Educating English Language Learners

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Educating English Language Learners
Educating English
Language Learners
A Handbook for AEA and LEA Staff
Loess Hills Area Education Agency 13
August 2005
Table Of Contents:
Section 1
School District Responsibilities
Section 2
Identification
Section 3
Assessment
Section 4
Parent Notification
Section 5
Educational Programs
Section 6
Program Evaluation
Section 7
Exit Process
Section 8
Grading
Section 9
ELL Students and Special Needs
Section 10
Second Language Acquisition
Section 11
Culture
Section 12
Parent Involvement
Section 13
Interpreters and Translators
Section 14
Equity
Section 15
Resources
School District Responsibilities in the
Education of English Language Learners
Identification
§ Registration (Screen all students to identify those students who are
potential ELL)
§ Utilize criteria to classify a potential ELL (Home Language Survey)
§ Potential ELL are forwarded for assessment to determine if services are
appropriate
Assessment
§ District has identified instruments to assess language proficiency and
academic skills
§ Potential ELL English language proficiency skills (listening, speaking,
reading, and writing) are assessed within the first 30 days after arrival into
the district
§ ELL academic/content area skills are assessed
Program Selection
§ District has selected its program (based on potential students’ population
and resources)
§ Educational programs and curricula are based on scientifically based
research i.e. Bilingual or ESL
Staffing
§ Staff is appropriately trained and sufficient in number to fully implement
the program
§ Valid Iowa teaching license and ESL endorsement
§ Paraprofessionals have training
Program Placement and Participation
§ ELLs are placed into the district’s programs, develop English language
and academic skills and have opportunity for meaningful participation in
the educational program
§ Students are not segregated from their English-speaking peers
§ Parents should be involved in the decision and are informed of program
options within the first 30 days of entering the district and school activities
Exit From Program
§ Students are proficient in English (language proficiency in listening,
speaking, reading, writing and enables them to participate meaningfully in
the education program)
§ ELLs are working at grade level in all content areas (subject matter
development is sufficient to meaningfully participate in the education
program)
§ Teachers recommend their exit
§ Parents agree with the decision
§ After exiting the program students continue to be monitored for 2 years
Program Evaluation
§ Implementation of the program
§
§
Effectiveness in meeting the goals (for language proficiency and academic
development)
Revise and modify based on data
Compiled by C Sosa 2002
Why Identification?
Legal and Educational Rationale
This section describes the legal and educational rationale for educating English
Language Learners (ELL)/ Limited English Proficient Students (LEP). An
overview of the federal and state legislation, United States Supreme Court
decisions and the impact on education of ELL students is presented. Funding
sources as a result of Identification of ELL/LEP students is also described.
Legal Rationale
Title VI – Civil Rights Act, 1964
No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color or
national origin be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or
otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving
federal financial assistance from the Department of Health, Education and
Welfare.
Bilingual Education Act, 1968 (Amended 1974 and 1978)
In order to establish equal educational opportunity for all children,
Congress declared that the policy of the United States would be as follows: (a) to
encourage the establishment and operation, where appropriate, of educational
programs that use Bilingual Educational practices, techniques, and methods; and
(b) for that purpose, to provide financial assistance to local education agencies,
and to state education agencies for certain purposes. As part of Improving
America’s Schools Act, reauthorization in 1994,Title VII was restructured to
provide for an increased state role. It also modified eligibility requirements for
services under Title I so that limited English proficient students are eligible for
services under that program on the same basis as other students.
Memorandum, Department of Health, Education and Welfare- May 25, 1970
This memorandum interprets the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It contains the
responsibility of school districts to provide equal educational opportunity to
national origin minority group students whose English language proficiency is
limited. The following excerpts address compliance with Title VI.
Where the inability to speak and understand the English language
excludes national origin minority group children from effective participation in the
educational program offered by a school district, the district must take affirmative
steps to rectify the language deficiency in order to open its instructional program
to these students.
School districts have the responsibility to adequately notify national origin
minority group parents of school activities which are called to the attention of
other parents. Such notice, in order to be adequate, may have to be provided in
a language other than English.
School districts must not assign national origin minority group students to
special education on the basis of criteria which essentially measure or evaluate
English language skills; nor may school districts deny national origin minority
group children access to college preparation courses on a basis directly related
to the failure of the school system to inculcate English language skills.
Any ability grouping or tracking system employed by the school system to
deal with the special language skill needs of national origin minority group
children must be designed to meet such language skill needs as soon as
possible and must not operate as an educational dead-end or permanent track.
Although the memorandum requires school districts to take affirmative
steps, it does not prescribe the content of these steps. It does, however, explain
that federal law is violated if:
• Students are excluded from effective participation in school
because of their inability to speak and understand the language of
instruction.
• National origin minority students are inappropriately assigned to
special education classes because of their lack of English skills;
• Programs for student whose English is less than proficiency are not
designed to teach them English as soon as possible, or if these
programs operate as a dead end track; or
• Parents whose English is limited do not receive school notices or
other information in a language they can understand.
Equal Education Opportunity Act of 1974
The denial of equal opportunity includes “the failure by an educational
agency to take appropriate action to overcome language barriers that impede
equal participation by its students in its instructional program.”
Title III- of the Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education
Act (ESEA) – No Child Left Behind
President George W. Bush signed No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 into
law on January 8, 2001.
The major components of the Title III law require that school
districts:
• Help ensure that ELL and immigrant children
o Attain English proficiency
o Develop high levels of academic attainment in English.
o Achieve the same challenging State academic content and
student academic achievement standards as all students are
expected to meet. (Section 3115. (c) )
• Assessment of ELL student’s English proficiency annually. (Section
3316. (b) )
• Inform parents of their child’s identification as a Limited English
proficient student no later than 30 days after the beginning of the
school year. (Section 3302. (a) )
• Develop and implement high-quality language instruction educational
programs based on scientifically based research. (Section 3315. (a) )
• Promote parental and community participation in language instruction
educational programs. (Section 3115. (d) )
• Provide high quality professional development to classroom teachers,
principals, administrators and other school or community-based
organizational personnel. (Section 3115. (c) )
School districts that do not make annual yearly progress for 2
consecutive years must develop an improvement plan that will
ensure that the ELL/LEP students in the district meet state academic
and achievement standards, and attain English proficiency.
School districts that do not make annual yearly progress for 4
consecutive years must modify the curriculum, program and method
of ESL instruction. If progress is not made for 4 consecutive years, a
determination is made whether the district shall continue to receive
Title I, Title III funds and if the school district is required to replace
educational personnel relevant to the school districts failure to meet
such objectives.
Iowa Limited English Proficiency Legislation
Chapter 280.4, Uniform School Requirements, Iowa Code.
When a student is limited English proficient, both public and nonpublic
schools shall provide special instruction, which shall include, but need not
be limited to, either instruction in English as a second language or
transitional Bilingual instruction. Such instruction will continue until the
student is fully English proficient or demonstrates a functional ability to
speak, read, write and understand the English language.
Court Cases
Supreme Court
Lau v. Nicholas (1974)
A suit by Chinese parents in San Francisco lead to a ruling that
identical education does not mean equal education under Title
VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. School districts must take
affirmative steps to overcome the educational barriers faced by
non-English speakers. This supreme court ruling also established that the
Office of Civil Rights, under the former Department of Health, Education
and Welfare, has the authority to establish regulations for Title VI
enforcement. The court declared that:
“There is no equality of treatment merely by providing students with
the same facilities, textbooks, teacher and curriculum; for students who do
not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful
education.
Basic English skills are at the very core of what these public schools
teach. Imposition of a requirement that, before a child can effectively
participate in the education program, he must already have acquired those
basic skills is to make a mockery of public education. We know that those
who do not understand English are certain to find their classroom
experiences wholly incomprehensible and in no way meaningful.”
This unanimous decision by the U.S. Supreme Court did not require bilingual
education, but it required districts to make efforts to provide special language
programs in order to provide equal educational opportunity.
Pyler v. Doe (1982)
In Pyler v. Doe, the United States Supreme Court held as unconstitutional
the Texas law that allowed local education agencies to deny enrollment to
children of undocumented immigrants. The five to four ruling was based
on the equal protection provision of the Fourteenth amendment of the U.S.
Constitution. Of particular concern to the Court was the fact that children
were affected, rather than their parents. The Court believed that denying
the undocumented children access to education punished the children.
Such an action, the Court noted, did not square with basic ideas of justice.
States therefore do not have the right to deny a free public education to
undocumented immigrant children.
Federal Court
Castaneda v. Pickard (1981)- Fifth Circuit Court
Reputed to be the most significant court decision affecting language
minority students after Lau. In responding to the plaintiffs’ claim that
Raymondville, Texas Independent School District’s language remediation
programs violated the Equal Educational Opportunities Act (EEOA) of
1974, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals formulated a set of basic
standards to determine school district compliance with the EEOA. The
“Castaneda test” includes the following criteria: (1) Theory: The school
must pursue a program based on an education theory recognized as
sound or at least, as a legitimate experimental strategy; (2) Practice: The
school must actually implement the program with instructional practices,
resources and personnel necessary to transfer theory to reality; (3)
Results: The school must not persist in a program that fails to produce
results. In other words, the “affirmative steps” program must be based on
sound educational theory, or at least a legitimate experimental strategy.
The school must effectively implement the program. The program results
must demonstrate the program’s effectiveness.
Funding Sources:
The primary responsibility in meeting the needs of the ELL students lies with the
local school district. In order to comply with the legal requirements, school
districts must use local resources to provide these programs to ELL students.
Federal and state resources are intended to supplement not supplant, local
resources in meeting the needs of ELL students.
The Iowa Legislature has approved funding (weighting) for the excess cost of
instruction of limited English proficient students. This weighting is .2%.
Federal Title III funding is available to states based on the enrollment of ELL
students in the state. The state of Iowa awards subgrants to the eligible
agencies based on enrollment of ELL students.
How Do I Identify ELL/LEP Students?
An ELL/LEP student is initially identified when they enroll in the school system.
The school district’s registration form should contain “trigger questions” which
deal with the student’s exposure to another language other than English. The
trigger questions should address:
•
•
•
If the first language learned or acquired by the student was not
English
If there is another language other than English used in the home
by the student
If there is another language other than English used in the home
by others.
If all of the language trigger questions are answered “no”, the student is identified
as English Only. If any of the trigger questions are answered “yes”, a Home
Language Survey is given to determine if there is the influence of a language
other than English. The state of Iowa requires that schools identify and report
the primary language of their students. The Home Language Survey is a tool,
which helps the school district meet those requirements, as well as identifies
potential ELL students in their districts. (note sample in procedure manual or
myeduportal.com) The Home Language Survey should be administered by
designated school personnel within days of the initial enrollment. When a parent
is non-English or limited English speaking, a bilingual translator should be
provided if necessary.
If a language other than English is identified in any of the Home Language
Survey/Registration Forms responses, the student will be identified as a potential
ELL student. A language assessment is conducted by the ESL teacher or
identified staff within the building to determine English language proficiency
levels. (listening, speaking, reading and writing)
In addition to the school registration process, students can be referred for
consideration as an ELL/LEP student if the teacher acquires knowledge in
regards to the trigger questions, after the registration process. (Note Identification
of an ELL/LEP Student flow chart)
Enrollment forms as well as additional forms are available on the Eduportal
website. www.eduportal.com
Identification of an ELL/LEP Student
Student enrolls in local school district
Trigger Questions on Enrollment form are Answered
YES
Child’s first language was not English
A language other than English is used in the home
by the student
A language other than English is used in the home
by others
Student identified as English only
student. No further action required.
• Administer Home Language Survey.
• Note Addendum in AEA Procedure Manual or
Eduportal website (www.myeduportal.com)
for Home Language Survey Samples
• Refer for assessment if the answers to the
Home Language Survey indicate a language
other than English
• Provide interpreter for family if needed, so
family can complete Home Language Survey
Assessment should establish
– English Oral Proficiency Level
– English Reading and Writing Skills
(Note Assessment Guidelines in AEA
Procedure Manual)
If concerns arise…
Teacher refers child for consideration as an ELL/LEP student
based on knowledge acquired after the initial enrollment date:
• Teacher learns:
• The first language learned by the child is not English
• The language spoken in the home by the child or others is
not English.
• Teacher observes:
• The child uses a language other than English to interact
with peers or parents
Assessment indicates child is an ELL/LEP
student
(Note Assessment Guidelines in AEA
Procedure Manual)
Identification of student as an English Language Learner is recorded on the
district’s Educational Placement Form. (Note Addendum # for sample)
Parent Notification
• Parent is notified of assessment information
• Parent is notified of program information
and options
• Parental rights are explained
• Parents are notified within 30 school days
of student enrollment
Child receives appropriate ELL program
based on identified needs.
NO
Teacher Language Observation Form
This form should be submitted to the school principal for any student you feel
may be having difficultly due to a home language background other than English.
Student Name _______________________________________ Grade________
Teacher Name _______________________________________ Date ________
School __________________________________________________________
Check all that apply:
_______1. I have observed this student speaking a non-English language in the
classroom, cafeteria, halls, or playground, or in other school situations.
_______2. The student has indicated that the language spoken in his or her
home is non-English.
_______3. Conversation with a parent indicated that a non-English language is
probably spoken in the home.
_______4. The student has experienced difficulty in understanding and or
producing oral and written academic English.
English as a Second Language (ESL) Registration
The school district offers services to students who have a primary language other
than English spoken in the home. Before we test your child or offer English
language services, we would like your permission.
__________________________ has my permission to be tested.
Student Name
____________Yes
____________No
_____________________________________________
Parent/Guardian Signature
___________________________
Date
Why Assess?
Assessment plays a key role in every aspect of programs for ELL/LEP students.
It is essential in identifying the students who need those programs, placing them
in the right levels of service, monitoring their progress, improving programs that
serve them and deciding when a special program is no longer needed.
Assessment becomes critical as districts meet the accountability requirements of
NCLB. Section 3113 (D) of NCLB states that school districts must
When Does the District Assess?
The decision to assess is guided in part by the legal requirements of Title III and
the LEA’s district assessment schedule. Assessment of an ELL/LEP student’s
English Oral Proficiency, reading and writing skills according to Section 3302 of
Title III must occur within 30 school days of the students enrollment. Section
3113b.(3)(d) of Title III requires annual assessment of the English proficiency of
all LEP/ELL students. Section 3113b.(3C) requires districts to annually assess in
English children who have been in the United States for 3 or more consecutive
years. For guidance regarding an ELL/LEP student’s participation in the LEA’s
district wide assessment please refer to that section of this handbook.
What is the purpose of Language Proficiency Assessment?
