Untitled

Comments

Transcription

Untitled
17
* In Le Fana de l'Aviation article about Capra/Matra, the R75 twin-engined 4-seater was described as derivative of the R74, a single-engined 2-seater. A smaller R75?
* In the same article was mentioned the Matra R120, an unknown twin-boomer that may have
been a single-seat jet derivative of the R100/110. In the magazine Le Trait d’Union, this late project was classified as designed before 1946.
* I add the 3-engined final version of the Heinkel He 111Z without glider tug (He 111Z-5?), probable goal of testing the He 111Z-1 with 2 engines deleted.
* A 3-engined 2-seater Moskalyov SAM-20 has been described, without picture, in the Bulletin of
the Russian Aviation Research Trust: push-pull liquid-cooled engines with a central pusher, twinfuselages and a nose wheel. This project of 1940, with the size of a Tu 2 would have reached the
very high speed of 480 mph (775km/h) carrying a load of only 440 lb (200kg) though.
* The second SAM-16 proposal was also mentioned as a twin-boom design, before the final version, and I imagine the same gull wing with an even better rear view.
* I have been unable to find a picture of the twin-boom Focke-Wulf JP.011 or P.011-001 mentioned in German Jet Genesis. They may have been streamlined Flitzers for high speed.
* The twin-engined twin-boom Hawker P.1037 of 1944 has been mentioned by Tony Buttler. I
have imagined a derivative of the Hurricane (P.1037X) and one of the Twin-Tempest Mk. III
(P.1037Y).
* I did not find, either, “the Messerschmitt 1939 single-jet twin-boomer” mentioned on Internet. It
could have been a single-jet forefather (P.1062?) of the Me 262 (P.1065).
* The bifusoliera CR.50 (with radial engines) and CR.55 (with in-line engines) remain a mystery.
Ing. Celestino Rosatelli was the designer of the famous Fiat CR.42 and the Fiat G-55 is dated
1942, so I imagined these CR.50/55 of 1939 as doubles made with intermediate Fiat G-50/G-50V.
* Before the SNCA Sud-Ouest SO-1070 was the short E-1910 with a large tailplane. I have
imagined a silhouette for this one too.
Bigger airplanes :
* A twin-boom version has been proposed for the preliminary De Havilland DH.106 Comet project
in 1943. This was a Vampire airliner derivative, powered by 3 jets. The goal was to carry 20 passengers. Then a shorter version was proposed in 1944 for 6 passengers and urgent mail, to cross
the Atlantic Ocean at the cruise speed of 500mph (800km/h). At last, the twin-boom layout was
discarded, and a very normal shape was used to build the final DH.106, famous jet airliner. I draw
these twin-boomers here with the help of Antonio Oliver, that created a preliminary profile using
the published view from below as a basis.
* Two Burnelli Patents of 1939-45 (4-engined 2,380,289 & 2,380,290) have been illustrated by
drawings that are difficult to classify without view from above, the views from front having no fin.
This may have been flying wings, or single boom, or twin-boom aircraft.
* Burnelli Patent 2,586,299 for a 4-jet plane, published in 1952 but filed in 1945, may also be
drawn even if I have no complete view as a basis (wingtips and rear tail are unknown).
* In Forked Ghosts were presented the Fokker 180 and the older Fokker 160 of 1938. Both were
using a lifting fuselage, the 180 having 4 radial engines, while the 160 had 5 engines and a bigger size. But Aeroplane Monthly has presented them very differently. The Ontwerp180 would
have had the same size as the 160, the same shape and 5 in-line engines. Moreover, 2 versions
of the 160 were presented : the one that I knew and a peculiar one with radial engines and a pilot
pod above the wing. There was also a drawing of a Fokker 180 using 5 engines, but radial ones.
So, the Ont.180 code has been used for many different designs, including one with 5 in-line engines, and maybe this one had a raised up pilot-pod like one of the Ont.160 proposals. I just don’t
know.
