Stew with carrots and sausage
Ingredients for 4 persons:
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4 sausages (preferably of mixed minced meat);
17,5 ounces of potatoes);
17,5 ounces of carrots;
milk;
nutmeg;
pepper and salt
Preparation:
Peel the potatoes, cut them into pieces and boil them in salty water. Peel the carrots and divide them
into slices. Blanch them and stew them in some butter. When they are done you can add them to the
boiled potatoes. Season this with some pepper, salt and nutmeg, pour it over with a dash of milk and
mash it all. Bake the sausages. Serve the stew and put the sausages on top of it.
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CHOCOLADEMOUSSE
Chocolate mousse
Belgium
Belgium.
most popular dessert in
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ub
do
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ou
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wi
is
t egg yolk,
This
usse is prepared withou
mo
te
ola
oc
ch
e
tim
e
th
Most of
but I prefer it hearty.
Ingredients for 4 persons:
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3,5 ounces of plain chocolate;
4 eggs;
3,5 ounces of cream;
1 ounce of sugar
Preparation:
Separate the yolk from the egg white. You can do this by pouring over the yolk from one shell to the
other and in the meantime catching the egg white into a bowl. Beat up the cream and place it in the
refrigerator. Beat up the egg white with a pinch of salt and place it in the refrigerator too. Melt the
chocolate in a bain-marie: Place the bowl with chocolate over a pan with hot water. This way the heat
doesn’t just come from underneath, but also from the sides. It’s the ideal way to prevent burning.
Beat up the yolk together with the sugar till it’s nicely foamy and then slowly add the chocolate while
beating. Carefully add the egg white and finally the whip cream. Divide the chocolate mousse in portions
and leave it to cool for some 3 to 4 hours in the refrigerator.
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RIJSTTAART
Belgium
Rice pie
Ingredients for 4 persons:
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4,5 ounces of rice,
5 ounces of flour,
3,5 ounces of butter,
85 centilitres of milk,
3 ounces of sugar,
2 packets of vanilla sugar,
2 eggs, a punch of salt
Preparation:
Prepare the butterdough: Sieve the flour. Make a hole in the flour and put the soft butter in it.
Add a pinch of salt and 0,5 ounce of sugar. Mould this all to dough and slowly add 10 centilitres of milk
while moulding. Cover the dough with foil and let it rest in the refrigerator for an hour.
Mix the rest of the milk (0.20 gallons) with 2,5 ounces of sugar, 2 packets of vanilla sugar and the rice.
Warm this mixture at reduced heat until the rice is done. Leave it all to cool for a while and mix it with
the eggs by means of a beater. Roll out the dough with a rolling pin so it fits in a cake tin with a diameter
of about 9,5 in. Grease the cake tin and put the dough in it. Divide the rice pudding on it.
Place everything in a preheated oven of 180°C during 25 to 35 minutes, until the pie is golden brown.
Leave the rice pie to cool before serving it.
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Germany
SPRING-SALAD
Ingredients:
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500 g asparagus;
500 ml water;
half teaspoon sugar;
half teaspoon salt ;
200 g mushrooms;
200 g cheese
(Gouda or Emmental cheese)
Preparation:
Wash and peel the asparagus and cut it into pieces. Bring the water together with sugar and salt to the
boil. Cook the asparagus for about 15 minutes, drain and keep the water, put asparagus aside. Cut the
mushrooms into slices. Wash the tomatoes and cut them into halves. Cut the cheese into fine stripes. Peel
and wash the onion and cut it into fine cubes. Whisk together vinegar, mustard and salad oil and add the
onion. Wash and chop parsley and chives. Arrange asparagus, mushrooms, tomatoes and cheese on a
plate. Poor the salad dressing over these ingredients and sprinkle the herbs over the salad.
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Germany
FRUITY SALAD
Ingredients:
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2 oranges
• 1 tablespoon mustard;
120 ml vinegar
• 100 ml vinegar.
120 ml salad oil • 3 tablespoon salad oil
pepper, salt
• 1 small onion
230 g tinned artichockes
• 1 tablespoon of fresh parsley
1 small lettuce
• 1 tablespoon of fresh chives
200 g sliced “Kassler”(specials salted and cooked pork)
20 g walnuts
Preparation:
Peel one orange and cut it into slices. Squeeze the second orange and mix the juice with vinegar, salad
oil, salt and pepper. Strain the artichokes. Wash and spin the lettuce and cut it to ribbons. Cut the
“Kassler” into fine stripes. Chop some of the walnuts. Distribute the lettuce, the artichokes and the orange
on a large plate, pour the dressing over the salad and sprinkle it with the walnuts..
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Germany
LAMB’S LETTUCE WITH BACON
Ingredients:
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200 g lamb’s lettuce;
130 g bacon;
4 tablespoon walnut oil;
4 tablespoon white wine vinegar;
1 clove of garlic,
pepper, salt.
Preparation:
Wash and spin the lamb’s lettuce. Cut the bacon into small pieces and fry them in a pan.
Mix the oil and the vinegar and season it with crushed garlic cloves, salt and pepper.
Distribute the salad leaves on a small plate, add the dressing and garnish it with the bacon
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Germany
PORK STRIPS IN CREAMY SAUCE
Ingredients:
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500 g pork schnitzel;
1 tablespoon oil
1 onion;
200 g fresh mushroomr;
1 tablespoon oil,
250 g cream
salt, pepper
some flour
Preparation:
Cut the pork into fine stripes of meat. Heat the oil in a large frying pan. Add the meat and stir it for a few
minutes until well browned. Peel the onion and cut it into fine cubes. Clean and slice the mushrooms.
Heat the oil in a saucepan and fry the onions and mushrooms until golden. Then add the meat. Add the
cream and season to taste with salt and pepper. Boil for approx. 6 min. If necessary, stir in some flour to
get a rich creamy texture. Serves well with pasta, rice, fried potatoes or bread and fresh green salad.
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Germany
PASTA AND HAM SOUFLEE´
Ingredients:
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350 g pasta (Fussili/Spirelli)
1 l water
1 teaspoon of salt
1 onion
2 clove of garlic
2 tablespoon of oil
160 g cubed ham
200 g sour creme or “Creme fraîche”
2 tablespoon breadcrumbs
salt, pepper
120 g grated cheese
2 tablespoons breadcrumbs
butter
Preparation:
Cook the pasta in boiling salted water until al dente. Drain the water. Peel and half the onion, then cut
it into fine slices. Peel and crush the garlic. Heat the oil in a saucepan and fry the onions and garlic until
soft, but not browned. Add the pasta, the cubed ham, the sour cream and the cheese, then season with
salt and pepper. Put the pasta in a greased ovenproof dish and sprinkle the breadcrumbs and flakes of
butter on top. Bake in the preheated oven at 200° C for about 20 min. Serves well with tomato sauce
and green salad.
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Germany
SAUSAGES WITH ROAST POTATOES
Ingredients:
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1 kg potatoes
500 ml water
2 tablespoon of salt
2 onions
2 tablespoon of oil
salt, pepper
4-8 sausages (German pork sausages)
oil
Preparation:
Wash and clean the potatoes, then boil them for approx. 20 min. until just done and still firm. Drain the
water, peel the potatoes, let them cool. Peel the onions and cut them into fine cubes. Heat the oil in a
large frying pan, fry the onions until tender. Add the sliced potatoes and fry them until golden brown.
Season with salt and pepper. Heat some oil in a second frying pan and fry the sausages until brown and
crisp. Serves well with green salad.