Language proficiency assessment provides information that may not be available
from records, enrollment forms or simple observation. Language Proficiency
assessment will help the school district determine whether a child’s lack of
English-language proficiency in listening, speaking, reading and writing is likely to
affect his/her opportunity to learn. A child’s language proficiency level will also
indicate a need for an alternative program of instruction. An alternative program
of instruction does not imply alternative education or curriculum but rather
instructional strategies. ELL/LEP students are entitled to access the same
curriculum, programs and other services as all other students. Assessment
should provide the answer to the following questions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Can the student participate in the oral language of the mainstream
classroom?
Can the student read and write English at levels similar to his or her
mainstream grade peers?
Does the student need an alternate program? ( Bilingual education
program, ESL, Title I)
If the student needs an ESL or bilingual program, what should his or
her placement be?
What specific aspects of English grammar or vocabulary does the
student lack?
Is the student progressing in oral or written English?
What tests can the district use to determine Language Proficiency?
The state of Iowa at this time has approved the administration of the Language
Assessment Scales (LAS) or the IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT).
The LAS-Oral is an individually administered test. It presents a variety of oral
language tasks, including correct vocabulary for pictures of objects, responding
to comprehension questions, and producing oral language in response to
pictures. The LAS provides 2 kinds of scores: proficiency levels (1-5) and
converted scores (1-100). The proficiency levels are useful for categorizing
students as eligibile for the ESL or bilingual program and for producing data that
depicts the characteristics of a school’s LEP population.
The LAS –Reading and Writing test is used to assess students in grades two
through high school. Scores on each section are combined for a standard score,
which in turn indicates three reading/writing competency levels.
The IPT Oral Language Proficiency tests are available Pre-K through high
school. The IPT is used for initial identification of an LEP student. It provides 3
levels of English language proficiency, Non-English speaking, limited English
speaking and fluent English speaking.
The IPT Reading and Writing Proficiency tests are group administered. The test
is designed to assess student in grades two through high school. The test yields
diagnostic reading profiles, percentiles and National Coefficient Equivalent.
Spring Assessment Guidelines:
• Kindergarten students will be assessed on the Pre-LAS.
• Students in grade 1-12 will be assessed on the LAS.
• A student who has scored on the oral LAS a level 4 or 5 (Fluent English
Speaker-FES) does not have to retake the oral LAS.
• All students will be assessed in the spring unless they have exited from the
program. Only new students will be assessed in the fall of the next school
year.
What scores on the LAS or IPT indicate that a child qualifies as an ELL/LEP
student and should be considered for admission in an ESL program? Best
practice procedures indicate the use of the following criteria.
Assessment Instruments
English -Oral,Reading and Writing Proficiency
Grade
Pre-K
PreLAS
A score of 4,5
indicates a
child is a fluent
English
A score of 1,2,3 speaker and
-Child qualifies may not be
for ESL
eligible for ESL
services
services
No additional
May not
assessments
qualify for ESL
required
services
Monitor
Monitor English English
reading and
reading and
writing skills
writing skills
PreIPT
A score of NES,
LES or FES-D Child qualifies for
ESL services
No additional
assessments
required
A score of FES
indicates a child
is a fluent English
speaker and may
not be eligible for
ESL services
No additional
assessment
required
Monitor English
Monitor English
reading and writing reading and
skills
writing
* The student's academic performance is also a determining factor
in a child's identification and placement in an ESL program.
Assessment Instruments
English -Oral,Reading and Writing Proficiency
Grade
K-1
PreLAS
A score of 1,2,3 Child qualifies for
ESL services
A score of 4,5
indicates a child is a
fluent English
speaker
No additional
assessments
required
May not qualify for
ESL services
Monitor English
Monitor English
reading and writing reading and writing
skills
skills
IPT
A score of FES
indicates that the Early
Literacy Reading and
Writing test must be
given
If the child scores less
than "Early Stages" in
either reading or
writing he/she is
No additional
eligible for ESL
assessments required services
If the child scores as
an Early Reader/Writer
Monitor English
he/she may not be
reading and writing
eligible for ESL
skills
services
A score of NES or
LES indicates a child
qualifies for ESL
services
* The student's academic performance is also a determining factor
in a child's identification and placement in an ESL program.
Assessment Instruments
English -Oral,Reading and Writing Proficiency
Grade
LAS
2
A score of 4,5 indicates a
child is a fluent English
speaker. However you must
administer the Reading LAS
A score of 1 or 2 on the
Reading LAS indicates a
child qualifies for ESL
services. No additional
assessments needed. A
score of 3 on the Reading
LAS indicates the child is a
No additional
assessments required competent reader.
IPT
A score of 1,2,3 on
the Oral LAS - Child
qualifies for ESL
services
A score of NES or LES A score of FES indicates
indicates a child qualifies that the IPT Reading and
for ESL services
Writing test must be given
Monitor English
reading and writing
skills
If the child scores less
than a Competent Reader
No additional
and Writer, the child
assessments required
qualifies for ESL services.
If the child scores
Competent in Reading
and Writing the child may
Monitor English reading not be eligible for ESL
services.
and writing skills
Monitor English reading and
writing skills
* The student's academic performance is also a determining factor
in a child's identification and placement in an ESL program.
Assessment Instruments
English -Oral,Reading and Writing Proficiency
Grade
LAS
A score of 1,2,3 on
the Oral LAS - Child
qualifies for ESL
services
7th-12th
A score of 4,5 indicates a
child is a fluent English
speaker. However you must
administer the Reading LAS
A score of 1 or 2 on the
Reading LAS indicates a
child qualifies for ESL
services. No additional
assessments needed.
No additional
Monitor English reading and
assessments required writing skills
Monitor English
reading and writing
skills
A score of 3 on the Reading
LAS indicates the child is a
competent reader. You
must administer the Written
LAS. A score of 1 or 2
indicates the child is eligible
for ESL services. A score
of 3 on the written LAS
indicates the child may not
be eligible for ESL services.
No further assessment
required.
IPT
A score of LES or FES
A score of NES
indicates that the IPT
indicates a child qualifies Reading and Writing test
for ESL services
must be given
No additional
assessments required
If the child scores less
than a Competent Reader
and Writer, the child
qualifies for ESL services.
If the child scores
Competent in Reading
and Writing the child may
Monitor English reading not be eligible for ESL
and writing skills
services.
* The student's academic performance is also a determining factor
in a child's identification and placement in an ESL program.
Assessment Instruments
English -Oral,Reading and Writing Proficiency
Grade
LAS
A score of 1,2,3 on
the Oral LAS - Child
qualifies for ESL
services
3rd -6th
A score of 4,5 indicates a
child is a fluent English
speaker. However you must
administer the Reading LAS
A score of 1 or 2 on the
Reading LAS indicates a
child qualifies for ESL
services. No additional
assessments needed.
No additional
Monitor English reading and
assessments required writing skills
Monitor English
reading and writing
skills
A score of 3 on the Reading
LAS indicates the child is a
competent reader. You
must administer the Written
LAS. A score of 1 or 2
indicates the child is eligible
for ESL services. A score
of 3 on the written LAS
indicates the child may not
be eligible for ESL services.
No further assessment
required.
IPT
A score of LES or FES
A score of NES
indicates that the IPT
indicates a child qualifies Reading and Writing test
for ESL services
must be given
No additional
assessments required
If the child scores less
than a Competent Reader
and Writer, the child
qualifies for ESL services.
If the child scores
Competent in Reading
and Writing the child may
Monitor English reading not be eligible for ESL
and writing skills
services.
* The student's academic performance is also a determining factor
in a child's identification and placement in an ESL program.
Why Assess Academic Achievement?
Assessment becomes critical as districts meet the accountability requirements of
NCLB. Section 3102 of NCLB states that school districts must “help ensure that
children who are limited English proficient, develop high levels of academic
attainment in English and meet the same challenging State academic content and
student academic achievement standards as all children are expected to meet.”
Section 3122 (3)(A) iii states that annual measurable achievement objectives shall
include making adequate yearly progress for limited English proficient children in the
area of academic achievement.
When Does the District Assess Academic Achievement of an ELL student?
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 stipulates in Section 1111(b)(3)(C)(ix)(I)
that all students (including ELLs) must participate in state assessments of math,
reading, and (beginning in 2007-2008) science (No Child, 2002). (In Iowa’s case,
this refers to ITBS/ITED.) Currently, reading and math tests are required at
grades 4, 8, and 11 in Iowa (refer to the annual letter available at
www.state.ia.us/educate/ecese/ nclb/documents.html). Furthermore, if your
district assesses other grade levels, all students (including ELLs) in those grade
levels must be tested. Please refer to the flowchart Inclusion of ELL in DistrictWide Assessment and Iowa Title III – Enrollment Descriptors accompanying this
section. Please refer to the Guidelines for the Inclusion of English Language
Learners in K-12 Assessment published by the Iowa Department of Education
2004 for more detailed information.
However, Federal Register Proposed Rule (Title I, 2004) provides for the
following flexibility beginning with the 2003-2004 school year:
•
•
There is flexibility for recently-arrived ELLs during their first year of
enrollment in U.S. schools (defined as up to 180 dates of enrollment); they
may be excused from participation in ONE administration of the
districtwide reading assessment (ITBS/ITED).
If a student is excused from an administration of the districtwide test
(ITBS/ITED), that year would still count as the first year (of three) during
which the student could take the reading assessment in his/her native
language. (Case-by-case waivers would still be available for two
additional years.)
•
Recently-arrived students are still required to take the districtwide math
assessment (ITBS/ITED).
Regarding AYP, the Proposed Rule clarifies that:
• Scores for recently-arrived ELLs (during their first year of enrollment) need
not be included for AYP decisions.
• Recently-arrived ELLs’ participation in math testing should be counted for
AYP participation rates.
• Recently-arrived ELLs’ participation in English language proficiency
testing (if they do not participate in the districtwide reading assessment)
can be counted for AYP participation rates in reading.
• The scores of recently-arrived ELLs who participate in districtwide reading
and math assessments need not be counted for the proficiency
component of AYP, though they can be. This provision must be applied
consistently by districts – either all scores of recently-arrived ELLs are
counted for proficiency or none are. (Iowa Department of Education,
2004b)
• Reading and math scores for ELLs who have been exited from limited
English proficient (LEP) status during the last two years can be counted in
determining AYP for the LEP subgroup (though these students need not
be included in order to achieve a statistically viable number of students).
An alternate assessment is not available in the state of Iowa as of 5/03.
Can Students take the District Wide Assessment with Accommodations?
Whether an ELL student takes the district wide assessment with
accommodations depends on his/her level of oral English proficiency, and his or
her English reading and writing proficiency. Factors that should be considered
are the student’s level of English proficiency, primary language of instruction,
number of years the student received academic instruction in English, and the
level of literacy of the native language.
For Example…
• Level of English proficiency: Is the student’s proficiency in English at a
level that will allow the student to demonstrate knowledge and understanding
of the content, or will it only reflect language proficiency in English? It is
required that the level of English language proficiency be determined.
However, this does NOT affect whether or not the student will be included in
district-wide assessment. The level of language proficiency will be used to
determine what, if any, accommodations are appropriate. (Iowa Department
of Education Guidelines for the Inclusion of English Language Learners in K12 Assessment 2003)
• Primary language of instruction: What has been the student’s primary
language of instruction? If the student has been instructed primarily in
•
•
English, then he/she should take the test in English. (Iowa Department of
Education Guidelines for the Inclusion of English Language Learners in K-12
Assessment 2003)
Number of years the student has received academic instruction in
English: Research provides evidence that there is a difference between the
social/communicative skills in a second language acquired, on average, in 1
to 3 years and the cognitive/academic skills that require, on average 4 to 10
years. Each student’s proficiency data should be considered in determining
the use of accommodation in the district-wide assessment program. (Iowa
Department of Education Guidelines for the Inclusion of English Language
Learners in K-12 Assessment 2003)
Level of literacy in the native language: If the student is not proficient in
English but is literate in the native language, then that student could be
assessed in the native language. If the district chooses to assess the student
in his or her native language, then a valid and reliable instrument that is
aligned with district standards and benchmarks must be selected for this
purpose. If the student is not literate in his/her first (or native) language,
instruments in the native language are not likely to provide accurate
information. Districts have the flexibility to choose whether or not to use
assessments in language other than English for up to three years in reading.
(Waivers are available of an additional two years on a case-by-case basis.)
(Iowa Department of Education Guidelines for the Inclusion of English
Language Learners in K-12 Assessment 2003)
What Accommodations Can Be Made?
Accommodations can be made in the test administration or testing environment
that do not change what the test is measuring. The Standards and Assessments
Non-Regulatory Draft Guidance (USDE, March 10, 2003, page 16) identifies four
categories of accommodations. These are:
•
•
•
Time/Scheduling ( e.g., Extended time and extra breaks)
Setting (e.g., Individual or small group administration, a different
location, study carrel)
Presentation (e.g., explanation, repetition, translated or oral reading of
instructions, audio taped instructions, bilingual or translated versions of
the test, administration of test by a person familiar to the student.
Providing additional clarifying information at the end of the test booklet
or throughout the test- synonyms for unclear or idiomatic words and
phrases in math and science and other content areas but not in
reading)
•
Responses (e.g., Allowing a student to dictate answers or to respond
using the native language, mark answers in book, use reference aids,
point)
Note Appendix F of the Iowa Title III Enrollment Descriptors for guidance
regarding which ELL students should receive testing accommodations.
For additional information on accommodations for ELL see:
? Jamal Abedi
http://cress96.cse.edu/CRESST/Newsletters/polbrf4web.pdf
? Rebecca Kopriva
Ensuring Accuracy in Testing for English Language Learners (2000)
Council of Chief State School Officers, SCASS-LEP Consortium
www.ccsso.org
? National Center for Educational Outcomes,
http://education.umn.edu/NCEO/LEP/default.htm
What about an alternate assessment?
Alternate assessments are evaluative measures that are administered when the
standard assessment is considered unsuitable for a student. Currently an
alternate assessment for ELL students is not available. ELL students who are
identified as special needs with Individual Education Plans (IEP) can take the
Iowa Alternate Assessment if mandated by the IEP.
