Language Families And The Place of Turkish in Languages



Language Families And The Place of Turkish in Languages
Language Families And The Place of
Turkish in Languages
• There are more than 2700 languages spoken
in the world today.
• Some of them aren’t even used in written
• The languages on earth show some similarities
and differences in terms of voice systems,
structures and syntax-that is «the position of
the words in a sentence»
Language Families
• Those similarities and closeness between
languages are called «Language Families»
• However, it doesn’t mean that the nations are
also relatives.
• There are some nations that use the same
language families «eg. English and Persian»
but their ancestors aren’t relatives.
Language Families
• The language families can be analyzed in two
A. In Terms of Structure
B. In Terms of Roots
Roots of Languages
• The languages similar to each other in terms
of roots are the ones that come from the
same origin.
Primary Language Families:
• Primary language families in the world:
1. Indo-European Languages
a. Asian: Indian, Persian, Armenian
b. European:
ı. Germanic Languages: German, English,
Dutch, Danish.
ıı. Roman Languages: Latin, French,
Spanish, Italian.
ııı. Slavic Languages: Russian, Serbian
Primary Language Families:
2. Chamito-Semitic Languages: Arabic, Hebrew
3. Bantu Languages: African Languages
4. Sino-Thai Languages: Chinese, Tibetan
5. Uralo-Altaic Languages:
a. Uralo Branch: Finnish, Hungarian
b. Altaic Branch: Turkish, Mongolian
Language Families
Brief History of Turkish Language
• The roots of Turkish language goes back to old
ages. There are different thougts among
scientists about it. We can classify the
development of Turkish language as follows:
1. Altaic Age: Turkish-Mongolian together 1
2. The Oldest Turkish Age: There aren’t any
definite info about this age.
Brief History of Turkish Language
3. The First Turkish Age: 5th Century BC-6th
Century AD.
It’s the age of The Hun Empire.
The Epic of the Oğuz Khan, in which the Hun
Emperor Mete Khan is described, is written in
this age.
Brief History of Turkish Language
4. Old Turkish Age: 5th Century-10th century
The oldest examples known in Turkish dates
back to this age.(8th century)
The name «Turkish» is used for the first time in
the history with the country of Göktürks
In this age Tonyukuk, Kültigin and Bilge Khan
tablets were written.
•Bilge Khan tablets
•Kültigin Tablet
• Tonyukuk Tablet
Brief History of Turkish Language
5. Middle Turkish Age: 10th-16th centuries
Turks become Muslims in this age.
In this age, words from Arabic and Persian
started to join Turkish language.
Brief History of Turkish Language
6. New Turkish Age: 16th-20th Centuries
Uzbek Language
Brief History of Turkish Language
7. Modern Turkish: 20th century and the
language spoken today.
After the foundation of Republic of Turkey
Atatürk initiates a language reform to replace
Arabic alphabet with Latin alphabet and to
replace Arabic and Persian loanwords with the
Turkish equivalents.
• Introducing the latin alphabet
Interaction With Foreign Languages
• In the Big Turkish Dictionary (Büyük Türkçe
Sözlüğü) there are about 110.000 words.
• About 15.000 words are taken from other
• Although Atatürk’s language reform tried to
purify the Turkish language from the words of
Arabic and Persian origin, the words taken
from Arabic, Persian and French form an
important amount of the dictionary.
Some Foreign Words in Turkish
From Arabic: insan(human), asker (soldier)
Persian: ateş(fire), rüzgar(wind)
French: kuzen(cousin), detay(detail),
Italian: politika(politics), fanila(flannel)
English: video, çita(cheetah), medya(media)
Greek: liman(port), kiraz(cherry)
German: şalter(switch), panzer
The Numbers of the Words Taken
From Turkish by Foreign Languages:
Serbian: 8995
Bulgarian: 3490
Greek: 2984
Persian: 2969
Albanian: 2622
Romanian: 2780
Russian: 2476
Arabic: 1990
Magyar: 1982
Ukrainian: 800
English: 470
Chinese: 289
Czech: 248
Urdu: 227
German: 166
Italian: 146
Finnish: 115
Some examples:
Turkish «bıçak»
Magyar «bicska»
Turkish «cacık»
Greek «tzatziki»
Turkish «çaprak» German«Schabrake»
Turkish «dolma»
English «dolma»
Turkish «köşk»
German «kiosk»
Turkish «ordu»
French «horde»
Turkish «yelek» Spanish «chaleco»
Turkish «yoğurt» English «yoghurt»
French «yaourt» German «Joghurt»
Spanish «yogur»
Thank you for your attendance.
Please have a look at your «CULKAS
Dictionaries» for more similar words.
September 2013Belgium/Brussels