* The lifting-fuselage twin-boom Fokker 210 of 1945 is another mystery. It might have been an
improved Fokker 180, more aerodynamic and with better view for instance. More powerful engines may have used contra-rotating propellers.
* The Airspeed twin-boom transport designed the 23rd June 1942 (AS.5X?) can also be presented, as forefather of the AS.57 Ambassador and derivative of the AS.55. Knowing its size, the
engines and the general layout is enough for a provisionary drawing.
18
19
Enthusiast dreams of those years
* Thanks to Icarus Books, I have found the Flying’s Airsedan that I was searching for many
years. This 1944 ideal plane (according to journalists) has been finalised by Jo Kotula, artist and
pilot, in 1945. It was mainly based on the Weick W-1 of 1936, that featured a perfect view ahead,
easy access and a safe propeller guarded by booms. The high wing may come from the initial
project of an amphibian version. The roadability has been considered then rejected (as well as a
retractable landing gear) to lower cost. It was a 4-seater (sedan) but a 2-seater has been considered at the beginning.
* In 1944, the magazine Air Trails published an article about a Pilot Catapult, for rear-engined
aircraft having a pusher propeller, that would be lethal in case of normal bailing out. To illustrate
that, the artist Frank Tinsley invented a futuristic twin-boomer, as none was in service yet and
design projects were poorly known. The big distance between booms was not explained by the
propeller dimension, just artistic freedom…
* A drawing of some future Atomic-Powered Flying-Wing has been published in Newsweek
magazine in 1945, and this was not science-fiction. It may have been drawn in 1940-42, according to the style of markings. The size is unknown. It is impossible to see if the fins are actually
hold by 2 booms or by a lengthened part of the wing (like on the Charpentier C1 and Putilov Stal5).
* In 1945 also, the chemical company named Ethyl Corporation advertised to high-school students ‘Your Wonderful Future In Aviation’ with the art picture of a jet-Lightning, called The Squirt.
This was not technically wise, though, especially with the very long jet pipes…
Flying toys of those years
Here, I am going to present tiny models designed in 1939-45 for fun flying, without payload, like the Winkler Doppelrumpf glider in Supplement No.1. Maybe many copies have been
built, falling out of my project scope. It is difficult to know, as air-historians are boycotting this
world of pilot-less aircraft… till the arrival of Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles that will probably
change their mind.
* The Meyer-Reichelt twin-engined model, built at Bremen in 1940 featured an unconventional
reason to choose a twin-boom layout. To protect propellers from hurting the ground (if the model
falls on its nose or wing), which may destroy expensive engines, a nose gear was fitted and a
central mounting of the engines was selected. So : push-pull propellers, and twin-booms.
* The Cole Dry Duck water-model seaplane of 1944 also tried to save the engine from ditching in
the water, putting it in a central position, so with a pusher propeller and twin-booms. A more stable twin-float version was considered.
* Made in balsa, the Rinaldi Hand Launched Glider has been presented in 1941, with a possibility of being catapulted.
* The Mc Berkeley Stella Filante (shooting star) was a rubber-powered model with 2 single-blade
propellers. A first twin-fuselage model has been built in 1939, and a slightly different version has
been proposed in 1945. In those years of lethal hate between countries, the models of Renato
McBerkeley, presented in Brussels and stored in Mendoza, are nicely mixing Italy, Ireland, Belgium and Argentina…
* At last, the Motomodèle MB.33 has been presented in 1942, using a little gasoline engine. A
kind of fake canopy is used here, as on the Meyer-Reichelt it seems.
20
21
True mistakes
Sometimes historians (or witnesses, or spies) are wrong, misunderstanding may occur,
and several twin-boomers of 1939-45 came this way, not as inventions for fun, just as mistakes.