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Germany
Rice Pudding with Cherries
Ingredients:
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1 l milk
2 teaspoons of sugar
250 g short grain pudding rice
sugar
vanilla sugar
1 jar of sour cherry
3 tablespoons of cold water
2 tablespoons cooking starch
Preparation:
Bring the milk, the rice and the sugar to the boil, simmer gently for about 20-30 min. Be careful – it
burns easily! Season the rice with sugar and vanilla sugar. Bring the cherries (with their juice) to the boil.
Mix the cold water and the cooking starch and add this liquid to the cherries, stir and boil it for ashort
time. Spoon the rice into a soup bowl and top each serving with cherries. Sprinkle cinnamon powder on
top of rice and cherries.
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Germany
Red Fruit Jelly with Vanilla Sauce
Ingredients:
• 1 l red currant juice (or any other red juice)
• 60 g cooking starch
• 100 g sugar
• 500g mixed berries
• half a litre of milk
• 20 g sugar
• 1 packet of instant vanilla sauce
Preparation:
Mix 1/8 l juice with the cooking starch. Bring the rest of the juice to the boil together with the sugar.
Stir in the starch/juice-mixture and bring it to the boil again. Fold the berries into the mixture.
Season the mixture with sugar and chill it. Prepare the vanilla sauce according to instructions on the
product. Serve the fruit jelly with the vanilla sauce on top.
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Germany
“Apfelschnee”
Ingredients:
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500g apple-purée
150 g yoghurt
150 g double cream
1 packet of vanilla sugar
3 tablespoons of grated chocolate
Preparation:
Mix the yoghurt and the apple-purée. Whip the cream and the vanilla sugar until soft peaks form. Fold
this mixture into the yoghurt-apple-purée mix. Place the mixture in a bowl and decorate it with the grated
chocolate.
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Hungary
GOULASH SOUP
Ingredients:
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2 lb. beef chuck
1 tsp. salt
2 onions sliced
2 Tbsp. fat
2 Tbsp sweet paprika
2 bay leaves
1 litre water
• 4 peeled and diced potatoes
• 1/4 tsp. black pepper.
Preparation:
Cut beef into small squares, add half of salt. Put onions and brown in fat, add beef and paprika.
Let beef in its own juice with salt and paprika for 1 hour on low heat. Add water, potatoes and remaining salt.
Cover and cook until potatoes are done and meat is soft. Prepare egg dumpling batter.
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POTATO SOUP
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
small whole stalk of celery,
cut in small pieces, about 2 cups
onions chopped
Tbls. chopped parsley leaves
Tbls. oil
medium potatos,
peeled and cut in small cubes
sausage cut into pieces
Preparation:
In soup pot, fry celery and onions in oil until soft. Add to soup pot parsley, potatos, sausage, pepper
corns, Bay leaves and 2 litres of water. Cook slowly for at least one hour, until potatos are soft.
Add the 3 Tbls. of vinegar. If soup does not have enough salt, add to taste. While soup is cooking,
break 6 raw eggs, one egg at a time, into the pot. Space them so they will cook to a firm stage,
without touching one another. Do not stir soup!
Serve soup, eggs and chunks of sausage in each soup plate. Put some sour cream in each plate.
Serve with bread.
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SOUR CHERRY SOUP
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
1 1/2 litres of water
3 Tbs. flour
1 cup sour cream
1/2 tsp. of salt
half kilogram of sour cherries
3/4 cup granulated sugar
Preparation:
Into a soup pot containing 1 1/2 litres of boiling water add sour cherries and granulated sugar.
Stir and cook. In a separate bowl mix flour, sour cream, salt and beat until smooth.
Add to flour mix, 1 cup of hot cherry sugar mix. Stir hard. Now add the flour, sour cream and hot cherry
mix into the pot of hot soup, stir well and cook for 5 or 6 minutes until it thickens.
Cover the soup and let cool. Keep cover on while it chills in refrigerator and it will not form a thick skin.
Serve very cold.
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LECSO
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2 Tbs. fat or oil
2 onions sliced
1/2 kg of yellow sweet banana peppers, seeded and sliced.
3 large tomatoes, peeled and diced
1/2 Tbs. sugar
1/2 Tbs. salt
1 Tbs. paprika
Preparation:
Heat fat, add onion, and cook over very low heat for 5 minutes. Add pepper slices and cook for another
15 min. Add tomatoes, sugar, salt and paprika. Cook for 10 to 15 min. longer. Add sugar and salt to
taste. If you are going to put sausage into it, add less salt.
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CHICKEN PAPRIKAS
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
2 onions sliced
4 Tbsp. oil or fat
3 Tbsp. Hungarian paprika
1/8 Tsp. black pepper or whole pepper corns
2 Tsp. salt
2 kg chicken disjointed, use legs, thighs,
breast and back for best flavor
• 1 1/2 cups water
• 1/4 litre sour cream
Preparation:
Brown onions in fat. Add seasonings and chicken, brown 10 minutes. Add water, cover and let cook
slowly until it is soft. Remove chicken, add sour cream to drippings in pan and mix well. To thicken sauce,
mix into a paste 1 Tbl. soft butter with 1 Tbl.of flour and stir into drippings. Add dumplings and arrange
chicken on top. Heat through, but do not boil, and serve.
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PASTA WITH COTTAGE CHEESE
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
½ kg egg noodles
125 g slab bacon, or breakfast bacon, cut in 1/4 in slices
1 cup sour cream
3 tbs buttermilk
¼ kg cottage cheese
black pepper to taste
2 tbsp fresh dill (optional)
Preparation:
Cook noodles per package directions. Meanwhile fry the bacon until soft. Put bacon and fat into a
bowl. Add the cooked noodles and mix well. Thin the sour cream with the buttermilk, and fold it into
the noodles and bacon. Mix in the cheese until it breaks up. Sprinkle with pepper and dill and serve
immediately.
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Hungary
BEIGLI WITH POPPY SEED
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
4 cups flour
4 Tablespoon sugar
1 cup warm water
2 eggs slightly beaten
2 cakes yeast regular or dry
1/2 cup soft butter
1 teaspoon salt
Preparation:
Crumble yeast in bowl, add water and sugar stirring till mixture becomes liquid. Blend flour and butter
with wire pastry blender. Mix well, mix in eggs, salt and yeast. Mix until dough is smooth and leaves side
of bowl clean. DO NOT LET RISE. Divide into four portions and roll each out in a rectangular shape spread
with filling and roll up. Place in greased baking pans. Bake at once in 350 oven about 30 to 45 min. or
until brown.
See filling on next page.
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POPPYSEED FILLING
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
1/2 kg of poppy seeds
2 cups of sugar
1cup boiled milk
1/4 cup melted butter
2 teaspoons of grated lemon
Preparation:
Mix filling in bowl using only 3/4 cup of boiled milk. It should be thick. If not spreadable use the rest of
milk. Divide into 4 portions, one for each dough rollup.
Makes 4 cakes.
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GOLDEN GALUSHKA
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1 cup of sour cream
1/2 cup melted butter
1/2 cup sugar
1 tsp. salt
2 cakes yeast
3 eggs
4 1/2 cups of flour
Preparation:
Mix sour cream, sugar, salt and yeast. Stir until yeast dissolves. Add eggs, softened butter and half the
flour. Mix well and add rest of flour. Turn dough out on floured board and knead until smooth for about
10 to 15 minutes. Place in greased bowl. Cover and let rise in warm place until doubled for about 1 1/2
to 2 hours. Punch dough down. Turn over and let rise again for 45 minutes. After second rising, form into
walnut-sized balls. Melt butter in small cup. Dip each ball in melted butter and roll in sugar and walnut
and cinnamon mixture. Place in layers in a pan. Put any remaining sugar-nut mixture or melted butter
over the top layer of balls. Cover pan with waxed paper and towel and let dough rise again 45 minutes.
