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here - Texas Tech University HSC School of Pharmacy
11/3/14 Generational Differences and
Possible Impact on Experiential
Education In Pharmacy
T. Lynn Stevenson, PharmD, BCPS
Director of Experiential Learning
Associate Clinical Professor of Pharmacy Practice
Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy
Objectives
Describe general differences in the last 6
generations
—  Discuss how these differences can impact
learning styles
—  Relate differences in learning styles to
experiential education in pharmacy
— 
1 11/3/14 Audience Poll
—  In
which age group do you belong?
◦  15-33 years of age
◦  34-49 years of age
◦  50-68 years of age
◦  69-89 years of age
◦  >89 years of age
Generational Archetypes
Artist
(Traditionalists,
Homelanders)
Hero
(GI, Millennials)
Prophet
(Baby Boomers)
Nomad
(Gen X)
Strauss W, Howe N. Generations. The History of America’s Future, 1584-2069. William Morrow and Company,
Inc., New York, NY: 1991.
2 11/3/14 Currently 4 generations share
workplaces and training sites.
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Z5DLEPjUa_Y/TtHPNKbM1KI/AAAAAAAAAEI/CZPLm7REmAk/s1600/gen+differences.jpg
http://www.utahbusiness.com/app/webroot//files/media/generations_feature.jpg
3 11/3/14 A Generation
—  20
years
—  Members share
◦  Beliefs/values
◦  Characteristics and attitudes
◦  Historical commonality
—  Generation
gap
◦  Years separating one generation from another
◦  Lack of understanding or communication
between people of different generations
Pew Survey-2009
79% of public said there is a generational gap
◦  “a major difference in the point of view of
younger people and older people today.”
http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2009/08/12/ii-generations-apart-and-together/
4 11/3/14 Audience Poll
Have you ever felt there is a generation gap
between you and your students?
◦  Yes
◦  No
◦  Unsure
Generations
— 
GIs
— 
Traditionalists/Matures
◦  1900-1924 (90+ yoa)
◦  1925-1945 (69-89 yoa)
— 
Baby boomers
— 
Generation X
◦  1946-1964 (50-68 yoa)
◦  1965-1980 (34-49 yoa)
— 
Millennials or Generation Y
— 
Homelanders
http://comerecommended.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/
lcm4gen_placeholider.jpg
◦  1981and late 1990’s (15-33 yoa)
◦  2000-present (14 yoa and younger)
Source: The Center for Generational Studies. Available at http://www.gentrends.com/faq.html#DefiningtheGenerations
5 11/3/14 GI
—  “The
Greatest Generation”
—  WWI/WWII
—  Great Depression
—  Prohibition/organized crime
—  Community/Civic-minded
—  Team-oriented
Traditionalists
—  Loyal
—  Hard-working
—  Managers
think, employees work
—  Good mentors
—  Lived with limited means
—  Financially conservative
—  Approaching retirement or retired
6 11/3/14 Influential Events
—  Traditionalists
◦  Stock market crash/Great Depression
◦  FDR/The New Deal
◦  Pearl Harbor/WW II
◦  D-Day at Normandy
◦  Korean War
◦  GI bill
Baby Boomers
—  Competitive, challenging
—  Workaholics
—  Live
to work
—  May have/had several jobs
—  Varied experiences
—  Politically savvy
http://www.backpocketcoo.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/Baby-Boomers.jpg
7 11/3/14 Influential Events
—  Baby
Boomers
◦  Television
◦  Civil Rights Movement
◦  Assassinations of JFK, RK & MLK, Jr
◦  The Beatles, Woodstock, Rock and Roll
◦  First moon exploration
◦  Vietnam War/antiwar protests
◦  Sexual revolution
Generation X
—  Skeptical
—  Focused
on self at work
—  Autonomous, don’t want to be
micromanaged
—  Jobs are temporary, stepping stones
—  Seek balance between work and personal
life
—  Affected by divorce and single parents
—  Technologically savvy
8 11/3/14 Influential Events
—  Gen
X
◦  Soviet Union collapse
◦  Watergate
◦  Rising divorce rates/Women’s lib
◦  MTV and video games
◦  Personal computers/development of internet
◦  Economic turmoil of the 1970s/early 80s
◦  Corruption in corporate America
◦  Challenger disaster
◦  Operation Desert Storm
◦  LA Riots/Rodney King
The Millennials
—  Gen Y, Generation
N, “Nintendo
generation”, “Nexters”
—  Grew up with hectic schedules
—  “helicopter parents”
—  Connected-online, email, text messaging
—  Resilient, hard-working, optimistic, civicminded
—  Technologically skilled
—  Multicultural and ethnically diverse
http://familyfirstpeds.com/wp-content/
uploads/2014/03/HelicopterParents.jpg
Cuellar LM, Ginsburg DB. (2009). Preceptor’s Handbook for Pharmacists.
Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists.
9 11/3/14 The Millennials
—  Optimistic
—  Not
attached to organized politics or
religion
—  Linked by social media
—  Significant debt
—  Distrustful of people
—  In no hurry to marry
http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2014/03/07/millennials-in-adulthood/
Influential Events
—  Gen Y
◦  Internet era/technology
◦  9/11
◦  Columbine/Oklahoma City bombing
◦  OJ’s acquittal
◦  President Clinton’s impeachment
◦  Cellphones/smartphones/ipods
◦  Natural disasters and violence
◦  War
10 11/3/14 Generational stereotypes
Traditionalists
Baby Boomers
Generation X
Millennials
Respect authority Ambitious
Risky
Value change and
diversity
Follow the rules
Workaholics
Personal and work Technologically
life balance
savvy
Very practical
Optimistic
Skeptical
Loyal,
hardworking,
patient
Cooperative, team Self-reliant
player
Hopeful
Want work to be
meaningful
Source: Patterson C. Generational diversity: Implications for consultation and
teamwork. Paper presented at the meeting of the Council of Directors of School
Psychology Programs on generational differences, Deerfield Beach, Fla. January
2005; available at http://www.apa.org/monitor/jun05/stereotypes.html
Homelanders
—  Will
be entering college within the next
5-10 years
—  Post 9/11
—  First AA president
—  Ethnically diverse/Caucasians not racial
majority
—  Technology/social media
—  Non-traditional families
11 11/3/14 Pharmacy School Statistics
—  131
schools of pharmacy (January 2014)
—  2012-2013
◦  13,551 PharmD degrees awarded
—  New
enrollments 2012-2013
◦  ~14,000
—  Age
range in 2007
◦  17-60
http://www.aacp.org/resources/research/institutionalresearch/Documents/Fall_13_Introduction.pdf
http://www.aacp.org/RESOURCES/STUDENT/PHARMACYFORYOU/ADMISSIONS/Pages/default.aspx
TTUHSC SOP Student Body
—  Average
age for class entering
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
24
24
24
24.48
24.03
(19-46)
(19-43)
(19-47)
(19-40)
(18-53)
http://www.ttuhsc.edu/sop/prospective/studentstats.aspx
12 11/3/14 http://www.pewresearch.org/
quiz/how-millennial-are-you/
results/
Pew Survey
—  Survey
conducted in 2006; released
January 2007
—  “A Portrait of Generation Next”
—  1501 adults
◦  38.5% were ages 18-25
—  68%
of Generation Nexters felt their
generation was unique and distinct
Source: http://www.people-press.org/files/legacy-pdf/300.pdf. Accessed June 9,
2014.
13 11/3/14 Pew survey
—  Generation
Nexters are:
◦  Happy and optimistic
◦  Tolerant of social issues
◦  Users of technology/internet
◦  “Look at me” generation
◦  Tolerant of immigration
◦  Less critical of government
◦  Close to parents/family
Source: http://www.people-press.org/files/legacy-pdf/300.pdf. Accessed June 9,
2014.
Pew survey
—  Gen
Nexters:
◦  Approximately half have:
–  Tattoo (1/3)
–  Dyed hair a nontraditional color
–  Body piercings
◦  No religious affiliation
◦  Somewhat interested in politics
◦  Top goals: become rich or famous
Source: http://www.people-press.org/files/legacy-pdf/300.pdf. Accessed June 9,
2014.
14 11/3/14 Pew Survey
—  Additional
surveys
◦  2009
–  Forty Years After Woodstock, A Gentler Generation
Gap
◦  2010
–  Millennials: Confident. Connected. Open to Change
–  Compared Millennials’ values, attitudes and beliefs
to older adults
–  2020 adults (830 were 18-29 yoa)
http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2009/08/12/forty-years-after-woodstockbra-gentler-generation-gap/
Millennials: Confident. Connected. Open to Change. Pew Research Center Report, February 2010. file:///H:/TLS%20Docs/APE/Preceptor
%20Development/Preceptor%20CE%202014/Texas%20Tech%20Webinar%20June%202014/millennials-confident-connected-open-tochange_PEW%20SURVEY.pdf.
http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2009/08/12/forty-years-after-woodstockbra-gentler-generation-gap/
15 11/3/14 Pew Survey
—  Who
has better values? Younger or Older
◦  Older adults
–  Moral values
–  Work ethic
–  Respect for others
◦  Younger adults
–  Racial tolerance
http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2009/08/12/ii-generations-apart-and-together/
Source: http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2010/02/24/millennials-confident-connected-open-to-change/:
Accessed June 9, 2014.
