evaluation of improved stoves

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evaluation of improved stoves
Wood burning for cooking: pilot project for
evaluation of improved stoves and open fire
emissions
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
Expert meeting to further develop the Standardized Toolkit for
Identification and Quantification of Dioxin and Furan releases
Geneva, Switzerland, 1-3, December 2009
Beatriz Cárdenas, Salvador Blanco,Jepthé Cruz, INE
Gunther Umlauf, JRC
Pablo Maíz, Gamatek
Outline
-Improved wood stoves
-- evaluation of improved stoves (oct 08)
- open fire
-- only D&F indoor (April 09)
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
Wood consumption for cooking and heating
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
According to WHO there are more than 3000 millions of
biomass users in the world.
(WHO 2007)
In Latinoamérica and the Caribean there are 127 millions of
people living in rural areas and most of them are wood
usesrs.
(Riojas 2003)
In México, around 27 millones use wood for cooking
and/heating
(Masera 2007)
Open fires
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
• Open fire cooking:
–
–
–
Low energy efficiency (natural resources depletion, higher GHG emissions, but longer time and farther distances for women to collect wood)
Health impacts on children and women (high concentration of particulate matter during
long periods of exposure
Building damaging
Heatlh impacts due to wood cooking
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
• Indoor air pollution due to wood cooking
is the 10th most important health risk in
developing countrhies.
• In México, poorest sectors were open fire
is u, en donde el uso de fogón abierted,
acute respiratory diseases are the first
cause of children mortality (under 5).
Porcentaje DALYs en el 2000
WHO 2004 ;Smith and Ezzati 2005
Implementation of wood stoves in Mexico
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
•
Programs started back in the 70`s with own construction
– NGOs
– Governmental programs
•
Millenium goals, Kioto Protocol.. •
Mexican goal related to wood cooking: 500,000 improved stoves installed by 2012
– Different ministries involved: Social Development, Energy, Health, and Environment
– Both own contruction and built stoves
– Different options for improved stoves but little information on their performance – Not all vendors have the capacity to fullfill all demand
• Governmental buying process
Implementation of wood stoves in Mexico
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
•
A evaluation study of improved simple stoves was implemented by National
Institute of Ecology (INE‐Mexico) in order to provide information to decision
makers of what parameters should be considered select improved simple stoves
for intervention programs (2008‐2009) – INE, Centro Mario Molina para Estudios Estratégicos sobre Energía y Medio Ambiente, A.C.; Grupo Interdisciplinario de Tecnología Rural A.C. (GIRA), Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas (CIEco‐UNAM), Gamatek and
Universidad Iberoamericana.
Implementation of wood stoves in Mexico
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
INE in collaboration with Gametek and JRC determination of PCDD/F´s, PCB and HCl in filtered and condensed particles as well as ashes
obtained during the controlled cooking test for
tortillas was added as another part of the study
in order to generate information about PCDD/Fs
from this source
Previous studies about open fire and wood
stoves in Mexico by INE
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
Evaluation of wood stoves implementation in the
Purépecha indigenous region (2004-2005)
- Health and indoor levels impacts before and after the
intervention (Michoacán, 2004-2005)
Comachuén, Michoacán durante 2004 y 2005.
Milagro campaign 2007
- Puebla and Michoacán
Fuels demand pattern in rural homes 2006
Informe INE, Zuk et al. 2006
Improved stoves selected
•
4 improved stoves only
based on time and budget
available
•
Selected stoves were those
which could be implemented
by the Federal Government
(previous experience or
capacity to fullfill demand in the time required
– Wood consumption
– Pollutants and GHG emissions
– Indoor pollution
Other socieconomical
studies
Econometric model to
identify factors affecting
adoption
-National rural surveys
-Two cases studies in areas
where intervention programs
have taken place
Improved stoves evaluated
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
ONIL
PATSARI FIJA
MEXALIT
CITLALLI
FOGÓN
Evaluation of performance.