Bake 40 to 50 minutes at 375 degrees or until golden brown. Run spatula around sides of the cake, and
turn it onto a plate. To serve, break it apart with two forks.
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LANGOS
Hungary
Potato cake
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
3 or 4 potatoes
1/2 envelope of dry yeast
1/2 cup of warm milk for yeast
1/2 tsp. sugar
1 1/2 cups to 1 2/3 cups of flour
1/2 tsp. salt
fat for frying
Mixture to roll dough in
• 1/2 cup of soft butter melted
• 1 cup chopped walnuts
• 1 cup sugar
• 1 tsp. cinnamon
Preparation:
Cook the potatoes in boiling salted water. Peel and mash them. You should have about 1 1/2 cups. Cool.
Mix the warm milk with the yeast and sugar. Let the starter sit for 5 or 10 minutes. Mix mashed potatoes
with flour and the salt. Start with 1 1/2 cups and add more flour to make a kneadable dough. Knead
dough well. Put it in a bowl and cover. Let it rise in a warm place for about 1 hour until doubled. Roll out
the dough with a floured rolling pin on a floured board to 1-2 cm thick. Cut into any shape. Prick with a
knife to keep big bubbles from forming. Melt fat in a frying pan so it is at least 1/2 deep. Fry Langos
over medium heat. If the fat is too hot they will burn, if the fat is to cool the Langos will absorb too much
of it. You will have to watch them. Let them get a nice color. When they are done, rub each Langos with
a cut clove of garlic and sprinkle with salt and Paprika. Serve warm.
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Italy
PANE FRATTAU
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
8 pieces of pane carasau
4 eggs
150 gr. of grated pecorino cheese
400 gr. of tomato sauce
1 litre of broth.
Preparation:
Divide the broth in two pots. Dip the pane carasau in the broth for a few seconds.
Put it on serving plate and make alternating layers with tomato sauce and grated pecorino cheese.
Cook the poached eggs in the broth and put them on the bread and serve with grated pecorino cheese.
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CULURGIONIS
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1 kilogram of potatoes
4 tablespoons of olive oil
2 cloves of garlic
Mint leaves
200 grams of viscidu (salty cheese)
6oo grams of flour
Pinch of salt
300 grams of pecorino cheese (fresh sheep cheese)
Water
Preparation:
Boil the potatoes after cleaning and peel them when cooked. Mash them and put them in a bowl.
Add chopped garlic, finely chopped mint leaves, and the viscidu. Add the oil and mix all the ingredients.
Prepare the dough with the flour with a little oil and a pinch of salt and knead well. Prepare small disks of
dough using a small glass. Fill each disk with a tablespoon of the potato mash mix. Give each disk a cone
form, shaping its edges as an ear of corn or else folding the disk on itself. Cook them as usual (boiled) for
ravioli and season with abundant grated pecorino cheese. You can also season them with tomato sauce.
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CAMPIDANESE MALLOREDDUS
Ravioli of Potatoes
of pasta used in south
reddus is a typical type
Italy
Mallo
of Sardinia
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1/2kg of malloreddus
400 g of pork sausages
olive oil
an onion
400g of peeled tomatoes
150g of grated pecorino cheese
salt
Preparation:
Chop finely the onion and make the tomato sauce with the sausage using olive oil; cook it slowly until
the sauce becomes dense. Cook the malloreddus in salted water, drain it, and season with the sauce,
and the pecorino.
SERVE IT HOT! DELICIOUS!
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LAMB WITH ARTICHOKES Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
6 artichokes
1kg of thigh of lamb
Parsley- 1 onion- 1clove of garlic
3 dried tomatoes
1 lemon- 1 halfspoon of salt- water.
Preparation:
Clean the artichokes removing the external leaves and thorns, divide them into 4 parts and leave them to
soak into water with lemon.
Cut the lamb in large portions and let them brown in a saucepan with a cup of oil. Turn them often
until they are browned on both sides. When they are cooked remove them from the pan and set them
aside. Chop finely onions, garlic, dried tomatoes and parsley: put the ingredients and the artichokes in
the saucepan from which you removed the lamb. Fry on high flame mixing often. When the liquid has
evaporated add 2 cups of water and boil for 5 minutes. At this point put the lamb in the pan adding halfspoonful of salt and cook for 1/2an hour.
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EEL PANADA
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
500 g eels
250 g flour
30 g lard
100 g dried tomatoes
parsley, olive oil .
Preparation:
Carefully wash the eels in salted water to remove the slime from their skin. Prepare the dough with flour,
lard and a little salted lukewarm water. After kneading it well, roll out a sheet of dough and line the
base of a deep, pre-oiled bowl. Put the eels, cut in pieces, in the bowl. Chop the parsley and the dried
tomatoes and season the eels. Pour some olive oil on the eels, add 3 or 4 spoonfuls of water and cover
with dough, sealing the edges carefully. Make some holes on the surface of the pie to let the steam out
and bake until golden brown.
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PARDULAS
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
600 grams of flour
80 grams of lard
6 whole eggs
600 grams of ricotta (cottage) cheese
300 grams of sugar
1 grated lemon rind
½ teaspoon saffron
Preparation:
Prepare these typical sweets by making the dough with 600 grams of flour, a little water and the lard.
Knead it well and roll it out as thin as possible. Prepare the filling by beating the eggs and mixing them
with the ricotta cheese, sugar, grated lemon rind, saffron and 2-3 table spoons of flour. The mixture
should reach a right consistency. With a glass cut the dough into disks. On the centre of each disk place 1
teaspoon of the filling, then lift the disk edge giving it a wavy shape so that it will look like a very small
basket. Bake in a medium hot oven for about 40 minutes.
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PABASSINAS
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
300 gr of Flour;
150 gr of Butter;
100 gr of Sugar;
2 Eggs;
80 gr of Raisins;
100 gr of Walnuts Kernels;
150 gr of Almonds;
50 gr of Confectioner's Sugar.
Preparation:
Prepare a short pastry with flour, butter, sugar and eggs. Chop up the almonds and the walnuts.
Add in the dough the raisins, walnuts and almonds. Let the dough stand for one hour.
Roll out the dough to a thickness of 1cm. Cut some rhomb and put them in pre-heated oven for
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AMARETTUS
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
500 gr sugar
225 gr almonds
10 bitter almonds
3 egg whites
white flour
Preparation:
Dip in boiling water the sweet and bitter almonds , then drain them, few at a time.
Peel them all. Put the almonds in a pan and let them dry in a warm oven. Take them out and let them
cool. Crush the almonds in a “mortar" until they become powder. Whip the egg whites in a large bowl,
add sugar and the almond powder. Mix the ingredients with care until everything becomes a smooth
but not soft pastry.
Use the mixture to prepare balls not bigger a nut, put them in the oven inside a large pan, previously
prepared with ovenpaper, (cover the paper with white flour ) and press them lightly .
Let them bake in the pre-heated oven ( 120° / 150°c ) for 20-25 minutes. Take them out when they
become a nice golden color.