Appendix F: Iowa Title III - Enrollment Status Descriptors
Participation in District-Wide Assessment
Transitional
Pre-production/Early Production/ Speech Emergence
STAGE 4:
Intermediate Fluency
English Fluency Levels:
• LAS- less than 3/4
• IPT- NEP/LEP
English language proficiency testing
English Fluency Levels:
• LAS- 3/4-5
• IPT- upper LEP or FEP
English language proficiency testing
Instructional Services
Receive/Participate in:
• Newcomer/Orientation
• Two-Way Bilingual Education, Dual Language
Instruction, Bilingual Immersion, or Developmental
Bilingual Education (DBE)
• Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE)
• Foreign Language Immersion
• Direct ESL Services (ESL pull-out, ESL class period,
or ESL resource center)
• Special Alternative Instructional Program (SAIP)
(Also known as Structured Immersion, Immersion
Strategy, Sheltered English Instruction, Specially
Designed Alternative Instruction in English (SDAIE),
or Content-Based Programs)
• Inclusion Model/Push-in
• Content area support
• Tutor/Native language support
• Mainstream classroom instruction (to the extent
practicable)
Receive/Participate in:
• Some ESL support
• Flexible scheduling and instruction
• In-class support
• Tutoring
• Resources
General Achievement
Levels
Reading, math and science may be below grade level
Student
Characteristics/
Descriptors
English Language
Fluency Levels
English Language
Proficiency Testing
STAGES 1, 2 and 3:
Accommodations
in assessment and delivery of instruction
Reading, math and science near or at grade
level
Meets District Exit Criteria
(reading level, language proficiency, academic achievement, school personnel recommendations, parent
recommendations - see guidance in Educating Iowa’s English Language Learners)
CURRENT
Full Service
EXITED
Monitoring for 2 Years
STAGE 5:
Fluent
English Fluency Levels:
• LAS-5/Native
• IPT- FEP
No English language proficiency testing
Receive/Participate in:
• No ESL staff support
• Full participation in district classes- same
guidelines as general education students
• Flexibility for re-entry
• Differentiated instruction as needed
Reading, math and science at grade level
Assess as general education students
Parent Notification
No later than 30 days after the beginning of the school year or when a
child enrolls in a school district, parents shall be informed of the ELL/LEP
children identified for participation in an ESL program. Parents need to be
provided the following information:
1) Reason for identification of their child as limited English proficient and
need of placement in a language instruction educational program.
2) Their child’s level of English Proficiency, how such level was
assessed, and the status of the child’s academic achievement.
3) The method of instruction used in the program in which their child is,
or will be, participating and the methods of instruction used in other
available programs, including how such programs differ in content,
instruction, goals, and use of English and a native language
instruction.
4) How the program will meet the educational strengths and needs of
their child
5) How the program will specifically help their child learn English and
meet age appropriate academic achievement standards for grade
promotion and graduation.
6) The specific exit requirements for such program, expected rate of
transition and expected rate of graduation from secondary school.
7) In the case of a disability, how such program will meet the objectives
of the IEP.
8) Parental rights that include written guidance detailing
• The right that parents have to have their child
immediately removed from such programs upon their
request.
• The options parents have to decline enrollment in the
program offered and to choose another method of
instruction if available.
• The district’s responsibility to assist the parents in
selecting among various program options.
(Section 3302. Parental Notification – Title III Reauthorization of the Elementary and
Secondary Education Act (ESEA) – January 8, 2001
Parent Notification Letter and Consent
(SAMPLE)
Date:
The
School District is committed to providing programs
that will meet the needs of students in our schools. In accordance with the
educational goals of this district, we have developed a program of instruction that
addresses the special language needs of our students.
Based on
(student name)
’s English proficiency test scores and initial
academic test results, we are pleased to inform you that we have enrolled
him/her in our
program.
Limited English Proficiency Information:
Your child was assessed to determine his/her proficiency in English oral skills,
English writing skills, and English reading skills. The test used was the
(Language Assessment Scales Test (LAS)/ the ----(IPT)).
Oral/ Speaking Score:
Reading Score:
Writing Score:
Listening Score:
Total Score:
Level of English Proficiency:
Academic Achievement:
Your child’s academic levels were also assessed using (test name) . Results:
Reading Score:
Writing Score:
Math Score:
Description of our Programs:
The district offers the following programs to students who qualify for language
assistance:
English as a Second Language program
Accommodations within the general classroom
Regular instruction with no modifications
Other:
Exit Procedures:
Parents may request to have their child exit the program at any time. However,
the instructional treatment is provided to participating students until they have
reached a fluent level of English proficiency, as determined by assessment
results.
If you have any questions, I would be happy to discuss them with you. Please
call my office at ( phone number ).
Sincerely,
Parent Consent Section
You have the right to decline to have your child enrolled in the program proposed
above. You may choose to have your child participate in the English Only
program, which would not include any instructional modifications or
accommodations. Upon your request, your child will be immediately removed
from the language program.
No, I do not want my child placed in the program described above. I will
inform the school office of which program I want my child to participate in.
Yes, I would like my child to be placed in the program described above,
and I fully understand the benefits of enrollment in this program.
Parent’s Signature
Translator’s Signature (if applicable)
Date
Date
English as a Second Language (ESL) Registration
The school district offers services to students who have a primary language other
than English spoken in the home. Before we test your child or offer English
language services, we would like your permission.
__________________________ has my permission to be tested.
Student Name
____________Yes
____________No
_____________________________________________
Parent/Guardian Signature
___________________________
Date
Inscripcon par alas clases de ingles como Segundo idioma
(ESL)
El distrito escolar ofrece los servicios a los estudiantes que no hablan
ingles en la casa. Antes de proveer los servicios de ESL a su hijo o antes
deponerle a presenter un examen de la compression de ingles para determiner
si califica de estos servicios, queremos su permiso.
_________________ tiene mi permiso de presenter una prueba en ingles
nombre del alumno
_______________ Si
_______________No
_____________________________________________
Firma de los padres de familia
_____________________________________________
Fecha
English as a Second Language – Educational Programs
The term English as a Second Language (ESL) refers to a structured language
acquisition program designed to teach English to students whose first language
is other than English. The program is available to the student until he/she
demonstrates English proficiency and meets the same academic content and
academic achievement standards that other children are expected to meet.
The primary goals of an ESL program should be to :
•
•
Efficiently and effectively provide ELL students with sufficient English
skills so that they can access to meaningful academic instruction, at
their grade level.
Provide an environment in which ELL students can attain academic
success regardless of linguistic or cultural background or experiences.
The Office of Civil Rights does not require or advocate for a particular program of
instruction for ELL students and nothing in the Federal law requires one form of
instruction over another. However, under federal law, programs to educate
children with limited proficiency in English must be:
•
•
•
Based on a sound educational theory.
Adequately supported so that the program has a realistic chance of
success.
? Appropriate qualified staff
? Adequate resources- equipment, materials
Limited financial resources does not justify failure to provide an
appropriate program.
Periodically evaluated and modified when the programs are not
Successful.
Program Models
Bilingual Models
Bilingual program models use the student’s home language, in addition to
English for instruction. Typically a bilingual program is used in districts with a
large number of students with the same language background. In bilingual
classrooms the students are grouped according to their first language and
teachers are proficient in both English and the student’s first language.
Two-Way Bilingual Education, Dual Language Instruction, Bilingual
Immersion or Developmental Bilingual Education:
? Combine language minority and English speaking students.
? Each group learns the other’s language while meeting high
content standards.
? Classes may be taught by one teacher who is proficient in both
languages or by two teachers, one of whom is bilingual.
? In some programs the languages are used on alternating days,
alternate morning and afternoon or divided by academic subject.
Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE)- Early Exit Bilingual Model
? Primary goal is to “mainstream” students to all English classes
as soon as possible.
? Programs provide some initial instruction in the student’s first
language, primarily when introducing reading and clarification of
content.
? Instruction in the first language is phased out rapidly.
Foreign/Second Language Immersion
? Language minority students are taught primarily or exclusively
through sheltered instruction or a second language, later
combined with native language classes.
ESL Program Models
ESL programs are likely to be used in districts where the language minority
population is diverse and represents many different languages. ESL programs
can accommodate students with different language backgrounds in the same
class. Teachers do not have to be proficient in the native language of the
students.
ESL Pull-out
? Typically used in elementary school settings.
? Students spend part of the day in mainstream classroom and a
portion pulled out to receive instruction in English as a second
language.
? Teachers use instructional methods, learning tasks and
classroom techniques from academic content areas as a vehicle
of developing second language (English).
ESL Class Period
? Generally used in middle school settings.
? Students receive ESL instruction during a regular class period .
? Students may be grouped for instruction according to their level
of English proficiency.
ESL Resource Center
? A variation of a pull-out design where students from several
classrooms or schools are brought together.
? ESL materials and staff are located in one setting and is staffed
by at least one full-time ESL teacher.
ESL Push In
? ESL students attend classes with native English speakers
? Teacher uses ESL strategies.
? ESL teacher team plans and team teaches with the classroom
teacher for an hour or so a day.
ESL Immersion Classroom
? Program provides only English language instruction.
? A variety of English as a second language methods or
instructional models may be used.
? Teachers are certified with ESL endorsements or have at least
15-30 hours of ESL staff development.
Special Alternative Instructional Programs (SAIP) Structured
Immersion, Immersion Strategy, Sheltered English Instruction, Specially
Designed Alternative Instruction in English (SDAIE) or Content Based
Programs
? Language minority students are taught in classes where
teachers use English as the medium for providing content area
instruction.
? Although the acquisition of English is one of the goals, instruction
focuses on content rather than language.
? Teachers use core curriculum but modify it to meet the language
development needs of English language learners.
? Careful attention is paid to the English language learners
distinctive second language development needs and to gaps in
their educational backgrounds.
Orientation Center/Newcomer Program
? Designed for students who are non-English speaking or new
arrivals to the country.
? Curriculum focuses on the thematic units that are content-based
? Emphasis is placed on teaching the students concepts that help
them become successful in the mainstream classroom and in
their new country.
Please note Descriptive Summary of Instructional/Program Alternatives
following at the end of this section
Considerations for Low Incidence ELL Population Schools
Berube (2000) in his study of schools with low incidence ELL populations
reported that at least 28,000 public schools had at least one limited English
proficient student (LEP) and nearly one-third of small rural towns enroll LEP
students. With that many schools dealing with low numbers of LEP students, ESL
instruction is the more commonplace way of addressing the needs of these
students. The question becomes how best to implement ESL services in those
schools experiencing LEP enrollment. Berube (2000) has outlined the challenges
presented to rural and small urban communities as:
• Growth in numbers is accelerating at a greater rate than in larger
schools.
• Rural schools are more likely to lack qualified personnel.
• Rural schools lack funding for teacher training.
• Rural schools are less likely to have formal policy for
accommodating LEP students.
• Rural and small urban schools are more homogenous and are less
likely to incorporate more pedagogical approaches to reflect
diversity.
• There are few, if any, nationally well-known ESL program models
for rural and small urban schools that help gauge accountability.
• Students coming from larger school districts where ESL services
were available will expect similar offerings.
• Rural and small urban schools lack a national political power base.
• Expectations of rural ESL teachers tend to be lower than those
from large school districts.
• Rural schools cannot readily access federal discretionary funding
support that their larger counterparts receive.
Despite these challenges, however, rural and small urban districts can
meet the challenge by recognizing that while larger school districts do have some
advantages, so does the small school district. Changes can take place quicker
and easier in small school districts. Collegial communication can be more direct
and a sense of community is a strong point. Other points to consider are:
• Administrators need to be the leaders and establish an accepting
view of changes in diversity and relay that to staff. They must
educate themselves on the issues and find the resources to help
when necessary. (See Appendix F)
• Districts should be proactive and craft a Lau Plan to be followed
/implemented as LEP students enroll.
• Districts can share qualified personnel.
• Districts can combine their staffs to receive in-servicing and share
the cost.
• Districts can take advantage of mediated courses to help their staff
fulfill course work.
• Enlist the aid of qualified volunteers to assist in the school as well
as in the community to help families become active members of the
community.
• The school can encourage staff members to form learning
communities to educate themselves about ESL methodologies and
support one another
•
•
•
All staff should receive information about workshops, conferences,
etc. and encouraged to attend.
Staff attending workshops, conferences, etc. should be given the
opportunity to share with the rest of the staff what they learned.
Contact the AEA for assistance.
B. Berube. 2000. Managing Programs in Rural and Small Urban Schools, TESOL
Publications. Alexandria, VA.
In order to meet the requirements of NCLB and the Office of Civil Rights, local
school districts with a small number of English language learners can use an
individual success plan. The success plan can be tailored to the unique second
language needs and academic needs of the English language learner.
Please contact the AEA ELL Consultant for more information on an
individualized success plan.
The following success plan forms, with accompanying accommodations
can be used by the local school district.
Descriptive Summary of Instructional/Program Alternatives
SHELTERED
INSTRUCTION IN
ENGLISH
NEWCOMER PROGRAM
DEVELOPMENTAL
TRANSITIONAL BILINGUAL BILINGUAL
SL/FL IMMERSION
TWO-WAY IMMERSION
English Proficiency
Transition to all English
Instruction
Bilingualism
Bilingualism
Bilingualism
Understanding of and
integration into mainstream
American culture
Understanding of and
integration into mainstream
American culture
Integration into mainstream
American culture and
maintenance of
home/heritage culture
Understanding and
appreciation of L2
culture and maintenance
of home/mainstream
American culture
Maintenance/integration
into mainstream
American culture and
appreciation of other
cultures
Same as district/ program
goals for all students
Same as district/
program goals for all
students
Same as district/ program
goals for all students
Native English speakers
and students with limited
or no English - Variety of
cultural backgrounds
Language Goals
Academic English
Proficiency
Cultural Goals
Understanding of and
integration into
mainstream American
culture
Academic Goals
Same as district/program
goals for all students
Varied
Same as district/program
goals for all students
Student Characteristics
Limited or no English;
some programs mix native
and non-native English
speakers
Limited or no English, low level
of literacy. Recent arrivalvariety of language/cultural
backgrounds
Limited or no English All
students have same L1 Variety of cultural
backgrounds
Limited or no English All
students have same L1 Variety of cultural
backgrounds
Speak majority language
(English in US)
May/may not be from
majority culture
Grades Served
All grades during transition K-12 most prevalent at
to English
middle/high school levels
Primary and elementary
grades
Elementary grades
Early immersion serves
K-8, preferably K-12
K-8. preferably K-12
Entry Grades
Any Grade
Most students enter in middle
or high school
K, 1,2
K, 1,2
K, 1
Length of Student
Varied: 1-3 years or as
needed
Usually 1 to 3 semesters
2-4 years
Usually 6 years (+K),
preferably 12 years (+K)
Usually 6 years (+K),
Usually 6 years (+K),
preferably 12 years (+K) preferably 12 years (+K)
K, 1
Participation
Yes; preferable if
mainstream teachers have Yes; mainstream teachers must Yes; mainstream teachers
SI training
have training SI
must have training SI
No, stand alone program with Yes, mainstream
teachers teach English
its own specially trained
teachers
curriculum
Teacher Qualifications
Often certified ESL or
bilingual teachers and
content teachers with SI
training. Preferably
bilingual
Regular certification Training in
SI - preferably bilingual
Bilingual certificate
Bilingual -multicultural
certificate - Bilingual
proficiency
Instructional Materials,
In English with
adaptations; visuals;
realia; culturally
appropriate
In L1 or in English with
adaptations
Participation of
Yes; mainstream
teachers with special
training
Mainstream Teachers
Texts, Visual Aids
In L1 and English; English
materials adapted to
students' proficiency levels
Regular certification
Training in immersion
pedagogy
Bilingual proficiency
Bilingual/immersion
certification Bilingual
proficiency Multicultural
training
In L1 and English; English
In L2 (with adaptations In minority language and
materials adapted to students' as needed), plus English English, as required by
proficiency levels
texts, where appropriate curriculum of study
English Language Learner Success Plan
Student Name: ______________________________ Grade: ______________
Birth date: ____________________
Grade Level: ______________
Age: ____________
M?
