universidad técnica particular de loja centro universitario manta 2010

Comments

Transcription

universidad técnica particular de loja centro universitario manta 2010
UNIVERSIDAD TÉCNICA PARTICULAR DE LOJA
La Universidad Católica de Loja
ESCUELA DE CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN
MENCIÓN INGLES
MODALIDAD ABIERTA Y A DISTANCIA
A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF ANGLICISMS USED IN
ECUADORIAN NEWSPAPERS
Research done in order to achieve
the Bachelor’s Degree in Teaching
English as a Foreign Language
AUTHOR:
INTRIAGO PALACIOS EDER AGUSTÍN
DIRECTOR:
MGS. LIZALDES ESPINOSA ORLANDO
CENTRO UNIVERSITARIO MANTA
2010
ii
UNIVERSIDAD TÉCNICA PARTICULAR DE LOJA
La Universidad Católica de Loja
ESCUELA DE CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN
MENCIÓN INGLES
MODALIDAD ABIERTA Y A DISTANCIA
A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF ANGLICISMS USED IN
ECUADORIAN NEWSPAPERS
Research done in order to achieve
the Bachelor’s Degree in Teaching
English as a Foreign Language
AUTHOR:
INTRIAGO PALACIOS EDER AGUSTÍN
DIRECTOR:
MGS. LIZALDES ESPINOSA ORLANDO
CENTRO UNIVERSITARIO MANTA
2010
iii
CERTIFICATION
Mgs. Orlando Lizaldes Espinosa
CERTIFIES THAT:
This research work has been thoroughly revised by the graduation
committee. Therefore, authorizes the presentation of this thesis, which
complies with all the norms and internal requirements of the Universidad
Técnica Particular de Loja.
Loja,
_________________________________
THESIS ADVISOR
iv
CONTRATO DE CESIÓN DE DERECHOS
DE TESIS DE GRADO
“Yo, Eder Agustín Intriago Palacios, declaro ser autor del presente trabajo y
eximo expresamente a la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja y a sus
representantes legales de posibles reclamos o acciones legales.
Adicionalmente declaro conocer y aceptar la disposición del Art. 67 del
Estatuto Orgánico de la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja que en su
parte pertinente textualmente dice: “formar parte del patrimonio de la
Universidad la propiedad intelectual de investigaciones, trabajos científicos o
técnicos y tesis de grados que se realicen a través, o que el apoyo
financiero, académico o institucional (operativo) de la Universidad”.
________________________________________
Eder Agustín Intriago Palacios
v
AUTHORSHIP
The thoughts, ideas, opinions and the information obtained through this
research are the only responsibility of the author.
August 06, 2010
_______________________________
Eder Agustín Intriago Palacios
vi
Abstract
A descriptive analysis on the use of Anglicisms in Ecuadorian
newspapers is quite an attractive topic, one that has received little
attention; however, one that could contribute a whole lot of
interesting details to the linguistic community.
This research work has taken place in Manta in the province of
Manabí. Studying three newspapers for seven days –one national, one
local and a tabloid- with the intention of discovering what Anglicisms
writers use in their editing of articles, and what the effects are in the
community. This investigation finds out that Ecuadorians do accept
Anglicisms as elements of a foreign language to live with, imported
from a fast-growing dominant culture. They have shown that in most
cases improve comprehension; however, in others reveal the little
dedication and bad study habits on the part of certain members of
the written press.
It is the intention of this research to awaken interest in people
for their language and to get them talking about a topic known by
just a handful. Hopefully, other works can be started, generating
more knowledge, and consequently enriching this beautiful world of
linguistics.
Introduction
This investigative work explores the use of Anglicisms in
Ecuadorian newspapers, and the consequent acceptance on the part
of the reading audience: laymen and scholars; adolescents and adults.
It is a research topic assigned by the Universidad Técnica
Particular de Loja as a requirement prior to obtaining a Bachelor’s
degree in Teaching English as a Foreign Language.
As a result of this research, it was discovered that English,
which has an influence in every corner of the world, is manifesting its
influence in the linguistic arena as borrowed words of English origin
to refer to things whose use or main relevance happens in the
language of the most powerful nation: The United States of America.
This influence manifested in the form of Anglicisms is accepted
without resistance of any kind among the young, while the adults
and elderly generation find it very unattractive and negative to the
culture.
There has been a lot of interest in studying the topic of
Anglicisms worldwide.
In Mexico took place the research “Some remarks on the
Anglicization of Latin American Spanish, with particular reference to
the speech of Mexico City” by Francis C. St. John; while in Italy,
Gaetano Rando formulates “A Quantitative Analysis of the Use of
Anglicisms in Written Standard Italian during the 1960’s”. In addition,
a study done by M. Alario Di Filippo on the Spanish spoken in
2
Colombia and published under the title “Lexicon de Colombianismos”
takes place in the neighboring country.
In Ecuador, there have been several works such as “El Espanol
en el Ecuador” written by Humberto Toscano, and “Un millar de
Anglicismos” written by Carlos Joaquin Cordova, which constitute
valuable sources of information about this topic.
Also, the students at UTPL have contributed to the knowledge
of Anglicisms with titles like “Barbarisms and Anglicisms in Banners,
Billboards and Business Signs” and “Archaisms and Anglicisms in the
Spanish Spoken in Ecuador”
The use of Anglicisms in the Spanish written language in our
country is a topic that deserves to be investigated since it will provide
the general public with information about the way English is
influencing Spanish in the use of Anglicisms.
This investigation, the first work of this magnitude I have
embarked upon, has represented a challenge to do a professional job,
as well as the opportunity to learn not just about the whole
investigative process of a thesis; but also has given me the
opportunity to learn about the influence that languages have between
one another, how this influence is manifested, the cultural reaction it
implies, and the scientific interest that it awakens in academics of all
fields.
One of the major limitations in the consecution of this work
was the lack of the good habit of writing for pleasure, not to say for
3
homework in our culture. At least, that is my case and the case of
many of my friends in University, which makes it difficult to sit down
and write about anything that is coherent, flows smoothly chapter
after chapter, and draws interest from the reader. This opportunity,
therefore, presents itself as the realizing factor of the importance of
how powerful, writing can be.
This investigation took into account the following goals:
 To determine the level of influence the English language on the
linguistic expressions used in the Ecuadorian newspapers;
 To identify syntactic and lexical Anglicisms more commonly
used in newspapers in Ecuador;
 To make a deep analysis of the Anglicisms found in Ecuadorian
newspapers regarding etymological, syntactic-semantic and
morphological aspects;
 To determine the written sections of Ecuadorian newspapers in
which Anglicisms are mostly used; and,
 To know the level of acceptance Ecuadorians have on the use of
Anglicisms in newspapers.
All these aims were kept in mind throughout this research and
permanently revised procuring to keep on track, and to answer all the
questions proposed by each of the statements above. In doing so, the
result is a writing of accurate accounts loyal to the discoveries and
findings of this investigation.
4
Methodology
This research, as everything in this world, had a beginning and
little by little grew to become this work, which I hope be welcome by
the readers.
Having received the topic for our thesis project, I began to plan
the whole process of collecting the books and resources both physical
and virtual to do the theoretical background. It required patience and
time since it was necessary to gather all the possible sources to start
delineating the presentation of the information. That was quite an
interesting task where a lot was learned.
Then came the second part which consisted in consecutively
buying a national newspaper, a local one and a tabloid for 7
consecutive days to then proceed in finding all the instances in which
an Anglicism was used; this of course was very time consuming, but
also very revealing because I could discover how much journalists
tend to use borrowed terms. Finally, this unorganized information
needed to be tabulated which was the next task.
The linguistic, comparative and sociological analyses
were
the next step, being these tasks key to the value and importance of
this investigation with the consequent conclusions.
Finally, it was time for writing the introduction, abstract, and
methodology.
5
Among the most important aspects from the population and
sample used for this research, I must say all newspapers were good
providers of examples of all kinds of Anglicisms in different contexts.
This investigative work was a combination of a statistical
analysis as well as a field research description since it involved tables
with frequencies and descriptive analyses of how Anglicisms work in
the written media.
In the collection and tabulation of the data found on the
different newspapers, it was necessary to make use of careful reading
and highlighting for which it was required a working area with a
comfortable desk and chair. Among the tools I had to use were
pencils, pen, paper, highlighters, a computer, lots of books and
virtual sources like the Internet.
Tabulating the information extracted from the newspapers
consisted basically in ordering in order of appearance the words of
English origin, a sentence-example from the article, how many times
the word appeared in the article, and the date on which it had
appeared.
Analyzing the data collected through the newspapers, and by
interviewing linguists as well as frequent readers of journals was one
of the things that required of me a lot of thinking and dedication
since my conclusions were dependent mostly on them.
6
RESULTS
The data collection and tabulation of the findings presented
below took place in Manta, in the province of Manabí. The variables
chosen for this research are the “Diario El Universo” as the national
newspaper; “Diario el Mercurio” is the local newspaper chosen for
this investigation, and “El Extra” is the tabloid that not necessarily
was chosen, but rather selected by the University.
These newspapers were collected during seven days starting on
the 25th of November up to the 1st of December, 2009.
The sections to be object of study for the search of Anglicisms
are news, ads, reports, social pages and sports. The procedure
consisted in spotting all the sections to be read, and underlining the
Anglicisms found.
The information found was tabulated and is shown next:
7
Chart One:
Variable: National Newspaper “El Universo”
Sub-variable: News
Anglicisms
Example
Number of
times in article
Kit
Kits escolares
2
Stand
Incluyo mas de
15 stands
1
Tráiler
Se estrello contra
un tráiler
1
Estándar
Decidirse entre el
estándar chino
1
Internet
En internet el
panorama es
desastroso
1
Bar
Farmacias y
bares
1
Cybercafe
Es un cybercafe
1
Web
En el portal web
de compras
1
Bar
Los propietarios
de bares
1
Rol
El rol que
desempeño
1
Link
Tenemos un link
directo a la
Superintendencia
1
Club
En una balacera
en el club
nocturno
1
Internet
Estén
disponibles en
internet
1
Bypass
Colocación de un
bypass
1
Flirtear
Tras flirtear con
el comunismo
2
Title of the
Article
Polvo y clima
afectan a
damnificados de
incendio
Hospital celebra
445 años con
ciclo de
conferencias
Mujer murió en
choque en la via
Duran-Boliche
Programa social
para el cambio a
televisión digital
Programa social
para el cambio a
televisión digital
Obras
pendientes de la
av. Del
Bombero, en
diciembre
Evaluadores
terminan hoy
procesos en
colegio técnico
Alcalde o
delegado podrá
adjudicar el
contrato de
basura
Sitios nocturnos
recuperan
horario
Correa deja
Bélgica con
críticas al
desinterés de la
UE por
Latinoamérica
IESS aprueba
filiación de
canillitas de
diarios
Un muerto y un
herido dejan dos
robos en la urbe
Estado busca
centralizar
manejo de datos
bajo un solo
sistema
Interagua hara
cortes por el
norte y sur por
obras
Porfirio Lobo
pide a
Date
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
26-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
29-11-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
8
Gay
El matrimonio
gay
3
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
comunidad
internacional
que lo reconozca
Jueza anulo
fallo que
permitía boda
gay
01-12-2009
9
Chart Two:
Variable: National Newspaper “El Universo”
Sub-variable: Ads
Anglicisms
Split
Call center
Example
Aires
acondicionados
Split,
refrigeradoras
Garaje, call
center
Number of
times in article
Title of the
Article
Date
4
Products
25-11-2009
5
Real state
25-11-2009
Jacuzzi
Studio, Jacuzzi
1
Real state
25-11-2009
Full
Full amoblada
15
Real state
25-11-2009
4
Products
25-11-2009
1
Real state
25-11-2009
2
Real state
25-11-2009
3
Course
25-11-2009
LCD
Penthouse
Closet
Disc jockey
Computadoas,
LCDs
Listo penthouse
alquilo
Dormitories con
closets
Curso de disc
jockey
Laptop
Laptops Dell
5
Products
25-11-2009
Dual core
Procesadores
dual core
4
Products
25-11-2009
Full
Full amoblado
20
Real state
26-11-2009
Closet
Dormitorio con
closet
3
Real state
26-11-2009
Club
Club de baile
2
Courses
26-11-2009
Jacuzzi
Piscine, jacuzzi
2
Real state
26-11-2009
Cyber
Cyber café
3
Computer
services
26-11-2009
Discjockey
Curso discjockey
2
Courses
26-11-2009
DVD
Dvds, teleisores
3
Products
26-11-2009
Call center
Con un gran call
center
3
Real state
26-11-2009
Laptop
Laptop HP
5
Products
26-11-2009
1
Real state
27-11-2009
3
Real state
27-11-2009
1
Courses
27-11-2009
5
Products
27-11-2009
Penthouse
Closet
Disc jockey
Listo penthouse
alquilo
Dormitories con
closets
Curso de disc
jockey
Laptops Dell
10
Laptop
Dual core
Procesadores
dual core
3
Products
27-11-2009
Full
Full amoblado
15
Real state
27-11-2009
Internet
Internet
inalambrico
2
Computer
services
27-11-2009
Full
Full equipo
25
Automobile
28-11-2009
Club
Club de baile
2
Courses
28-11-2009
Laptop
Laptop HP
6
Products
28-11-2009
Cyber
Cyber café
3
Computer
services
28-11-2009
Market
Con un market
3
Real state
28-11-2009
DVD
Dvds, televisores
2
Products
28-11-2009
Bar
Bar discoteca
3
Coctel
Cocteles
variados
2
Call center
Con un gran call
center
3
Real state
29-11-2009
Laptop
Laptop HP
5
Products
29-11-2009
1
Real state
29-11-2009
3
Real state
29-11-2009
1
Courses
29-11-2009
3
Products
29-11-2009
2
Computer
services
29-11-2009
Full equipo
25
Automobile
29-11-2009