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
- Triplicates measurements for each of the
four stoves
Mexalit, Onil, Citlalli y Patsari
Two tests: controlled cooking (tortillas)
and boling test
Energy efficiency
Indoor PM2.5 and CO levels
GHG, TOC, particulate matter (only in
controlled cooking test)
Heavy metals: USEPA NSPS RM 29
CO2/CO/H2O/HCl
ASTM D 6348 – 03
TOC
USEPA NSPS RM 25ª
O2
USEPA NSPS RM 3ª
Informe INE Septiembre 2009
Rural Laboratory
Instruments
and gases
Estufas portátiles
Mexalit, Onil, Citlalli,
Patsari movil
3 m
2.3 m
Open fire and fixed
stove
12 m
2 m
3 m
improved stoves
4 m
Área de
maniobras
Cocina 1
Cocina 2
3 m
3 m
fixed improved stove
open fire
brick wall
thin wood wall
door
windows
Tzentzenguaro,
Michoacan
Sampling devices
Particulate sampler
temperature
CO indoor
concentration
PM2.5 indoor
sampling
FTIR, CO2,
FID
Particulate matter condensable and filter sampling
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
Informe CMM Diciembre 2008
In addition to gravimetric
determination, filtered and
condensed particles will be
analyzed by JRC
Boiling water test: wood consumption and time
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
Informe INE Septiembre 2009
- Open fire
15 MJ
Lower wood
consumption in all
stoves
Longest
time
Factores de Emisión de Gases de Efecto Invernadero.
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
GHG emissions
CO as an indicator
of incomplete
combustion
Informe INE Septiembre 2009
Factores de emisión de contaminantes.
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
Informe CMM Diciembre 2008
1800
50000
1600
1400
40000
PCO (μg /g Tortilla)
COT (μg /g Tortilla)
1200
20000
10000
1000
800
600
400
0
200
0
-10000
Citlalli
Citlalli
Onil
Mexalit
Patsari Portatil
Patsari Fija
Mediana
Rango
Onil
Mexalit
Patsari Portatil
Patsari Fija
Mediana
Rango
Estufas
Estufas
Total organic compounds and condensable particles are also indicators of poor
combustion
Contaminantes en interiores: PM2.5 y CO.
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
CO en interiores du ra nte la p ru eba d e cocina do con tro lad o
PM2.5 en interiores en prueba de cocinado controlado de tortilla
19200
1460
19000
18800
1440
22 m in
980
18600
960
740
720
200
7400
7200
7000
5200
5000
ppm
µg/m3
13400
13200
13000
7800
7600
27 m in
180
120
100
OSHA, durante 8 horas en fracción respirable
1200
80
1000
800
60
600
400
40
200
0
Onil
Mexalit
Patsari Fija
Fogón
Mediana
25%-75%
Rango
Citlali
20
OMS, 30 m inutos
25 m in
OMS, 1 hora
27 m in
23 m in
37 m in
0
Onil
Mexalit
Patsari Fija
Patsari Portátil
Cltlali
Fogón
Mediana
25%-75%
Rango
Informe CMM Diciembre 2008
Lower indoor CO and PM2.5 levels in all
improved stoves but only some differences
among them
worse scenario
Contaminantes en interiores: PM2.5 y CO.
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
N2O (µg/g Tortilla)
Wood consumption (g/g
Tortilla)
100
80
60
40
20
0
Citlalli
CO2 (mg/g Tortilla)
Mexalit
Onil
Patsari
CH4 (µg/g Tortilla)
PCDD/F emission factors
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
PCDD/F
(pg I‐EQT/g Leña)
1.40
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
CITLALI
MEXALIT
ONIL
PATSARI FIJA
PASTARI
PORTATIL
Tabla 3.10: Total Carbon emission factors and carbon content in the wood estimated
from stock measurements
stoves repetition
Carbon
emission
factor
Total carbon
emission factor
total carbon
emission factor
carbon content
based on stock measurements
% masa
mg/g wood
mg/g Tortilla
CITLALLI 1
519
275
52
CITLALLI 2
537
356
54
CITLALLI 3
562
377
56
MEXALIT 1
561
416
56
MEXALIT 2
601
423
60
MEXALIT 3
551
467
55
ONIL 1
567
433
57
ONIL 2
548
461
55
ONIL 3
561
432
56
PATSARI FIJA 1
531
353
53
PATSARI FIJA 2
527
383
53
PATSARI FIJA 3
519
378
52
PATSARI PORTATIL 1
532
346
53
aritmetic mean
CITLALLI
539
336
54
MEXALIT
571
435
57
ONIL
559
442
56
PATSARI FIJA
526
371
53