* Three Burnelli Patents were presented as 1939-42 designs while further details proved these
were publication dates, the files being deposited in 1938: patents 2,181,574 /2,224,641
/2,286,341. The first one was an airplane with a separable flotation section featuring a waterpropeller, in case of marine alighting in emergency. The second was an airliner with 74 passengers in the lifting fuselage and hollow booms. The third was a military plane with lateral posts
between 3 engines and propellers.
* Having no source in 1997 for the Westland E5/42, I had made a provisional drawing, using it to
illustrate the layout of 2 booms taking root on a jet pipe. This drawing (“E5/42?”) was no more
necessary after discovering the SAAB RX-2, and it was forgotten, not included. But it existed as a
mistake.
* A genuine Twin-P-40 scale model has been announced as a future product by AMTech Models,
and Tom Choy wrote to fellow modellers that a ‘twin-boom P-40(!)’ was coming. It was very interesting in case its shape was different from the fake twin-fuselage P-40 shown in Supplement
No.1. But at last the intended model was just the twin-engined (single-tail) P-40… So I proposed
the Curtiss/Choy P-40T twin-boomer that I have dreamed of. And I tried a 3-engined P-40T' design with a nose gear. Then, looking better at the twin-engined P-40 profile (without starboard
engine to show better the nose), I suspected that the misunderstanding might have come from
this : imagining a single-engined asymmetric twin-boomer (P-40T"). At last, SuperTom answered
that these twin-boom words have been a mistake only.
* In Forked Ghosts, I presented a provisional drawing of the bubble-canopy version of the SAAB
J.21, as I had never seen it illustrated. Though, I found on the web a thumbnail photograph that
looked like it… Though, seeing better, full size, it was wrong: just a normal J.21A with part of the
canopy raised up for the pilot going out. I name this misunderstanding J.21AB.
* In Supplement No.1, I said that the veteran David Golding was wrong mentioning a twin-boom
Fw 119 Zerstorer in service. Though, with full respect to this eye-witness, I should have proposed
a provisional drawing. Friends helped me to imagine : the Heinkel/Mayerle Fw 119 would be a
twin-boom He 119 using the separate tails of the Fw 261, and the Focke-Wulf/Deweer Fw 191D
would be a twin-boom Fw 191 that was mistyped inverting 91 into 19…
FICTION MODELS
Imperfectly copying famous ones
* Completing the Corel Dream P-38_LTN.d3d in Supplement No.1, I have found several Lightning
programmed with 3-dimension softwares. Using RcCad (Radio Controlled - Computer Aided Design), a perfect Lightning may be designed rather easily, but such a copy do not concern my
subject (unreal new shapes); though some very raw designs have quickly been done with the
demonstration free version, and I have selected among them the Lockheed/Klos P38Lightning.rcd made by a 13 year old boy, the Lockheed/Robinson P-38B.rcd which is rather
simple, and the Lockheed/Besson P-38d.rcd which is far from a Lightning but called P-38...
There was also (on the Web at : http://www.rccad.com/ Gallery.htm) a Bf 109Z and a P-61 (also :
J 21, Vampire, P-82, but referring to famous versions of the 1950s).
* Other source of very modified copies : electric flying models – most of them are so perfect that
they do not interest me, but some use a nice simplification, providing creation. This way, a singleengined Lightning, the Lockheed/Ziroli P-38 Combat used a nose propeller and a flat profile as
central pod - see at : http://www.controllineplans.com/frameset2.htm. On the Net are also several
Vampires with a pusher propeller instead of the jet engine, but referring to the 50s.
22
23
Daring to invent
• In the world of flying models, I have been surprised to discover an unknown twin-boomer with
swastikas, at http://x.wings.free.fr/2002/ph-2002-2.html. In fact, this Cœur Atlantix was using
such an History background just to bring mystery, and a personality – as explained by JeanMichel Cœur, RC model expert (http://batmodelisme.free.fr ).
• Among desk models, I have also found an unknown twin-boomer, called Bv 224. This Blohmund-Voss/Larmanger P.224-1 was belonging to the Just fantasy part of the nice Pend-Oreille
Models collection (http://pomkit.itplushost.com), and was based on the asymmetric P.194. With
the help of Dan Johnson, I met Lionel Larmanger, and discovered that a P.224-3 derivative would
feature a more classical tail-plane.