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SARDINIAN GATEAU
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
500 grs of almonds
500 grs of sugar
2 lemons
oil
sugared almonds to garnishr
Preparation:
Put them on hot water for 5 minutes and peel them. Slice them and cook them at 170°C in an oven.
Let them golden and then cool. Melt the sugar with lemon juice, add the almonds and mix in a saucepan
on the fire (2 minutes). Pour the mixture on a marble table sprinkled with oil and roll it out into a square
shape. Let cool; cut into pieces and serve it.
Time:45 minutes
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BOLO DO CACO
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
750 g flour
1 coffee spoon bread leaven
50 g bread dough from the bakery
Salt
Preparation:
Bolt the flour into an earthenware bowl and join the leaven and the bread dough. Add small portions of
water with salt. Mix and knead until you get an homogenous dough. Divide it in small portions and make
on each one a deep cut in cross with your hand. Cover the table with a white table cloth and the table
cloth with flour. On the top of it put the 4 portions of dough separate from each other. Cover them with
the table cloth and let them ferment until the cuts disappear. Cook the dough over a clay or stone thin
base put over tripods above high firewood.
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EGG SOUP
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
1kg potatoes
2 onions
1 dl olive oil
q.b. salt
4 eggs
Preparation:
Boil the potatoes and the onions, in a pan with water, add the salt and the olive oil. When cooked
reduce to purée. Apart boil the eggs, for ten minutes. Let them cool, peel, and cut into pieces and put in
the purée.
Serve straight away
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AÇORDA
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
400g wheat bread
1 dish of sweet corn
4 tablespoon of olive oil
3 or 4 garlic
1 bunch of oregano
Thick salt q.b.
4 eggs
1 big sweet potato
1 peace of red pepper
Preparation:
Boil the water with the seasing (olive, salt, red pepper, garlic and oregano).Boil the eggs separately and
then put with the previous. Serve the açorda with pieces of bread, sweet corn and boiled sweet potato.
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INTEGRAL RICE WITH HERBS
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2 teacups (4,8 dl) of water
Salt q.b.
1 spoon of butter
1 teacup (2.4 dl) of integral rice (cookery: 20 minutes)
½ spoon (soup) of dry basil
¼ spoon of dry thyme
1 spoon of pricked parsley
Preparation:
The integral rice has a special flavour and it fills more. It takes a little more time to cook than the white
rice. There is a variety of long integral vaporized rice that it is cooked in 20 minutes
In an average saucepan, boil the water, add the butter, the rice and salt. Add the basil, the thyme and
the parsley; stir once. Cover the saucepan and reduce the fire. Cook slowly until the water is absorbed
(15 to 20 minutes)
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ESPETADA
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
Veal meat
Lours
Salt
Garlic
Preparation:
Cut the meat into small cubes and season with salt, lours and garlic. Stick each piece of meat in lours
sticks. Make a fire with bunches and wood well dried. Finally, put the meat over the heater and let it
roast.
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Portugal
ROLLED SCABBED FISH
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
fish
lemon juice
salt, onion
grind pepper
cured ham
Preparation:
Cut the fish into large and thin strips (as a beef) and season with lemon juice, salt, grind pepper and
leave it rest for fifteen minutes. After this, put in each piece of fish a slice of cured ham then roll and tie.
Make a stew with the onion and from time to time pour some water until is well stewed. After this put
some grated cheese and enough water to cook the fish rolls. Finally, when ready, remove the string and
serve covered with the sauce..
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MADEIRA HONEY CAKE
Portugal
ally on Christmas
l Madeira Honey Cake, made usu
ona
diti
tra
the
for
ipe
rec
the
in Portuguese,
is
s
Thi
of Madeira and named originally
nd
isla
the
on
r
yea
the
nd
rou
all
but also
bolo de mel.
Ingredients:
• 9 ounces (250 g) bread dough
from the baker's shop
• 90 ounces (2.5 kg) flour
• 35 ounces (1 kg) sugar
• 26 ounces (750 g) banha,
this is pork fat
• 17 ounces (500 g) butter
• 1 ounce (25 g) erva-doce,
this is anise herbs,
mashed and sifted
• 1.75 ounce (50 g) canela,
which is cinnamon
• 1 ounce (25 g) cravinho da india,
which are cloves in powder form
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
17 ounces (500 g) walnut,
cut into halves
9 ounces (250 g) almonds,
ground in the cutter
1.75 ounce (50 g) candied lemon peel,
cut into cubes
60 ounces (1.8 l) pure honey
5 Tablespoons of baking soda,
(dissolved in the Madeira Wine)
1 cup of madeira wine
juice and zest of 4 oranges
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Preparation:
One day before making the cake buy the bread-dough at the baker's shop, pass a little bit of flour on the
dough, put it in a towel and keep it in a warm place until next day. Put the baking soda into the Madeira,
dissolve. In a pan warm up the honey, join butter and pork fat (if not available, just use butter), dissolve.
Let this mixture cool down. Sift flour into a bowl, join sugar, shape a crater and put the bread dough in
the middle. Now work the flour-sugar-mixture into the bread dough. As soon as this is well joined, start to
incorporate little by little the (tepid) honey-fat-mixture. Join (part of) the candied lemon peel, the cup of
Madeira Wine,orange juice and orange zest, anise, cinnamon, cloves. Incorporate and knead thoroughly
until the dough doesn't stick on the bowl. Cover the dough with a towel and put it into a warm cover.
Keep it in a warm place for 3-4 days. Divide the dough into parts of 250g or 500g or 750 g, depending
on the pans to put into the oven. This cake is made in wide, round pans which are rather low. Before
going into the oven, the cake is decorated with half-walnuts, sliced almonds and (the rest of) candied
lemon peel. Grease the baking pans, bake about 50 minutes 355 °F (180 °C). Let cool down before
taking out of baking pan.
Notes, tips, and variations: mIn Madeira these honey cakes are made on 8 December, which is
traditionally considered the day of Mary's Immaculate Conception, because tradition says this cake is only
good for Christmas if it is made on this day. It is a custom to make enough of this cake in order to have
some during the whole year. Once cooled down and thoroughly wrapped into vegetable paper it remains
good until next Christmas without losing quality or taste. Another tradition surrounding this cake is that it
is not cut with knives but by hand and also eaten by hand, nothing more than a usual tradition but very
respected among Madeira locals.
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PAPAYA AND PASSION FRUIT SALAD
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
papaya
sugar
lemon
fruit juice
Preparation:
Peel and cut the papaya into slices. Put the slices in a tin. Sprinkle with some sugar. Add some lemon rind
and pour some squeezed passion fruit juice. Leave in the fridge.
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PASSION FRUIT PUDDING
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
1 lt of sweet cream
1 tin of condensed milk
2 uncoloured gelatines leaves
2 tropical flavour gelatines
1 can of concentrated passion fruitr
Preparation:
Whip the sweet cream well with the help of a mixer, add the condensed milk, the gelatine leaves (melted
in some water). Finally add the gelatines dissolved just with hot water (2 cups) and the passion fruit.
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Spain
FISHERMAN’S FILLED TOMATOES
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
4 tomatoes
2 tuna tins
mayonnaise
salt
Preparation:
Cut the upper part of each tomato and to empty it. With a holder, sting the interior in a bowl.
Add the tuna, the mayonnaise and salt. Mix well and fill the tomatoes.
Decorate with the upper part
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Spain
LEEK SOUP WITH COD
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
375 gr. Leek
180 gr. Onion
470 gr. Potato
200 gr. cod
2 clove of garlic
1 dl olive oil
2 l water.