Club de baile
2
Courses
29-11-2009
Cyber
Cyber café
3
Computer
services
29-11-2009
Market
Con un market
3
Real state
29-11-2009
DVD
Dvds, televisores
2
Products
29-11-2009
3
Real state
29-11-2009
Penthouse
Closet
Disc jockey
Dual core
Internet
Full
Club
Listo penthouse
alquilo
Dormitories con
closets
Curso de disc
jockey
Procesadores
dual core
Internet
inalambrico
Food services
and social
events
Food services
and social
events
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
11
Bar
Bar discoteca
Coctel
Cocteles
variados
3
29-11-2009
Call center
Con un gran call
center
Food services
and social
events
2
Real state
30-11-2009
Laptop
Laptop HP
4
Products
30-11-2009
1
Real state
30-11-2009
4
Real state
30-11-2009
1
Courses
30-11-2009
2
Products
30-11-2009
1
Computer
services
30-11-2009
Full amoblado
21
Real state
30-11-2009
Club
Club de baile
1
Courses
30-11-2009
Cyber
Cyber café
3
Computer
services
30-11-2009
Market
Con un market
2
Real state
30-11-2009
DVD
Dvds, televisores
4
Products
30-11-2009
Bar
Bar discoteca
2
Real state
30-11-2009
Coctel
Cocteles
variados
1
Food services
and social
events
30-11-2009
4
Products
01-12-2009
5
Real state
01-12-2009
Studio, Jacuzzi
2
Real state
01-12-2009
Full amoblada
17
Real state
01-12-2009
3
Products
01-12-2009
1
Real state
01-12-2009
3
Real state
01-12-2009
1
Courses
01-12-2009
Penthouse
Closet
Disc jockey
Dual core
Internet
Full
Split
Call center
Jacuzzi
Full
LCD
Penthouse
Closet
Disc jockey
Listo penthouse
alquilo
Dormitories con
closets
Curso de disc
jockey
Procesadores
dual core
Internet
inalambrico
Aires
acondicionados
Split,
refrigeradoras
Garaje, call
center
Computadoas,
LCDs
Listo penthouse
alquilo
Dormitories con
closets
Curso de disc
jockey
Laptop
Laptops Dell
5
Products
01-12-2009
Dual core
Procesadores dual
core
3
Products
01-12-2009
12
Chart Three:
Variable: National Newspaper “El Universo”
Sub-variable: Reports
Anglicisms
Example
Number of
times in article
Chatear
Chateo sobre
contrato
1
Web
En la pagina
web
1
Internet
Sitio de Internet
1
Outsider
A los outsiders
de la política
1
Mall
Actual fachada
del mal
5
Shopping
Actualmente
este shopping
1
Business center
Habrá un
business center
1
Web
Una recarga
electrónica en la
web
1
Off
La voz en off
2
Web
Internet
Robot
Stand
Batalla contra la
web
La muerte de
internet
Un robot capaz
de reconocer
Más de 60
stands fueron
ubicados
12
3
6
1
Internet
Durante un mes
por internet
4
Mall
Buscar por todo
el mal
1
Marketing
Gerente de
marketing
1
Title of the
Article
Chateo sobre
contrato de la
basura muestra
críticas a bases
de cabildo
Chateo sobre
contrato de la
basura muestra
críticas a bases
de cabildo
Chateo sobre
contrato de la
basura muestra
críticas a bases
de cabildo
La ley como
pasatiempo y
provocación
Mal tendrá
otras areas de
negocios
Mall tendrá
otras areas de
negocios
Mall tendrá
otras areas de
negocios
Porta añade
servicio de
compra de
recargas
Douglas
Arguello no solo
es la voz en off
Guerras contra
la web
Guerras contra
la web
IREX 2009
Feria de la
cosecha en
Rocafuerte
No toda alerta
de peligro que
llega por
internet es
verdad
No toda alerta
de peligro que
llega por
internet es
verdad
No toda alerta
de peligro que
llega por
internet es
verdad
Date
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
26-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
13
e-mail
Y escribió un email
1
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
No toda alerta
de peligro que
llega por
internet es
verdad
30-11-2009
14
Chart Four:
Variable: National Newspaper “El Universo”
Sub-variable: Social Pages
Anglicisms
Example
Number of
times in article
Videoclip
Festival de
videoclip
2
Internet
Ordenes de
preventa por
internet
2
Ranking
Puesto 27 en el
ranking
1
Record
Cerca del record
en ventas
1
Reality
Ex participante
del reality
1
Frontman
Donde el era el
frontman
1
Marketing
Gerente de
marketing
1
Reality
Este reality
marco una
tendencia
3
Show
Filmes de show
1
Heavy metal
La moda del
heavy metal
1
Pop art
Exposición Pop
Art
1
Rock
Hizo un signo de
rock
4
Waterpolo
El partido de
waterpolo
1
Short
Short y camisa a
rayas
1
Fan
Una foto con su
fan
1
Flash
Vino el flash,
click y un bye
1
Click
Vino el flash,
click y un bye
1
Title of the
Article
Muestra de
videoclips en el
Malecón
Disco de Susana
Boyle está cerca
del record en
ventas
Disco de Susana
Boyle está cerca
del record en
ventas
Disco de Susana
Boyle está cerca
del record en
ventas
Un musical con
los colores de la
Navidad
Matheus10 le
pone voz a sus
creaciones
El fin de la
tierra mas alla
de los Mayas
Critica de TV
Sobreviviendo
Filmes de show
de Iron Maiden
and Kiss
Filmes de show
de Iron Maiden
and Kiss
Exposicion Pop
Art
El rock de
Charly Garcia se
vive hoy en
Guayaquil
El rock de
Charly Garcia se
vive hoy en
Guayaquil
El rock de
Charly Garcia se
vive hoy en
Guayaquil
El rock de
Charly Garcia se
vive hoy en
Guayaquil
El rock de
Charly Garcia se
vive hoy en
Guayaquil
El rock de
Charly Garcia se
vive hoy en
Date
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
15
Bye
Vino el flash,
click y un bye
1
Shopping
Salir de
shopping
1
Show
El show será de
medio estadio
1
Comics
Manga y comics
2
Cover
Realizara covers
del juego
1
Gold
Un pase gold
1
Reality
Un reality
musical
2
Casting
Convocatoria a
un casting
1
Show
Show tropical
6
Miss
Miss fotogenia
4
Hobbie
Su hobbie es
diseñar
2
Rock
“les voy a tocar
un rock”
6
Show
Cerro un show
inolvidable
2
Bar
Bar Diva
Nicotina
1
Top
El top 5
1
Show
Converse con
ellos antes del
show
2
Miss
Nueva miss
Panamericana
6
Guayaquil
El rock de
Charly Garcia se
vive hoy en
Guayaquil
El rock de
Charly Garcia se
vive hoy en
Guayaquil
El rock de
Charly Garcia se
vive hoy en
Guayaquil
Torneo y
exhibición de
comics desde
hoy
Torneo y
exhibición de
comics desde
hoy
Torneo y
exhibición de
comics desde
hoy
Gerardo Mejia
haría reality
para Ecuavisa
Gerardo Mejia
haría reality
para Ecuavisa
Agenda de fin de
semana
María Fernanda
Erazo es la
nueva Reina del
Cacao
Los niños serán
la prioridad de
Maria Caridad
Charly Garcia
termino la
noche de
música en el bar
Diva Nicotina
Charly Garcia
termino la
noche de
música en el bar
Diva Nicotina
Charly Garcia
termino la
noche de
música en el bar
Diva Nicotina
Música
Los Miño
Naranjo, un dúo
auténticamente
ecuatoriano
Mi función
principal es la
labor social
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
16
Top
Web
DVD
Top 5
Top 5 web
Series favoritas
en DVD
1
1
1
Tip
Difundió tips de
cocina
1
Reality
Un reality
musical
4
Hip hop
Interpretes de
hip hop
1
Pop
Interpretes de
hip hop y pop
1
Standar
Con todos los
stándares
1
CD
Monto de la
venta del cd
1
Cover
Unos son covers
y otros ineditos
1
Shock
Que significaron
un shock
hemorrágico
1
Internet
La ven por
internet
1
Fan
Las fans
pudieron corear
1
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
El top 5 web
El top 5 web
Perdidos en la
repetición
Difusión
cultural a través
de la radio
Gerardo Mejía
buscara voces
con nuevo
reality
Gerardo Mejía
buscara voces
con nuevo
reality
Gerardo Mejía
buscara voces
con nuevo
reality
Gerardo Mejía
buscara voces
con nuevo
reality
Alegrate es
Navidad con
muchas voces
Mírela Minervi,
en dos
escenarios
Victor Jara
tendrá funeral
36 años después
de muerto
5 chicos casi
Ángeles llegaron
a Guayaquil
5 chicos casi
Ángeles llegaron
a Guayaquil
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
17
Chart Five:
Variable: National Newspaper “El Universo”
Sub-variable: Sports
Anglicisms
Example
Number of
times in article
Web
Segun la pagina
web
1
Yankee
Yankees dejarian
libre jardinero
1
Futbol
Balocensto,
futbol
1
Club
El club de Noboa
es Segundo
4
Gol
Un gol de cabeza
5
Beisbol
Momento
culminante del
beisbol
3
Jonron
El jonrón es un
instante único
4
Club
Que nuestro
club es una
entidad
2
Voleibol
En la final del
voleyball
1
Futbol
Grandes del
futbol
2
Club
Quito es un club
de prestigio
4
NBA
En la historia de
la NBA
1
Karting
Provincial de
karting
2
Rating
Para que no baje
el rating
1
Show
Entro en el show
el nombre
1
Futbol
Del gusto por el
buen futbol
2
Club
Gol
Club que en ese
momento era
rival
Buena diferencia
de goles
1
3
Title of the
Article
Yankees
dejarian libre
jardinero
Yankees
dejarian libre
jardinero
Loja alista fiesta
deportiva
escolar
Rusos van a
Milán por sus
boletos
Rusos van a
Milan por su
boleto
Libro “la historia
del jinron se
presenta
mañana en FDG
Libro “la historia
del jinron se
presenta
mañana en FDG
No existe
problema en
fichaje de
Macías
Ecuador, tercero
en el medallero.
Vamos a
Cuenca a ganar
para definir en
el Atahualpa
Vamos a
Cuenca a ganar
para definir en
el Atahualpa
Jasson Kid en la
historia de NBA
Carmona gano
5ª valida de
karting
Lo que
escuchamos en
Ecuador
Lo que
escuchamos en
Ecuador
Lo que
escuchamos en
Ecuador
Lo que
escuchamos en
Ecuador
No le tememos a
los albos
Date
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
18
Futbol
Beisbol
Basquet
Gol
Club
En el futbol las
situaciones
Con el equipo de
beisbol de
Toronto
En la fecha final
del básquet
Deben buscar
los goles
Con el club
gaucho
1
No le tememos a
los albos
27-11-2009
1
Azulejos fichan
a Alex Gonzalez
28-11-2009
1
1
1
Futbol
Vigente del
futbol
1
Gol
Diferencia de
goles
2
Club
Ya que el club
ecuatoriano
1
Ranking
Primer lugar de
ranking
1
Gol
Una racha de
goles
3
Club
En otros clubes
1
Club
Aguirre interesa
a dos clubes
2
Light welter
En la división
light welter
1
Feather
En la división
feather
1
Set
En dos sets
1
Ranking
Ecuatorianos en
el ranking
1
Beisbol
Torneo juvenil de
beisbol
3
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
Se clausuraron
los Bolivarianos
sin elegir nueva
sede
El equilibrio
será clave
El equilibrio
será clave
Albos jugaran
ante emelec sin
Mendez,
Campos,
Norberto ni
William Araujo
Albos jugaran
ante emelec sin
Mendez,
Campos,
Norberto ni
William Araujo
Albos jugaran
ante emelec sin
Mendez,
Campos,
Norberto ni
William Araujo
Davydenko saco
a Federer de la
final
A nosotros nos
interesa ganar el
torneo
A nosotros nos
interesa ganar el
torneo
Esperamos a la
hinchada
Deportistas
luchan por estar
entre los
destacados del
TKD
Deportistas
luchan por estar
entre los
destacados del
TKD
Chileno gano el
circuito mundial
Chileno gano el
circuito mundial
Fatty derroto a
Cardenales en
beisbol juvenil
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
19
Chart Six:
Variable: Local Newspaper “El Mercurio”
Sub-variable: News
Anglicisms
Example
Number of
times in
article
Title of the
Article
Jeffrey Alava y
Samantha
Quenedit
presentes en
Magic* Christmas
2009
Jeffrey Alava y
Samantha
Quenedit
presentes en
Magic Christmas
2009
Jeffrey Alava y
Samantha
Quenedit
presentes en
Magic Christmas
2009
“New Moon”
recauda 142,8
millones de
dolares
IESS entrego USD
78.9 millones por
pensiones
IESS entrego USD
78.9 millones por
pensiones
SRI fija plazos
para declaración a
proveedores del
sector publico
Los mejores
colegios de la
provincia
participaran en
Magic Christmas
2009
Show
Este show único
que se
presentara
2
Reality
Ganador del
primer lugar
indiscutible del
reality
1
Web
Además de
visitar la página
web
1
Record
También
estableció el
viernes un record
1
Internet
Solicitud por
Internet
1
Web
A través de la
pagina web
1
Web
Ingresando al
sitio web
1
Show
Este
espectacular
show
1
Gol
Los goles de local
fueron anotados
3
Hall
Se realizo en hall
de la Secretaria
Nacional del
Migrante
1
CD
El CD que tiene
en sus manos
1
Campus
El asesino huyo
del campus
1
Estudiante mata a tiros
a un compañero
Night club
Allanamiento del
night club el
beso
3
La Dinapen
rescata
adolescente
victima de
Liga de Quito
39 nuevos
emprendimientos
firman convenios
para asignación
del fondo el
“Cucayo”
Pretenden negar
ingreso a
funcionaria del
hospital
Date
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
20
Show
Este gran show
navideño
4
VIP
Sillas VIP
1
Web
Visitar la página
web
1
Call center
Números de
teléfonos del call
center
3
Internet
Conectividad de
internet para 6
escuelas
2
Coctel
Coctel de
premiación
1
Internet
Y 500 puertos de
Internet
5
Reality
Segundo lugar
del reality
1
Bar
Restaurantes,
bares, karaoke
1
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
explotación sexual
Jonathan Luna
presente en Mega
Evento Magic
Christmas 2009
Jonathan Luna
presente en Mega
Evento Magic
Christmas 2009
Jonathan Luna
presente en Mega
Evento Magic
Christmas 2009
Caso de pediatra
en investigación
Realizaron
inspección de
proyecto de
internet para
escuelas
Desde hoy la
selección de
Manabí cree en tu
talento
CNT comercializo
1,800 líneas
telefónicas
Se realizo primer
festival historia
del HIV/sida
Permisos para
locales turísticos
deben ser
renovados
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
28-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
01-12-2009
21
Chart Seven:
Variable: Local Newspaper “El Mercurio”
Sub variable: Ads
Anglicisms
Closet
Full
Stock
Closet
Example
Dormitorios con
baños privados y
closet
Full servicios
Hasta agotar
stock
Baños privados y
closet
Netbook mas un
año
Un año de
internet móvil
Number of
times in
article
Title of the
Article
Date
1
Real state
25-11-2009
1
automobile
26-11-2009
1
Products
26-11-2009
1
Real state
LCD
Lcds
1
Full
Full servicios
Baños privados y
closet
Pianos con
puerto USB
1
La ruta del
ahorro
La ruta del
ahorro
La ruta del
ahorro
Automobile
1
Real state
1
Products
Netbook
Internet
Closet
USB
1
1
Internet
Informática e
Internet
1
Internet
Manejo de
Internet
1
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
Cursos de
Computación e
Informática
Importante
empresa
27-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
29-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
22
Chart Eight:
Variable: Local Newspaper “El Mercurio”
Sub-variable: Reports
Anglicisms
Example
Number of
times in article
Web
Comunicarse a la
página| web
2
Web
Indicaron que en
la web de la
institución
1
Ferry
Estudios e
implementación
de un ferry
1
Marketing
Plan de
marketing
1
Web
Que en la página
web de la
institución
1
Internet
Todas unidas al
internet
1
Stand
Varios stands
fueron exhibidos
1
Stock
Acumulan
grandes stocks
de frutas
1
Master
Master plan
siniestro
1
Ranking
En lo mas alto
del ranking
3
Rap
El rap, el hip
hop, o el rock
1
Hip-hop
El rap, el hip
hop, o el rock
1
Rock
El rap, el hip
hop, o el rock
1
Title of the
Article
MC incentiva a
jóvenes con
talento
Planificación
territorial con
lineamientos
específicos
Ministerios de
Transporte y
Turismo
coordinan
acciones a favor
de la ruta del
Spondylus
Feria sobre ruta
del agua Yaku
Ñanby 2009 se
inaugura en tena
Lineamientos
específicos en
planificación
territorial
Campaña por los
87 años de
aniversario de la
ciudad de
Manta, primer
puerto del
Ecuador
Estudiantes
participan en
cortometraje
Demasiados
grandes para
este mundo
Master plan
siniestro de los
Illuminatis y la
profecías mayas
sobre 2012
Por segundo año
consecutivo la
mejor empresa
para trabajar en
Ecuador
Asuntos de
Familia.
Pandillas
juveniles
Asuntos de
Familia.
Pandillas
juveniles
Asuntos de
Familia.