F?
Primary Language:___________________
Language Proficiency:
IPT Oral: ___________
IPT Reading: ___________ IPT Writing:____________
Student’s Strengths:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Accommodations/Adaptations:
Instructional Modifications:
? Alternative presentation/instructional method
? In-class assistance from _______________________
? Change in lesson objective/outcome
Materials Modifications:
? Textbook modifications
? Materials modifications
Assessment Modifications:
? Alternative assessment
? Grading modifications
? Test modifications
_____________________________
_____________________
Teacher Signature
Date
____________________________________________
Administrator Signature
_____________________
Date
ELL Academic Accommodations
Not all ELL students will require the same types of accommodations. Each level
of ELL students will differ.
MATH
? Beginning to intermediate students should be shown examples of a completed
assignment to model the correct format.
? Assignments and directions should be printed on the board along with the
cursive.
? An ELL tutor can be utilized to explain math concepts in the student’s native
language when possible.
? Students have access to counters, number lines and other manipulatives that
would enable them to complete assignments at their instructional level.
? If a student lacks the math concepts at their current grade level, the
expectation will be that the child will have access to materials and help at their
instructional level.
SOCIAL STUDIES
? Allow beginning and advanced beginning students to use drawings to show
knowledge of concepts.
? Show ELL students at all proficiency levels a model of project when expected
to complete an assignment.
? Teach all KEY concepts while limiting the vocabulary and details in your
lesson.
? Test over those KEY concepts (the big picture).
? Use visual aids during instruction. The use of overheads, maps, graphic
organizers, puzzles, computer, and other visual stimulation during lesson.
? Tape test or give test orally.
? Allow ELL students who are able to tape-record lessons to do so. This
enables the students to listen to the lesson again at home and work on
assignments at their own pace.
? Allow optional grading activities that involve drama, music or art to respond to
an assignment or test.
SCIENCE
? Homework should including filling out graphs, drawings, or keeping a journal
that includes many visual ways to help the ELL student demonstrate
understanding of concepts.
? Students should work in groups when possible to solve problems or do
experiments.
? Provide as many hands-on experiences as possible. ELL students learn the
best by doing and seeing things.
? Show the ELL students at all proficiency levels a completed project when
requiring a completed science project for a grade.
READING
? Students at all ELL proficiency levels will have reading materials provided at
their instructional level by the classroom teacher.
? Students must be taught vocabulary in context.
? Limit the number of vocabulary words taught in each unit to key words.
Increase as comprehension increases.
? Tape the main stories you expect the ELL student to learn and let them listen
to it.
? Let students act out the story to show understanding.
? Use a variety of approaches to teaching reading, remembering that not all ELL
students learn to read by decoding. The key component is to make sure that
students are being taught vocabulary not in isolation, but with meaning.
? Give the ELL students the background knowledge that they need in order to
understand the story. Bring in pictures or real-life items when introducing stories.
? Teach ELL students reading strategies that enable them to predict, connect,
question, and visualize the story.
WRITING
? Students may not know cursive. Teachers may have to provide instruction in
cursive.
? Students are provided a list of Dolch words or words frequently used in their
classroom to use when writing independently. Teachers may want to provide
“No Excuse Words” or use a notebook with students of classroom words that
they have available for writing independently.
? Students use journals as a means of practicing writing with teacher feedback.
? Many ELL students have difficulty with “inventive spelling” because their
sound/letter association system may be different than English and they may lack
the educational background to do this.
? Students have a model provided for them that includes the proper format for
what the finished writing product to look like.
? Let the students write about topics in which they have background knowledge.
? Allow students to work together when possible to brainstorm and to begin the
writing process.
? In spelling, use words at the instructional level of the student. Use words
from their own materials. You might choose words from a unit that they are
working on.
? Limit the number of spelling words. Cut the list in half and start with 3-6.
Increase as appropriate.
? Students’ oral language skills tend to be higher than their reading and writing
ability. Adjust assignments based on the instructional level of the student. ELL
students will require assistance when writing creatively. Certain types of writing
will be difficult for ELL students.
What Is An Accommodation?
It is a change to help “level the playing field” for students who receive it by
neutralizing the effect of language proficiency in order to demonstrate their
academic achievement.
Test Accommodations:
? Provide word bank or use of bilingual dictionary
? Provide basic vocabulary ahead of time so it can be studied
? Avoid negatives, “all of the above” and “none of the above”
? Reduce number of test questions
? Allow more time
? Consider reading the test to the student
? Offer an alternative form of assessment (performance)
? Provide one-on-one testing setting
? Read instructions of assessment aloud, repeat, translate
? Have familiar person administer the test
? Modification of linguistic complexity
? Addition of visual support
Grading the ELL student:
? Adjust criteria
? Adjust standards
? Consider using pass or credit for below “C” grade
? Indicate ”ELL Modifications” if used on report card
? Grade the student against themselves
Physical Environment Accommodations:
? Seat student in the middle of the room
? Use many visuals (i.e., charts, pictures, posters, etc.)
? Speak slowly (but natural), clearly and expand wait time.
? Allow student to simply observe, absorb, and learn.
? Use body language and smile!!!!
? Label items in the classroom and invite your ELLs to provide the
names in their own language.
Curriculum Accommodations:
? Identify a reduced number of content objectives for the ELL student.
? Shorten and/or modify assignment.
? Adjust requirements for level of language acquisition.
? Highlight important information in the textbook.
? Record teacher directions on audio-cassette or use symbols.
? Consider teaching the text backwards-experience, questions, and
discussion first.
1. Do selected applications based on the material.
2. Discuss the material in class.
3. Answer the study questions at the end of the chapter.
4. Read the text.
Teaching Strategies:
? Accompany verbal directions with hand signals or pictures
? Introduce new words in context
? Repeat, rephrase, reiterate, restate, reword, recycle
? Model rather than correct mispronounced words
? Use pre-reading strategies
? Stick to routines
? Use language experience approach-follow event with student
dictation
? Use cooperative learning
? Use graphic organizers
Materials:
? Read-along cassettes and books
? Software
? Videos and films
? Lower grade or alternative materials that cover similar content but
have more illustrations and less language
? Drawings, pictures, photos, maps, real objects
? Picture dictionaries-purchased or created
? Have student keep journals of pictures and writing
The Classroom Environment should…..
Increase the student’s motivation to use the new language and to take risks by:
• Maintaining a positive, supportive environment
• Welcome and respect the child’s language and culture and family
• Accept mistakes as part of learning
• Provide interesting and relevant materials
• Involve ELL in activities and lessons
• Respect bilingualism
The Classroom Instruction should be…..
• Comprehensible (new language plus clues to what the language
means)
• Cognitively challenging
• Connected to students’ lives and culture
• Designed to develop language and literacy across curriculum
• Directed towards achievement of academic standards
• Rich, Natural, Hands-on, Relevant and Interesting
Lesson Guide for ELL Success Plan
Content Area: _____________________ Unit: ___________________________
Main Idea:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Supporting Concepts:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Key Names, Dates, Places:
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
Key Vocabulary:
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
Assessment:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Results:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
English Language Learner Success Plan
Student Name: ______________________________ Grade: ______________
Birth date: ____________________
Grade Level: ______________
___________________
Age: ____________
M?
F?
Primary Language:
Language Proficiency:
IPT Oral: ___________
____________
IPT Reading: ___________ IPT Writing:
Student’s Strengths:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Accommodations/Adaptations:
Instructional Modifications:
? Alternative presentation/instructional method
? In-class assistance from _______________________
? Change in lesson objective/outcome
Materials Modifications:
? Textbook modifications
? Materials modifications
Assessment Modifications:
? Alternative assessment
? Grading modifications
? Test modifications
_____________________________
_____________________
Teacher Signature
Date
____________________________________________
Administrator Signature
_____________________
Date
Grading
Have grades reflect a variety of performance (some less dependent on fluent language
skills) such as participation, projects, portfolios, and oral explanations.
Focus on the ELL student’s meaning and content knowledge, not language errors such
as grammar mistakes or awkward phrasing, Ask yourself: Did the student understand the
question? Did he/she answer the question? And, if appropriate. How well did the student
develop his thought?
Adapt test and test administration. For example, allow more time for ELL students, or
read the test to them. Teach test-taking skills and strategies. Since grading on a curve is
often unfair to beginning ELL students, use criterion-reference tests.
Recognize effort and improvement in ways other than grades.
Grade beginning ELL students as “satisfactory/unsatisfactory” or “at/above/below
expectations” until the end of the year. Then a letter grade for the year.
Put a not on the report card or transcript to identify the student as an English Language
Learner. Write comments to clarify how the student was graded.
If the ELL student is participating in a curriculum that is modified such as using off grade
level materials or working with an abbreviated spelling list, the teacher should indicate
that the curriculum area was modified “M” on the report card.
Students who are functioning in a particular subject or subjects at, close to, or above
grade level should be graded as any English speaking student.
If the student is functioning below grade level (due to Limited English abilities and/or
interrupted schooling), the grade should be recorded as A, B, C, D (modified).
Somewhere on the report card, the student’s language proficiency level should be
indicated.
Assessment
? Selected responses test
? Presentation (rubric supported)
? Interview (rubric supported)
? Short answer
? Learning Log/journal/notes
? Scored discussion
? Anecdotal record
? Self-reflection (student)
? Lab (rubric supported)
? Debate (rubric supported)
? Student oral responses
? Student written responses
? Develop drama/role-play
? Student participation
? Report (rubric supported)
? Project (rubric supported)
? Group’s reflection
? Essay
? Portfolio
? Teacher observation
? Checklist
? Exhibit (rubric supported)
? Graphic organizers
? Created product
? Student drawing of the concept
? Physical responses to answers
? Create poster/display
? Investigation (rubric supported)
Math
“ELL students are placed in grade level mathematics classes because of the myth that math is
not language dependent. The language of mathematics, not often spoken in day to day activities,
needs to be reinforced for the students who have little opportunity to gain experience with this
specialized language and vocabulary.”
(Chamot & O’Malley, 1994, p.229)
Instructional Modification Strategies
? Help students prepare a card file/glossaries on mathematics vocabulary
? Teach language of mathematical operations (addition, etc) and connect visually
with signs (+)
? Use actual instruments to teach measurements such as rulers, measuring
cups, etc.
? Show the same information through a variety of difference graphs and visuals
? Teach comparison terms and use visuals to support language (more, less,
greater than)
? Use number games to support learning
? Teach names of monetary units
? Rewrite story problems into simple English or convert to computation exercises
? Reduce the number of problems to be completed, selecting a representation of
those assigned
? Encourage the use of diagrams and drawings as an aid when solving problems
? Use visuals such as charts, graphs, and other manipulatives
? Introduce vocabulary and structure used in common mathematical sentences
? Use active student participation in example problems and introduction to new
concepts
? Teach prefixes particular to the language of math such as: bi, deci, centi, and
kilo
? Write instructions and problems using shorter and less complex sentences
? Prepare a sequence of ordinal numbers and identify the ordinal position of
each one by writing the appropriate numerical symbol and word (1st and first)
? Limit the number of problems that must be worked
? Emphasize special mathematical meanings of words commonly used in
English
Modifications of Materials
? Provide numerous pictures to illustrate new words
? Offer a variety of reference materials at the student’s instructional level of
independent use
? Maintain a library of supplementary reference books, workbooks, and other
materials that are written in simple English and that offer additional illustrations
for problems
? Keep listening tapes on mathematical problems for individual assignments
? Help students prepare glossaries of mathematics terms
? Encourage the use of diagrams and drawings as aids to identifying concepts
and seeing relationships
Social Studies
“Since social studies depends heavily on language, ESL students encounter many difficulties in
understanding information presented by the teacher. Even more difficult to understand is the
generally decontextualized language that needs to be read in social studies topics, students must
also be able to discuss the concepts being developed, and acquire competence in the skills
taught.”