Preparation:
Chop finely the leeks, all the white side and a few of the green side and put them into a casserole with
the potatoes (peeled and pieced), the onion finely chopped, the half of olive oil and add water to cover
them, add salt softly, because the cod ( later is added) is salty and could salt the cream too much.
Turn the heat up and boil during 40 minutes more or less. As long as the casserole is boiling, brown the
garlic in a pan with the rest of the olive oil, add the salt cod (desalted and chopped). When the potatoes
and the leeks are boiled add the pans content and all of them is triturated using a mincer. Finally setup
the point of salt. The cream is served in a soup tureen and is decorated with little pieces of the green side
of leeks boiled and finely chopped.
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RICE WITH MUSSELS
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
½ kg. Rice
200g. mussels
150gr. Small clams
1 clove of garlic
50g. carrots
50g. sheaths
50g. French beans
1 leek
Tomato sauce
Parsley
1 lemon
1,5l. Fish stock
Preparation:
Peel and piece the garlic, the beans, the carrots and the leek. Steam the mussels and throw away all
the mussels’ shells. Spread the garlic in the oiled frying pan. Then fry the rice lightly and add the rest of
ingredients. Once the rice is hot add the boiling fish stock twice as much fish stock than rice.
Cook it for 15 minutes.
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Tuna With Tomato Sauce
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
1,4 kg. Tuna
150g. onion
50g. green pepper
1k. tomato sauce
Flour
Parsle
Preparation:
Cut the onion, the green pepper and the parsley. Wash the tuna and cut up four slices. Add the onion and
the green pepper to the tomato sauce. Salt and flour the tuna, fry lightly in hot oil and put it on blotting
paper. Put the tuna in the pan and cover it with tomato sauce. Boil the tuna till it’s already cooked.
Decorate with parsley on top.
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COD PIL-PIL
Ingredients:
• 4 pieces of desalted cod, not too thick
• 0.3 dl olive oil, 0,4ºacidity
• 0.5 cloves garlic
Preparation:
First soak the salt cod to get rid of excessive saltiness. Remove any scales from the skin and dry with a
clean cloth. Place an earthenware casserole on a medium hot-hot burner with the olive oil and the cloves
of garlic, cut into thin slices. When the garlic begins to turn light brown, remove and set aside. Add the
four cod fillets and gently simmer for about seven or eight minutes until it gives when pressed. Take the
casserole off the burner and transfer the cod fillets, skin side up, into another casserole dish with two
tablespoonfuls of the hot oil. Let sit for two or three minutes while the cod releases some of its moisture.
Put the casserole dish back on the burner over very low heat and add the rest of the now cooled oil. To
thicken the sauce, the casserole dish must be moved in a continual circular motion, being careful not to
break the fish fillets. Make sure the sauce does reach a boil, as it will prevent the sauce from thickening.
Serve the cod skin side up with enough sauce to totally cover the fish. Garnish with a few of the browned
garlic slivers.
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Spain
SRAMBLED EGGS WITH WILD MUSHROOMS
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
½ kg. wild mushrooms
4 eggs
4 garlic shoots
4 tablespoons olive oil
sal
Preparation:
Mince the garlic shoots. Clean the mushrooms with a cloth. Heat up the oil in a frying pan over a low
flame and add the garlic shoots. Cut up the wild mushrooms and add them a few minutes later to the
pan and add salt. Sauté until all the water has been released from the mushrooms. When tender, turn up
the flame and crack the eggs into the frying pan and add a pinch of salt. Stir continually with a spatula or
wooden spoon, using brisk strokes until the scrambles eggs are moist and lightly gelled.
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Honey Apples
Ingredients:
• 4 apples
• Peeled nuts
• Honey
Preparation:
Peel the apples and make a hole. Put the apples in a large dish. Fill them with nuts and honey.
Microwave for five minutes and eat them hot.
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Spain
Fruit Salad
Ingredients:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
½ kg. Strawberries
3 oranges
2 apples
2 pears
2 kiwis
2 bananas
2 spoonfuls sugar
Preparation:
Wash the strawberries and cut them up. Peel and cut the rest of the fruit up. Place all the fruits in a bowl.
Squeeze the oranges and add the juice with some sugar to the mixture.
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Walnut Sauce
Ingredients:
Preparation:
• ½ Kg nuts
• 6 spoonfuls sugar
• 1l. milk
Clean the nuts carefully. Heat the milk adding the nuts and the sugar. Cook the mixture over a low heat
for 45 minutes stirring frequently. Walnut cream can be eaten hot or cold. It´s up to you
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ANALYSIS
WEEKDAY
ithin several other issues in the ‘What you eat is what you are’ project partner schools
compiled a questionnaire on eating habits of the students in the participating countries.
One part of the questionnaire examined weekday, the other weekend habits.
The numbers of students answering each question were transformed to percentage so as to make
comparison possible. This analysis follows the questions one by one and concentrates on certain
differences and similarities among national habits.
1. Gender
If attention were paid in each question to the gender of the students the amount of data would make
analysis too complicated and the outcome unclear. Therefore the first question was considered irrelevant
after the filling of the questionnaire. So all numbers represent the whole of students.
2. Do you eat between meals?
Most students eat between meals. Exceptions seem to be Austria and Germany where only a small
percentage of pupils eats between meals. All Portuguese students eat between meals
3. If yes, what?
Sweets are eaten as snacks in all countries. Belgium and Portugal have a much lower percentage than
the other countries and Spain’s rate is still even half than theirs. Fruit is eaten as a snack in all countries
except Austria. Generally, the percentages are rather low – Hungary has the highest with 28%. In southern
counties with the best climate for fruits it’s mostly below 10 %. Sandwiches/bread rolls are common in
Austria, Belgium, Hungary, Portugal and Spain. Yoghurt is popular in Germany, Hungary and Spain. Chips
were mentioned in Belgium, Portugal and Spain.
When do you have breakfast?
Most students in all countries are having breakfast – an exception seems to be Italy, where 11% don’t have
breakfast. The most popular time is between 6 and 8 – in Austria, Hungary and especially in Spain up to 9.
Spanish students don’t start eating before 7 o’clock. A quarter of Portugal eats after 9.
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When do you have lunch?
Generally lunchtime is from 11 to 4 p.m. The Belgians tend to have lunch early (mostly between 11 and 1),
About 30% of them eat before noon. Other countries mostly eat between 12 and 2 p.m. The latest are
Italy and Spain.
When do you have dinner?
Dinner is eaten between 5 p.m and 8 p.m. in general. The Austrians and Belgians tend to start the earliest,
followed by Germany and Hungary. Italy, Portugal and Spain (Southern European countries) eat much later.
Mostly after 8 o’clock.
4. How often do you eat a day?
The most common answer is 3 and 4 times. 5 is also popular, mostly so in Italy where it’s more than 40%.
More than 10% eats more than 5 times.
5. What is/are your main meal(s)?
Lunch or dinner are the main meals in all countries. With the exception of Belgium, between 40 and 60%
of the students declare lunch as their main meal. Breakfast is least important in Belgium and Hungary but
it is the main one for about 25% of Austria, Portugal and Spain.
6. Do you have breakfast?
Most students in all countries are having breakfast. Austria (with “only” 75% “breakfasters” is the country
where – in comparison – the highest number of students doesn’t have breakfast)
Where do you have breakfast?
