Heavy Duty Electric Buses

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Heavy Duty Electric Buses
Heavy Duty Electric Buses – A Solution for near and long
term Environmental and Economical Sustainability
Joshua Goldman
Proterra
Dir Business Development
Greenville, SC
PUBLIC TRANSIT AT CENTER OF MEGATRENDS
Urbanization
Environmental Impact
% Population in Urban Areas
Global CO2 Fuel Emissions
23%
Transportation
90
80
70
60
50
40
2010
World
2030
More Developed Regions
2050
Less Developed Regions
Bus Transportation Critical for
Successful Urban Planning
and GDP Growth
Transit Buses
Key Reduction Target
EV Buses Will Disrupt and Dominate Urban Landscape
Based on Total Operating Cost & Emissions
Source: UN Urbanization Report 2011
2
1
ECORIDE: A UNIQUE TRANSIT EV SOLUTION
Video
}
On-Route Charging Enables 1:1
Diesel Bus Replacement, Simple
Implementation
}
Minimal Disruption with Charging
Time ≤ 10 Minutes
}
Covers 80% of US Transit Bus
Routes
}
Fewer Batteries = More
Passengers, Lower Energy Use
}
Composite Body Is Light, Durable,
Stylish and Low Maintenance
Unique Solution Allows Transit Customers to
Replace Old Buses with No Change in Operations
3
ADVANCED PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT TIMELINE
New Investors
New customers –
Texas, Florida,
South Carolina
Production
Startup
EV Bus Development
CA Customer Order
DOT/FTA
Fuel Cell Bus Demo
Concept,
Founding
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
4
2
PROJECT CHAMPIONS AND PUBLICITY
Early Customers
Pomona, CA
BusRide
Oct 2011
San Antonio, TX
Jay Leno’s
Garage
Clemson, SC
Tallahassee, FL
Green Tech Jan 2012
Which Are Better: Electric Cars or
Natural Gas Vehicles?
CBS Evening
News
“Proterra’s all-electric bus gets between
17.5 to 29 miles per gallon, according to
the company. Even if you take 20 mpg as
a estimate, that beats the 3 to 4 mpg for
CNG buses, according to the Department
of Transportation.”
5
ESTIMATED ENERGY AND COST CALCULATIONS
Capital Costs
80% Covered by
Federal Subsidies
US Transit
Purchases
Fuel Costs*
Operating Costs
100% Borne by
Local Agency
Energy Efficiency
$ Millions
9.26
Energy Cost Savings
MPG Equivalent
23
7.81
100%
<40%
Diesel
Proterra
3.91
1.21
EcoRide CNG Bus Hybrid BusDiesel Bus
3.27
3.86
4.56
CNG
Diesel
Hybrid
Energy
Cost
Proterra
* 9 Bus route over 12 year life
Versus
Conventional
Diesel Bus
Based on EIA, Altoona and internal Data
}
$380,000 Total Lifetime Savings
}
36% IRR
}
<3 Year Payback
6
3
EV BUSES: COMPELLING ALTERATIVE FUEL STORY
Total Cost of Ownership
Grid Provides Stable Energy Cost
Total Cost $ / Passenger Mile*
Commercial Energy Prices**
Normalized Price to 100
$0.30
500
450
$0.25
400
$0.20
350
Petroleum
Electricity
300
$0.15
250
$0.10
200
$0.05
$0.00
Natural Gas
$0.02
Passenger Passenger Passenger
Car
Hybrid
EV
E-Bike
Light Rail
Transit
Diesel Bus Proterra EV
Bus
150
100
50
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
* Capital, fuel cost / lifetime miles
** US Energy Information Administration, 2011
Visible Environmental Commitment Ahead of
Regulatory Requirements
7
ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS
}
80% less carbon than CNG
}
85% less carbon than
diesel
}
87,000 lbs carbon savings
annually vs. CNG per bus
}
Clean, Healthy Pollution
Free and Quiet Operation
8
4
DOT / FTA ECORIDE ENERGY TESTING
ALTOONA TEST DATA, REPORT #1107
}
The three test phases
}
Commuter phase (COM) of 4
miles with 1 stop and a
maximum speed of 40 mph
}
}
Arterial (ART) phase of 2 miles
with 2 stops per mile and a top
speed of 40 mph
Central business district (CBD)
phase of 2 miles with 7 stops per
mile and a top speed of 20 mph
kwhr/mile
COM
1.38
ART
2.07
CBD
1.70
0
0.5
1
2
2.5
27.6
COM
ART
.