(Chamot & O’Malley, 1994; p. 258)
Instructional Modification Strategies
? Help students build individual card files on needed vocabulary for social studies
? Combine main idea and context clues with visuals
? Introduce vocabulary with students’ own experiences
? Use videos, cassette recordings, newspapers, magazines and historical artifacts
? Use role playing, creative drama, music and class discussions
? Use movies, TV, travel brochures, almanac activities, political cartoons, and news
broadcast
? Convert discussions to personal written accounts and summaries
? Show the same information through a variety of different graphs and visuals
? Build vocabulary needed to read maps and legends as these are discussed
? Encourage students to underline key words or important facts in their written
assignments
? Teach necessary vocabulary for sorting categories of social studies concepts into
groups and to explain this vocabulary in words known to the students
? Use student pairs for team learning (cooperative) especially for reports
? Teach vocabulary helpful in evaluating material for logic of written expression and for
categorizing as opinion or fact
? Write shorter and less complex sentences and paragraphs with fewer sentences for
easier comprehension
? Use language experience techniques in discussing concepts and ideas
? Teach the words that signal sequence
? Check understanding of written language that may convey complex concepts
? Show students how to use a timeline to arrange and sequence important facts
Modifications of Materials
? Provide a number of pictures to illustrate new words
? Offer a variety of reference materials at the students’ instructional levels for
independent use
? Collect many of the available comic books that portray historic and cultural events in
simplified language
? Provide biographies of significant men and women from different cultures
? Prepare difficult passages from textbooks on tape for listening activities
? Use outline maps for students practice writing in details and labels
? Support reading instruction in social studies with a variety of supplemental materials
? Present clear illustrations and concrete examples to assist the student in
understanding complex concepts and skills by organizing chapters meaningfully, and by
writing headings that show introductions for transitions from one idea to another
? Use pictures, maps, tables, diagrams, globes, and other visual aids to assist in
comparison and contrast for comprehension of concepts
Language Arts
“ESL students may not have been taught reading and writing strategies in their previous school,
or they may not be aware that strategies useful in first language reading and writing can be
transferred to English” (Chamot & O’Malley, 1994)
Instructional Modification Strategies
? Help students build card files on needed vocabulary
? Show information
through visual aids
? Underline key words or important passages
? Teach words that signal
sequence
? Teach special vocabulary terms/concepts
? Assign short homework
task
? Write shorter and less complex sentences
? Review terms already
mastered
? Develop student study habits
? Use journals
? Read aloud and silently before class discussions
? Use daily oral language
? Rewrite story problems in simpler English by using shorter sentences and
pictures
? Tape short stories for independent listening assignments
? Convert discussions to written summaries and explanations
? Check understanding of written language that may convey complex concepts
? Use newspapers and magazines to enhance written and verbal skills through
discussions and interviewing activities
? When reading plays, short stories, or novels, read in small groups and rewrite
play in more common spoken English to check comprehension
Modifications of Materials
? Provide numerous pictures to illustrate new words
? Offer a variety of reference materials at the student’s instructional level of
independent use
? Keep a variety of word games to be played by pairs of students or small groups
? Use cartoons and leave the bubbles above the speakers blank to be filled in by
students
? Students prepare glossaries of reading terms
? Use drawings to identify concepts and relationships
? Maintain a library of supplementary reference books, workbooks, and other
materials that are written in simple English and that offer additional reading
samples that are well illustrated
? Provide films, records, filmstrips, and other materials that may be used
independently/small groups
? Help students improve writing skills by highlighting transitional devices used in
writing samples
? Use pictures and other visuals aids to assist in comparison and contrast for
comprehension of concepts
Science
“Students who are acquiring English may face language-related difficulties in science classes at
all grade levels due to the introduction of extensive new vocabulary and the complexity of the
discourse, grammatical structures, language functions, and study skills required. Furthermore,
students are expected not just to listen and understand, but to follow directions and to perform
reasonably complex procedures. Students are faced with an impressive number of technical
terms in science. In addition, students must learn that some non-technical vocabulary has
special meanings in science, such as the words table, work, energy, nerve, sense compound,
and mass.
(Chamot & O’Malley, 1994, p. 195)
Instructional Modification Strategies
? Practice cause & effect relationships in the environment, laboratory, and on field trips facilitated
by providing language and visual clues
? Include as many hands-on experiments as possible
? Introduce vocabulary common to the chapter
? Use inductive and deductive reasoning allowing students to become actively involved
? Chapter vocabulary cards to include student drawings for word association.
? Use Spanish/English dictionaries for Spanish translations of key terms for the chapter
? Teach the special vocabulary of the scientist, particularly verbs such as discover, classify, and
hypothesize
? Help students build notebooks of their hypothesis, materials, procedures, data, and conclusions
on experiments and filed experiences
? Ask numerous questions which require higher level thinking responses: hypothesizing and
predicting
? Limit number of variables in laboratory experiments
? Show the same information through a variety of different charts and visuals
? Develop meanings through the science materials and activities rather than in terms of the
equivalent words of the student’s vernacular since direct translations often do not convey exact
meaning
? Stress definitions of terms based on the students’ observations
? Read a variety of sources to highlight contributions of scientists, inventors, and researchers
? Contrast interrogative, negative, and affirmative statements drawn from the science lesson
? Encourage careful, thoughtful reading of short selections in which one main idea is presented
? Encourage students to underline key words or important facts in written students assignments
? Teach interrogative words and expressions and show how they are used in science to answer
such questions as whom, how, when, and where and higher level questions
Modifications of Materials
? Provide a number of pictures to illustrate terms
? Develop interests and arouse curiosity through hands-on experiences, the outdoors pictures,
newspaper clippings, and periodicals
? Have students prepare collections of science objects
? Prepare difficult passages from textbooks on tape for listening activates
? Support reading instruction in science by having a variety of supplementary materials available
? Present clear illustrations and concrete examples to assist the student in understanding
complex concepts and skills
? Highlight written materials for readability by enlarging the size of the print, by organizing
chapters meaningfully, and writing headings that show introductions for transition form one idea
to another
Lesson Guide for ELL Success Plan
Content Area: _____________________ Unit: ___________________________
Main Idea:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Supporting Concepts:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Key Names, Dates, Places:
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
Key Vocabulary:
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
Assessment:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Results:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Cross Referencing Language Proficiency Levels and Reasonable Expectations of
English Language Learners in Content Areas
Math
Social Studies
Reading
Science
Writing
Beginner
Emergent
Intermediate
Nearly Fluent
Fluent
Is aware of math concepts at his/her
instructional level. Beginning to:
understand basic numbers and facts
at his/her instructional level and
understand how to complete and
turn in an assignment.
Is able to solve one step problems
with help at his/her level. Is learning
math facts and beginning to apply
them. Has some understanding of
previously learned skills and is
learning new concepts. Understands
how to complete and turn in an
assignment.
Relies on verbal and visual
instruction to retain limited facts. Is
able to help with projects. Needs to
be drawn into class discussions for a
short time. Demonstrate
understanding of basic facts.
Is learning to solve problems using
+, -, x, and ÷ which will require
assistance at his/her level. Is able to:
apply previously learned skills with
review, learn and apply new skills
with help, and solve story problems
with assistance.
Is able to solve problems using +, -,
x, and ÷ with some assistance. With
some assistance is able to: apply
previously learned skills, learn and
apply new skills, and solve story
problems.
Relies mostly on verbal and visual
instruction to learn the material.
Testing situations are modified to
test basic concepts. Able to
complete modified projects with
guidance and assistance. Beginning
to pay attention to class discussion.
Learning the conventions of printed
material (top, bottom, left-right, etc.).
Attends to stories that have meaning
to listener. Learning letter/sound
associations in context. Looks at
books at his/her instructional level
independently. Starts to identify
words taught in context with
repetition.
Reads words taught in context with
repetition. Uses teacher assistance
when selecting books. Demonstrates
knowledge of vocabulary and skills
at his/her instructional level.
Comprehends material read at
his/her instructional level.
Demonstrates the recall of details
and sequence stories at his/her
instructional level.
Attends to class instruction.
Participates in class work through
drawing, demonstrating, and
sharing. Helps with experiments.
Completes modified assignment with
teacher and/or peer group help.
Is learning about the scientific
method and is beginning to
understand its focus. Completes
modified homework assignments
with help. Participates in classroom
experiments with help. Beginning to
provide feedback on the information
taught at grade level.
Begins to understand writing left to
right. Copies neatly and legibly with
proper spacing. Starts to write what
he/she can say.
Beginning to write simple sentences,
using inventive spelling.
Demonstrates very basic
punctuation and capitalization.
Copies neatly and legibly with proper
spacing. Writes what he/she can
say.
Reads two or more grade levels
below grade level peers. Selects
independent
reading material at his/her
instructional level. Uses vocabulary
and skills in context at his/her
instructional level.
Comprehends material read at
his/her instructional level. Can recall
details and
sequence stories at his/her
instructional level with assistance.
Is able to apply the scientific method
to modified assignments with
assistance. Completes modified
projects and homework with
assistance. Participates in
classroom experiments and
discussion with assistance.
Demonstrates knowledge in
modified testing situations.
Beginning to compose simple
sentences with correct word order
and verb tense. Uses basic
punctuation/capitalization with
assistance. Write neatly and legibly
with proper spacing. Uses inventive
spelling with some success. Tries
staying on a topic and writes limited
details supporting that topic, with
assistance.
Understands some comprehensible
parts of the textbook but relies
mostly on verbal clues and study
guides. Beginning to retain
instructional information and can
relate it in modified testing
situations. Is able to complete
projects with some assistance. Pays
attention to class discussion with
limited participation.
Reads two or more grade levels
below grade level peers. Reads
independently at his/her instructional
level.
Demonstrates knowledge of
vocabulary and skills in context.
Comprehends material read (with
class discussions). Can recall details
and sequence stories at his/her
instructional level.
Is able to solve problems using +, -,
x, and ÷ with little or no help. Is able
to apply previously learned skills
with minimal review. With minimal
help, is able to: learn and apply new
skills at grade level and solve multistep story problems at his/her
reading level.
Can read comprehensible chunks of
the textbook. Retains some facts
from previous discussion and is
experiencing success in modified
testing situations. Is able to
complete some “hands on” projects
independently. Is attentive in class
and participates in class
discussions.
Relies on hands-on visual instruction
to retain basic facts. Shows
knowledge of concepts through
demonstration, drawing, and
participation. Completes projects
with teacher or peer group help.
Attends to discussions for a short
time.
Is able to apply the scientific method
to classroom assignments with some
assistance. With some assistance, is
able to complete projects and
homework assigned and to
participate in classroom experiments
and discussion. Demonstrates
knowledge in modified testing
situations.
Able to compose a complete,
simple sentence with few errors in
word order and verb tense. Knows
basic punctuation/capitalization and
is beginning to apply them most of
the time. Writes neatly and legibly
with proper spacing. Able to use
inventive spelling. Able to write using
meaningful details in a logical
sequence.
Reads closer to grade level. Reads
independently at his/her instructional
level. Demonstrates vocabulary and
skills in context. Comprehends
material read at his/her instructional
level. Can recall details and
sequence of a story, at his/her
instructional level.
Is able to apply the scientific method
to classroom assignments.
Completes projects and homework
assigned. Participates in classroom
experiments and discussion. Applies
knowledge in modified testing
situations.
Able to compose a complete, simple
sentence with correct word order
and verb tense. Able to use correct
punctuation and capitalization. Able
to write neatly and legibly with
proper spacing. Uses inventive
spelling, but spells correctly
commonly used words in the Dolch
list. Writes about a topic using
details in a logical sequence.
From: Policies for Limited English Proficient Students (L.E.P.), Western Hills AEA 12, Spring 1999, and Iowa Dept. of Education Guidelines for Inclusion of ELL in District-Wide Assessment
Program Evaluation
Four Areas of Program Evaluation
Qualified
Staff
Professional
Development
Standards-driven
Program Design
Program
Implementation
Source: B. Berube, 2000, Managing ESL Programs in Rural and Small Urban Schools,
page 168
School districts, big or small, have the same need to evaluate their ELL/Bilingual
programs. What and how to evaluate may seem like a daunting task especially in
schools with low incidence ELL populations, because administrators/staff will feel
inadequate or inexperienced when dealing with issues of quality ESL/bilingual services.
With that in mind, Berube (2000) developed the above chart to assist schools in
evaluating their programs.
The important thing to remember, however, is the goal of all programs which is to
teach ELL students English. That may seem like a self-evident goal, but an important
one to keep in mind as a district looks at its program.
To begin the program evaluation three things need to be established. First,
districts should be familiar with the seven key components for program evaluation which
the Office for Civil Rights has established as guidelines. Those include goals, scope,
data collection, appraisal of results, commitment, time line and follow-up. (For a more
complete explanation, see Appendix D).
Secondly, a district should determine objectives which are compatible with and
are the intent of local school policy and its administration. Those objectives include:
• The identification and program placement of all ELL students is
achieved.
• ELL students must master English.
• ELL students must master appropriate grade-level skills.
• The mainstream educational curriculum is equitably accessible to
ELL students
• ELL students have qualified teaching staff.
• ELL instruction must emphasize content learning as well as English
language acquisition
• Collaboration between ELL and regular education exists
• ESL methodologies are used to enhance teaching and learning
styles
• Staff development is on-going
Thirdly, a district should have a comprehensive Lau Plan which will help the
district to align its goals and objectives with all the compliance regulations that must be
met on both the national and state levels. An effective Lau Plan is the nucleus of the
ELL program. It outlines the procedures that a district has implemented to serve ELL
students. The Lau Plan is an effective evaluation tool in itself to ensure the program is
being successful.
The following is a closer look at the four areas of program evaluation and a
suggested checklist to help districts determine if they have a sound and effective
program.
Qualified Staff
The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) has addressed the issue about qualified
teaching in its Memorandum dated April 6, 1990 and again in a Memorandum dated
September 27,1991. Both memos were issued by William L. Smith, Assistant Secretary
for Civil Rights. The Assistant Secretary wrote:
“The appropriateness of Staff is indicated by whether their
training, qualifications, and experience are consonant with the
requirements of the program. For example, their appropriateness
would be questioned if a district has established an English-as-aSecond Language (ESL) program, but the staff had no ESL
Training and there was no provision for ESL teacher training.”
Does the ESL teacher have ESL
certification/endorsement?.................................................YES
NO
If the ESL teacher is working towards endorsement,
has a reasonable timeline been given for
completion of that requirement?.........................................YES
NO
Has the ESL teacher demonstrated mastery of the
skills necessary to effectively teach in an ELL
program?.............................................................................YES
NO
Has the ESL teacher’s classroom performance been
evaluated by someone familiar with ESL methodologies?..YES
NO
Is the para-professional/aide working under the direct
supervision of a certified classroom teacher?......................YES
NO
Does the para-professional/aide qualify or is working
towards qualifying under NCLB requirements?....................YES
NO
Does the ESL teacher have a level of cultural awareness
in order to facilitate working with students and families?......YES
NO
Professional Development
General education (content area) teachers play an integral role in the life of the ELL
student. Because ELL students spend considerable amounts of time in the general
education classroom, classroom teachers need to know how to teach ELL students.
This becomes a collaborative effort between ESL personnel and the classroom teacher,
supported by the administrator. It is extremely important to encourage the classroom
teacher to accept their crucial role in the educational life of the ELL student through
shared collaboration and educational objectives with adjunct programs such as ESL,
Title I, Special Education, etc. With this objective in mind, all staff should have on-going
opportunities to learn about culturally and linguistically diverse populations. Most
teacher education programs do not address these issues in course work. Thus, it
becomes a part of an effective ELL program to enable general education teachers to
become more knowledgeable and acquire the skills needed to teach ELL
students.
Are on-going ELL in-services provided for staff?........ YES
NO
Does all staff (teachers, aides, support personnel)
participate in in-services related to ELL
issues?........................................................................YES
NO
Is information about workshops, conferences, and
course work related to ELL distributed to all staff?.....YES
NO
Is time provided for staff to collaborate and
plan together?..............................................................YES
NO
Are staff members encouraged to develop learning
communities or mentoring programs?………………….YES
NO
Does the staff have information about journals, books,
web sites, etc that provide resources for teachers?.....YES
NO
Does the administrator attend workshops,
conferences, in-services etc. related to
ELL issues?..................................................................YES
NO
Standards Driven Program Design
The days of excluding ELL students from national or state mandated
assessments are over. Initially states were slow in addressing the issue of ELL
students and standards, but as the various provisions of NCLB are implemented, the
expectations are that ELL students must achieve all standards. Furthermore, OCR
expects school districts to ensure that ELL students have equal access to the
mainstream curriculum. In order to do that it becomes essential to design a program
that sets clear expectations and goals for every student.