In Austria, Germany, Belgium, Italy and Spain most of the students eat breakfast at home. In Hungary and
Portugal roughly half of the students eat at home, the other half eats at school. Some Belgians eat on the
way to school.
Hot or cold breakfast?
Hot breakfast is common in Austria and in southern Europe but not at all in Germany and Belgium (or Hungary).
What do you eat for breakfast?
Biscuits are popular in Italy and Spain. Cereals are eaten in Belgium, Germany, Hungary and Portugal.
The Italian students seem to eat only sweet food in the morning, whereas the Hungarians seem to be the
only ones where a majority eats sandwiches for breakfast. Sandwich is also popular in Austria, Belgium,
Germany, Portugal.
67
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What do you drink for breakfast?
f
In every country, students generally drink milk and cocoa. Nearly half of the Austrians and Hungarians have
tea for breakfast. Coffee is popular in Austria, Belgium and Italy (40%). Fruit juices are consumed by around
10% of the Belgians, Hungarians, Italians and Portugese – in Germany and Spain the rate is nearly 50%
higher. Germany, Belgium and Hungary also likes water, but southern Europe consumes nearly nothing of
it. In Belgium and Hungary students drink soft drinks, too.
x
7. Do you have lunch?
v
Nearly everyone has lunch.
Where do you have lunch?
x
U
Most of the Austrians, Germans and Italians eat at home, whereas most of the pupils in Belgium and Spain
eat at school. Hungary and Portugal is divided between home and school. To eat on the way home only
seems to be popular in Portugal.
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Hot or cold lunch?
In Austria, Germany, Hungary and Spain a large percentage has a hot lunch, whereas in Belgium and Italy
a vast majority eats a cold lunch. In Portugal both are present equally.
What do you eat for lunch?
Both pasta and meat feature in each 5 countries. Pasta is eaten by nearly all of the Italian students, followed
by a majority of the Hungarians and some Germans, Austrians and even less pupils from Portugal.
Vegetables are popular in Spain, Italy and Hungary and eaten by around 10% of the Austrians ad Portuguese.
Soup only seems to be popular in Hungary (and to a certain extend by the Portuguese). Fish is mainly eaten
in Southern Europe. Belgians are the only pupils that eat sandwiches – and with 95% this percentage is very
high. Bread is favoured by slightly more than half of the pupils in Italy and by 75% of the Spanish. Italy
and Spain eats bread for lunch. Fruit can be found only in Italy and Portugal. Spain likes salad and yoghurt
(60%). Desserts only seem to be eaten for lunch in Italy.
What do you drink for lunch?
Water is popular everywhere except for Belgium. The second favourite drink is juice which features in all
countries except Belgium and Spain. Tea is only in Hungary. Between 10 and 35 % of the students in
Belgium, Hungary and Italy like soft drinks. Italians are the only ones mentioning beer and wine.
8. Do you have dinner?
Most students from all countries have dinner. The only exception is Spain – here most of the students don’t
have dinner.
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Where do you have dinner?
Students eat mostly at home.
Hot or cold dinner?
In Belgium, Portugal and Spain hot dinner is more popular, in Hungary the students are almost equally
divided in hot and cold as preferences. Italy, Germany and Austria seem to prefer cold dinner.
What do you eat for dinner?
Bread (5 countries – 50% in Spain, Hungary, Germany), meat (5 countries – high percentages in Belgium
and Italy), vegetables (5 countries) and pasta (4 countries) seem to be the most popular food for dinner.
Fish is only popular in Italy and Portugal. Sandwich is eaten in Germany, Hungary, Spain. Portugal likes
soup. Desserts are only named in Italy and Spain. Italy and Spain eat fruit. Others don’t.
What do you drink for dinner?
Water is popular everywhere – in Italy most of the students drink it. The second popular drink seems to be
juice – it is named in 6 countries, but everywhere lower than 30%.
Soft drinks are also popular in 4 countries – especially in Belgium where the majority of students have it.
Four countries have milk-drinkers. Hungary drinks the most milk but also likes tea.
Wine and beer drinking comes again in Italy.
69
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ANALYSIS
1. Gender
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WEEKEND
5
0
If attention were paid in each question to the gender of the students the amount of data would make
analysis too complicated and the outcome unclear. Therefore the first question was considered irrelevant
after the filling of the questionnaire. So all numbers represent the whole of students.
2. Do you eat between meals?
a
Most students eat between meals. In Austria the rate is 50%, in other countries it is higher. All Portuguese
students answered ‘yes’. Eating between meals is kind of traditional there.
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If yes, what?
Fruits are popular especially in Austria, Germany and Hungary. It is peculiar that in southern counties with
the best climate for fruits they are below 10 %. Yoghurt is popular in Germany and Hungary. Other countries
(except for Portugal) don’t eat any. Above 10% of Austrians claimed that they have soup! Some kind of
sandwich is eaten in Austria, Hungary and Portugal. Sweets’ is a common answer (20-30%). The fewest
sweets are consumed in Belgium, but this is compensated with eating lots of biscuits. Hamburger and chips
were mentioned in Portugal. It is obvious that a number of students don’t consider the time between main
meals as an opportunity for eating healthy food. They fill up their resources mostly with carbohydrates.
When do you have breakfast?
Italy and Portugal are the earliest starters. Most of them finish before 8 o’clock. Germany is evenly divided
from 6 to 12! Austria, Belgium and Spain don’t eat before 7 o’clock. Hungary starts eating the latest,
mostly after 8 o’clock. Above 10% in Italy doesn’t have any breakfast.
When do you have lunch?
Belgians start the earliest. About 25% eat before noon. The latest are Italy and Spain. Portugal eats at noon.
When do you have dinner?
Belgians start the earliest again. Southern Europe eats the latest. They start mostly after 8 o’clock.
The rest eats between 6 and 8.
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4. How often do you eat a day?
More than 10% of Germany eats only once or twice a day! The majority of Belgium and Germany eats 3
times. The most common answer is 4 times but 5 is also popular. More than 10% in average eats more
than 5 times.
5.What is/are your main meal(s)?
Lunch is the main meal except in Belgium where dinner is more significant. Breakfast is least important in
Hungary and Italy but it is the main one for about 25% of Portugal and Spain
6. Do you have breakfast?
Above 80% of Germany doesn’t have breakfast! In other countries it is the direct opposite.
Where do you have breakfast?
Pactically everyone eats at home.
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Hot or cold breakfast?
Hot breakfast is absolute in Austria (100%!) and in southern Europe but not at all in Germany and Belgium
who eat mostly cold.
What do you eat for breakfast?
Italy and Spain are biscuit eaters in the morning. Italians eat only sweet stuff at that time.
Every Austrian eats fruit in other countries they are insignificant or none. Cornflakes and food alike are about
20-30% everywhere except in Italy and Austria. Sandwich is popular in Germany, Belgium and Hungary.
What do you drink for breakfast?
Austrians drink tea, nothing else. Others drink milk and cocoa and fruit juice. Germany also likes water.
Coffee is popular in Belgium, Italy(40%) and Portugal. In Belgium and Hungary students drink soft drinks, too.
7. Do you have lunch?
Nearly everyone has lunch.
Where do you have lunch?
Students eat mostly at home except for Spain. One third of them eats somewhere else..
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Hot or cold lunch?
The answer is basicly hot. In Italy it’s nearly always cold. In Belgium and Portugal it can be either.
What do you eat for luncht?
In Hungary soup is a traditional part of lunch. Italy is naturally on the side of pasta but also has meat, fruit
and fish. Fish and fruit can be found only in southern Europe. Half of Belgium and Italy eat sandwiches.