PATSARI PORTATIL
532
346
53
Total
547
392
55
normal deivation
CITLALLI
21
54
2
MEXALIT
26
28
3
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
Stove performance
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
Wood consumption (g/g
Tortilla)
100
PCO (µg/g Tortilla)
50
CO(µg/g Tortilla)
Mexalit
0
PF(µg/g Tortilla)
Onil
NOX (µg/g Tortilla)
COT (µg/g Tortilla)
Citlalli
Patsari
Stove performance
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
Wood
consumptio
n (g/g
Tortilla)
Citlalli
100
Patsari
0
Onil
Mexalit
Concentrati
on of PM2.5
(µg/g
Tortilla)
Concentrati
on of CO
(ppm)
Stove performance
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
PCO (µg/g Tortilla)
PF(µg/g Tortilla)
CO(µg/g Tortilla)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Citl
alli
NOX (µg/g Tortilla)
COT (µg/g Tortilla)
Me
xal
Stove performance
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
CO2
CO
CH4
COT
NOx
N2O
PCDD/F
mg/g Leña
µg/g Leña
µg/g Leña
µg/g Leña
µg/g Leña
µg/g Leña
pg I‐EQT / g Leña
CITLALI
1,734
86,148
5,147
38,698
562
171
0.27
MEXALIT
1,984
47,151
2,792
12,627
560
165
0.97
ONIL
2,001
23,066
568
3,566
739
87
0.60
PATSARI FIJA
1,829
41,300
2,244
11,472
568
115
0.24
PASTARI PORTATIL
1,868
37,779
1,396
7,431
700
113
0.46
PCDD/F Emission factors
Improved stoves
PCDD/F
PCDD/F
PCDD/F
PCDD/F
ng I‐EQT / m³ bs @ 25°C, 101325 Pa
pg I‐EQT / m³ bs @ 25°C, 101325 Pa, 0% O2
pg I‐EQT / g Leña
pg I‐EQT / g Tortilla
CITLALLI 1
0.0301
125.3501
0.5710
0.3025
CITLALLI 2
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
CITLALLI 3
0.0262
169.5792
0.7725
0.5184
MEXALIT 1
0.1226
771.9071
3.5163
2.6049
MEXALIT 2
0.0069
57.4170
0.2616
0.1841
MEXALIT 3
0.0067
32.5629
0.1483
0.1257
ONIL 1
0.0940
398.6200
1.8158
1.3858
ONIL 2
0.0172
72.3958
0.3298
0.2776
ONIL 3
0.0079
40.9462
0.1865
0.1438
PATSARI FIJA 1
0.0174
53.3349
0.2430
0.1614
PATSARI FIJA 2
0.0159
58.9903
0.2687
0.1952
PATSARI FIJA 3
0.0324
107.5609
0.4900
0.3573
PATSARI PORTATIL 1
0.0568
153.9529
0.7013
0.4569
PCDD/F emission factors comparisson with toolkit
Classification
Emission factors µg TEQ/TJ of
biomass burned
Concentration
µg TEQ/t ash
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
air
land
Contaminated
biomass fired
stoves
1,500
ND
1000
Virgin
biomass fired
stoves
100
ND
10
PCDD/F
PCDD/F
PCDD/F
pg I‐EQT / g Leña
pg I‐EQT / g Tortilla
ug I‐EQT / TJ wood
CITLALLI 1
0.5710
0.3025
87.1
CITLALLI 2
0.0000
0.0000
0.0
CITLALLI 3
0.7725
0.5184
117.9
MEXALIT 1
3.5163
2.6049
536.5
MEXALIT 2
0.2616
0.1841
39.9
MEXALIT 3
0.1483
0.1257
22.6
ONIL 1
1.8158
1.3858
277.1
ONIL 2
0.3298
0.2776
50.3
ONIL 3
0.1865
0.1438
28.5
PATSARI FIJA 1
0.2430
0.1614
37.1
PATSARI FIJA 2
0.2687
0.1952
41.0
PATSARI FIJA 3
0.4900
0.3573
74.8
PATSARI PORTATIL 1
0.7013
0.4569
107.0
Stoves
Acceptability workshop
•All stoves were accepted
•all stoves were able to cook rice, chicken soup
•Different perception among users
•Advantages and disadvantages
Conclusions
Based on the evaluation study:
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
•Lower wood consumption and lower indoor pollutants from stoves
compared to open fire
•But…still high level concentraciones of PM2.5 y CO for health
•No differences in terms of GHG emissions but in incomplete products
(CH4, condensable particulate matter
. In the absence of regulations some recommendations were given:
-at least 40% reduction of wood
- reduction of indoor (PM2.5 and CO) at least 70%
- BAT for particulate mater emissions
- able to perform the controlled cooking test in 20 min and
boiling point in less than 30 min
- Need of programs to approach potential users and follow up once they
have been implemented
Open fire pilot study
Next steps
• Report
• Paper
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
CENTRO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN
Y CAPACITACIÓN AMBIENTAL
GRACIAS.
[email protected]