Have local ELL standards been aligned with the
TESOL - ESL standards? (Appendix E).......................... YES
NO
Is there ELL curriculum?...................................................YES
NO
Is the ELL curriculum aligned with the TESOL-ESL
Standards?........................................................................YES
NO
Do ELL students have equal access to general
education curriculum?…………………………...................YES
NO
Is the ELL program model based on sound
research?..........................................................................YES
NO
Classroom practices
Is the learning environment challenging, but not
threatening for the ELL student?......................................YES
NO
Does the instruction in the classroom allow for
language learning as well as acquisition of new
knowledge?.......................................................................YES
NO
Is instruction comprehensible and conceptually
appropriate?.....................................................................YES
NO
Are there opportunities for students to contribute
and are those contributions valued?................................YES
NO
Program Implementation
In 1981, the Supreme Court made a decision in the case of Castenada v. Pickard that
affected school districts and the kinds of ESL/bilingual services that can be provided.
While it allowed flexibility for schools to design what works best for them, it set forth a
three prong test which is used to judge if the program works. Those elements are:
• A program must be based on sound theory recognized by some experts
in the field, or is, at least, a legitimate experimental strategy.
• A program has been given the time to be implemented and to be effective
with adequate resources, practices, and personnel.
• A program has been evaluated in order to determine success or failure.
A district Lau /ELL Plan becomes the guiding light for program implementation. By
following its procedures, a district ensures that all elements for compliance to the law,
developing good instructional practices, accessibility to mainstream curriculum, and
achieving district goals and objectives will happen.
The process for initial identification of ELL students
is in the Lau Plan........................................................................YES
NO
The process for initial assessment of ELL students
is in the Lau Plan........................................................................YES
NO
The process for initial program placement of ELL students
is in the Lau Plan........................................................................YES
NO
The process for data collection (home language survey,
academic history, program forms, etc.) about ELL students
is in the Lau Plan........................................................................YES
NO
The process for regular proficiency testing of ELL students
is in the Lau Plan….....................................................................YES
NO
The process for program exit of ELL students
is in the Lau Plan….....................................................................YES
NO
The process for student monitoring and follow-up of ELL
students is in the Lau Plan..........................................................YES
NO
The testing criteria of ELL students is in the Lau Plan................YES
NO
Timelines for testing and parent notifications are in the
Lau Plan………………………………………………………………YES
NO
The description of instructional services is in the Lau Plan…......YES
NO
The description of staffing requirements is in the Lau Plan…......YES
NO
Seven Components as Key Guiding Elements in Program Evaluation
1.
Goals: The intent is for the LEP student to acquire English and comprehensible
academic instruction.
2.
Scope: Program implementation practices and student performance are key.
3.
Data Collection: Student outcomes over time, including LEP student exit from
ESL support, must be appraised.
4.
Appraisal of Results: Identification of concerns for follow-through should be
made as a result of program evaluation.
5.
Commitment: A commitment to implementing program changes as a result of
evaluation should occur.
6.
Time Line: A firm schedule for program improvement milestones as a result of
evaluation should be set.
7.
Follow-Up: Evaluation is ongoing.
ESL Standards
GOAL I
To use English to achieve in all academic areas and settings
Standard A
Students will use English for personal and instructional interactions in
the classroom.
Standard B
Students will use English to obtain, process, construct, manipulate,
provide and expand knowledge, and information through spoken and
written media.
Standard C
Students will use appropriate learning strategies to construct and
apply academic knowledge.
Standard D
Students will acquire English across the curriculum through the use of
technology.
GOAL II
To use English for all social and personal purposes.
Standard A
Students will use English to communicate and meet personal needs.
Standard B
Students will interact in and through spoken and written English for
personal expressions and enjoyment.
Standard C
Students will use English to participate in social and business
interactions.
Standard D
Students will use appropriate learning strategies to extend their
communicative competence.
GOAL III
To tailor the English language for various and specific purposes
and uses
Standard A
Students will use the appropriate language variety according to
audience, purpose and setting
Standard B
Students will use nonverbal communications appropriate to audience,
purpose and setting.
Exit Process
The overall goal of the ESL program is to help students function independently in
the mainstream educational program. When students are at a Fluent in English
reading, writing, listening and speaking, and have the skills necessary to be
successful in the general education setting, they can be exited from the ESL
program. The following criteria need to be evident.
Exit Criteria Using the Language Assessment Scale
Grades PrekK
LAS-O
Grade 1
Grade 2-6
Grade 7-12
No students
will be exited
at the PreK-K
level.
It is too early
to determine if
literacy skills
have been
met.
FES
FES
FES
LAS R/W
NA
NA
RCS
NA
+
Competency
Level
3
+
Competency
Level
3
+
TJ
NA
++
++
++
PJ
NA
+
+
+
LAS-O
FES= Fluent English Speaker
LAS R/W
Language Assessment Scale- Reading/Writing (Grade
Appropriate Test)
RCS
Regular Classroom Success
+ indicates the student is able to participate meaningfully in their
grade level educational program without ESL program services.
TJ
Teacher Judgement-ELL and Regular Classroom + indicates the
teacher agrees with the decision for the student to “test out” of
ESL program services.
PJ
Parent Judgement
+ indicates the parent agrees with the decision for the student to
“test out” of ESL program services.
Exit Criteria Using the Idea Proficiency Test
Grades
Prek
Grade K-1
Grade 2
Grade 3-12
No students
will be
exited at the
PreK level.
It is too
early to
determine if
literacy
skills have
been met.
FES
FES
FES
Early Literacy
Reading/Writing
NA
Early Reader
& Writer
Stage
NA
NA
IPT Reading
NA
NA
CER
CER
IPT Writing
NA
RCS
NA
NA
+
CEW
+
CEW
+
TJ
NA
++
++
++
PJ
NA
+
+
+
IPT-Oral
IPT-Oral
FES= Fluent English Speaker
IPT Reading
CER=Competent English Reader
IPT Writing
CEW=Competent English Writer
RCS
Regular Classroom Success
+ indicates the student is able to participate meaningfully in their
grade level educational program without ESL program services
TJ
Teacher Judgment-ELL and Regular Classroom + indicates the
teacher agrees with the decision for the student to “test out” of
ESL program services.
PJ
Parent Judgement
+ indicates the parent agrees with the decision for the student to
“test out” of ESL program services.
Exit Procedures:
1. The ESL staff identifies a student who is proficient in English, reading,
writing, listening and speaking as measured by the assessment approved
by the Iowa Department of Education. (The IPT or LAS can be used until
such designation is made)
2. The student’s academic record is reviewed.
3. The ESL teacher, classroom teacher, principal and parents make decision
to exit the student from the ESL program or to have the student continue
to receive ESL services.
4. Notification is sent to parents/guardians of change in status and options
are explained.
5. The student is placed on maintenance status and monitored by the ESL
staff and general education staff for 2 years.
Monitoring of Exited ESL Students:
Having met all the exit criteria, the student will be monitored by the ESL staff or
someone appointed within the district for two years. During the maintenance
period of two years, the ESL staff will use the Student Monitoring form when
reviewing the student’s progress. Documentation will be a part of the student’s
portfolio.
The district’s procedures for monitoring K-12 academic progress for ELL students
are as follows:
•
The ESL staff will contact the general education teacher(s) in order to
review student progress during each grading period. The ESL staff
member will:
? Review the academic grades, academic assessments and test
scores to determine if the student is successful.
? Identify any academic needs.
? Inquire about the student’s successful transition into the general
education classroom.
Student progress will be documented at the end of each quarter/grading period.
If the student does not meet the requirements to pass the course or make
satisfactory progress in class, the former ELL student may need to re-enroll in
the ESL program in order to receive the necessary support.
If at the end of the two-year monitoring period, the student is academically
successful, the student is reclassified as an exited student.
Student Monitoring
Elementary Form
Student: __________________________________________
Date exited from ESL program:______________________
School_________________________
Date: ______________________
Grade:__________________
Academic Progress Information
Please list below all of the classes for which you have this student:
Subject:
Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory:
Comments:
____________________________
__________________________
Classroom Teacher Signature
ESL Staff Signature
Teacher:
Student Monitoring
Middle & Secondary Form
Student: ________________________
School_________________________
Date exited from ESL program:_________________
Monitor Period:___________________
Date: _______________
Grade:____________
Academic Progress Information
Please list below all of the classes for which you have this student:
Subject:
Teacher:
Grade:
Study Habits/Homework:
Mark one response for each question:
The student completes homework assignments:
Always
Sometimes
Seldom
The student has good study habits:
Always
Sometimes
Seldom
The student turns in homework on time:
Always
Sometimes
Seldom
The student is on-task in class:
Always
Sometimes
Seldom
The student’s attendance interferes with grades:
Always
Sometimes
Seldom
Comments:
Never
Never
Never
Never
Never
____________________________
__________________________
Classroom Teacher Signature
ESL Staff Signature
When a Student Leaves the ESL Classroom
An ESL teacher once said that when her students transitioned from her ESL
classroom and back into the mainstream classroom fulltime, the second half of
her job began. Her point is well taken. Students who do transition into the
mainstream class face a daunting task which could be overwhelming if all
support are withdrawn. It is important to remember that even when the ELL
student transitions from the ESL classroom he still is an ELL student and
requires language support.
It is essential for the ESL and mainstream teachers to maintain a high degree of
collaboration and communication in order to supply the ELL student with the kind
of language support that will help ensure the academic success that is the goal
for all students in the English speaking classroom. The mainstream classroom
teacher will find the ESL teacher to be a good resource to help with advance
lesson preparation and information, as well as a mentor to give support.
Other suggestions for the mainstream classroom teacher:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
It is good practice to simply language for ELL students, but not the
content. Appropriate expectations are preferred.
Continue to use visuals, realia and concrete references during lessons.
Use graphic organizers
Use hands on activities
Acknowledge cultural differences
Understand that every child has different experiences. It may be
necessary to supply explanations of concepts we take for granted.
Build background knowledge before teaching lessons
Write assignments on board
Use “think alouds”
Directly teach learning strategies
Ask open ended questions to elicit language and comprehension
Use cooperative learning
Grading English Language Learners
Classroom teachers often have the following concerns when grading ELL
students:
• The ELL student’s limited English affects the student’s ability to
communicate his or her content knowledge.
• The ELL student works hard, but the student’s achievement falls short in
comparison to others in the class because of the ELL student’s limited
proficiency in English.
• The teacher worries that recognizing the ELL student’s effort and progress
will be setting two standards of achievement: ELL and non-ELL students.
• The teacher and the ELL student have different expectations and
interpretations of the grade.
There are no easy answers to these issues. However, the following suggestions
are offered to help teachers develop a grading and assessment plan. Teachers
need to enable ELL students to attain their maximum levels of success. ELL
students need to be held accountable for the learning of which they are capable
of, but not penalized for their limited language proficiency.
1. Have grades reflect a variety of performance (some less dependent on
fluent language skills) such as participation, projects, portfolios, and oral
explanations.
2. Focus on the ELL student’s meaning and content knowledge, not
language errors such as grammar mistakes or awkward phrasing. Ask
yourself: Did the student understand the question? Did he/she answer
the question? And, if appropriate. How well did the student develop his
thought?
3. Adapt test and test administration. For example, allow more time for ELL
students, or read the test to them. Teach test-taking skills and strategies.
Since grading on a curve is often unfair to beginning ELL students, use
criterion-reference tests.
4. Recognize effort and improvement in ways other than grades.
5. Grade beginning ELL students as “satisfactory/unsatisfactory” or
“at/above/below expectations” until the end of the year. Then a letter
grade for the year.
6. Put a note on the report card or transcript to identify the student as an
English Language Learner. Write comments to clarify how the student
was graded.
Judy Jameson, Center of Applied Linguistics
7. If the ELL student is participating in a curriculum that is modified such as
using off grade level materials or working with an abbreviated spelling list,
the teacher should indicate that the curriculum area was modified “M” on
the report card.
8. Students who are functioning in a particular subject or subjects at, close
to, or above grade level should be graded as any English speaking
student.
9. If the student is functioning below grade level (due to Limited English
abilities and/or interrupted schooling), the grade should be recorded as A,
B, C, D based on a modified grading scale. Giving a student a failing
grade is not appropriate.
10. Somewhere on the report card, the student’s language proficiency level
should be indicated.
Remember: All ELL students in your classroom should receive a grade
for every class in which they participate or are present.
Testing English Language Learners
Standardized and Classroom Tests:
• Read the instructions out loud. Explain in the native language if
necessary.
• Check students after a few minutes of test-taking to make sure they
understood the instruction and are on track.
• Allow bilingual dictionaries which give direct translations (with minimal
definitions).
• Teach test-taking skills and practice on sample items throughout
instruction.
Classroom Assessments:
• Teach to the assessment; let students know in advance how achievement
will be measured.
• Align instructional methods and assessment methods.
• Check comprehension frequently throughout instruction.
• Supplement tests with other measures of content understanding such as
observation, participation, talking to students, alternative assignments like
projects.
• Review test “through the eyes of an ELL”: look for difficult language and
cultural bias; provide support such as word banks.
• Read tests to beginning ELLs.
• Allow more time for ELLs or give the test in sections.
Taken from: Enhancing English Language Learning in Elementary
Classrooms
Test Modifications:
• Test key concepts or main ideas.
• Provide basic vocabulary ahead of time so it can be studied
• Make a simplified language version of the test
• Simplify instruction
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reduce number of test items
Provide word banks or use of bilingual dictionary
Add visual support
Give students extra time to complete tasks
Give students objective tests: matching, multiple choice, etc.
Avoid negatives “all of the above” and “none of the above”
Make all or part of the exam oral
Informal Assessment Techniques for Young Students or Beginning English
Language Learners
• Use pictures to assess vocabulary
• Have students draw the concept
• Ask students to point to the correct answer
• Ask the student to paraphrase concepts
• Allow students to explain orally
• Allow oral reports instead of written ones
• Have students develop a drama or role play
• Allow students to record concepts on a graphic organizer or in a list
instead of in an essay
• Provide a word bank for beginning ELLs
• Have students create a poster or display to demonstrate their
understanding
• Use a project for assessment
• Use a pair and group reports
• Maintain Reading Journals or Logs. At intervals, record three books at
the student’s reading level and attach a photocopy of a page from each
book.