Belgians eat some French fries. Only Italy wrote desserts.
What do you drink for lunch?
Water, fruit juice and soft drinks (the latter is not so in Portugal) are popular. In Italy some drink beer and wine.
8. Do you have dinner?
People mostly do.
Where do you have dinner?
The answer is basically ‘at home’.
Hot or cold dinner?
Austria, Belgium, Portugal and Spain eat hot, Hungary likes both the rest has cold.
What do you eat for dinner?
Fish is popular in Italy and Portugal. Sandwich is eaten everywhere except for Portugal and is most common
in Hungary. Portugal likes soup. Austria and Italy likes pasta. Italy also has pizza, fruit and vegetables.
What do you drink for dinner?
Water can be found everywhere. Juice is also present in all countries except for Belgium.
They have soft drinks instead. Austria and Hungary drink tea. Hungary likes milk and cocoa.
Wine and beer drinking is again an option in Italy.
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Italian
U
Dutch
Portuguese
y
Basque
Spanish
German
English
s
Hungarian
DICTIONARY
e
ENGLISH
GERMAN
SPANISH
BASQUE
PORTUGUESE
DUTCH
HUNGARIAN
ITALIAN
SARDO
cover
cutlery
bowl
cup
fork
knife
plate
plate for the soup
pot
saucer
serviette /
napkin
tablespoon
teaspoon
Gedeck
Besteck
Schüssel
Tasse
Gabel
Messer
Teller
Suppenteller
Becher
Untertasse
Serviette
cubiertos
cubiertos
cuenco
taza
tenedor
cuchillo
plato
plato sopero
recipiente
platillo
servilleta
mahai-tresneria
mahai-tresneria
kaiku
kikara
sardexka
ganibet
plater
plater sakon
ontzi
platertxo
aho-zapi
utensilios
talheres
tigela
chavena
garfo
faca
prato
prato fundo
taça
pires
guardanapo
g
couvert
bestek
kom
tas
vork
mes
bord
soepbord
pot
ondertas
serviette
teríték
evôeszköz
tál
csésze
villa
kés
tányér
leveses tányér
fazék
csészealj
szalvéta
coperto
posate
ciotola
tazza
forchetta
coltello
piatto
piatto fondo
vaso
piattino
tovagliolo
coperto
posàda
iscudiglia
tassa
furchitta
gorteddu
prattu
prattu fundu
vasu
prattigliu
trattabuccu
Esslöffel
Teelöffel
cuchara
cuchara de te
koilara
koilaratxo
colher de sopa
colher de
eetlepel
koffielepel
evôkanál
teáskanál
cucchiaio
cucchiaino
cuglièra
cocciarinu
meat
bacon
beef
chicken breast
chicken leg
chicken wing
duck
fish
goose
ham
kidney
lamb
lamb cutlet
lamb fillet
liver
mussel
pork
poultry
rabbit
salmon
Fleisch
Speck
Rindfleisch
Hühnerbrust
Hühnerkeule
Hühnerflügel
Ente
Fisch
Gans
Schinken
Niere
Lamm
Lammkotelett
Lammfilet
Leber
Muscheln
Schweinefleisch
Geflügel
Kaninchen
Lachs
carne
bacón
vaca
pechuga de pollo
muslo de pollo
alita de pollo
pato
pescado
ganso
jamón
riñón
cordero
chuletilla de cordero
filete de cordero
hígado
mejillón
cerdo
aves
conejo
salmón
okela
beicon
behi
oilasko-bularki
oilasko-hanka
oilasko-hegal
ahate
arrain
antzara
urdaiazpiko
giltzurrun
arkume
arkume-txuleta
arkume-xerra
gibel
muskuilu
txerri
hegaztiak
untxi
izokin
carne
bacon
vaca
peito de galinha
coxa de galinha
asa de galinha
pato
peixe
ganso
fiambre
rim
borrego
costeleta de borrego
bife de borrego
figado
mexilhão
porco
ave
coelho
salmão
vlees
spek
runds
kippenborst
kippenbout
kippenvleugel
eend
vis
gans
hesp
nier
lam
lamskotelet
lamsfilet
lever
mossel
varken(svlees)
gevogelte
konijn
zalm
hús
szalonna
marhahús
csirkemell
csirkecomb
csirkeszárny
kacsa
hal
liba
sonka
vese
bárány
bárányszelet
bárányfilé
máj
kagyló
disznóhús
baromfi
nyúl
lazac
carne
pancetta
manzo
petto di pollo
cosce di pollo
ala di pollo
anatra
pesce
oca
prosciutto
rognone
agnello
costoletta agnel
filetto agnello
fegato
cozza
maiale
pollame
coniglio
salmone
pezza
pancetta
malloru domau
pettu de caboni
coscia
ala de caboni
anari
pisci
oca
presuttu
arrigu
angioni
costigedda
filèttu
figàu
cozza
proccu
puddas
conìllu
salmoni
h
K
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ENGLISH
GERMAN
SPANISH
meat
sardine
sausages
trout
tuna
turkey
veal
Fleisch
Sardinen
Würstchen
Forelle
Tunfisch
Pute
Kalbfleisch
carne
sardina
salchichas
trucha
atún
pavo
ternera
okela
sardina
saltxitxak
amuarrain
hegaluze
indioilar
txahal
spices
fennel
ketchup
mayonnaise
mustard
oil
pepper
salt
sauce
sugar
vinegar
Gewürze
Fenchel
Ketchup
Mayonnaise
Senf
Öl
Pfeffer
Salz
Sauce
Zucker
Essig
especias
hinojo
ketchup
mayonesa
mostaza
aceite
pimienta
sal
salsa
azúcar
vinagre
vegetables
Gemüse
verdura
baked potatoes
beans
gebackene
Kartoffeln
Bohnen
beetroot
broccoli
PORTUGUESE
Italian
HUNGARIAN
carne
sardinha
salsichas
truta
atum
peru
vitela
vlees
sardien
sartizzu
trota
tunnu
pioccu
vitellu
hús
szardínia
kolbász
pisztráng
tonhal
pulyka
borjúhús
carne
sardina
salsicce
trota
tonno
tacchino
vitello
pezza
sardina
sartizzu
trota
tunnu
pioccu
vitellu
espeziak
mihilu
ketxup
maionesa
mostaza
olio
piperbeltz
gatz
saltsa
azukre
ozpin
especiarias
funcho
ketchup
maionese
mustarda
oleo
pimenta
salsichas
molho
açucar
vinagre
kruiden
venkel
ketchup
mayonaise
mosterd
olie
peper
zout
saus
suiker
azijn
fûszerek
édeskömény
ketchup
majonéz
mustár
olaj
bors
só
szósz
cukor
ecet
spezie
finocchio
ketchup
maionese
mostarda
olio
pepe
sale
salsa
zucchero
aceto
spezias
fenùgu
ketchup
maionese
mostarda
ollu
pìbiri
sali
bagna
zuccuru
axèdu
barazki
prato
vegetais
zöldségek
verdura
birdura
patatas asadas
patata erreak
batatas assadas
sültburgonya
patate arrosto
patata arrustu
alubias
indaba
feijões
gebakken
aardappelen
bonen
bab
fagiolini
fasolu
Rote Beete
remolacha
erremolatxa
beterraba
rode biet
cékla
barbabietola
biaraba
Brokkoli
brocolli
brokkoli
broccoli
brocculu
spruiten
kelbimbó
cavolini di Brus
cavolini di Brus
kool
káposzta
cavolo
càuli
bloemkool
karfiol
cavolfiore
càuli a flori
mais
kukorica
granoturco
trigucixirian
a
p
j
brócoli
brokoli
brocolos
Brussels sprouts Rosenkohl
coles de Bruselas
Brusela aza
couve de bruxelas
cabbage
Kohl
col
aza
couve
cauliflower
Blumenkohl
coliflor
azalore
couve flor
corn
Mais
maíz
arto
milho
u
Hungarian
DUTCH
h
BASQUE
Dutch
Portuguese
m
Basque
Spanish
German
English
x
f
.