Pandillas
juveniles
Date
25-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
30-11-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
23
Chart Nine:
Variable: Local Newspaper “El Mercurio”
Sub-variable: Social Pages
Anglicisms
Reality
Show
Miss
Example
Un papel
antagonico a
traves de un
reality show
Un papel
antagonico a
traves de un
reality show
Ex Miss Ecuador
Number of in
article
1
1
1
Show
E un gran show
artístico
2
Bar
Karaoke añejo
3
VIP
Disfruta de la
sala vip
1
Legging
Línea de leggings
de Lindsay
1
Web
La artista en la
página web
1
Clip
Sexy
El cual incluye un
video clip
Admira
muchísimo a la
sexy cantante
1
1
Records
Records de venta
1
Club
Futbolista del
club Milan
1
Topless
Al aparecer
topless
1
Show
Miss
Internet
Top
Hit
Dvd
Eventos y shows
artísticos
Miss
Internacional
2009
Según la página
de Internet
El top 5 de radio
modelo
Hits musicales
Cilindro de gas,
dvds, vajillas
1
Manta Fest 2009
1
Chismeando
1
Chismeando
1
1
1
Dvd
Horas de video
casero, dvds, foto
1
Web
Este mensaje en
su web oficial
1
Rock
Top
Del rock
latinoamericano
El top 10
Title of the
Article
Paulo Cesar
Quevedo será el
perverso de la
película
Paulo Cesar
Quevedo será el
perverso de la
película
Chismeando
Manta, disfruto
de la buena
música y lo
mejor del tango
Bares y
karaokes
Bares y
karaokes
Lindsay Lohan
provoca
escándalo
Lady Gaga
prefiere el sexo
con los hombres
Maggy Cedeño,
“la soñadora”
Miley Cyrus
admira a
Beyonce
Miley Cyrus
admira a
Beyonce
Novia de George
Clooney
Lindsay Lohan
participa en trio
sexual
El top 5 de radio
modelo
Hits musicales
Hoy bingo
navideño
Continua
polémica del
video de JLO
Robbie Williams
desmiente su
compromiso
1
Chismeando
1
El top 10
Date
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
24
Pop
En la categoría
pop internacional
1
Pop
Familiares del
cantante pop
1
Rock
Las mejores
bandas de rock
3
CD
Y grabación del
CD
1
Pop
El fuerte es el
rock pop
1
Look
Y con un look de
lo más natural
1
Web
En su página web
1
Fashion
Fashion estelares
1
Fashion
estelares
Reality
En todo el
proceso del reality
1
Ney Moreira
paso a
semifinales
2
Chismeando
1
Chismeando
Miss
CD
Logro el título de
Miss
Internacional
Grabar el CD
alégrate es
Navidad
Shakira es
premiada
Libro sobre Luis
Miguel promete
ser revelador
El evento
musical del año
Fusion 2009
El evento
musical del año
Fusion 2009
El evento
musical del año
Fusion 2009
Heidi Klum
presenta a su
hija
Heidi Klum
presenta a su
hija
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
25
Chart Ten:
Variable: Local Newspaper “El Mercurio”
Sub-variable: Sports
Number of
times in
article
Anglicisms
Example
Drive
23 de ellas con el
drive, su punto
más fuerte
1
Tie-break
Que se definió en
el tie-break de la
tercera manga
1
Dopaje
Implicado en la
red de dopaje
2
Crashgate
Por su
implicación en el
crashgatre
1
Futbol
Corner
Gol
Liga de
Campeones de
futbol
En el saque de
corner
El gol dio mas
tranquilidad
1
1
1
Futbol
Campeones de
futbol
1
Club
Y un empate
bastaría al club
1
Chance
Dejando a los
escoceses sin
chances
1
Gol
Los goles para el
Stuttgart
1
Club
El club ingles
Arsenal
1
Club
Futbol
Gol
Futbol
Gol
Club
El club ingles
Liverpool
Liga de
campeones de
futbol
Debrenci VSC
por 1 gol a 0
Liga de
campeones de
futbol
Con un gol en
propia puerta
Anuncio ayer el
club
1
Title of the
Article
Del Potro se
recupera y
derrota a
Verdasco
Del Potro se
recupera y
derrota a
Verdasco
Detienen a
medico peruano
por red de dopaje
a deportistas
Briatore reclama
un millón de
euros tras
suspensión
Date
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
Barcelona derrota
2-0 al Inter
25-11-2009
Barcelona derrota
2-0 al Inter
Barcelona derrota
2-0 al Inter
El Real Madrid
busca la
clasificación a
octavos
El Real Madrid
busca la
clasificación a
octavos
El Stuttgart
noquea a los
Rangers en
Glasgow
El Stuttgart
noquea a los
Rangers en
Glasgow
El Arsenal
clasifica a
Octavos
El Liverpool gana,
pero es eliminado
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
2
El Liverpool gana,
pero es eliminado
25-11-2009
1
El Liverpool gana,
pero es eliminado
25-11-2009
1
El Sevilla sufre su
primera derrota
25-11-2009
El Sevilla sufre su
primera derrota
El Inter de Milan
recurre la sanción
25-11-2009
1
1
25-11-2009
26
contra Maicon
Futbol
En futbol, el
ingles Paul
Scholes también
lo padece
1
Club
Los responsables
del club
1
Futbol
El dirigente del
futbol mexicano
1
Futbol
Club
Assas declaro
que el futbol es
asi
Su contrato con
el club
3
5
Club
No distanciarse
del todo del club
2
Vip
En la sala del vip
para el estadio
1
Club
…y para ello el
club Miraflores…
1
Club
Se vienen
formando en el
club Miraflores
1
Futbol
Para seguir
viendo el futbol
de primera
1
Futbol
Intercolegial de
futbol de padres
1
Futbol
Finalizar el
campeonato
ecuatoriano de
futbol
3
Gol
Con un gol del
argentino
1
Futbol
Club
Gol
Gol
Club
Futbol
De la Champions
League de futbol
De la liga de
clubes
Los goles en San
Siro
Con un gol del
chileno
Lliga de clubes
campeones de
futbol
Lliga de clubes
campeones de
futbol
1
1
1
1
1
1
Beckham revela
que es asmático
desde la infancia
Juventus tendrá
que pagar 20,000
euros en multa
Mexico podría
quedar fuera de
la Copa América
Julio Assad no
seguirá en el
Nacional
Un patrón para la
U
Urrutia: Vencer a
liga es posible,
pero será muy
difícil
Este viernes
elecciones en Liga
Cantonal de
Manta
Nadadores de
Manta se alistan
para el provincial
Mantenses
integran la
selección nacional
de natación
Manta FC debe
ser protagonista
en temporada
2010
Primera copa
intercolegial de
futbol de padres
de familia
Domingo el
partido por el
titulo
El Real Madrid
gana 1-0 al
Zurich
Burdeos derrota a
la « juve »
Milán y Marsella
empatan
Milán y Marsella
empatan
El Besiktas
derrota de
visitante al
Manchester
United
El CSKA Moscu
se impone al
Wolfsburgo
El CSKA Moscu
se impone al
Wolfsburgo
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
27
Club
Hay cinco clubes
considerados
1
Club
Afirmo el club
español
3
Web
Por la pagina
web del club
1
Club
Futbol
Por su presencia
en el club
La fanaticada del
futbol
ecuatoriano
1
2
Futbol
Se inicio en el
futbol
2
All-star
Un 10 veces allstar
1
Internet
Ayer una página
de internet
1
Web
El sitio web de
Stephen
1
Club
NBA
Básquet
Y el club corto la
relación con el
jugador
Anunciar mis
planes de retiro
de la NBA
Que nunca he
alcanzado en la
cancha de
básquet
1
3
1
Record
Batio ayer el
record
2
Futbol
Federación checa
de futbol
2
Club
Un portavoz de
club
1
Club
Grant, que
regreso del club
2
Web
En su página
web
1
Crack
No correra riesgo
con los dos
cracks
1
Gol
Futbol
El cuarto gol de
liga
Campeonato
amateur de
futbol
4
1
Sospechas de
apuestas
amañadas en
siete partidos
El francés Abidal
renueva con el
Barcelona
El francés Abidal
renueva con el
Barcelona
Matamba no sabe
si seguirá en Liga
Nuevos
candidatos para
dirigir el Nacional
Campaña
goleadora de la
Sub 15
Iverson anuncia
su retiro de la
NBA
Iverson anuncia
su retiro de la
NBA
Iverson anuncia
su retiro de la
NBA
Iverson anuncia
su retiro de la
NBA
Iverson anuncia
su retiro de la
NBA
Iverson anuncia
su retiro de la
NBA
La española
Ericka Villaecija,
nuevo record de
1500 libras
Aplazan partido
en Republica
Checa por gripe A
Aplazan partido
en Republica
Checa por gripe A
Avram Grant,
nuevo entrenador
del Portsmouth
Messi e
Ibrahimovic
siguen siendo
duda
Messi e
Ibrahimovic
siguen siendo
duda
Fifa; Golpe de
autoridad
Decimocuarta
fecha del infanto
de Liga Cantonal
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
28
Club
Que lleva al
frente del club
3
Futbol
Fomentar el
deporte del futbol
5
Básquet
Futbol
Kart
Set
Break
La selección de
futbol, básquet…
La selección de
futbol, básquet…
Participaran de
la carrera de kart
Dos derrotas en
dos sets
Devolvió el break
a Djokovic
1
1
3
3
3
Record
De mejorar a 8-0
su record
2
Club
El
funcionamiento
del club
6
Futbol
El futbol chileno
respiro
4
Show
Miércoles en el
show de goles
1
Gol
Autor de los tres
goles
1
Surf
Club
Circuito
intercolegial de
surfing
Fichar por algún
club
4
2
Futbol
Jornada de la
liga de futbol
1
Club
A un club de
futbol español
1
Playoff
Fuera de los
playoffs de
clausura
1
Fan
Futbol
Que desperdician
algunos fans
¡suertes distintas
en el futbol!
1
1
Indoor
Campeonas de
indoor femenino
2
Master
Mientras que en
master
1
Set
Break
Dorrotar al
argentino en dos
sets
Ninguna de sus
tres bolas de
break
Veinte años del
Club Atlético la
Pradera
Veinte años del
Club Atlético la
Pradera
Viajan a
Pedernales
Viajan a
Pedernales
Felipe Massa
vuelve a las pistas
Novak Djokovic se
impuso a Nadal
Novak Djokovic se
impuso a Nadal
Orlando Magig
venció a Atlanta
Hawks 93-76
Chile recobra el
ánimo de cara al
mundial 2010
Chile recobra el
ánimo de cara al
mundial 2010
Mendez y Araujo
no jugaran ante
Emelec
Mendez y Araujo
no jugaran ante
Emelec
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
28-11-2009
Hoy tercera fecha
del intercolegial
28-11-2009
Mera descarta
acercamientos
Un Real Madrid
efectivo contra un
Barcelona
brillante
Cesc Fabregas no
piensa irse a
España
DT Peluso al
frente de
Universidad de
Chile
¡suertes distintas
en el futbol!
¡suertes distintas
en el futbol!
Mas campeones
en los
interprofesionales
Mas campeones
en los
interprofesionales
28-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
1
Dadivenko gana
su primer torneo
30-11-2009
1
Dadivenko gana
su primer torneo
30-11-2009
29
Rugby
Gol
Futbol
Capitán del
equipo de rugby
Con un gol de
Stefan
Campeonato
alemán de futbol
1
2
1
Club
Contrato con otro
club
1
Gol
Y con este gol los
locales
2
Penalti
Y Jimenez de
penalti ponía la
quinta
1
Record
Set
Top
Ranking
Y posee el record
mundial
Dos ganados en
5 sets
Estuvieron en el
top 10 del
ranking
Estuvieron en el
top 10 del
ranking
1
1
McCaw es
designado
jugador IRB del
año
El Bayern Munich
vuelve a ganar
El Bayern Munich
vuelve a ganar
Mora quiere
extender su
contrato
Deportivo
Quevedo
mantiene las
esperanzas
West Ham se
impuso 5-3 al
Burnley de
Guerrero
Lapentti y Massu
jugaran en Manta
Lapentti y Massu
jugaran en Manta
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
1
Lapentti y Massu
jugaran en Manta
01-12-2009
1
Lapentti y Massu
jugaran en Manta
01-12-2009
Club
Experiencia en el
club
2
Futbol
La serie
privilegiada del
futbol
2
Club
A ningún club
del futbol
2
Club
La sede social del
club
2
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
El manta FC tiene
interés en
Wilfrido
Roberth Cevallos
mejor dirigente de
la provincia
Roberth Cevallos
mejor dirigente de
la provincia
Hoy se juega el
final de fulbito
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
30
Chart Twelve
Variable: Tabloid “El Extra”
Sub-variable: Ads
Full equipo
Number of
times in article
5
Title of the
Article
Automobile
Record
Record Policial
1
Paper work
Casting
Gran casting
1
Tv programes
and cinema
Laptop
Laptop Toshiba
5
Products
Cyber
Cyber cabina
1
Computer
services
Chat
Mensajea chat
2
Zona picante
Full
Full equipado
6
Automobile
Cyber
Cyber cabina
6
Computer
services
Laptop
Laptop HP
4
Products
Sexy
Sexy chat
4
Zona picante
26-11-2009
Chat
Sexy chat
3
Zona picante
26-11-2009
Full
Full equipo
5
Automobile
27-11-2009
Cyber
Papelería, cyber
1
Computer
services
27-11-2009
Laptop
Laptop HP
4
Products
27-11-2009
Internet
Internet
inalámbrico
2
Computer
services
27-11-2009
Streeper
Streeper,
atractivos
1
Zona picante
27-11-2009
Swinger
Parejas swinger
1
Zona picante
27-11-2009
Full
Full equipo
4
Automobile
28-11-2009
Cyber
Papelería, cyber
1
Computer
services
28-11-2009
Laptop
Laptop HP
5
Products
28-11-2009
Internet
Internet
inalámbrico
2
Computer
services
28-11-2009
Airbag
Alarma, airbag
1
Automobile
Full
Full equipo
3
Automobile
Software
Actualizamos
2
Computer
Anglicisms
Example
Full
Date
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
31
software
services
29-11-2009
Laptop
Laptop HP
5
Products
29-11-2009
PC
Programas de PC
1
Computer
services
29-11-2009
DVD
DVD,
actualizamos
software
1
Computer
services
29-11-2009
Night club
Venga a night
club
1
Sexual services
29-11-2009
Disjockey
Cursos
discjockey
1
Courses
30-11-2009
Full
Full equipo
4
Automobile
30-11-2009
Cyber
Cyber café
1
Computer
services
30-11-2009
Laptop
Laptops Toshiba
4
Products
30-11-2009
Internet
Internet
inalámbrico
1
Computer
services
30-11-2009
Chat
Sexy chat
2
Zona picante
30-11-2009
Sexy
Sexy chat
2
Zona picante
30-11-2009
Call center
Atención cliente
call center
1
Computer
services
01-12-2009
Full
Full equipo
3
automobile
01-12-2009
Internet
Internet
inalámbrico
2
Computer
services
01-12-2009
Laptop
Laptop Toshiba
4
Products
01-12-2009
DVD
Dvd, filmadoras
1
Products
01-12-2009
Discjockey
Discjockey,
locución
1
Courses
01-12-2009
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
32
Chart Thirteen
Variable: Tabloid “El Extra”
Sub-variable: Reports
Number of
times in article
Anglicisms
Example
Club
No se trata de un
club
Night club
Propietario del
night club
1
Ranking
En el ultimo
ranking
6
Rock
Amantes de la
música rock
1
3
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
Title of the
Article
¡Cero nervios y a
toda máquina!
Ayuno y silencio
en la 18 y todos
los chongos del
Guayas
Ranking de la
Corrupción
¡Rituales
Satanicos con
Cadaveres!
Date
25-11-2009
25-11-2009
26-11-2009
01-12-2009
33
Chart Fourteen
Variable: Tabloid “El Extra”
Sub-variable: Social Pages
Anglicisms
Example
Appearance in
article
Maketing
Creado un
mercado y todo
un marketing
1
Shopping
Futbol
Show
Long play
CD
Una salida de
shopping
Ganas de jugar
futbol
El montaje del
show
Grabo 8 long
plays
Sacar su primer
CD
2
2
1
1
2
Title of the
Article
Karen Minda: la
diosa soy yo,
Yolanda y las
demás detrás de
mi
“Voy a dar un
gran concierto”
“Voy a dar un
gran concierto”
“Voy a dar un
gran concierto”
¡Máximo León
sigue rugiendo!