• As drawings and computer fake photographs, the web site www.warbirds.jp/kakuki presented
hundreds of fiction aircraft 1941-45, including 36 twin-boomers – presented here in 2 full pages.
As I do not speak Japanese, I cannot describe them in detail. According to directory nouns, the
designer names may be Kakuki, Kyosaku, Sasaki, Sakamagi, Oekaki, Kakkawa, Kaksei.
* The Skoda Bystrouska is amazing, with two separate oblique tails, holding rear floats for balance.
* The Bristol Burglar is a canard featuring 2 cockpit pods and a central propeller. This layout
could have been used for a whole family of 15 layouts : one 4-engined push-pull, four 3-engined
push-pull (discarding one propeller of the previous), six 2-engined (four different push-pull, one
double-push, one double-pull), four single-engined ones (two push, central or aft, two pull, central
or front)… And if you imagine a variant with the wing in front and rear tailplane, that makes a total
of 30 cousins. Funny.
* The Zuisan is a 3-engine push-pull sea-plane, with floats used as booms and an amazing tail.
The original drawing was a triplex boomer, but I removed the pod-tailplane link to make a true
twin-boomer.
* The (Kawanishi?) C4K would have used 2 channel wings, giving probably STOL ability (the airflow above the wing provides lift, even without airplane speed).
* The De Havilland Harpy and Gadfly (Mk I to IV) feature a pusher propeller to have a nose post
on a single engine plane.
* The Sohu (or Sora, as drawing and main page have different names) would have been proposed either as land-plane or float-plane.
* The Mozikonig Fabrik Mf 207 Skorpion’s special feature is the very low tailplane. The airintakes at the front of the booms may have been for cooling or for superchargers.
* The Hokai flying boat was the twin-boom version in a family of 3 designs. First, the Saikai
looked like a Catalina: 2 engines on a parasol wing and a fuselage hull raised high at the rear to
carry the tail. Then, the improved Nankai featured 3 engine pods, the central one being lengthened into a boom; the hull was short for marine qualities and easy taking off from water, with
room for a rear post moreover. At last the Hokai was a 4-engined version of the Nankai, with the
2 central engines lengthened into booms. This reminds what was said about the USCG flying
boat.
* The Rakkankou had a nose propeller and rear post, a very rare shape among real twinboomers, without clear explanation because such a feature may be great for users.
* The 14ib was similar but with 2 tandem engines in a very long nose. It is difficult to understand
the shape of the wing (with maybe special devices for cooling) and the back of the central pod,
above the rear post.
* The Godenk (twin-Raiden J2M?), Enrai, Senryu, p01 (or a01), Ki 623, Shouhou, all look like
P-38s or P-61s. The 16-kantei planes (16si-01/02/03) were different in having a central engine
driving lateral propellers with shifts and gears (NIAI-OCh-like); the Nanpu version had retractable
floats in the booms and central pod, too.
* The Sinsitei was a twin-fuselage plane with the pilot in the starboard cockpit. It was rather similar to the Tachikawa Dai-Ni-An.
* XTBB could be the name for an eXperimental Torpedo Bomber of Boeing, like the XTBD of
Douglas. The silhouette is rather old-looking, with 2-blade propellers and 2 wings, but a biplane
layout may have been selected lately for best handling at low speed.
24
25
* The giant twin-hull Gassan would have used 10 engines, the span reaching 84m (275 ft).