Sardo
,
DICTIONARY
74
ITALIAN
g
o
SARDO
e
z
z
8
9
E
q
Sardo
Italian
Hungarian
Dutch
Portuguese
6
u 1
Basque
Spanish
German
English
DICTIONARY
5
ENGLISH
GERMAN
SPANISH
BASQUE
PORTUGUESE
DUTCH
HUNGARIAN
ITALIAN
SARDO
vegetables
cucumber
eggplant
fried potatos
lettuce
peas
potatoes
rice
steamed potatoes
tomato
zucchini
Gemüse
Salatgurke
Auberginen
Bratkartoffeln
Kopfsalat
Erbsen
Kartoffeln
Reis
Salzkartoffeln
verdura
pepino
berenjena
patatas fritas
lechuga
guisantes
patatas
arroz
patatas cocidas
barazki
pepino
berenjena
patata frijituak
letxuga
ilar
patatak
arroz
patata egosiak
vegetais
pepino
beringela
batatas fritas
alface
ervilhas
batatas
arroz
batatas cozidas
zöldségek
uborka
padlizsán
sültkrumpli
fejessaláta
borsó
burgonya,krumpli
rizs
párolt krumpli
verdura
cetriolo
melanzane
patate fritte
lattuga
piselli
patate
riso
patate a vapore
birdura
cugumini
perdingiànu
patata fritta
lattia
pisurci
patata
arrosu
patata buddia
Tomate
Zucchini
tomate
calabacín
tomate
kalabazin
tomate
curgete
groenten
komkommer
aubergine
frieten
sla
erwten
aardappelen
rijst
gekookte aardappelen
tomaat
courgette
paradicsom
cukkini
pomodoro
zucchine
tomata
croccoriga
fruit
apple
apricot
banana
cherry
gooseberry
Obst
Apfel
Aprikose
Banane
Kirsche
Stachelbeere
fruta
manzana
albaricoque
plátano
cereza
grosella silvestre
fruta
maça
damasco
banana
cereja
groselha
fruit
appel
abrikoos
banaan
kers
stekelbes
gyümölcsök
alma
sárgabarack
banán
cseresznye
egres
frutta
mela
albicocca
banana
ciliegia
mirtilli
frutta
mela
piriccòcu
banana
ceregia
mirtilli
kiwi fruit
lemon
melon
orange
peach
pear
pineapple
plum
strawberry
Kiwi
Zitrone
Melone
Orange
Pfirsich
Birne
Ananas
Pflaume
Erdbeere
kiwi
limón
melón
naranja
melocotón
pera
piña
ciruela
fresa
fruitak
sagar
arbeletxeko
banana
gerezi
andere mahatszuri
kiwi
limoi
meloi
laranja
mertxika
madari
anana
aran
marrubi
kiwi
limão
lelão
laranja
pessego
pera
ananas
ameixa
morango
kiwi
citroen
meloen
sinaasappel
perzik
peer
ananas
pruim
aardbei
kivi
citrom
sárgadinnye
narancs
ôszibarack
körte
ananász
szilva
eper
kiwi
limone
melone
arancia
pesca
pera
ananas
prugna-susina
fragole
kiwi
limoni
meloni
arangiu
pressiu
pira
ananas
pruna
fragola
drinks
beer
cacao
juice
milk
Getränke
Bier
Kakao
Fruchtsaft
Milch
bebidas
cerveza
cacao
zumo
leche
edariak
garagardo
kakao
zuku
esne
bebidas
cerveja
cacau
sumo
leite
drank
bier
cacao
fruitsap
melk
italok
sör
kakaó
(gyümölcs)lé
tej
bevande
birra
cacao
succo di frutta
latte
cos’e buffa
birra
cacao
fruttu spremiu
latti
0 3
s
l
r
t -
75
Z
/
,
8
c
f
9
6 x w
.
v
U
5
y a g e
h j
K
p
0
o 4
z
i
HUNGARIAN
ITALIAN
SARDO
drinks
mineral water
wine
Getränke
Mineralwasser
Wein
bebidas
agua mineral
vino
edariak
ur mineral
ardo
bebidas
agua mineral
vinho
drank
mineraal water
wijn
italok
ásványvíz
bor
bevande
acqua minerale
vino
cos’e buffa
acqua minerali
binu
other
biscuits
butter
cake
cerials/cornflakes
cheese
chocolate
cream
dishes
eggs
flan
french fries
gateau
hamburger
honey
ice cream
jam/marmelade
margarine
mousse
pudding
salad
sandwich
soup
tart
yoghurt
andere
Kekse
Butter
Kuchen
Cornflakes
otros
galletas
mantequilla
pastel
cereales
beste batzuk
galleta
gurin
pastel
zerealak
outros
bolachas
manteiga
bolo
cereais
andere
koekjes
boter
gebak
ontbijtgranen
egyéb
keksz
vaj
sütemény
gabonapehely
altro
biscotti
burro
torta
cereali
atru
bistoccu
burru
turta
cereali
Käse
Schokolade
Sahne
Speisen
Eier
Flan
Pommes Frites
Torte
Hamburger
Honig
Eis
Marmelade
Margarine
Cremespeise
Pudding
Salat
belegtes Brot
Suppe
Obstkuchen
Joghurt
queso
chocolate
nata
platos
huevos
flan
patatas fritas
tarta
hamburguesa
miel
helado
mermelada
margarina
mousse
pudin
ensalada
bocadillo
sopa
tartaleta
yogur
gazta
txokolate
gain
platerrak
arrautzak
flan
patata frijituak
tarta
hanburgesa
ezti
izozki
marmelada
margarina
mousse
budin
entsalada
ogitarteko
zopa
tartaleta
jogurt
queijo
chocolate
natas
pratos
ovos
flan
batatas fritas
torta
hamburger
mel
gelado
doce/marmelada
margarina
mousse
pudim
salada
sandes
soupa
tarte
iogurte
kaas
chocolade
room
schotels
eieren
flan
frieten
taart
hamburger
honig
ijs
confituur
margarine
mousse
pudding
salade
belegd broodje
soep
gebakje
yoghurt
sajt
csokoládé
krém
edények, fogások
tojás
kb. gyümölcskosárka
sültkrumpli
sütemény, torta
hamburger
méz
fagylalt
lekvár
margarin
hab
puding
saláta
szendvics
leves
torta
joghurt
formaggio
cioccolato
panna-crema
piatti
eggs
flan
patatine fritte
gateau
hamburger
miele
gelato
marmellata
margarina
mousse
budino
insalata
sandwich
zuppa-minerstra
tortina
yoghurt
casu
ciculatti
crema
prattu
ousu
flan
patata fritta
gateau
hamburger
meli
gelau
marmellata
margarina
mousse
budinu
insalada
sandwich
minestra-suppa
turtina
yoghurt
76
Sardo
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Basque
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German
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