¡Máximo León
sigue rugiendo!
Estara un mes en
el país Alejandro
Kenig
Grazziana
Samprieto
Date
25-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
Reality
Al ganar el
reality desafío
1
Show
Cada show
1
Futbol
Futbol y básquet
1
Basquet
Futbol y básquet
1
Cinthya
Coppiano
29-11-2009
2
Gerardo Mejía
prepara reality en
Ecuavisa
29-11-2009
1
Paola Farias
30-11-2009
Reality
Hobby
Casting
Rol
Hobby
Un reality al
puro estilo
Operación
triunfo
Hobby: sembrar
plantas
A través de un
casting
Su nuevo rol
como conductora
Hobby: pasear
con su hija
1
1
1
Fast-track
Y última
competencia
fast-track
1
Miss
Miss mundo
2
Coctel
Hobby
Jazz
Show
Ser parte del
coctel de
premiación
Hobby: bailar y
escuchar música
Jazz progresivo
Show comico de
los hermanos
Mendez
Cinthya
Coppiano
Kelly
Campoverde
Kelly
Campoverde
Kelly
Campoverde
Ecuador en
reñida
competencia en
Miss Mundo
Ecuador en
reñido
competencia en
Miss Mundo
26-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
1
Dora West
01-12-2009
1
Gabriela Guzmán
01-12-2009
1
Gabriela Guzmán
En la 30 y
Camilo Destruge
se rumbeo sin
parar
01-12-2009
1
01-12-2009
34
UHF
Que es un canal
UHF
1
Bar
Esta por abrir un
bar
3
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
¡oswaldo
Valencia
celebrara
aniversario!
Danilo Rosero
con Bar-Karaoke
De cantante a
empresario
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
35
Chart Fifteen
Variable: Tabloid “El Extra”
Sub-variable: Sports
Anglicisms
Club
Opening
Example
Nutricionista del
club
Con un excelente
opening y
pasarela
Number of
times in article
1
1
Gol
Lluvia de goles
12
Futbol
Se dedica a ver
futbol
5
Club
Fundador del
club
3
Futbol
Figuras del
futbol
2
Gol
Futbol
El gol de
Fluminense
Y cada uno de
esos hinchas del
futbol
3
3
Futbol
Volver a jugar el
futbol
2
Gol
Concretar dos
goles
3
Futbol
Muchas glorias
al futbol
3
Futbol
Llegue muy alto
en el futbol
4
Club
e-mail
De lo que le
suceda al club
E-mail sobre
Barcelona
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
26-11-2009
27-11-2009
27-11-2009
28-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
29-11-2009
1
Sapada gigante
29-11-2009
Gol
Después del gol
2
Futbol
25-11-2009
29-11-2009
2
Charter
Jaime Ivan
Kaviedes espera
jugar su tercer
mundial
Kaviedes ¡Ya se
puso la de
Emelec!
¡River adelanto la
Navidad!
Si mi hijo queda
campeón seré la
madre más feliz
del mundo
25-11-2009
Sapada gigante
El bicampeon del
futbol
Que en el futbol
cualquier cosa
puede pasar
Luego al charter
que salió desde
Quito
Corona del futbol
de primera A
¡A 90 minutos de
ser Rey de Copas!
Date
3
Futbol
Futbol
Title of the
Article
Ni las moscas se
podían acercar
¡Diana Ortiz es la
nueva reina del
Cañar!
¡Muito
obrigado…mais
Maracanazo a la
vista!
¡Charly Garcia no
puede vivir sin el
balón!
¡Huracan aporto
jugadores al
futbol
profesional!
¡Huracan aporto
jugadores al
futbol
profesional!
¡A 90 minutos de
ser Rey de Copas!
3
1
2
Chullas con
medio titulo en el
bolso
Chullas con
medio titulo en el
bolso
Liga de Quito
viaja hoy sin
presión
Sarita, la hincha
mas chiquita de
Liga
Deportivo Quito tiene
todo para ser campeón
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
30-11-2009
01-12-2009
01-12-2009
36
Chart Sixteen
Variable: National Newspaper “El Universo”
Anglicisms
Section
F
%
News
20
3.85
Ads
315
60.58
Reports
43
8.27
Social pages
80
15.38
Sports
62
11.92
Total
520
100.00
Section
F
%
News
37
14.57
Ads
12
4.72
Reports
16
6.30
Social pages
40
15.75
Sports
149
58.66
Total
254
100.00
Section
F
%
News
0
0
Ads
105
51.98
Reports
11
5.45
Social pages
30
14.85
Sports
56
27.72
Total
202
100.00
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
Chart Seventeen
Variable: Local Newspaper “El Mercurio”
Anglicisms
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
Chart Eighteen
Variable: Tabloid “El Extra”
Anglicisms
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
37
The Most Frequent Anglicisms
Anglicisms
Full
Club
Futbol
Laptop
Gol
Internet
Web
Show
Closet
Cyber
Bar
Call center
Reality
DVD
Rock
Miss
Dual core
Discjockey
Lcd
Market
Coctel
Beisbol
Sexy
Chat
Robot
CD
Set
Split
Jacuzzi
Penthouse
Record
Hobby
Top
Shopping
Marketing
Ranking
Pop
Jonrón
Básquet
Night club
Break
Surf
Number of times the
word is repeated
168
82
75
66
53
39
31
28
21
24
18
22
17
16
16
16
15
11
8
8
8
7
7
7
6
6
6
8
5
5
10
5
5
4
4
13
4
4
4
5
4
4
38
Stand
Fan
Casting
VIP
Kit
Estándar
Rol
Mall
Off
e-mail
Videoclip
Comic
Cover
Hip hop
NBA
Karting
Stock
Master
Software
Tráiler
Link
Bypass
Flirtear
Gay
Chatear
Outsider
Business center
Frontman
Heavy metal
Pop art
Waterpolo
Short
Flash
Click
Bye
Gold
Tip
Shock
Yankee
Voleyball
Rating
Light welter
Feather
Hall
Campus
Netbook
USB
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
6
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
39
Ferry
Rap
Legging
Topless
Look
Fashion
Drive
Tie-break
Dopaje
Crashgate
Corner
Chance
All-star
Crack
Kart
Play-off
Indoor
Rugby
Penalti
Stripper
Swinger
Airbag
PC
Long play
Fast track
Jazz
UHF
Opening
Charter
Total
Author: EDER INTRIAGO PALACIOS
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
976
40
DISCUSSION
This section is composed of three parts that constitute the core
basis for the research.
It begins with an exposition about language and relating topics
to provide the reader with some general knowledge to introduce him
or her to the main topic of this research.
Then, this work goes on to present a description and analysis
of the results obtained throughout this investigation. Here the reader
will get detailed information on the linguistic features of an important
number of Anglicisms. After this, this research compares the
variables and sub-variables involved (the newspapers and their
sections) in terms of frequency percentages of the Anglicisms found.
Last in this section, a sociological analysis takes place to talk about
the acceptance or denial to the use of Anglicisms in Ecuadorian
newspapers; as well as the impact on the society in relation to our
cultural identity. The impact on the Spanish language in terms of
benefitting or being affected, as far as comprehension is concerned, is
addressed here as well.
Finally, this research provides some conclusions that sum up
all the investigative process.
41
Theoretical Background
This theoretical background briefly introduces the topic of
human language and all it encompasses; it explores what language is
and its main properties. Language-interested researchers, in their
attempt to systematically study the phenomena of language, have set
out to build the foundations of linguistics, which along the time has
allowed linguists to make wonderful discoveries. So, it should not be
forgotten to also talk about linguistics here in a few lines, exploring
the different linguistic branches that study language. There is also
room for the procedures governing the formation of words, language
change, bad language habits (i.e., language vice). Neologisms,
Anglicisms, and foreign language interference let us know that
languages are a living institution, and that language and culture are
closely related. Then, a few definitions on newspaper and tabloid are
provided since they will be dealt with further on in this work. Lastly,
we present, as part of this background, a few comments on related
investigations about Anglicisms written by respected authors.
Language indeed is a phenomenon that continues to amaze us;
in fact, as these lines are written new discoveries are made, and so it
will continue to amaze us even more.
42
Language
According to Chao (1968, 1), the members of a community or
group communicate with each other by means of a conventional vocal
system known as language. Note that the statement above says a
vocal system used by people of the same group; this means that there
are
different
groups
of
people
using
different
systems
for
communication. He goes on to say that even though these systems
differ in form (Spanish from English, Japanese from Italian, and so
on); all languages spoken in the world have several common
properties. Chao (1968: 1-3), in his book Language and Symbolic
Systems lists nine properties that all languages share:
(1) Talking is an act of will; we decide to say something. In all
languages people sneeze and cough. Is this talking? Or, how about
when we laugh or when we cry. Is that an act of voluntary talk? It is
not. Language is, therefore, a voluntary act. (2) Language is a habit
that we learn when we are babies and as with most habits in
childhood, they are difficult to change. That’s why learning a
language in adult life results quite difficult since it involves changing
one’s habits. (3) What people communicate is completely arbitrary to
language. For any person who speaks only one language, it is difficult
to distinguish that words are different from what they represent, e.g.
the word rock from the actual object. In the past, people used to think
that putting a curse on someone’s name would actually hurt the
person. People who are bilingual or polyglot know that things are
43
called a different name in a different language. (4) A language is a
living institution. This means traditions and conventions pertaining
to a group of people, which in some cases mean a handful of them,
and in other cases millions of them. (5) Being a human institution, a
language changes over the time; and under certain extreme
conditions, languages can even die out. Like animals and plants,
languages also evolve; although this evolution in languages happens
faster than in the former two. If we pay close attention, we can notice
that the language of our parents is to some extent somewhat different
than the one spoken by us today, although this mainly happens at a
lexical level with new words being coined, borrowed or just made up.
(6) A language is one-dimensional. It is not possible for any human
being to say two words at the same time; even trying to say two single
vowels at once is not feasible. (7) Every language spoken in the world
uses a small amount of distinctive sounds called phonemes. Most
languages use from twelve to less than a hundred phonemes, even
though the human ear is able to distinguish thousands of different
sounds. (8) Languages are not regular bodies of rules, but they are
not totally irregular bodies either. They are a mix of rules with
exceptions. So, while we have regular verbs that follow a common
pattern, we also have irregular ones that sometimes can be a
nuisance, especially for those learning a foreign language. All
languages
share
this
characteristic
independently.
(9) Finally,
continuing with the properties of language, people are born with the
44
predisposition to learn any language. We all had to learn the
language or languages we speak now when we were babies; at that
age any language represented the
same degree of difficulty.
Whichever our mother language is, we had to learn it from zero.
Linguistics
“Linguistics
may
be
defined
language......by the scientific study
as
the
scientific
study
of
of language is meant its
investigation by means of controlled and empirically verifiable
observations and with reference to some general theory of languagestructure” (Lyons, 1968: 1)
Language is essential to humans; in fact, Smith (2002, 3) says
that “language makes us human”. Language is present in almost any
aspect of the life of a person whether they are from La Paz in Bolivia
or Washington D.C. in the USA. Everything we do from researching
any sciences to investigating the confines of the universe is
inexcusably dependant on language. Smith (2002, 1) also states that
“Martians and dolphins, bonobos and bees, may be just as intelligent,
cute, adept at social organization, and morally worthwhile, but they
don’t share our language, they don’t speak human”. Human language
is a phenomenon as old as history that has sparked wonder in us to
the point of having developed a science exclusive for this purpose.
This science which helps us to scientifically understand the faculty of
communication by means of language is called Linguistics.
45
Branches of Linguistics
The world of linguistics is divided in different areas of study:
morphology, semantics, syntax, pragmatics and phonology.
Morphology
The Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary defines the term
morphology as “the study and description of word formation (as
inflection, derivation, and compounding) in language”. In the
Encyclopedia Elsevier, Bauer (2006, 316-317) says that the word
morphology seems to indicate the study of forms, but this definition,
however, does not really come close to what morphology really is. If
we were to analyze the word invest based on the definition above, we
would have the units in and vest which separately do not provide any
meaning related with the word. Instead, professionals in the field of
morphology are interested in a different kind of analysis: invest being
the core (morpheme) for the creation of new words like invested,
investment, investing, investor and so on, where we clearly see the
form and the meaning interacting closely; or in words like singing,
swimming, running etc., related by the unit -ing whose form provides
a common meaning in that all are in a continuous form. So,
according to Bauer a better definition for morphology would be the
study of the relationship between the meaning of words and their
form. As it is said above, morphology is related with form and
meaning. If we talk of forms we are talking about phonology; if we
talk about meaning we are talking about semantics. So, we realize
46
that the study of morphology is closely related to the study of
semantics as well as the study of phonology. The forms –ing and –ed
play a syntactic role within a sentence, so there again, we find
another
co-relation
between
morphology
and
syntax.
Lastly,
morphology provides ground for the formation of new words, which
relates it with lexis.
Semantics
Palmer (1981, 1) describes semantics as the technical study of
meaning or better yet how meaning is expressed, while Graddol (1994,
102) goes on to say that “it involves investigating the relationship
between language and everything that we use language to talk about:
and this amounts to the entire world!”
We can say that words are symbols used to refer to things,
animals, people, ideas, feelings, etc. that exist in the world, and since
language
is
a
conventional
system,
people
can
quite
easily
understand these symbols making communication possible. If we
take the word table, for example, it acts as the symbol for the actual
object that we can touch and use for putting stuff on. Now, the
relationship that exists between a word and the concept that it
symbolizes is more complex than the relationship in other symbols.
Words are flexible symbols that can have a different meaning
depending on the context they are being used in. For example, let’s
use the word fast to illustrate this: its most common meaning is
quick, used as an adjective; but it can also mean to eat no food for a
47
period of time, in this case used as a verb. This flexibility allows us to
use the vocabulary of a language to talk about all the things that
exist in the world, apart from doing it in different ways too: ironically,
jokingly as well as straightforwardly.
In naming things, which would be a superficial level of analysis
of semantics, Graddol (1994, 103) points out that there are two terms
that need to be explained: denotation and reference. For denotation
we understand the act of indicating the thing or things one word
makes reference to, while for reference we mean using a word
indicating a specific thing at the moment the word is used. For
example, the sentence a table serves many purposes is denoting all
tables as being a useful object. In I like the green table over there we
clearly see that table is being used to refer to the specific object at
that specific moment. Denoting is faced with certain difficulties as is
the case of abstracts; how do we denote love, peace, and evil? Also,
arising some thinking is the flexibility of words that can denote
different things depending on context like in the case of table again
that, in math class, may refer to the arrangements of rows and
columns to organize information. Now, apart from words having this
referential meaning, there is another type of meaning which words
transmit –usually the speaker voluntary gets this-, it is called
connotation and consists in suggesting a meaning different than the
one the word typically means. For example: in the sentence it is
48
raining dogs and cats we not necessarily mean that actual animals
are falling down from the sky, but we mean to say very heavily.
Syntax
Syntax is the branch of linguistics that studies the functions of
words as separate units within a sentence and the relationships that
exist between them. Yule (2006, 96) says that we are studying the
syntax of a language, when we concentrate on the structure and
ordering of components within a sentence.
Etymologically, it comes from the terms syn meaning together,
and taxis meaning order, arrangement or sequence. In other words we
can say that syntax is the study of word combination to form longer
and more complex units of meaning: the phrase, the clause and the
sentence.