• Allow the use of a bilingual or picture dictionary
Taken from: Enhancing English Language Learning in Elementary
Classrooms
Placement with Same-age Peers
ELL students should be placed in standard curriculum classrooms or
courses with their same-age peers. The following exceptions may apply:
•
•
•
Profound lack of native language schooling and native language
proficiency may warrant a lower grade or level placement.
If a lower placement is necessary, it will not me more than one year
below the same-age English peer.
If there is an existing IEP.
Gifted and Talented English Language Learners
The identification and assessment of gifted and talented students who are both
gifted and talented and from linguistic and cultural backgrounds different from
that of native-English speaking children require multiple assessment measures to
give students opportunities to demonstrate their skills and performance potential.
Identification and assessment of students should include a screening process
that is appropriate for specific populations. An assessment team should be
comprised of members sensitive to needs of the represented population to be
served, and who interact with students in numerous academic and social
situations.
Western Hills, AEA 12
How Can They Be Gifted if They Don’t Speak English?
Dr. Jeanne Angel, Waterloo Schools ELL Facilitator
“Teachers need to become more aware of their students’ cultural
backgrounds…Our research show that different groups have different
conceptions about what intelligence means. What one group considers
intelligent may not be considered intelligent by another. The teacher has to
understand what values have been placed on intelligence in different cultures or
cultural groups in order to understand what they are trying to excel in-and this
may or may not match the teacher’s values.”
--Robert Sternberg
English Language Learners should be considered potential candidates for gifted
programs and services from the beginning of their school attendance, regardless
of their English proficiency. It is not appropriate to wait until the student has
mastered English before considering him or her as a possible gifted student.
When assigned to write an acrostic poem about their native countries, Carla, a
4th grader with two years of English and low grades, recalled her life in Honduras:
How wonderful it was
On the boat
Near the mouth of the river at
Dawn. The sun was pointing at me
Under the roof of the boat. The
River was wonderful when the sun was pointing to me
And the boat was soft in the water,
Soft, very soft in the water.
Barriers to identification and education of gifted ELLs
•
Attitudes-low academic expectations
•
•
•
Access-need for staff development and outreach to families
Assessment-over-reliance on standardized test scores and use of unidimensional instruments
Accommodation-need to develop talents valued by two cultures
Characteristics of Gifted & Talented ELL Students: Bernal and Reyna (1974)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rapidly acquire English
Exhibit leadership
Exhibit interpersonal skills
Have older playmates
Engage adults in lively conversation
Enjoy intelligent (or effective) risk-taking behaviors
Often have a sense of drama
Are able to keep busy and entertained
Accept responsibility at home
Are “street-wise” and recognized as able to make it in the Anglo-dominant
culture
Strategies for Planning Adequate Identification Process
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Collect background data and work samples
Observe the child’s language and social behaviors
Look at behavioral checklists or inventories that describe the trait in
ways that reflect its complexity
Use other methods like interviews, self-reports, and case studies
Examine cultural and linguistic behaviors of the child and determine if
they can be obscuring the child’s potential giftedness
Consider all nominations
Examine standardized test scores in light of demographic data
Draw a profile of the student and determine placement
Resources
“Assessing limited English proficient (LEP) students for eligibility for gifted
programs,” Technical Assistance Paper, Florida Department of Education, 1999,
http://sss.usf.edu/html/Professions/Psychology/leptap.htm
Bermudez, Andrea B. & Marquez, Judith A., “Insights into gifted and talented
English Language Learners,” IDRA Newsletter,
http://222.idra.org/Newslttr/1998/Jun/Andrea.htm
Cohen, Linda M. “Meeting the needs of gifted and talented minority language
students: issues and practices,” 10/10/2001, http://www.ncbe.gwu.edu
Frasier, Mary M., et. Al., “Educators’ perceptions of barriers to the identification of
gifted children from economically disadvantaged and limited English proficient
backgrounds,” http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/frahun1.html
Harris, Carole Ruth, “Identifying and serving recent immigrant children who are
gifted,” ERIC EC Digest #E520, 1993.
“Talent and diversity: The emerging world of limited English proficient students in
gifted education,” http://www.ed.gov/pubs/TalentandDiversity/index.html
Criteria for Identification Measures
•
•
•
•
•
Identification of student’s strengths, talents, and abilities in their first
language
Identification of creative thinking skills
Identification of intellectual development
Identification of language proficiency
Identification of nonverbal perceptual skills of cognitive development
Western Hills, AEA 12
Recommended Instruments for Identification
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cognitive Abilities Test in Verbal and Quantitative subtest scores (used to
demonstrate student growth…comparison of scores from one testing
session to another)
Cognitive Abilities Test in Nonverbal subtest score (awareness of
student/cultural learning styles)
Torrance Test of Creativity Nonverbal
Kingore Observation Inventory of Gifted Behaviors
Hartman/Renzulli Behavior Inventory of Creativity, Learning, and
Motivation (completed by team approach that include classroom and ESL
teacher, counselors…consideration of student and cultural differences)
Case studies…to include multiple sources of information about a student’s
performance gathered from different staff members’ perceptions. Student
portfolio of evidence of strengths…to include productions of student work,
interests, and projects.
Planned teaching experiences using multiple intelligences in problem
solving in the classroom
Anecdotal data of student strengths, interests, learning styles, and
acquisition of English language
Review of ESL Student Progress Report (Western Hills, AEA 12)
Where Do We Begin in Educational Reform Initiative for ELL’s in Gifted and
Talented programs?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Establishing a cognitive and philosophical shift to a view of youth-including
youth not yet proficient in English-as high ability students, with
accompanying multi-pronged identification procedures to identify and
nurture youth with outstanding talents
Forgoing a commitment to the long-term social benefit of redesigning
gifted education to include and meet the needs of ELL students
Collaborating across programs; a willingness to negotiate and entertain
different points of view
Building on strengths and program maturity
Establishing a clear and coherent vision of inclusive gifted education
Bringing the issue of ELL students and gifted education to a heightened
level of publish awareness
Creating an action plan with realistic timelines
Securing adequate teacher training and in-services, including training in
identification procedures for ESL/bilingual education teachers
One Type of an Inclusive and Authentic Gifted Education
Program for ELL’s
GOTCHA
Project: Galaxies of Thinking and Creative Heights of Achievement
Identification process:
• Nomination-in this stage teachers nominate children for the program
based on supportive information (such as informal observations, and
samples of student’s work) and orientation sessions. A
Parent/Community Form is sent home for parents to nominate their
child. A Peer Nomination Form is also used by the teacher to obtain
additional information from still another source.
• Identification-during this stage, more information is collected about the
nominated students. This information is based on the scores obtained
on the Renzulli Checklist (adapted), the Torrance Test of Creative
Thinking (Figural), and additional project and work samples. If
available, achievement test scores and/or report card grades are
considered.
• Placement-the GOTCHA teachers evaluate the Matrix Form which
contains a profile of the student’s performance. The students that
meet eligibility criteria are then placed in the GOTHCA Program.
There are seven criteria on the matrix, students need to qualify on five
of the criteria. The implementation consists of two models, inclusion or
pull-out.
Thematic Approach:
• Activities reflect six levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy
• Student’s process, product and environment are modeled after June
Maker’s Modification Model
• Design of the activities incorporate Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Theory
• Social Studies and Science units provide opportunity for developing
Problem Solving Skills
• The Learning environment emphasizes the cooperative learning style
• Creativity is fostered through the use of Torrance’s Creative Thinking
skills of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration.
• Meta-cognitive skills are taught to instill in students the desire to
become life-long learners
Program Features:
• Transportability has been implemented successfully in diverse cultural
and ethnic settings
• Cost effectiveness
• Maximizes student’s strengths; minimizes weaknesses
• Performance based, content/language acceleration curriculum
• ESL methodology integrated with gifted strategies
• Specialized parent education
• Multifaceted-multidimensional identification criteria
• Staff development to include gifted and ESL specialized training
• Data collection for claims of effectiveness
Easily correlated with GOALS 2000, ESL standards, State Standards &
Benchmarks
Project GOTCHA Website http://www.kreative-kids.com
Source: Talent and Diversity: The Emerging World of Limited English
Proficiency Students in Gifted Education; Office of Educational Research and
Improvement, U.S. Department of Education
Assessment, Awareness, and Action: A Self-Evaluation Tool for Gifted and
ESL/Bilingual Educators
The following self-evaluation tool is intended to assess where your school and
district falls on a continuum of awareness and action as related to ELL students
with outstanding abilities and gifted education.
Awareness, Philosophy, and Understanding
In my school and/or district…
1. Gifted and ESL/bilingual staff communicate with each other about
programmatic goals.
Always
Frequently
Sometimes
Never
2. Staff in gifted education is committed to multi-pronged identification
procedures for students in gifted programs.
Always
Frequently
Sometimes
Never
3. Staff in ESL/bilingual education sees opportunities for their students in
gifted programs and believe gifted education has something to offer ELL
students.
Always
Frequently
Sometimes
Never
4. Staff in gifted education shows an understanding of and appreciation for
students from linguistically diverse backgrounds.
Always
Frequently
Sometimes
Never
5. Gifted and ESL/bilingual staff have a philosophical commitment to the
inclusion and success of the ELL students in gifted programs.
Always
Frequently
Sometimes
Never
6. Gifted staff is committed to a multi-dimensional view of ability.
Always
Frequently
Sometimes
Never
Action and Implementation:
1. Gifted and ESL/bilingual staff have established a core committee that will
lead a change effort to include and nurture proportionate numbers of ELL
students in gifted education.
Yes
No
In process
2. Gifted and ESL/bilingual staff have a clear vision of gifted education that
authentically identifies and nurtures ELL youth.
Yes
No
In process
3. Key staff, including program personnel and administrators, have worked
with community representatives to increase public awareness of ELL
students and their role in gifted education.
Yes
No
In process
4. Gifted and ESL/bilingual staff meet on a regularly scheduled basis with
community members, eliciting their feedback and support for inclusive
gifted education.
Yes
No
In process
5. Distinct timelines for discrete goals have been established to increase the
numbers of ELL students in gifted programs.
Yes
No
In process
6. Concrete responsibilities have been determined and have been assigned
to gifted and ESL/bilingual staff, as well as other key district personnel.
Yes
No
In process
7. Evaluation plans to determine program success as well as needed
refinement have been established.
Yes
No
In process
8. The school board is fully cognizant of and educated about the effort to
identify and nurture ELL students in gifted programs.
Yes
No
In process
Source: Talent and Diversity: The Emerging World of Limited English Proficiency Students
in Gifted Education; Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of
Education
ELL/Special Needs Students
Legal and Educational Rationale
Educational policy, law and judicial decisions exist to ensure that English
language learners with disabilities receive an appropriate education. It is not the
intent of this section to provide a comprehensive review of the legal issues
relating to English language learners and disabilities. However some of the most
relevant laws and legal cases are presented.
Civil Rights Act ( 1964)
Prohibits federally funded programs from discriminating in their services on the basis of
race, color, religion, sex or national origin. The Civil Rights Memorandum of 1970
required school districts to take steps to rectify children’s language “deficiencies”, avoid
labeling students as mentally retarded based on criteria that reflected their English
proficiency.
Bilingual Education ACT (1968)
The Bilingual Education Act (1968) and its subsequent amendments provided
federal funding to local school districts for programs for students with limited
English skills. Subsequent amendments increased funding for “special
alternative” programs in which only English was used and reinforced the need for
professional development for special language program personnel.
Diana v. State Board of Education (1970)
This lawsuit was filed on behalf of Mexican American children in California, alleged
that the school system was inaccurately identifying Spanish-speaking children as
mentally retarded on the basis of IQ tests administered in English. The judge ordered
that all Mexican American children who had been placed in special education be
reassessed in their first language and in English or by using nonverbal tests. It was
also mandated that an IQ test appropriate for Mexican American students be
developed and that school districts should be monitored to identify racial and ethnic
disparities in special education placements.
Larry P. v. Riles
In this 1979 case, the judge ordered an injunction against use of IQ tests that did
not take into account the cultural backgrounds and experiences of African
American children. This court case also established the legal precedent that
tests used with minority children must have been validated for use with that
population. This case along with Diana v. Board of Education provide the legal
precedent against cultural bias in testing.
Court Cases Supporting Bilingual Education
Jose P. v. Ambach(1983), United Cerebral Palsy(UCP) of New York v. Board of
Education of the City of New York ( 1979) and Dyrcia S. et. al. v. Board of
Education of New York are three of the most significant court cases in the
development of bilingual special education services for English language
learners. These court cases require school districts to: (a) use bilingual
resources to identify English language learners that need special education, (b)
provide evaluations that are in two languages and are nondiscriminatory, (c)
provide bilingual alternatives at each stage of the special education process, (d)
protect the rights of parents and students and develop a Spanish language
version of the parents’ rights booklet, and (e) hire personnel who can facilitate
parent participation in the assessment process and the development of the IEP.
Involvement of Parents in the Special Education Process
Legal Provisions
The 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) gave parents specific
rights and responsibilities regarding educational services for children with special
needs. Procedural safeguards are in place that ensure equitable access to
special education services. School districts are responsible for ensuring that
parents understand and are able to participate in the special education process.
Parents must provide informed consent for the referral, evaluation, and
placement of their child in special education. It means that information must be
presented in the parents’ native language. Be aware that parents may need
assistance in understanding the information especially if they are not literate in
their native language, or the language does not have a written code.
Interpreters must be provided at the IEP meeting so that parents can participate
meaningfully in decision making.
Cultural Perspectives
It is important that educators and other professionals recognize that parents from
culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds may have a different perspective
about the educational process and their role in it. Professionals must have
knowledge of the cultural similarities and differences so they can accurately
interpret behaviors, understand underlying values and respond in ways that
promote successful communication.
ELL Students and the Special Education Process
While it may be difficult to determine if a referral for special education evaluation
is appropriate, the decision is further complicated for children who are culturally
and linguistically diverse. Screening information as well as other factors should
be considered when differentiating if the student’s learning problems are due to a
disability or normal second-language acquisition. An evaluation team should
consider the following prior to making a referral for a child who is culturally and
linguistically diverse.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Does the problem exist across contexts (e.g. in general education, and
ESL classes, at school and at home?)
What is the child’s current level of language proficiency?
What is the extent to which the student has received native language
instruction and/or ESL services prior to the referral?
Is the student’s progress in acquiring English significantly different from
that of peers who started at about the same level of English language
proficiency?