16 11/3/14 Review article
—  Review
of studies looking at generational
changes among students
—  How these changes impact teaching
Twenge J. Generational changes and their impact in the classroom:
teaching Generation Me. Medical Education 2009.43:398-405.
Review article
—  Student’s
scored higher on:
◦  Assertiveness
◦  Self-liking
◦  Narcissistic traits/self-entitlement
◦  High expectations
◦  Stress, anxiety, poor mental health
—  Scored
lower on self-reliance
Twenge J. Generational changes and their impact in the classroom:
teaching Generation Me. Medical Education 2009.43:398-405.
17 11/3/14 Review article
—  This
generation may benefit from:
◦  More structure
◦  More interactive
◦  Tempering of their overconfidence
Twenge J. Generational changes and their impact in the classroom:
teaching Generation Me. Medical Education 2009.43:398-405.
Review article
—  Preceptors/teachers
should give:
◦  Very specific instructions
◦  Frequent feedback
◦  Explanation of relevance
—  Rules
strictly enforced
—  Shorter segments of instruction
—  Use of media (videos, interactive formats)
—  Set clear expectations to avoid conflicts
Twenge J. Generational changes and their impact in the classroom: teaching
Generation Me. Medical Education 2009.43:398-405.
18 11/3/14 http://www.atkearney.com/documents/10192/765383/TB-Template.jpg/
a746c053-15b4-4328-8293-3a8af9e9a831?t=1362670656172
Generation Next
PBS Documentary Video Clip
Source:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y_jB1Q0K5BI
19 11/3/14 How do generational characteristics
potentially impact your interactions with
your students?
Impact on Interactions
—  Work
ethic
—  Communication
—  Professional development/training
—  Technology
—  Rewards
—  Feedback
—  Organizational skills
—  Entitlement
The Center for Generational Studies. http://www.generationaldiversity.com/faq.html
20 11/3/14 Work Ethic
—  Beliefs
about what working hard means
—  Influenced by what individuals were taught as
children
◦  Traditionalists-wartime and economic depression
◦  Boomers-economic expansion, convenienceoriented products
◦  Gen X-watched parents work long hours, try to
work smarter with shorter hours
◦  Millennials-technology & convenience; expect
stimulation
The Center for Generational Studies. http://www.generationaldiversity.com/faq.html
Communication
—  Electronic
technology
—  More efficient
—  Minimal non-verbal communication
—  Email vs phone/face-to-face
—  Screening of communication
—  Detachment and individualism
—  Most likely no significant change should be
expected
The Center for Generational Studies. http://www.generationaldiversity.com/faq.html
21 11/3/14 Professional Development/Training
—  Promotion
& additional compensation
◦  Traditionalists & Boomers
—  Enhancement
of versatility for personal
gain, not necessarily organizational gain
◦  Gen X & probably Gen Y
The Center for Generational Studies. http://www.generationaldiversity.com/faq.html
Technology
—  Greater
dependence with younger
generations
—  Greater efficiency
—  Problems with basic grammar and
composition
The Center for Generational Studies. http://www.generationaldiversity.com/faq.html
22 11/3/14 Rewards
—  Traditionalists-pride
in job well done
—  Boomers-recognition
—  Gen X-fair compensation, skill
development/credentialing, time off, laid
back atmosphere
—  Millennials-fun, stimulation, control over
environment
The Center for Generational Studies. http://www.generationaldiversity.com/faq.html
Feedback
—  Traditionalists- “job
well done”
—  Boomers-coaching somewhat
—  Gen X-want “hands-off” approach
—  Millennials-similar to Boomers
The Center for Generational Studies. http://www.generationaldiversity.com/faq.html
23 11/3/14 Organizational Skills
—  Millennials
may be less likely to see the
importance of professional appearance
—  Workspace organization
—  Are growing up and maturing in a more
informal world
The Center for Generational Studies. http://www.generationaldiversity.com/faq.html
Entitlement
—  Do
millennials have this attitude?
—  Determination to “get their way”
—  Extremely protective parents
—  Societal attitude
The Center for Generational Studies. http://www.generationaldiversity.com/faq.html
24 11/3/14 Why is all of this important?
—  Misunderstandings, miscommunications
—  Differing
values
—  Work values/attitudes
—  Be cautious with stereotyping
Millennial Learning Styles
— 
— 
— 
— 
— 
— 
— 
Structure, guidance
Regular feedback
Collaboration, less lecture
Communication less face-to-face; less lectures
Tailored information
Hands-on
Technology
Source: Feiertag and Berge. Training Generation N: how educators should
approach the Net Generation. Available at
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?
issn=0040-0912&volume=50&issue=6&articleid=1740424&show=html.
Accessed June 9, 2014.