The phrase, according to Eggenshwiller and Biggs (2001, 55) is
a group of words that act as a unit and so, in many cases, can be
replaced by a single word: the little boy can be replaced for he; on the
corner can be replaced for there and so on. Phrases, however, cannot
stand alone as a sentence. In order for a phrase to be considered
such, it does not have to have a finite verb, except for the verb phrase.
There are 5 types or phrases that can be encountered: a noun phrase:
the boys; an adjective phrase: incredibly fascinated; a verb phrase:
are going; an adverb phrase: to Argentina; and a preposition phrase:
by plane.
49
The clause is a group of words that needs to have a finite verb
and to be part of a sentence; if it stands alone, it provides incomplete
or, in some instances, no meaning at all. The clause can be of three
types: noun clauses which contain a finite verb and play the role of a
noun within the sentence: the doctor said that he had cancer.
Adjective clauses function as relative groups of words modifying the
noun in the sentence: my cousin, who argued with me on Sunday, is
ill. Adverb clauses, which basically provide us with information on
where, when, how, why or if an action took place: leave it there where
I can have a good view of it.
A definition of sentence by Johnson (1991, 3) says that a
sentence is a word or word group that expresses a complete thought,
grammatically independent of any word outside the group. And so
truthful is this statement that sentences like “Listen!”; “Lucas runs”;
“Mary sees Marcos” “where does she live?” very well fit the definition
above. They stand independent of any other unit and however make
full sense. According to Bloomfield (1933, 170) “each sentence is an
independent
linguistic
form,
not
included
by
virtue
of
any
grammatical construction in any larger linguistic form”. As with
phrases and clauses, sentences can be divided. This division consists
of:
Declarative sentences which are the type of sentences that
states or asserts something: I will finish my homework on time; they
have not studied at all; the sun shines up in the sky.
50
Imperative sentences give an order or make requests: Stop!;
Don’t look at that; help me, please.
Interrogative sentences express a question: are you coming with
me? What is your name? Would you like some tea? Within this
division it is important to mention that there are two types of
interrogative sentences: yes/no questions and wh- questions.
Finally, the fourth group of sentences is exclamatory sentences,
which express surprise, indignation or strong opinion. Examples of
exclamatory sentences are: I should have never given you all the
money! What a stupid thing that what you did! These sentences are
ended with an exclamatory point.
Sentences are also divided into simple, compound, and
complex sentences.
A simple sentence is one containing one finite verb, for example Mary
is playing cards happily; Lucas and John study English every day.
A compound sentence is one where two or more simple
sentences are joint by coordinating conjunctions (and, while, or, but,
neither….nor…etc) Mary likes watching TV and John likes reading; I
do the laundry while she makes dinner.
Last,
it
is
the
complex
sentence,
which
contains
one
independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses, for
example people that help each other are generous.
51
Pragmatics
When we communicate by means of language, we give more
information than what we actually say. For example, when we say
“can you help me with this?” we are actually making a request and
not necessarily asking a question; or why do we usually understand
the utterance I am cold as “please, close the window” or “please, turn
off the air conditioning” or even “can I borrow your sweater?” We also
notice
that
certain
utterances
almost
always
go
in
pairs:
question/answer; compliment/compliment; greeting/greeting, etc. So,
pragmatics is the branch of linguistics that studies meaning in the
context of language use. J Wilson, of the University of Ulster at
Jordanstown could not have said it better:
“Pragmatic theories attempt to explain this knowledge (language)
by seeing communication as a process of rational and reasoned
interpretation, which draws not only on linguistic structure but
also shared and world knowledge, cultural norms, and individual
components of specific interactional contexts”
Phonology
Phonology is the part of language concerned with the study of
the properties of sound in language. Todd (1987, 13) establishes that
for a better study of phonology, it can be subdivided in phonetics and
phonemics.
Phonetics
investigates
how
sounds
are
produced,
the
mechanisms for their transmission and how these are received. Some
details that phonetics deals with are, for example, that even though
52
humans can produce a countless amount of sounds, there are no two
languages that utilize the same set of sounds; or that when we speak,
our speech organs make continuous movements. Also, we all are
aware of the spaces between words clearly observable in writing, but
in speech no such thing exists. This is clearly evident when we hear
other languages, wondering where one word finishes and where the
other starts. All these aspects are analyzed in detail covering topics
such as the organs of speech: the jaw, the lips, the teeth, the teeth
ridge, the tongue, the hard palate, the velum, the uvula, the pharynx,
the larynx, and the vocal chords. Other topics phonetics studies is
the one concerning vowels and consonants, as well as articulation
(manner
of
articulation
and
place
of
articulation)
and
suprasegmentals (pitch, stress, tone, intonation and tempo).
Phonemics is the study of the sounds of a specific language.
The English language has no official pronunciation, and so, the
variation in pronunciation is quite extensive.
An American person
sounds quite different from a person in England or a guy from
Australia. However, the study of phonemics of the English language
is usually limited to the variations form the United States and
England. (Todd 1987:13-23)
Morphological Procedures
In the production of new words, Yule (2006, 58) says that the
most common word formation process is derivation, which consists in
the creation of new words by adding a linguistic part either at the
53
beginning or end of a word to modify its meaning. Words like goodgoodness, sad-sadly, and pleasant-unpleasant are examples of word
derivation. This derivation takes place thanks to prefixes and suffixes.
Prefixes are particles that change the syntax of words, that is, from
one category to another. For example, they can go from an adjective
to a noun happy-happiness; from a verb to a noun work-worker etc.
Suffixes, on the other hand, are affixes added at the beginning of
words. Particles like un-, in-, im- add a negative connotation to
adjectives and a few verbs. En- and be- can be added to some nouns
and adjectives to make them into transitive verbs: large-enlarge;
little-belittle.
Compounding is the formation of a word by putting two words
together. This definition, however, applies more or less to all
languages, since in some languages there may be more than two
words in the formation of a compound. Yule (2006) points out that
compounding is very common in languages like German and English,
but not so much in Spanish or French. Examples of compounds in
Spanish are sacapuntas, lavacara, cortauñas. In English, examples of
compound words are bookmark, washing machine, brick layer.
Bauer (2006) describes parasynthesis as the combining of a
prefix + lexeme + suffix to form a meaningful word. It is, in other
words, the simultaneous combination of derivation and compounding
in forming new words. Example of this would be the word coldhearted
where we see the above pattern in action: cold+heart+ed; there is no
54
such word (lexemes) as coldheart or hearted. The word des-pera-cion
is an example of Spanish parasynthesis. In order for the word to be
meaningful the three components need to be together. Taking away
one the affixes results in the word losing its meaning.
Historical linguistics
In his journal Basic Course of General Linguistics, Giacomo
Ferrari (1991, 1-2) let us know that ever since men began wondering
about the faculty of speaking, there has been a very interesting
number of accounts pertaining to the development of linguistics to
what it is now. In ancient India the main representative was the
grammarian Panini VI B.C., who in order to preserve the sacred
hymns (Vedas) formulated the 3959 rules of Sanskrit morphology in
the grammar known as Ashtadhyayi.
In Greece, the focus was on finding an explanation to the
suspected relationship between language and thinking. Also, it is in
Greece where the formal study of the important points of language
with Aristotle and the Alexandrian logicians begins. From 800 A.C., a
formal comparison of the European languages with those from the
East starts. This study indicated that a wide number of languages
from the East (ancient Iranian) and the West (Latin, Greek, Germanic
languages) had a common vocabulary. Another discovery was that
Indo-European, Indo-Germanic, and Aryan-European had a common
linguistic phase.
55
A few indicators that allowed studying languages from a
general perspective were developed. These discoveries made possible
the birth of several schools whose purpose was the general and
abstract study of language. Finding the structure of language was
one point they (linguists) all had in common.
Norman Chomsky presents in 1957 his formal linguistics. It is
then when syntax is studied as an independent linguistics. There is
also an interest to study other levels of language like semantics and
morphology.
Ferrari (1991, 15) explains that with Chomsky’s revolution of
language came the computer revolution; by the end of 1950s, people
in the field of computers started creating programs that were able to
imitate the human language, at least in writing. For example, early
models of computers were able to recognize a written language that
had syntactic characteristics. These advances were possible thanks
to the techniques developed and the results reached by the study of
formal linguistics.
Language change
We may not notice the changes that our language is
undergoing but all languages including Spanish have changed and
are still rapidly changing. In a special report published in 2008 by
the National Science Foundation, Nicole Mahoney says: “in some
ways, it is surprising that languages change. After all, they are
passed down through the generations reliably enough for parents and
56
children to communicate with each other”. The rapidity of the change,
however, is different from language to language. Undoubtedly,
Spanish has changed ever since it came into being; if we compare the
Spanish texts from 200 hundred years ago, we will discover that the
Spanish known by us today didn’t look or sound like it does now. The
changes that a language has are of lexical, syntactic, and phonetic
nature. The same has happened with other languages too. For
example, English has radically change over the time that everyone
that
reads
Shakespeare
now
will
without
doubt
agree
that
Shakespeare’s English was a whole different story.
Why do languages change? There is not one single reason why
a language changes. Mahoney (2008, 2) strongly believes the reason
lies in the following statement: “Large-scale shifts often occur in
response to social, economic and political pressures”
In this ever changing world where new things are being
invented every day, we need new names to name things. In
Columbus’s time we didn’t have the technology that exists now with
cell phones and the internet so popular these days; they have,
without doubt, contributed with new incorporations to the language,
and the way we speak it. With invasion and immigration we not only
have new people introduced, but also their customs, beliefs,
traditions and their language that, whether we want it or not, will
eventually affect ours.
57
The changes that a language experiences over the time fall into
the following categories: vocabulary, syntax and pronunciation.
Vocabulary is the area where we see the most changes, and occurring
at a faster pace. And no wonder this is so, with so many innovations
happening and new products being created. The changes in the
structure of a sentence are less, and happening much more slowly;
however, they way sentences were arranged in the times of Eloy
Alfaro were a bit different than current ones. To verify this we could
visit Ciudad Alfaro and check out some of the letters exchanged
between him and his family and friends more than one hundred
years ago. Pronunciation changes also take place over time in all
languages, but their documentation has been a bit more difficult
because the lack of technology prevented their recording.
Language Vice
In the paper Vicios del Lenguaje by Salvador Carreño, language
vice refers to bad habits displayed by people in their communication
that alter the normal flow of the oral-communicative experience
causing misunderstanding, imprecision, and in some cases ugliness
of speech. As we all know, a language is an instrument of
communication that can be utilized with varying degrees of skill;
while a few might become masters of rhetoric enchanting and
convincing people with their eloquent speeches, others
stumble
around making mistakes of all sorts. Carreño says that these bad
58
language habits can be classified in three main groups: pragmatic,
syntactic and semantic vice.
Pragmatic vice are non-conventional terms used temporarily,
they are words that may be used with syntactic and semantic
appropriateness; however, because of them being archaic or newly
invented terms, they might create ground for confusion and doubt in
the receiving listener.
The pragmatic vice are archaism and
neologism. An archaism is an old-fashioned word that gets replaced
by modern terms in some cases, and in others they are discontinued
because the thing they refer to stops being used. A word, it is
important to point out, may be an archaism in one country, but not
so in another. For example, the Spanish word vosotros (you all) that
has long been replaced by ustedes in many Latin-American countries
continues to be the currently used word in Spain. Other examples of
archaism are muy noche meaning tarde en la noche (late at night), que
tanto meaning cuanto (how much), etc. In English we have the terms
thy, thou. Ye etc., widely seen in books written long ago but rarely
used in current writing or speech.
On the other hand, neologisms are new words borrowed from a
foreign language that appear in a language; or are newly coined
words to replace old forms, or to denote new invented articles. Some
words however are tried out without following the rules, or the
accepted conventions resulting in poor made-up terms that never
integrate successfully into the language.
59
Syntactic vice are words that affect the grammatical structure
of a sentence.
Catachresis is an example of syntactic vice that consists in
using a word incorrectly or improperly mixing up their meanings. For
example, “él” for “el”, “perjuicio” for “prejuicio”, “allá” for “ayá” and so
on.
Solecism is the use of bad grammar. It is either adding one
unnecessary word to a phrase or extra letters to words “debes de” for
just “debes”; “dormistes” for “dormiste”; or taking away words or
letters “vaya comer” for “vaya a comer”; “botellar” for “embotellar”.
Monotony is the repetition of words turning a dialog boring and
lacking in diversity. Among the various examples of monotony we can
list “queismo” which consists in overusing the word “que” in speech
“quiero que me ayudes a ver que solución hay para que esto que no
funciona…”. “Cosismo” is the other high frequency monotonous vice
that consists in abusing the word “cosa” when explaining something
“el amor de madre es una cosa hermosísima que nos hace sentir
muchas cosas bellas”. “Alguismo” just as the other two above refers to
using the word “algo” excessively. Lastly, “teveismo” is copying
expressions from television (chanfle, frijoles saltarines, recorcholis),
and use them in contexts where they are not very well welcome.
The next syntactic vice is pleonasm, which consists in adding
extra unnecessary words to a phrase to emphasize or embellish it
resulting, however, in redundancy.
A good example would be “lo
60
estoy viendo con mis propios ojos” or “dile por favor que lo suba para
arriba”.
The fourth and last syntactic vice is cacophony defined as the
bad combination of words that to the ear sound awfully.
Semantic vice is using foreign forms that make comprehension
difficult. The semantic vice are amphibology and barbarism.
Amphibology is utilizing words that have more than one
interpretation leading to ambiguity: “Carlos fue a la casa de Juan en
su auto” where it is not clear whose car they are referring to; or “el
burro de mi abuelo” where one might think: is this an insult? Or are
they actually asking about grandpa’s donkey?
Savagery is the degeneration of words. They involve improperly
tilde-marked words -exámen, opinion, páliza- or wrongly spelt words:
vamolos, juites, fulbol, among others.
Now, as for extranjerismos (foreign words), they are words
borrowed from other languages used to denote things instead of using
the idiomatic ones from the local language. The most important group
is anglicisms or borrowed words from the English language e.g. tip for
consejo, look for aspecto, me voy de shopping for me voy de compras.
Depending on where the word is originally from, we have
Anglicisms, Gallicisms, Italianism, Germanisms, and so on.
61
Neologisms
It is well known that languages evolve and part of this evolution
involves new lexical incorporations. Some words enter the language
to stay, while others are used for a very short time. Lehrer (Elsevier
Encyclopedia, 2006) refers to neologisms as new words created,
based on the rules for word formation that a language possesses, and
that over the time become part of the lexis of a language both oral
and written. For example, the morpheme -holic has now given birth
to new words like workaholic (first appeared in 1968). Or to introduce
a new action: oil-paint, scuba-dive, the joining of a verb and a noun
is used.
As we can see above, one of the most common ways to form
neologisms is compounding; by combining two or three morphemes,
birth to new words is given: disco duro (hard drive), azul-marino (navy
blue), correcaminos (road-runner) among others. Affixation is another
mechanism through which by placing prefixes and suffixes next to
words
or
morphemes
new
words
are
created:
aeronáutica
(aeronautics), telescopio (telescope), interfaz (interface). Conversion is
the other means by which new words come into being; it is changing
from one form into another which in some instances may go from one
syntactical
function
to
another:
Internet–internauta,
emigrar–
emigrante, energizar–energizante.
62
Barbarism: Anglicisms
“No language is an island isolated from the influence of other
languages” (Gottlieb, Elsevier Encyclopedia, 2006). All languages
borrow grammatical and lexical features from each other. English is
well known for being the biggest donor of borrowed words affecting
almost all languages in the world. For more than a century, English
has been very successful at influencing other languages. Why? There
are basically three factors that contribute to this phenomenon; it is
necessary, however, to point out it is the economic power that
promotes this phenomenon. As Francis C., put it:
“I do not mean to imply that the great influx of the average
Spanish American is based on avarice. Without at all
discounting the cultural and political factors, however, I
believe that the economic element, and I use economic in its
broadest sense, is what weighs most heavily in favor of the
adoption of the Anglicism” (Aug., 1951)
Firstly, most people use English as a second language to
communicate as well as to get information. Also, nowadays, children
and teenagers from countries where English is not the official
language, surf the internet, watch movies and shows and listen to
music relying on the command of English they have; secondly,
English has no competition in terms of most updated information.
