Vascular and non-vascular seedless plants

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Vascular and non-vascular seedless plants
Vascular and
non-vascular
seedless plants
Bio 181 Week 7
Learning Objectives
• Describe the life histories and related
reproductive structures of bryophytes.
• Describe the distinguishing features of
liverworts, mosses, and hornworts.
• Describe some of the key adaptations that allow
liverworts, mosses, and hornworts to live on
land.
• Describe the role of bryophytes in the
environment.
• Discuss similarities and differences between
ferns and other plants you have studied in the
lab.
• Describe the life cycles of ferns.
Survey of the Plant Kingdom: This and
Next Week
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Phylum – Common Name
Hepaticophyta – Liverworts
Bryophyta – Mosses
Anthocerophyta – Hornworts
Pterophyta – Ferns
Lycophyta – Club Mosses
Cycadophyta – Cycads
Ginkgophyta – Ginkgo
Coniferophyta – Conifers
Gnetophyta – Gnetophytes
Anthophyta – Flowering plants
Liverworts, Mosses, and Hornworts of Phyla
Hepaticophyta, Bryophyta, and Anthocerophyta
• Distinct sporophyte and gametophyte phases,
but gametophyte is the dominant phase.
Phylum Bryophyta: Mosses
• Distinct sporophyte and gametophyte phases,
but gametophyte is the dominant phase.
• Gametophytes (haploid) produce gametes
– Either male or female
• Sporophytes (diploid) produce spores
Sporophyte
Gametophyte
Phylum Bryophyta: Mosses
• Distinct sporophyte and gametophyte phases,
but gametophyte is the dominant phase.
• Gametophytes (haploid) produce gametes
– Either male or female
• Haploid sperm produced by male gametophytes
– In antheridia
• Haploid egg produced by female gametophyte
– In archegonium
• Produces diploid sporophyte
Phylum Bryophyta: Mosses
• Sporophyte (diploid) grows
out of archegonium,
produces spores from
meiosis.
Phylum Bryophyta: Mosses
• Spores grow into
gametophytes.
• Starts over!
Seedless Vascular Plants of Phylum
Pterophyta
• Have vascular tissue
– Xylem, phloem: conduct fluids
Ferns: Pterophyta
• Have vascular tissue
– Xylem, phloem: conduct
fluids
Sporophyte
• Sporophytes – produce
spores from sporophylls
– Megaphylls, microphylls
– Sporangia – where spores
are produced via meiosis
• Gametophytes – produce
gametes
Gametophyte
Ferns: Pterophyta
• Gametophyte (haploid)
– Males develop sperm in antheridia
– Females develop eggs in archegonia
• Zygote (diploid) grows out of
archegonium
• Becomes sporophyte
Sporophyte
Gametophyte
Ferns: Pterophyta
• Sporophyte’s leaves (called fronds)
form clusters of sporangia
– Spots are called sori
• Meiosis in the sporangia forms
spores (haploid)
• Spores germinate upon release,
becoming gametophytes!
Sporophyte
• AKA prothallia.
Gametophyte
Seedless Vascular Plants of Phylum
Lycophyta
• Club mosses
• Have true roots, stems,
and leaves!
• Sporangia occur in
modified leaves called
sporophylls cultured in
cones called strobili.
Today
• 28.1 – Examine the thallus of Marchantia
• 28.2 – Prepared slide of Marchantia
• 28.3 – Examine sporophytes of liverworts
– Examine model of Marchantia
• 28.4 – Examine mosses
– Live: Polytrichum, Dicranum, Spagnum, Mnium
• 28.5 - SKIP
• 28.6 – Examine archegonia and antheridia of mosses (prepared
slide)
• 29.1 – Examine sori
– Dissecting scope and prepared slide of fern indusium (compound light
microscope)
• 29.2 – Observe archegonia and antheridia - prepared slides
• Examine Horsetails - Table 3
• 29.4 - Examine club mosses
– Observe live club moss (Lycopodium)

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