25 11/3/14 Precepting Millennials
—  Be
aware of generational differences
—  Identify and take advantages of generational
strengths
—  Discuss expectations, clear communications
—  Challenge them, stimulation
—  Teach them what you do and why
—  Ask their opinion, collaborate with them
—  “Junior colleague”
—  Provide frequent feedback
There is nothing wrong with today's
teenager that twenty years won't cure. ~Author Unknown
The secret of education is
respecting the pupil.
~Ralph Waldo Emerson
26 11/3/14 Source: http://drybonesblog.blogspot.com/2007/01/generation-gap.html
http://managementink.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/generational_differences.jpg
27 11/3/14 http://blog.a-b-c.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Shawn-Comic.jpg
Case scenario
You have a millennial fourth year student pharmacist
that has been training at your site for the past 5
weeks. The student has been performing at an
acceptable level, but has been late a few times and
asked to leave early on a couple of occasions because
“there was nothing to do.”
You complete the final evaluation and the student
receives an 82 (B) on the rotation. The student
contacts the director of experiential education at the
school and reports never receiving any feedback
from you during the rotation and never being sure of
what she was supposed to do each day.
28 11/3/14 Case scenario
The student also reports never really
working with you directly.
The student states that she thought
their performance was good enough
for an A.
Case scenario
What things could/should you as the preceptor have
done differently with this student?
—  Give clear instructions and expectations at
beginning of the rotation
◦  Provide rotation schedule of daily activities and any
project deadlines
Collaborate; stimulate; hands-on
Ensure enough rotation activities to keep the
student actively engaged
—  Hold the student accountable for expectations
—  Frequent feedback; complete a midpoint evaluation;
identify what the student can do better in order to
improve
— 
— 
29 11/3/14 Assessment Questions
Question #1
There are currently 2 generations in
the US workforce?
True
False
30 11/3/14 Question #1
There are currently 2 generations in the US
workforce?
False
There are 4 Generations
Question #2
Millennials want a non-collaborative
approach to learning?
True
False
31 11/3/14 Question #2
Millennials want a non-collaborative
approach to learning?
False
In general, they prefer a collaborative
approach
Question #3
Which of the following are steps to take/considersations
when precepting Millennial students?
a.  Provide feedback at the end of the rotation block
b.  Provide stimulating learning activities for them to
complete
c.  Consider generational differences that may exist
d.  Accept the fact that they are all “slackers”
I. 
II. 
III. 
IV. 
V. 
A only
B only
B and C only
A, B and C only
All of the above
32 11/3/14 Question #3
Which of the following are steps to take/
considersations when precepting Millennial
students?
a.  Provide feedback at the end of the rotation
block
b.  Provide stimulating learning activities for them
to complete
c.  Consider generational differences that may
exist
d.  Accept the fact that they are all slackers
B and C only
Question #4
Understanding of possible generational
differences may minimize conflict with
some students within your practice site?
True
False
33 11/3/14 Question #4
Understanding of possible generational
differences may minimize conflict with
some students within your practice site?
True
Additional References
— 
— 
— 
— 
— 
— 
— 
Feiertag J and Berge ZL. Training Generation N: how educators should
approach the Net Generation. Available at
www.emeraldinsight.com/0040-0912.htm.
Miller SW. Teaching Geriatrics to Generation Y. AJPE 2004;68 (3) Article
67: 1-9.
Smola KW and Sutton CD. Generational differences: revisiting
generational work values for the new millennium. J Organiz Behav 2002;
23: 363-382.
Garner SF. Preparing for the Nexters. AJPE 2006;70(4) Article 87: 1.
Fogg P. When Generations Collide. The Chronicle of Higer Education;
July 18, 2008: Available at
http://chronicle.com/weekly/v54/i45/45b01801.htm.
ASHP Report. 2004 ASHP National Residency Preceptors Conference
explores generational differences, leadership development. AJHP
2005;62:519-524.
Davison MA and Palmer T. Addressing Generational Issues in a Pharmacy
Setting (abstract). Paper presented at 2006 AACP annual meeting; San
Diego, CA.
34 11/3/14 Additional References
— 
— 
— 
— 
Dittmann M. Generational differences at work.
Monitor on Psychology 2005;36(6). Available at
http://www.apa.org/monitor/jun05/generational.html
Bobinski D. Capitalizing on generational differences.
Sept 23 2005. Available at
www.management-issues.com.
http://www.gentrends.com/faq.html
The Pew Research Center for the People and The
Press. “How Young People View Their Lives, Futures
and Politics: A Portrait of Generation Next.” January
9, 2007. Available at
http://www.people-press.org/files/legacy-pdf/300.pdf.
Thank you
Questions
[email protected]
334-844-4329
35