English is the first language in which new technology, fashion trends,
and lifestyles are presented internationally. It is the new lingua
franca in the world, and in almost all countries English is taught as a
63
foreign language; and thirdly, lots of articles and pieces of
information are translated to different languages from originals in
English; in many parts of the world, movies, shows, computer games,
and novels are of English language origin. For these reasons, English
has introduced hundred of words in almost every part where a
language exits. These introduced words are linguistically known as
Anglicisms. An attempt to define an Anglicism would be “any
individual or systematic feature adopted or adapted from English, or
inspired or boosted by English models used in intralinguistic
communication in a language other than English” (H Gottlieb, 2006:
199). Now it is important to point out that not all Anglicisms reach
acceptance by all the language users of a community due to several
factors like lack of prestige or its historical usage.
Foreign Language Interference
In the article Language Change and Language Policy and
Planning published in 1997 by the Pacific Resources for Education
and Learning, Joan Shigemoto suggested that human languages are
intrinsically destined to change just like people and the culture in
which it operates. It is not very easy to see the changes that are
orchestrating in a given group; since we are so immersed in the
language, we fail to realize that, at a superficial level, they do exist.
Just when we take a deeper look, we become aware that we no longer
use a once popular word or that, for example, the way in which our
parents used to pronounce a word, has radically changed. One factor
64
that promotes change is cultural interference. Inevitably, if a society
is very powerful in terms of politics, economics, science and
technology, it will also be culturally dominant. We have to admit that
a language is a natural part of culture, so any imported cultural
change will inevitably be accompanied by a change in language. This
has been the case with the United States. The United States has been,
for the last 50 years or more, expanding its political, economical and
cultural dominance to many under-developed societies, in fact the
entirely world, and with it many changes in language have
consequently taken place. Of course the major impact of English
language influence has affected the lexis area of other languages.
Newspaper and Tabloid
Here are two definitions of newspaper provided by two
dictionaries:
The Babylon English-English dictionary defines it as: “A
newspaper is daily or monthly news publication printed on
large sheets of cheap paper, journal”
And the Merriam-Webster Collegiate® Dictionary puts it as:
“Paper that is printed and distributed usually daily or weekly
and that contains news, articles of opinion, features, and
advertising”
And here are a couple provided for tabloid:
Babylon English-English dictionary: “Small format newspaper
providing
news
in
a
condensed
form
and
containing
sensational material or gossip”
The Merriam-Webster Collegiate® Dictionary: “A newspaper
that is about half the page size of an ordinary newspaper and
65
that
contains
news
in
condensed
form
and
much
photographic matter”
There is an interesting fact on the origin of the word tabloid:
On March 4, 1884, a British drug company registered the
word tabloid for a very small tablet it was marketing. About
the same time, large broadsheet newspapers were challenged
by small-format journals, and because tabloid had come to
mean anything small, that’s what the new papers were called.
These tabloids often resorted to gossip instead of hard news,
which gave sloppy reporting the name “tabloid journalism.”
(Lennox, Doug. Now you Know, the book of answers)
Previous studies
World-wide there has been a lot of interest in studying the topic
of Anglicisms and its repercussions in speech and writing. Next there
are some studies conducted by academics of different nationalities.
In Mexico takes place the research “Some remarks on the
Anglicization of Latin American Spanish, with particular reference to
the speech of Mexico City” by Francis C.
St. John; while in Italy,
Gaetano Rando formulates “A Quantitative Analysis of the Use of
Anglicisms in Written Standard Italian during the1960's” In addition, a
study done by M. Alario Di Filippo on the Spanish spoken in
Colombia and published under the title “Lexicon de Colombianismos”
takes place in the neighboring country.
In Ecuador, there have been several works such as “El Español
en el Ecuador” written by Humberto Toscano, and “Un millar de
Anglicismos” written by Carlos Joaquin Cordova, which constitute
valuable sources of information about this topic.
66
Also, the students at UTPL have contributed to the knowledge
of
Anglicisms
with titles
like “Barbarisms
and Anglicisms in
Ecuadorian Radio and TV programs”; “Anglicisms in Banners,
Billboards and Business Signs” and “Archaisms and Anglicisms in the
Spanish Spoken in Ecuador”
67
DISCUSSION
The goal of this section is to provide three very important
analyses
of
the
data
collected:
linguistic,
comparative,
and
sociological.
Linguistic Analysis
This analysis focuses on the attributes the terms have
syntactically, semantically, and morphologically. Thirty carefully
chosen Anglicisms taken from the variables researched –ten from
each newspaper- are explored here in terms of their acceptability by
the Real Academia de la Lengua Española (RAE), etymology, year of
origin, and morphological changes
Variable National Newspaper “El Universo”
Stand
This Anglicism is accepted by the RAE. It comes from old
English stantand, and dates back from before the 12th century.
This word functions as an intransitive as well as a transitive
verb. Also, the word is widely used as a noun. Both as a verb and as
a noun the word is frequently used in fixed and idiomatic expressions.
The instance in which the Anglicism takes place is as a
noun: … se realizó una casa abierta que incluyó más de 15 stands
con exposición de nuevos productos para la utilización en hospitales.
As it can be observed in the example above, the word is being used as
68
a noun meaning a small often open-air structure for a small retail
business, or a site fit for a business opportunity.
In English one the common meanings related with this word
indeed refers to a small open-air place where things are sold. In
Spanish the association given to this word relates to an open-air area
for selling; although it oftentimes is used to indicate a structure (i.e.,
a table) where something is displayed or shown.
This word has undergone no morphological change as it is used
just as it is spelled in English; however, its pronunciation is closer to
the Spanish estand.
Internet
In the twenty second edition of the RAE, which is the latest
released and printed, this Anglicism is not included. In the twenty
third edition available on-line, however, the term is included as an
accepted Anglicism by the RAE. This word first appears in 1985.
This word is exclusively used as a noun, and it is usually
accompanied by the definite article la, being in most cases a feminine
article. Another feature of this Anglicism is that it is always
capitalized.
It appeared in the sentence …en Internet el panorama es
desastroso, where it clearly is making reference to the big network of
computers interconnected by means of a special protocol. In both
languages the word Internet means the same since it makes reference
to a unique thing.
69
Morphologically
speaking,
this
Anglicism
has
had
no
modification.
Bar
This Anglicism is accepted by the RAE. It comes from the
Middle English word barre, from Anglo-French, from Vulgar Latin
barra.
This word plays different roles within the sentence. It can act
as a noun, as a transitive verb, as a preposition, and can also be the
abbreviation to some words. As a noun, which is the function this
Anglicism plays in Spanish, the word dates from the 12th century.
In the sentence…los propietarios de bares y centros nocturnos…
the term makes reference to a place where people go for a drink
usually at night. Although in English this noun functions as both the
whole establishment or barroom, and the counter where the drinks
are served; in Spanish it only refers to the establishment, making use
of the Spanish barra to refer to the counter where the drinks are
served.
The word is used in its original form; that is, no modification
has been added to this word, keeping its morphology intact.
Cybercafé
This is an Anglicism not accepted by the RAE. The word
appeared for the first time in 1994.
70
The function of this word is only as a noun. In the newspaper
the term was used in the sentence “Es un cybercafé. Vamos por buen
camino, pero falta financiamiento”.
Both originally in English and later in Spanish, this word refers
to a coffee shop or a café that offers computers to access the Internet.
This word in Spanish is alternatively used with two spellings:
cibercafé and cybercafé, which also lead people to pronounce it either
as 'si-ber-ka-’fe and ‘sī-bər-ka-’fe respectively.
Link
This term has not been accepted by the RAE. Its origin comes
from Middle English, of Scandinavian origin; akin to Old Norse hlekkr
chain; akin to Old English hlanc lank. As a noun meaning a
connecting element, it dates from the15th century.
Three are the functions of this Anglicism: Noun, transitive, and
intransitive verb. As a noun it can mean either a connecting element
or a torch formerly used to light a person’s way in the streets. As an
intransitive verb it means to connect with or as if by a link. And lastly
as an intransitive verb it means to skip smartly along.
The sentence in the newspaper Tenemos un link directo a la
superintendencia, clearly shows that the word is referring to an
element that allows us to connect with the mentioned institution via
a computer.
Whereas in English the word is used to refer to the connecting
pieces in a chain or the like as well as a connecting factor in any kind
71
of relationship, in Spanish the word is exclusively used in computers
especially when surfing the Internet to refer to an identifier that
allows connection with another related identified element(s); therefore,
it is common to hear people say pásame el link when chatting
through any of the many social networks that abound nowadays.
Flirtear (flirt)
This Anglicism is accepted by the RAE. It is of unknown origin,
and it came into use in1580.
The functions of the word are as a noun as well as an
intransitive verb. In both cases it makes primarily reference to
behaving amorously without serious intent. In other instances,
however, this word can be used to convey casual interest or liking.
The idea of experimenting with something is also another meaning of
this Anglicism.
Tras flirtear con el comunismo en su juventud… is the instance
where we see the word in action. As it can be deduced, it can easily
be associated with experimenting in the sentence above. Although it
is more frequent to hear and see this word used with the acceptation
of coquetting, it appears in many instances with the meaning of
experimenting, which is how this word is used in the example above.
In Spanish, almost exclusively, the word is utilized to convey playing,
experimenting with something, as if the individual had fallen
temporarily in love.
72
Morphologically, the word has suffered a change in its form,
since it has suffered an españolización to make it fit the way Spanish
verbs work –having a –ar, -er, or –ir ending-. This way, this verb can
be conjugated as if it was a Spanish language one. With this change
in its spelling has consequently come a change in its pronunciation.
Rol (Role)
This word is accepted by the RAE as an Anglicism. Its origin
comes from French rôle, literally, roll, from Old French rolle. It is
used for the first time in 1605.
It functions only as a noun in English, and so does it in
Spanish.
In the example También arremetió contra la prensa europea,
especialmente contra el diario español El País, por el rol que
desempeñó a su juicio en la crisis entre Ecuador y Colombia
it is
observed that the word is used to mean a character assumed.
Similarly as in English, this term is mostly used in Spanish to signify
a character assigned or assumed, or a socially expected behavior
pattern usually determined by an individual's status in a particular
society. A second use for this word in both languages is a socially
expected behavior pattern usually determined by an individual's
status in a particular society. Lastly, in English it is used to mean a
part played in a movie or play, whereas in Spanish people would use
the Spanish parte instead.
73
In the morphological aspect, the word suffered a change in its
spelling by dropping the final e leaving the word as rol. This change
in its spelling has given way to a different pronunciation as a result.
Club
The RAE has accepted this Anglicism. This word as a noun
comes from the Middle English clubbe, from Old Norse klubba; akin
to Old High German kolbo club. It appeared in the 13th century.
The functions of this word are as a noun, and as a transitive
and intransitive verb. The function of this Anglicism in Spanish is
only as a noun.
In the instance “El club de Noboa es segundo, por mejor gol
diferencia” the Anglicism is referring to an athletic association or
team, mostly associated with a football team. In “En una balacera en
el club nocturno (night club) Bolero de Raquel, ubicado a un kilómetro
de Tena (Napo), murió Luis Alberto Reascos Reascos” this Anglicism is
making reference to a recreational place where people dance and
drink usually at night. Both acceptations are used in English widely
but not exclusively, being one of the mostly used meanings that of it
referring to a heavy piece used as a weapon, and that of the
instrument used to hit a ball in various games. The word is also used
as a transitive verb having two meanings: 1) to hit with or as if with a
club, and 2) to contribute to a common cause. As an intransitive verb
it means to form a club or association.
In Spanish the word is spelled as it is in English with the sole
difference being its pronunciation where the Spanish u.
74
Shopping (Shop)
This Anglicism is not accepted by the RAE. It comes from
Middle English shoppe, from Old English sceoppa booth; akin to Old
High German scopf shed. It originated in the 14th century as a noun
only, and then in 1764 it started being used as a verb.
In English, this inflected form functions as an adjective; it is
also used as a noun. in Spanish it acts only as a noun.
In this example “Actualmente este shopping ocupa el primer
lugar de recordación de los guayaquileños de entre 21 centros
comerciales”, we note that shopping is being used as a noun meaning
a business shopping center, that is, the term is making reference to
the actual building that has various stores and shops inside.
In the English language, this inflected form of the verb to shop
is used to indicate the action of buying in a market, a store, or in a
big commercial centre. It has the same connotation when used as a
noun but this time playing a different syntactic role. In contrast,
Spanish speaking people use this Anglicism only as a noun to refer to
a mall, a building full of stores, restaurants, and recreational
activities. So, even though they are somehow related in the idea of
buying, their syntactic function and meaning are different.
It may be presumed that since the word is part of the
compound shopping centre or shopping mall people in the borrowing
language eventually dropped the centre or mall and stayed with
shopping alone. As for its pronunciation, the tendency is towards ch
75
for sh, and no nasal g at the end, sounding like the English word
choppin’.
Bypass
This is a non-accepted Anglicism by the RAE. It came into
existence in the English language in 1848.
Its main functions are as a noun and as a transitive verb. In
Spanish it is only used as a noun.
This example “El mismo miércoles por instalación de válvulas en
Urdesa, instalación de un sifón en Bastión Popular y por la colocación
de un bypass en la cooperativa Ficoa de Montalvo”, lets us know
that the term is being used to indicate a channel to carry a fluid
around a part and back to main stream.
In English besides being used as a noun with the meaning
above described, it also serves to refer to a surgical procedure to
apply a shunt. As a verb it means to avoid something by means of a
bypass. In Spanish the word is used only as a noun in the fields of
hydraulics, as well as in medicine. It is common to hear doctors talk
of bypass coronario, or mechanics talk of necesitamos disenar un
bypass….
The word in Spanish has been adopted as it is spelled and
pronounced in English.
76
Variable National Newspaper “El Mercurio”
Show
This Anglicism is accepted by the RAE. It comes from the
Middle English shewen, showen, from Old English scēawian to look,
look at, see; akin to Old High German scouwōn to look, look at, and
probably to Latin cavēre to be on one's guard. As a verb it originated
in the 12th century, whereas in the 13th century it started to be used
as a noun.
This term functions as transitive and as an intransitive verb; it
also functions as a noun. In Spanish, it is only utilized as a noun.
The example …este show único que se presentara en Manta…
the word makes reference to a theatrical presentation organized and
sponsored by a high school. Apart from this use, very frequent by the
way, this noun it is used in Spanish to indicate exaggeration, or
intentional display to get other’s attention.
In English, this word is used as a transitive verb to mean
exhibition, performance, offering for sale, giving indication, pointing
out, conducting someone, etc. As an intransitive verb it means being
or coming in view, appearing in a particular way, being staged or
presented among others. Lastly as a noun, apart from being used
with the two acceptations above, this word means a display presented
to increase interest and therefore sales, a large exhibition of animals
to demonstrate competitiveness in breeding.
77
The morphology of the word remains the same and so does it
pronunciation, although in some instances it is pronounced as if with
a ch sound.
Web
This word is accepted by the RAE. It comes from Middle
English, from Old English; akin to Old Norse vefr web, Old English
wefan to weave. As a noun has existed from before the 12th century,
but used as a verb it appeared in 1604.
It has two functions in English: as a verb both transitive and
intransitive, and as a noun. In Spanish it is used only as a noun.
The sentence in which the word appears …que en la página
web de la institución… it is evident that the term is referring to the
World Wide Web, which in English is shortened as a plain web.