1.5
MPG equivalent diesel
18.5
CBD
22.5
0
10
20
30
9
DOT / FTA ECORIDE NOISE TESTING
ALTOONA TEST DATA, REPORT #1107
}
}
Outstanding noise
performance relative to
competitors
Translates into significantly
improved neighborhood
environment
Pull Away from Curb Noise (dBA)
74
72
70
68
66
64
62
60
58
56
}
Lowers resistance to bus
stops locations near
residential buildings
54
New Flyer of America Gillig
Orion / Daimler
Proterra
Constant Speed on Street (dBA)
74
72
70
68
66
64
62
60
58
56
54
New Flyer of America Gillig
Orion / Daimler
Proterra
10
5
REAL WORLD PERFORMANCE DATA
FOOTHILL TRANSIT - REPRESENTATIVE DATA OF OPERATING ECORIDE – LINE 291
Energy [KWh]
Fuel Economy
Distance
[mi]
Total Used
Recaptured
Net Used
Recapture
Rate [%]
KWh/mi
MPGe
80.0
183.2
61.1
122.1
33.3%
1.53
23.6
85.2
202.7
71.3
131.4
35.2%
1.54
23.3
80.2
168.4
57.6
110.8
34.2.%
1.38
26.0
79.3
169.8
60.1
109.7
35.3.%
1.38
26.0
79.5
142.7
44.7
98.0
31.3.%
1.23
29.2
Weekday Route Data (from Foothill):
o 9 Active Buses
o ~140 mi per bus per day
o 12.46 mph avg. speed
o 12.8 hrs revenue service per day
o 0.8 hrs layover time per day
11
100
100
90
90
80
80
70
70
60
60
50
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
0
0
14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000
Time (Sec)
Vehicle Speed
Energy System State of Charge
(%SOC)
Vehicle Speed (MPH)
FOOTHILL TRANSIT DATA OVER ROUTE
Actual Customer Field Data
ESS SOC
Actual Efficiency @ Foothill
}
1.2 – 1.7 kWh/mi or 18 – 26MPGe
}
Depends on driver habits, HVAC use,
passenger load, and traffic conditions
Other Observations
}
Drivers, techs, and passengers
excited -enjoy learning and
understanding.
}
Upfront collaboration with local
governments, utilities, etc. important
12
6
PROTERRA BATTERY SYSTEM
LTO Cell
Assembled Modules
10 cells per
module
Full Bus Battery System
8
modules
per pack
48-64
modules/
bus
=
13
BATTERY VALIDATION – FIELD TESTING
3,901 high power charges in past 56
weeks at Foothill Transit
}
No battery incidents due to high
power charging
}
Capacity loss on track with
Altairnano modeling
}
Supplier analysis predicts 11 year
life under total transit drive cycle
}
Baseline business model developed
on 4 year battery life
}
Looking to validate 6 year battery
life over next 18-24 months of
operation and testing
High Power Charges Cycles
4500
4000
3500
3000
Cycles
}
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Weeks
14
7
STANDARD EV VS. FAST CHARGE
}
Lower weight
– Optimize batteries on-board based on route cycle
– Charge enroute
}
Recharge time matches route profiles
– Standard - Minimum 60 minutes every 4 – 5 hours
– Proterra - <10 min every 2-3 hours of operation
}
System total efficiency favors fast charge
– Higher regeneration recapture rates
– Titanate batteries > 10,000 total discharge cycles vs.
2,500 cycle for other chemistries
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8

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