* The Potez RI, Royaume d’Ibukuro (Ibukoro Kingdom), would have been a six-engine big plane
(50m span = 164 ft). The tail-boom shape is justified by the panoramic rear post, not by the twinfloats as these parts do not carry the tail. Though, with push-pull devices installed on the pylons
linking floats and wings, there could be no version without floats, unless we imagine 2 long
streamlined pods carrying wheels…
* The DFS-228 introduces a problem: the real DFS-228 was completely different from that (not
twin-boom nor canard). It seems just the existing name was used for this invention, without any
relation. This may be a misunderstanding: the Japanese text maybe explains this was a big flying
carrier (mother-plane) for many DFS-228s – while I picked this name in Latin-letters thinking it
was referring to the big one. But this is only a hypothesis and I am not sure – in some future an
English version may prove I was wrong. Calling this plane Unknown would be rather uncomfortable, and DFS-228 (carrier?) is a little better. As the DFS-228 prototype is far less known than the
mass-produced DFS 230, maybe it was just imagination from a DFS-228 name in a big Web list,
not an expert judgement, all is possible…
* In the same way, the Savoia-Marchetti SM.77 Manta is using the code of a poorly known aircraft
designed before 1939, a version of the famous SM.66 (thanks to Justo Miranda for that information and picture). The size is bigger, with 2 fuselages/4 engines instead of 4 booms/3 engines.
This can have been a design of 1940, using an old figure to fool the spys (as the top-secret jetpowered Bell XP-59A used the code of the old propeller-driven Bell XP-59, and that may have
been an usual way in several countries).
* The Me 266 is a different invention or mistake. The RLM code 266, officially given to FockeAchgelis, would have been used by Messerschmitt, for a Burnelli-like cargo.
* The big Dyle and Bacalan DB 90 presented here is not the real old one (DB 75 version, before
1939), once again.
* As well, the beautiful and modern XB-20 has no relation with the official XB-20 project, which
was a version of the old Boeing XB-15, before 1939. Looking like the Boeing B-29, this beautiful
twin-fuselage could have been a forefather of the famous Superfortress.
* The Brewstar XP-76 (Brewster?) is a similar invention: XP-76 was the code for a Bell P-39 Airacobra version, not twin-boom and not canard. Too bad, I prefer this swept-wing beauty, a little
similar to the P-38 pushers.
* The General Motors XF2M was a Wildcat FM version, not twin-boom, but here, the XF2M-A
would have been an asymmetric twin-propeller plane, the XF2M-II Thunder Heart and XF2M-III
Thunder Party: twin-boomers with one jet and 2 propellers.
* The Ki 75 (or Ki 75-II?) was drawn as a push-pull 3-engined single-seater with low tailplanes
too. A different Ki 75-I was presented on the same site, with a single engine and single fuselage.
According to historians, the Nakajima Ki 75 was a twin-engined project, matching none…
* A peculiar shape was presented with the name Ki 69, a kind of twin-Zero with a glazed central
pod in between. The port fuselage housed the pilot. A version with a single fuselage and just a
glazed nose was named Ki 68, and a version with a single fin: Rakchokkyou. According to historians, the Nakajima Ki 69 was a long range aircraft, never built.
* The Ki 77-II used external extra tanks and wings (for very long range probably) that could be
removed (or jettisoned in flight). There has been a real Tachikawa Ki 77 but without any resemblance to this one.
* The Messerschmitt Bf 184 is a fiction with no relation to the Flettner 184. Once again, this was a
design close to the famous P-38 Lightning, without clear reason to be a twin-boomer (lengthened
engine pods?).
* The Arado Ar 112 uses the RLM code 112 which was given to Heinkel, not for a twin-boomer.
* The Arado Ar 197 Zwilling Schwanz (Twin Tail) is very far from the real Ar 197 which was just
an Ar 68 version, not twin-boom.
* The Gotha Go 250 Wels has a very special V-tail, swept back with the centre low. It would be
clear on a 3-view drawing (V from above, V from front), but it is very surprising on the 6 oblique
views presented, and my one is difficult to read either. According to historians, the RLM code 250
was not Gotha property but Horten, and not for a twin-boomer: for a flying wing.