This term in English mainly makes reference to a network of
thread spun especially by the larvae of various insects used as a
shelter. Given the resemblance with the millions of computers
interconnected, the big electronic network is called it. As a transitive
verb, the term refers to form or make a web; as an intransitive verb, it
has to do with covering with a web or network. In Spanish, however,
this Anglicism is exclusively used to refer to the World Wide Web. It is
commonly followed by the Spanish pagina (page), although it can be
preceded by other words too.
Morphologically speaking, no modification has taken place; the
word is spelled as in its language of origin.
78
Reality
This Anglicism has not been accepted by the RAE. It dates from
1550.
This word functions as a noun in English. The function this
word has is Spanish is also a noun.
In the sentence…ganador indiscutible del primer lugar del
reality… the Anglicism is used to convey a television show about real
life that stars ordinary people rather than actors/actresses.
In English this word indeed means a television program as well,
but that is not the only acceptation it has; it also means the state of
being real, things that can be experienced through our senses. It also
means the totality of real things that exist in nature and in the
cosmos. In Spanish it is exclusively used to refer to the realities
shows cast on television.
The word has been introduced successfully into Spanish
without having to change its morphology; in some instances we see it
used accompanied by another Anglicism: show.
Hall
This is an accepted Anglicism by the RAE. It comes from Middle
English halle, from Old English heall; akin to Old High German halla
hall, Latin cella small room, celare to conceal. It appeared before the
12th century.
This Anglicism is used as a noun in the English language, and
so it is in Spanish.
79
…se realizo en el hall de la Secretaria Nacional del Migrante…
leads us to conclude that in this sentence the Anglicism is being used
to denote the entrance room of a building. In all instances when used,
it is most usually heard inside a building.
In English this word means the castle or house of a medieval
king; it is also used to indicate a large building used for public or
semi-public
purposes.
For
example,
when
referring
to
the
administrative building of a municipality, people use the phrase city
hall. And finally, the word is utilized to mean the entrance of a
building.
This Anglicism has not suffered any modification in Spanish;
both its spelling have and pronunciation have made their way into
the host language without change.
Stock
This is an accepted Anglicism by the RAE. It comes from Middle
English stok, from Old English stocc; akin to Old High German stoc
stick. This word originated before the 12th century.
While this Anglicism functions as a noun, as a transitive verb,
and also as an adjective, in Spanish it only works as a noun.
In the example …acumulan grandes stocks de frutas… the term
is referring to an inventory of goods, accumulated or available, of a
merchant.
This word in English has various meanings as a noun among
which can name a block of wood, something without life, a stupid
80
person, a supporting frame or structure, the butt of an implement,
the main stem of a plant, the crosspiece of an anchor, the original
from which others derive, a debt or fund due for money loaned at
interest, liquid in which meat, fish, or vegetables have been simmered
that is used as a basis for soup, gravy, or sauce; the production and
presentation of plays by a stock company. As a transitive verb it
means to make pregnant, to provide with stocks or a stock, to graze
on land. As an intransitive verb, it signifies to send out new shots.
Finally as an adjective, the meanings are to keep regularly in stock,
to keep for breeding purposes; it also means something used or
intended for livestock purposes, of or related to a stock company, and
employed in handling, checking, or taking care of the stock of
merchandise on hand. In Spanish it only is used to mean the store or
supply accumulated or available for sale.
The morphology of this word has not changed. It is spelled and
slightly similarly pronounced as it is in its language of origin.
Gol (Goal)
This Anglicism has been accepted by the RAE. It comes from
Middle English gol boundary, limit. This word started to be used in
1531.
The Anglicism above functions only as a noun in English; in
Spanish it is also used as a noun as well.
There are hundreds of examples in which this word plays the
same role over and over again: the score from advancing a ball into
81
an area also called goal or porteria in Spanish. The instance …anoto
un gol de cabeza…is one such example.
In English this term is used to mean the acceptation above, but
it can be used to convey the terminal point of a race, an area to be
reached in children’s games, the end toward which effort is directed.
In some sports like football, it is an area or object toward which
players attempt to advance a ball and usually through or into which
it must go to score points, and the act or action of causing a ball to
go through or into such a goal. In Spanish as exposed in the previous
paragraph, it is only used with the meaning of it being the action of
scoring by advancing the ball into the goal.
As for its morphology, the word has suffered a modification in
its spelling having the vowel a disappeared. Its pronunciation has
changed also; whereas in English it is pronounced gōl, in Spanish it
sounds gȯl.
Marketing
This is an accepted Anglicism by the RAE. Its etymology is
unknown; it appeared for the first time in 1561.
This word functions only as a noun both in English and in
Spanish.
The examples…creando un mercado y todo un marketing…,
gerente de marketing, and plan de marketing indicate the use of this
Anglicism to refer to an existing Spanish term Mercadotecnia, which
82
means
the
process
or
technique
of
promoting,
selling,
and
distributing a product or service.
Both in English and in Spanish the term is used with this
acceptation, although in English it goes beyond to also mean the act
or process of selling or purchasing in a market.
The word has been accepted without changes in its spelling,
although when pronounced it lacks the final nasal sound -ing being
replaced by the Spanish in.
Ferry
This term is accepted by the RAE. It comes from Middle English
ferien, from Old English ferian to carry, convey; akin to Old English
faran to go. As a verb, it began to be used before the 12th century,
while as a noun in the 15th century.
This Anglicism in English is used as a noun, and as a transitive
and an intransitive verb.
In the example ...estudios e implementación de un ferry… it is
noticeable that this Anglicism is being used as a noun, a means of
maritime transportation.
The meanings of this word in English as a noun are a boat or
ship in which persons or things are carried across a body of water,
and a franchise or right to operate a ferry service across a body of
water. As a transitive verb it means to carry by boat over a body of
water, and to cross by a ferry; as an intransitive verb it means to
carry water by a ferry. Now, in Spanish the noun makes exclusive
83
reference to a boat or ship used to carry people or things across a
body of water.
This term is spelled equally both in English and in Spanish,
keeping a slightly different pronunciation in the consonants rr.
Ranking
The RAE has accepted this Anglicism. It has an unknown
etymology, and it began to be used in 1847.
The function that this word has is as an adjective in English;
however, in Spanish this word is used as a noun.
En lo más alto del ranking… is an example that exposes the
meaning of this word: an orderly arrangement used to classify from
highest to lowest or vice versa.
In English this adjective is used with a meaning that has
nothing to do with the meaning assigned in Spanish. While in English
this Anglicism is used as an adjective to indicate having a high
position, in Spanish, as a noun, this Anglicism is used with one of
the acceptations of rank: relative standing or position.
The stated above clearly exposes that this Anglicism is a
modification of the word rank. While its pronunciation is similar to
the original, the –ing ending differs in lacking the characteristic nasal
g.
84
Sexy
This Anglicism is accepted by the RAE. It is of unknown
etymology, and came into existence and use in 1925.
This word functions in English as an adjective. In Spanish the
term is used as an adjective and as a noun.
In the example …admira mucho a la sexy cantante… it is
observable that this Anglicism means someone sexually attractive.
This normally is the use people in Spanish speaking countries has
assigned to this word.
But not just sexually attractive is the only meaning of sexy in
English, it also means interesting or attractive in a general sense. In
Spanish, as we have seen, the meaning of this word has to do with
sexual attractiveness both as an adjective and as noun in utterances
like ella tiene mucho sexy.
Morphologically speaking there has not been a change in its
spelling, but syntactically, it took on a new function within the
structure of Spanish sentences. As for its pronunciation, this word is
pronounced surprisingly similarly.
85
Variable National Newspaper “El Extra”
Full
This is an Anglicism not accepted yet by the RAE. It comes
from Old English; akin to Old High German fol full, Latin plenus full,
plēthein to be full. It appeared before the 12th century.
This Anglicism functions in English primarily as an adjective,
secondly as an adverb, then as a noun, and finally as a verb both
transitive and intransitive. In Spanish the word is only seen in fixed
expressions used as an adjective.
In the sentence full equipo meaning fully equipped, the term
conveys the idea of being complete, not lacking any component or
element, in this context speaking of a car.
Various are the meanings of this word in English. As an
adjective, it means containing as much or as many; it also means
complete in detail, number, or duration; and it means at the highest
or greatest degree. As an adverb this word means extremely or very.
As a noun this word is used to mean the fullest or highest stage or
degree. As an intransitive verb, this word is used to mean to become
full referring to the moon; as a transitive verb it means to shrink and
thicken by moistening, heating, and pressing. In Spanish, it means
complete, functioning only as an adjective.
Morphologically this word has been introduced without any
changes in its spelling, but as explained above just one syntactic
function was adopted. Its pronunciation differs as well, since it is
86
pronounced
with
the
Spanish
sound
of
the
vowel
u, being
approximate in sound to the word fool.
Record
This Anglicism has been accepted by the RAE. It comes from
Middle English, literally, to recall, from Anglo-French recorder, from
Latin recordari, from re- + cord-, cor heart. It came into use originally
as a verb in the 14th century.
The functions that this Anglicism has in English are three: verb,
noun, and adjective. In Spanish this borrowed term is used only with
one function: noun.
New Moon estableció también un record de ventas el viernes
shows the Anglicism is used to convey the best result in any activity.
Usually this word is used in sports.
This term in English is used as a verb with the meanings of
setting down in writing, of registering permanently by mechanical
means, and giving evidence of something. As a noun it means the
state or fact of being recorded, something that records, and
something on which sound or visual images have been recorded.
Finally as an adjective it means of, relating to, or being one that is
extraordinary among or surpasses others of its kind. Is Spanish, as
expressed in the previous paragraph, this Anglicism is used as noun
meaning the best result in a sports or game, although it can be used
to mean highest or lowest result in other activities.
87
As for its morphology, the word has been incorporated with the
pronunciation it has as a noun in English. The spelling is the same
as in English although has taken on Spanish properties such as
bearing an accent mark over the first syllable.
Chatear (chat)
This Anglicism is not accepted by the RAE. It comes from
Middle English chatten, short forchatteren. It appeared in the 15th
century.
This word functions in Spanish as well as in English as a noun.
Also as an intransitive verb it works in both languages. But it
functions only as an intransitive verb in English.
Chateo sobre contrato de la basura muestra críticas a bases de
cabildo, exemplifies how in Spanish this word is used as a noun to
refer to the action of taking part in an on-line discussion in a chat
room.
As can be seen, this word has made its transition into the
Spanish language with the same functions and meanings as in
English. In both languages it is used to refer to a virtual conversation,
mostly written, by means of the Internet.
Morphologically, the word has suffered a change in its form,
since it has suffered an españolización (converting into Spanish) to
make it fit the way Spanish verbs work –having a –ar, -er, or –ir
ending-. This way, this verb can be conjugated as if it was a Spanish
88
language one. With this change in its spelling has consequently come
a change in its pronunciation.
CD (Compact Disc)
This Anglicism is an accepted by the RAE. It is an abbreviation
of the compound compact disc, and it made its appearance in 1979.
This word’s function is solely as a noun in both English and in
Spanish. In the excerpt …hasta cuando se animó a sacar su primer
CD de canciones enteramente con mensajes positivos, it is easy to
establish that the word in the sentence is making reference to an
optical disc containing music recorded by a person.
In the two languages, parameters of this analysis, the term is
used to refer to a compact disc, a storage unit widely used nowadays
that revolutionized the 20th century.
In Spanish this Anglicism is spelled just like it is spelled in
English; even its pronunciation is similar to its original pronunciation,
although there is trend to pronounce it following the Spanish
pronunciation se-de.
Hobby
This Anglicism has been accepted by the RAE. It is the short
form of hobbyhorse, which in turn comes from hobby small light
horse,
from
Middle
English hoby,
hobyn, perhaps
from Hobbin,
nickname for Robert or Robin. It appeared in 1816.
This Anglicism is only used as a noun in English; in Spanish,
this word is used with the same function. In the example Hobby:
89
sembrar plantas, it is observed that the word is being used as a noun.
The meaning with which this word is being used in the sentence is of
a pastime regularly done at leisure time.
Both in English and in Spanish this Anglicism is used with the
acceptation above.
Morphologically speaking, this word has remained without
changes in its spelling, although its pronunciation is a little different
in the vocal sound
Miss
This is another accepted Anglicism by the RAE. It comes from
the word mistress, and appeared in 1667.
The function of this word in the sentence is as a noun. In
Spanish it also functions as a noun. In the Spanish example… la
nueva Miss Panamericana…is evident that the Anglicism is used to
mean a young unmarried woman that wins a beauty pageant.
Besides using this term to convey the meaning expressed above,
it is also used to mean the title used before the name of an unmarried
woman. It also means young lady, a form to address a young woman.
In Spanish it only means the winner of a beauty pageant.
Its morphology has not changed as far spelling is concerned,
and phonetically it is pronounced almost the same as in English.
Charter
This Anglicism is accepted by the RAE. It comes from Middle
English chartre, from Anglo-French, from Medieval Latin chartula,
90
from Latin, diminutive of charta. Its origin dates from the 13th
century.
The functions of this term in English are as a noun, as a
transitive verb, and as an adjective. In Spanish the functions it has is
as an adjective. For example in the sentence …luego al vuelo charter
que salió desde Quito… it is observed that charter here is modifying
the word vuelo with the meaning of a flight arrangement done outside
the regular schedule.
The meanings of this term in English go beyond the acceptation
above. Charter as an adjective, in English, indeed makes reference to
travel
arrangement
done
extraordinarily,
but
it
encompasses
transportation by bus also, and not just by plane as in Spanish. As a
noun, a charter is a written document or contract. It also means a
grant or guarantee of rights, franchises, or privileges from the
sovereign power of a state or country; and it is even used as a
synonym of constitution. In other instances this Anglicism is used to
refer to a special privilege, immunity, or exemption. And, of course,
this word also means a charter travel arrangement. Finally, as a
transitive verb, this term means to establish, enable, or convey by
charter; and to hire, rent, or lease for usually exclusive and
temporary use. In Spanish, as seen above, this Anglicism is used only
to refer to a flight hired by a group of people outside ordinary
scheduled flights.
91
Now, the spelling of this word remains almost identical to the
original in English; the Spanish version has added an accent mark to
the first syllable.
Opening
This Anglicism is not an accepted one by the RAE. It comes
from Middle English, from Old English; akin to Old High German
offan open, Old English up up. It originated in the 13th century.
This word functions both in English and Spanish as a noun.
The example con un excelente opening y pasarela a cargo del
coreógrafo
Duberly Villegas las soberanas de los cantones del
Cañar..., shows this term is playing the function of a noun. It also
shows that this Anglicism is used to mean the act of becoming open
and/or begun.
In English, becoming open and begun is what this term means
mainly, usually a formal and public event. However, it also means
anything that represents a beginning; and in other instances, an
aperture, something that is open. Lastly, when talking about
employment, an opening is an opportunity for work.
The morphology of opening has not changed much, specially its
spelling; however, its pronunciation shows features of Spanish
sounds in the initial o and in the ending –ing.
92
E-mail
This Anglicism has not been accepted by the RAE. It is a term
derived from electronic mail. It was coined in 1982.
The function of this word is as a noun in English, although it
can function as a verb too. In Spanish, this word only acts as a noun.
For example, e-mail sobre Barcelona shows the function of this
Anglicism in the sentence: a noun. In Spanish this term is used to
mean a system that allows transmitting messages electronically; and
the messages sent and received electronically through this e-mail
system.
In English, this Anglicism is used with the exact meanings
described above, although it does also function as a verb.
Both the spelling of this word and its pronunciation have
remained almost identical, although it is common to see this term
spelled email.
Fútbol (football)
This is an accepted Anglicism by the RAE. It is of unknown
origin; it appeared on the 15th century.
This word functions as a noun in English. In Spanish the
function applied is also as a noun. In la fanaticada del fútbol
ecuatoriano we can observe the word in action functioning as a noun.
As for its meaning in the example, it is making reference to a world
known sports: football soccer.