26
27
Enriching families
Seeing the Blohm-und-Voss P.224-1 for the first time, I thought it was a BMW TL III with
inverted booms, to have the tailplanes oriented outside. This was a misinterpretation, but this created somehow a BMW TL V (there is already a TL IV, not a twin-boomer). In fact, the transformation of the P.194 into a twin-boomer 224 was not the only possible way: a twin-plane P.194Z
would have fallen just as well in the collection. And the modeller Allan invented a TL III with a turboprop: PTL III…
The genius Australian modeller Lyn Ludgate has actually built several wonderful twinboom models and photographed them in flight (thanks to great computer handling skills)…
* The first that I discovered was on the Unicraft Models site of Igor Shestakov, gathering all
asymmetric airplanes, including what-if creations: this was the piston-jet Lockheed P-38X composite (at http:// www.geocities.com/asymmetrics).
* The Twin Yak-15, almost symmetric at first glance, was called Yak 15Dv (Åk 15Dv) with once
again the help of Igor, speaking fluently Russian: he told me that there was no name for Soviet
double-planes, so they should be called simply Dvukhfusyelyajniy (twin-fuselage) but letter D was
not free for Yakovlev (as Dalnostniy is Long Range). So, this became the Yak 15Dv…
* The Avro Grenville (Twin-Lancaster) was very different from the Warrior that was presented in
Supplement No.1. To join normal tailplanes, the fuselages should be close, and that made the
central propellers intermeshing, which is dangerous from separate engines. So the spinner of the
port one was lengthened to hold the propeller ahead. Nice idea, that recalls the principle of the
Wagner Twin-Cub, Harkey Twin-Mustang-Racer, Sarpolus Twin-Cut – twin-fuselage planes with
the port fuselage moved a little ahead to allow fuselages to be far closer, thus improving solidity
and providing less asymmetry if one engine fails…
* A modified symmetric Bv 141 has also been built by Lyn, different from Igor’s one as using a
connecting tailplane, to improve stability. Lyn called it Bv 141Z. This wise creator told us that
maybe the central pod should have been raised up to improve lateral visibility. Though, this would
be further improved with a real twin: the asymmetric-again double Bv 141Zz… Such an asymmetric twin-boom shape associates a perfect view forward-rearward with great solidity.
* The Fw 189 could follow its colleague Bv 141 into the new shape, becoming the improved
assymmetric Fw 189Ez.
* I have also imagined a reason for Igor’s Bv 241 (see Supplement No.1) to be a twin-boomer,
loosing the rear post of the standard 141: this could be a way to hold a tail-engine, in a 3-engined
version: Bv 241B… Once again, one propeller is moved backward to avoid intermeshing without
a great distance between them. The result is a rather nice 3-engined plane, if you compare to the
very famous leading Ju-52/3m or Savoia SM-79-II: less drag, better visibility forward, less asymmetry if one external engine remains the only working one…
* Lyn Ludgate made another nice model, named Fw 1900: a Focke-Wulf Fw 190A reverted to
become a canard, with the engine cowling turned into a jet pipe, while the fin was moved, duplicated, on lateral booms. At that time, I was writing the book Virtual Mustangs, so I imagined the
same with North American P-51 canopy, fin and air-intake: Fw-5100. But both Fw 1900 and 5100
had a triplex-boom layout, as the central pod is holding a foreplane… For this book, it was not
correct. So I created actual twin-boomers from the Fw-5100 Mustang special (and the same could
have been done with the Ludgate Fw 1900, of course):
- North Australian Fw-5100B Musgate: discarding the foreplane from the pod, and adding tailplanes (external to avoid the jet flame) at the rear of lengthened booms;
- Fw-5100Z Zwilling: discarding the booms, with fins located on the wing, and duplicating the
fuselage pod into a Siamese twin layout.
* To compare with a simpler Twin-Mustang in the wrong direction, I have modified the XP-82 into
the canard P-182. The balance seems very bad, with too much weight ahead of the wing, but this
is just a fiction drawing to show the originality of the Fw-5100Z.
28
29