93
The meaning of football in English goes beyond football soccer;
it also applies to any of several games played between two teams on a
rectangular field having two goalposts at each end and whose object
is to get the ball over a goal line or between goalposts by running,
passing, or kicking. It is also the inflated ball used to play football. In
Spanish, this Anglicism makes reference to one of the sports
mentioned above: football soccer.
The morphology of this term has suffered a modification in its
spelling; its pronunciation has been adapted following the rules for
Spanish sounds.
94
Comparative Analysis
This analysis seeks to present information about the data
collected and tabulated in terms of frequency and numerical
comparisons between the variables and sub-variables dealt with
throughout this research.
Besides, it is also the purpose of this analysis to provide clear
and convincing information as to what the causes are for the findings
discovered in this work.
The
analysis
will
start
with
a
percent
and
frequency
comparison between all the sub-variables: news, ads, social pages,
sports and reports of each variable. Next, the analysis will compare
the frequency and percentage between the three main variables: El
Universo, El Mercurio y El Extra. Both analyses will include
information explaining the causes of the results found.
95
Variable El Universo
This variable is the one having the greatest frequency of the
three with a total 520 Anglicisms divided as follows:
The section “advertisements” represents the highest frequency
with 315 Anglicisms representing the 60.58%. In second place is
“social pages” that shows 80 Anglicisms with a 15.38% of the total.
The section “sports” has 62 Anglicisms, which occupies the third
standing with an 11.92%. The sub-variable “reports” is in second to
last place with 43 Anglicisms that correspond to 8.27% of the sum.
The
last-place
sub-variable
“news”
presents
20
Anglicisms
accounting a 3.85% of the total.
As it is observed, the section to present the most Anglicism is
the sub-variable “ads” with a total 315, which alone accounts for
more than half of the total of this variable. This section in this
newspaper covers a full range of offers and promotions from local and
foreign origin, being the latter responsible for the vast quantity of
Anglicisms obtained.
“Social pages” also has a high frequency due to the news
having to do with international events like the world of fashion,
movies, concerts and famous people scandals. Much of these material
comes from originals in English, that when translated, keep some of
the words in their original language.
The sections “news” as well as “reports”, on the other hand,
present fewer Anglicisms, only 20 and 43 respectively. Most of the
96
news and reports take place in the local geography, having as the
main source of information direct observation and local testimonies;
and it is mostly first hand collected information developed in Spanish
that leaves little room for journalists to include any borrowed words,
with the exception, of course, of events occurred in foreign lands
taken from foreign sources.
Variable El Mercurio
This newspaper coincidentally is the second, as in the order
proposed here, in having the most Anglicisms with 254 words.
All the sections that represent over 70% of all the Anglicisms in
this variable are “sports” in first place with 149 words, and “social
pages” with 40 borrowings, in second place. The sub-variable “news”
and “reports” have a frequency of 37 and 12 Anglicisms each, with a
percentage of 14.57% and 6.30% respectively, occupying the third
and fourth standings in the chart.
“Ads” is the sub-variable of this newspaper to have the least
frequency with 12 Anglicisms recording a 4.72% of the total found.
The El Mercurio is a local journal released only in the city of
Manta. This local newspaper gives special attention to “sports”. As it
is known, the world of sports is full of terms that have been
adopted/adapted from the English language, and have become now
an inherent part of Spanish language. Anglicisms like gol, tenis,
futbol, karting, surf, boxeo and others very well illustrate how big the
presence of these borrowing is in the language.
97
“Social pages”, in second place, has got to give the credit to all
the happenings in the world of famous and rich for the presence of
foreign terminology.
The section “ads” in this newspaper is quite reduced; it takes
up less than one single page. The remaining randomly located
Anglicisms are so scarce that their presence is barely noticed. This is
mostly due to the little promotion of products and services appeared
in this periodical.
The sections “reports and news” with a decent frequency of
Anglicisms out of the total, prove that journalists consider as
acceptable in their compositions one or two foreign words per article.
Variable El Extra
This tabloid represents the lowest frequency results of the three
variables: 202 Anglicisms.
“Ads” is the section containing the biggest amount of
Anglicisms with 105 words of English language origin with a 51.98%
from the total.
The section “sports” in second position has a frequency of 56
Anglicisms representing 27.72% of the sum total.
“Social pages” with a frequency of 30 terms stands third with a
share of 14.85% of the whole.
The sub-variable “reports” in this newspaper has a low
frequency of 11 borrowings, accounting for 5.45% of the totality, and
consequently standing in 4th place I the charts.
98
Finally in last place, the sub-variable “news” has no frequency
of Anglicisms at all.
This newspaper, it must be pointed out, specializes in
sensational and scandalous news as well as bloody and criminal
reports occurred in the country. The sub-variables news and reports,
as it was read above, had no frequency the former, and was the
lowest frequency the latter.
This priority of displaying news of local origin, which involves
testimonies from the locals and commentaries from the writers,
leaves little room for foreign influence.
Although social pages, in this newspaper, involves local
national celebrities, it also mentions well known international artists,
singers, and stars, who could for sure be the cause of foreign
influence in the writing process.
Ads and sports together have the most presence of Anglicisms
in this variable due to the ample attention this newspaper gives,
especially to ads and sports.
99
Variables EL Universo, EL Mercurio and EL Extra
The three variables had a total of 976 Anglicisms divided as
follows:
El Universo with 520 Anglicisms
El Mercurio with 254 Anglicisms
El Extra with 202 Anglicisms
The main causes for these results have to do mainly with a
matter of quantity.
El Universo, a national newspaper with a distribution all over
the country, covers a lot of happenings and topics of all sorts.
Because of this, the sub-variable ads alone accounts for more than
the two other variables, taken individually.
El Mercurio, on the other hand, because of its small scope
geographically speaking, with considerable fewer potential buyers,
shows only 12 Anglicisms out 254 in ads. The section Sports with
149 Anglicisms, however, in this variable well over doubles the same
section in the other two variables: El Universo 62; and El Extra 56.
The newspaper El Extra in last place with only 202 Anglicisms
shows no frequency of Anglicisms in news, while in the other two, it
had a frequency, although low, of 20 El Universo and 37 El Mercurio.
This low frequency may have an explanation in the origin of the
information
of
this
section:
recent
events
mostly
generated
domestically that make use of little or no foreign terminology.
100
Finally, all the three variables show a quite high frequency of
Anglicisms in the sub-variable social pages. This high frequency
possibly lies in the three variables’ showing written information about
the private and public life of national, but mostly foreign people of
entertainment, business and politics.
Among the Anglicisms that have the most frequency in this
investigation are:
Full. - This Anglicism appears 168 times. The newspaper in
which it appears the most times is the El Universo in the sub-variable
“ads”; although it appears in no other section in this newspaper. It
also appears in ads of the other two variables. Some of the phrases
where it shows a high frequency are full equipo, full confort, and full
amoblado(a).
Club. - With a presence of 82 repetitions, this Anglicism is the
second highest in frequency. Its presence takes place primarily in
“sports” and “social pages”, although it appears sporadically in other
sections too.
Fútbol. - Appeared several times in combination with “club”, this
is another frequent Anglicism in the three variables. “Sports” is the
section where the most Anglicisms take place.
Laptop. -Again, the section “ads” is the house of this very
popular word in written Spanish. Lots of advertisements promote
laptops of all kinds and all prices too.
101
Internet. - This is one the Anglicisms with a uniform presence in
almost all sections of all the newspapers researched. This recently
accepted Anglicism’s presence in the newspaper owes it to the
widespread importance that Internet plays in our lives.
On the other hand, here are some of the least frequent
Anglicisms researched in this work:
Words like chance, all-star, crack, kart, play-off, indoor, rugby,
penalty, stripper, swinger, airbag, pc, long play, fast track, jazz, uhf,
opening, charter, among others appear only one time. These
Anglicisms are not as common in the written media due to their
technical application; and the topics where they have an incidence
are not as popular either.
102
Sociological Analysis
This analysis discusses the acceptation or denial with respect
to the use of Anglicisms, its impact on our cultural identity, as well
as the benefits or the harms cause to the Spanish language. Here, the
opinions of literate people in the fields of linguistics and language are
compared and contrasted, along with the writers’ personal focus to
provide fair and strong arguments regarding the use of Anglicisms in
Ecuadorian newspapers.
In the making of news, journalists are advocated to present
information
of
all
sorts,
local
and
foreign,
in
a
clear
and
understandable way. This process of publishing news to the people is
faced with certain situations of linguistic nature as is the case of
utilizing loanwords from the English language in their writing of
accounts.
The above occurs due to the fact that many of the things that
form a part of our lives are of English origin, and by English it is not
meant England, but the United States. In most communities when it
is talked about English influence, this rarely makes reference to
England. With this global affectation that the United States has on
many countries, among these Ecuador, it is natural to expect that the
national language of these affected countries get some sort of
influence, either lexically, morphologically, syntactically, phonetically
or semantically.
103
People in general are unaware of the presence of English loan
words in the written media either by reading too little or by simply
believing the word or words from English origin are some sort of “new
word”. In fact, even among educated people the term Anglicism is
unknown or unheard of. Among those who do know the term and its
implications, and are familiar with language matters, the opinion is
divided as to the accepting or not the use of Anglicisms in the written
media.
While it is true that a language benefits a lot from linguistic
imports of others, we need to be cautious about up to what extent,
and at what price this happens. As long as the term contributes to
filling a void in the target language such as naming a new
phenomenon, express personal or group identity, avoid sounding
repetitive, or represent a foreign culture in a translation, the use of
an Anglicism in the written media is accepted, to some extent, for the
vast majority.
It needs to be added that the careless overuse of borrowed
words, for things and concepts that already exist in the national
language, not just shows ignorance, but also is evidence of the lack of
initiative in using a dictionary or poor investigative habits on the part
of journalists, editors and newspapers authorities.
Culturally, all countries, almost without exceptions, along the
time have been influenced by the customs, traditions and even words
from more powerful countries. The presence of English terms,
104
benefits our culture since it incorporates new concepts, new
discoveries; and allows new forms of addressing topics that were nonexistent, in a more natural original accepted-by-many globalized way.
As Gottlieb, (1999, 2001) puts it “Today, in a growing number of
countries, the expression ‘certain things are better expressed in
English’ is not only heard among blasé cosmopolitans, but also is
uttered by government officials and businessmen, even school
children”
That is the case of many things in all the different areas in
which human beings enter in contact with; the world of sports, music,
science, famous, politics, entertainment and, of course, technology is
full of terminology that have, down the line, one way or another,
become part of our idiosyncrasy to the point of being almost
necessary to use them for an accurate and comprehensible telling of
accounts.
Without doubt no language can seek to be completely pure as
this would inevitably lead it to become fossilized and completely
isolated from everything that appears, changes or is changed, is
modified, or just ceases to exist everywhere else in this never static
world of ours.
In the Ecuadorian society and in many societies of the world,
Anglicisms will continue to make their way in, pleasing many, but
also awakening feelings of chauvinism and provincialism in others.
105
Their presence, no doubt, will facilitate comprehension, as has been
the case so far.
106
Conclusions
 None of the researched newspapers in this investigation has a
standard way of presenting Anglicisms. While the Universo
sporadically made use of the italic font to differentiate them from
non-Anglicisms, the other two newspapers almost never made use
of this resource.
 Ecuadorian people, depending on their age, knowledge and
education, are divided regarding accepting the use of Anglicisms in
national newspapers.
While the young generation, educated or
not, accept them as good and cool incorporations; the older
generations both educated an uneducated are not satisfied with
them.
 The Ecuadorian audience seems to understand the majority of the
articles, in which Anglicisms are used; in fact, they have admitted
that in certain registers without them, the comprehension would
be difficult.
 The United States is influencing every corner of the world. The
English language is one of the main actors in this influence.
Inevitably, our culture is being affected with the introduction of
English language terminology in almost every area humans use
communication.
 There is tendency to adopt the Anglicisms with all their
morphological and phonetic qualities, rather than to adapt them
to the Spanish conventions. This is observed in the findings of this
107
research by the many loanwords encountered in their original
spelling.
 The majority of Anglicisms used in Ecuadorian newspapers are of
lexical nature, that is, they are words –mostly nouns, verbs and
adjectives- used to denote a thing, a feature or an action.
 The national newspaper El Universo because of its ample coverage
of news and reports nationwide, plus a dedicated attention to ads,
shows that it is the journal with most Anglicisms accounting for
more than 50% of whole result.
 The sections to present the greatest number of Anglicisms in
terms of frequency without doubt are ads and sports; while on the
other hand, the section news results to be the section to present
the lowest amount of English loan words.
 This research shows that the five mostly appeared Anglicisms are
the words full, club, fútbol, gol and Internet. As it can be seen club,
fútbol and gol belong in sports, while full and internet are
commonly found in ads. Both sections have the biggest frequency
of Anglicisms.
 Considering that the use of Anglicisms is widely extended by the
written media, a great amount of people, literate and illiterate alike,
have little or no knowledge about them, or even worse, have never
heard of them.
108
Bibliography
Bauer, L. Encyclopedia of Language
“Morphology: Overview” 6989-6991
and
Linguistics.
2004.
Bloomfield, Leonard. Language. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
Publishers Private Limited. 2005
Carreno, Salvador. “Vicios del Lenguaje” Geocities. Feb 19, 2008.
http://www.geocities.com/locutoresdemexico/viciosdellenguaje.htm
Chao,Yuen Ren. Language and
Cambridge University Press. 1968
Symbolic
Systems.
London:
Eggenshwiller and Biggs. CliffsQuickReview Writing: Grammar, Usage,
and Style. New York: Cliffs Notes. 2006
Ferrari, Giacomo. Basic Course of General Linguistics. Milan:
University of Milan. 1982.
Francis C., Jhon. “Some Remarks on the Anglicization of Latin
America Spanish, with Particular Reference to the Speech of Mexico
City” Hispania, Vol. 34, No 3 (Aug., 1951).
http://www.jstor.org/stable/333631
Gottlieb, H. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. 2004.
“Linguistic Influence” 5890-5899
Graddol, David. Describing Language. Buckinghan: Open University
Press. 1994
Johnson, Edward D. The Handbook of Good English. New York: Facts
on File, Inc. 1991
Hill, J H. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. 2004 “Language
Change and Cultural Change” 5182-5190
Lehrer, A. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. 2004.
“Neologisms” 7312-7315”
Lennox, Dough. Now you know, the book of answers. New York:
Dundum Press. 2006
109
Lyons, John. Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. New York:
Cambridge University Press. 1968
Mahoney, Nicole. Language Change”. National Science Foundation.
Jul 12, 2008
http://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/linguistics/change.jsp
"Newspaper" The Babylon English-English dictionary. On line edition
2009. http://dictionary.babylon.com/newspaper/
"Newspaper" Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary. On line edition
2010. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/newspaper
Palmer, F.R. Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1981
Shigemoto, Joan. “Language Change and Language Planning and
Policy”
Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL). 2006.
www.prel.hawaii.edu
Smith, Neil. Language Bananas & Bonobos. Oxford: Blackwell
Publishers Ltd. 2002
"Tabloid" The Babylon English-English Dictionary. On line edition
2009. http://dictionary.babylon.com/tabloid/
"Tabloid" Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary. On line edition 2010.
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/tabloid
Todd, Loretto. An Introduction to Linguistics. Essex: Longman Group
Limited. 1995
Tosso, Fiorenzo. Appunti di Linguistica. Udine: 2003
Wilson, J. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. 2004. “power
and Pragmatics” 8442-8445
Yule, George. The Study of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. 2006
110
111
Annexes
112
Qualitative Tabulation
Anglicisms
Examples
No. veces
se repite la
palabra
Title of the
article
Date
Author: …………………………………
Quantitative Tabulation
Section
f
%
News
Ads
Anglicisms
Social pages
Sports
Reports
Total
Author:………………………..
113
The Most Frequent Anglicisms
Anglicisms
No de veces que se repite la
palabra
Author:………………………………….
114