Is there evidence that the difficulties can be explained by cross-cultural
differences? For example, a lack of eye contact which is considered
appropriate behavior in the child’s native culture.
Are there other variables that could explain the difficulties? Such as
inconsistent school attendance or language variations typical of
English language learners?
Can the student’s behaviors be explained by bias in the procedure
before, during or after an assessment? Does the classroom teacher
refer all English language learners in the classroom for special
education, when inappropriate adaptations are used or when low
expectations for student performance on district wide assessment
influence the administration and interpretation of results?
What experiential and/or enrichment services have been provided for
the student?
What is the amount of time and extent of services in an academic
program for a student who has had little or no formal schooling?
Do data indicate that the student did not respond well to general
education interventions? For example were teaching, support
interventions and alternative programs unsuccessful in closing the
achievement gap?
What is the length of residency in the United States and prior school
experience in the native country and in an English language school
system?
What have been the attempts to remediate performance, including
supplemental aids or support services?
Please refer to the Problem Solving Process-English Language Learners
flowchart and accompanying documents on the following page for guidance on
appropriate referrals for special education services for culturally and linguistically
diverse students.
Problem Solving Process- English Language Learners
Administer the
IPT
Has the student’s language proficiency
been assessed in all 4 areas (oral/speaking,
reading, writing, and listening)?
No
Yes
Is the student experiencing
difficulty in school?
Problem-solving
process ends.
No
Yes
•
•
•
•
Adapt
Supplement
Develop
Provide ESL
No
services, if needed
No
Are the curriculum and
instructional methods known to
be effective for language
minority students?
Validate problem considering
st
nd
both 1 and 2 languages:
• Review
• Interview
• Observe
• Test
Does the problem warrant further
evaluation or intervention?
No
Yes
Does the student have difficulties or needs beyond what is
typically expected for ELL students of similar experiences?
No
Analyze the problem: Why is the
problem occurring? (See factors on
next page)
Design, implement and monitor intervention
based on analysis
Continue intervention
as needed, removing
supports when
appropriate
Is the rate of progress acceptable?
Yes
No
Yes
Is problem due to language or
lack of previous instruction?
Unsure
No
Consider conducting an
Extended Evaluation for
Special Education services
Adapted from Preventing
Inappropriate Referrals of Language
Minority Students to Special
Education –Gracia and Ortiz 1988
Analyze the Problem: Factors to Consider
Environment
• Teacher background and experiences with ELL students
• Consider professional development needs
• Expectations
• Perceptions
• Instructional management
• Behavioral management
• Language exposure in the home
Curriculum
• Continuity of exposure to the curriculum
• Scope and sequence
• Student entry level into curriculum
• Standards:
Basic skills expected
Higher cognitive skills expected
• Consider mastery and practice
Instruction
• Sequence of instruction: Teach, re-teach using different approach, teach
prerequisite skills
• Language of instruction
• Effective teaching behaviors
• Coordination of instruction with various programs
• Assessment of instruction
Ongoing data collection
Instructional changes based on assessment
Student
• Experiential background
• Language proficiency
• Cultural characteristics
• Modes of communication
• Academic skill levels
• Self-concept
• Motivation
• School behavior and social skills
Some Questions to Ask When Distinguishing
Second Language Differences from Disabilities
Note: The classroom teacher will use this form before a team meeting to learn if
any of the behaviors have been observed. It will then be presented and
discussed at the team meeting. The teacher needs to bring dated
examples and explanations of areas that the student is having difficulty
with.
Yes
No
1. Are the problems evident in the primary language?
2. Does the student exhibit the same types of problematic
behaviors in the first language as in English?
3. Have the child's parents also noted difficulties?
4. Are there difficulties in learning language at a normal
rate?
5. Has special instruction been provided in the
first and second language?
6. Are there deficits in social and academic vocabulary/
concepts?
7. Are there communication difficulties when interacting
with peers, including those from a similar language
background, and in the home setting?
8. Does the child have auditory processing problems (e.g.
poor memory, poor comprehension to questions?
9. Does the student show lack of organization, structure,
and sequence in spoken and written language or difficulty
conveying thoughts?
10. Is there a family history of special education/learning
difficulties?
11. Does the child have a heavy reliance on gestures
rather than speech to communicate that are nondevelopmental?
12. Does the child have difficulty paying attention not related
to understanding the language?
13. Does the child have atypical social skills (e.g. interrupts
frequently, digresses from topic, unable to conect with
conversation, cannot stay on the topics of discussion,
cannot take turns in conversation)?
Please provide documentation for all questions.
Adapted from: Roseberry-McKibbin,Celeste. Multicultural Students with Special Language Needs.
Oceanside, CA. Academic Communication Associates. 1995.
Teacher Reporting Form
ELL Special Education TAT Process
Note: The classroom teacher will use this form before a team meeting to learn if
any of the behaviors have been observed. It will then be presented and
discussed at the team meeting. Supporting data must be available.
1. Difficulty in learning language at a normal rate, even with special
assistance in both languages.
2. Deficits in vocabulary.
3. Communication difficulties at home.
4. Communication difficulties at home and when interacting with peers
including those from a similar language background and culture.
5. Auditory processing problems (e.g. poor memory, poor comprehension
evident in academic situations as well as in social situations)
6. Lack of organization, structure, and sequence in spoken and written
language; difficulty conveying thoughts.
7. Slow academic achievement despite adequate academic English
proficiency. ( Bring supporting data)
8. Family history of special education/learning difficulties.
9. Slower development than siblings (as per parent report).
10. Difficulty paying attention which is not related to understanding the
language of instruction.
11. Inappropriate, atypical social skills, social use of language (e.g. interrupts
frequently, digresses from topic, is insensitive to the needs or
communication goals of conversational partners, cannot stay on the topic
of discussion, cannot take turns in conversations). Is unable to connection
with conversation.
Adapted from : Roseberry-Mckibbin, Celeste. Multicultural Students with Special Language
Needs. Oceanside, CA. Academic Communication Associates. 1995.
Teacher Reporting Form
ELL Special Education TAT Process
Note: The classroom teacher should attempt the following interventions that might benefit a
bilingual, special needs learner and present the results at the team meeting.
Almost
Always
Always
Very
Rarely
Never
Do I…..
1. Use a multimodal approach to teaching materials?
2. Review previous materials?
3. Make input comprehensible by slowing down,
pausing, and speaking clearly?
4. Rephrase and restate information?
5. Check frequently for comprehension?
6. Focus on teaching meaning rather than focusing on correct
grammar?
7. Avoid putting students on the spot by demanding that they
talk immediately?
8. Give extra time for processing information?
9. Attempt to reduce students' anxieties and give them extra
attention when possible?
10. Encourage students to interject their own cultural experiences
and backgrounds into learning situations?
11. Encourage students' use and development of their primary
language?
12. Expose all my students to multicultural activities and
materials on a regular basis?
13. Include parents and community members from different
cultural backgrounds in my teaching?
14. Include parents and community members from different
cultural backgrounds in my teaching?
Working with Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students: The Interventionist's Self-Evaluation Checklist.
Source: Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste. Multicultural Students with Special Language Needs. Oceanside, CA.
Academic Communication Associates. 1995
Special Education Considerations:
Best Practices When Serving English Language Learners
Special education is more likely to benefit a child if the child has:
_____School attendance that has been uninterrupted and continuous
_____Time to reach a cognitive language proficiency, which is unique for each individual
_____Significant delays in many areas of development
_____Limited progress in comparison to other English language learners who have had
ESL services
Special education is more likely to benefit a child if the school has:
1. Made extensive accommodations and adaptations in the regular education
classroom such as:
_____Modified the presentation of material (Using hand signals with
verbalizations, visuals)
_____Modified the environment (small groups, classroom seating)
_____Modified time demands (extended time)
_____Modified assignments and assessments (shortened homework, alternative
projects)
_____Provided peer helpers
2. Reviewed records to determine:
_____Frequency of school changes
_____Consistency of school attendance
_____Health history
_____Level of learning support (ESL services, Title I, bilingual para/volunteer)
_____Extent of experience with English
_____Academic History
3. Completed classroom observations to determine:
_____Appropriateness of instruction
_____Environmental characteristics influencing learning
_____Level of social confidence and acceptance by the school community
4. Conducted interviews with:
_____Parents and/or guardian
_____Teachers (including specials)
_____Child
_____ELL personnel
5. Recognized the challenges of second language learning by considering:
_____The child’s strengths and reinforcing those strengths to increase learning
_____The complexity of language acquisition and the time it takes for proficiency
in all modes of language (listening, reading, writing and reading)
An assessment is more likely to be beneficial if:
_____Primary language was determined
_____Conducted in the child’s primary language by a bilingual professional
_____Nonverbal intelligence was measured
_____Tests were not translated (translation changes the level of difficulty)
_____Adequately normed tests were used (preferably in student’s primary language)
_____All aspects of the child’s development and environment were considered
_____Examiners were trained in cross-cultural awareness
_____Curriculum-based measurement, portfolio or classroom-based assessments were
used
LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR CHARACTERISTICS SHARED BY LD NATIVE
ENGLISH SPEAKERS AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNERS
Domain
Language (receptive and expressive)
Characteristics
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reading
•
•
•
•
•
•
Written Language
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mathematics
•
•
•
Delayed acquisition
Difficulties in expression
(including articulation)
Low vocabulary
Problems understanding what is
said (comprehension)
Difficultly following oral
directions
Poor immediate auditory
memory
Poor retention of information
Unable to rhyme words
Poor reading progress
Reads below grade level
Confusion in sound/symbol
associations
Poor eye tracking; loses place
during reading
Unable to remember what has
been read
Poor progress in content areas
Spelling is below grade level
Words or letters may be
reversed
Inconsistent spelling
“Bizarre” spelling
poor recall of sequences of
syllables
poor visual memory
difficultly expressing ideas in
writing
poor grammar and syntax
Mathematics skills below grade
level
Difficulty in remembering
processes apparently known
Uses fingers or counting aids
Behaviors
•
•
•
•
•
•
Limited attention span and poor
concentration
Work may be “unpresentable”
Low frustration tolerance
Anxious or cries easily
Poor peer relationships
Poor eye contact
Source: Fradd, S.H., McGee, P.L., & Wilen, D.K. (1994). Instructional Assessment: An
Integrated Approach to Evaluating Student Performance. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Publishing Co.
CHARACTERISTICS SHARED BY STUDENTS WITH LANGUAGE AND/OR
LEARNING DISABILITIES AND STUDENTS ACQUIRING ENGLISH AS A
SECOND LANGUAGE
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Articulation, pronunciation errors
Poor comprehension
Forgets easily
Cannot follow directions
Poor oral language skills
Syntactical and grammatical errors
Low vocabulary
Reading below grade level
Short attention span
Poor spelling
Frequently off-task; does not complete tasks
Cannot work independently
Shy, withdrawn
Anxious
Poor motivation
Distractible
Low self-esteem
Source: Alba Ortiz, Dept. of Special Education
Second Language Learners
For many second language learners, however, bilingual instruction is not a viable
educational alternative for one or more reasons. Children in a specific
community may speak languages that the teachers do not know. Some
classrooms may be populated by children from as many as a dozen different
language groups, making bilingual instruction impossible. Some languages have
only recently developed written systems, which means that few, if any,
elementary school materials will be available.
In some communities, parents and community leaders do not believe that it is
appropriate to use a language other than English in school. In schools where the
numbers of second language learners are not large, ELL children may find
themselves in regular classroom settings with a teacher who is not a
bilingual/ESL specialist. In these circumstances, children will probably receive
their formal education exclusively through the medium of English (although
opportunities for children to pursue native language literacy in their communities
and at home should be encouraged). This usually means that while children are
learning to understand and speak English, they are also learning to read and
write it, as well as having to cope with the English used for a variety of
instructional tasks across the curriculum each school day.
Teachers who are not in bilingual programs, and who do not themselves speak,
read and write the native language(s) of their students, a major concern is how
best to help their children grow as English readers and writers. One way of
responding to this concern is to examine recent developments in the field of
second language literacy research and theory, giving special emphasis to work
done with children, and to interpret these findings in terms of implications for
classroom instruction.
Language Acquisition
All children learn or acquire their first language (the language they speak at
home) and their second language (English). There is a difference between
“learning” language and “acquisition” of language. The term “acquisition” is used
to emphasize the natural processes and ways that a child acquires a language.
The term “learning” can be used generally or to emphasize “formal learning” of a
language such as in a grammar class.
(Enhancing English Language Learning in Elementary Classroom)
Language Acquisition Theory
Acquisition vs. Learning
Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell, 1983
•
•
•
Acquisition
Subconscious
Similar to first language
development
• Focus is on needs and interest of
students
• All attempts at communication are
praised and reinforced; errors are
accepted as developmental
• Involves student-centered
Situational activities
•
•
Learning
Conscious
• Knowing about language
• Focus is on grammar
• Corrections of errors
Involves drills and grammar exercises
Implications for Classroom Teaching: Teachers should devote most class time to
acquisition activities. Learning activities should play a smaller role in the
classroom, and can also be done as homework.
Summary of Language Acquisition
• The child learns language by unconsciously generating rules, perhaps to
fill in an innate blueprint.
• His errors often indicate that learning is taking place.
• He learns language in meaningful, supportive, and communicative
settings.
• He understands more than he can say.
• He will require a lot of time to become fluent.
(Enhancing English Language Learning in Elementary Classroom)
Second Language Acquisition
The processes of learning a first and second language are very similar, however,
the circumstances or the reasons for learning are different.
First and Second Language Acquisition
Adapted from: Enhancing English Language Learning in Elementary
Classrooms
•
§
§
§
§
§
First Language
Second Language
Learned at home
Learned by very young children
Learned in order to
communicate with others
Largely an unconscious
process
Little or no time pressure
Must learn developmental
concepts as well as language
•
§
§
§
§
§
Learned at school, through
television or at the workplace
Learners may be older
Learned to survive or
communicate
Usually a conscious effort
Pressure to learn, to fit in,
funding sources, standardized
test
Learners are more cognitively
developed
Second languages are often learned in different settings and for different
purposes than first languages.
Needs of Second Language Learners
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Accepting Environment
Recognition of culture
ESL instruction
Meaningful Context
Academic Context
Academic Language
Content Instruction
Consideration for Testing and Daily Assignments
Accelerators to Second
Language Learners
•
•
•
•
•
Purpose of using language
is real and natural-focus is
on communication
Acceptance of all language
attempts made-promotes
confidence
Modeling of correct
grammar as students
responses is restated
Students speak only when
they’re ready-not forced too
soon
Language has a purpose for
the learner
Roadblocks to Second Language
Learners
•
•
•
Overemphasis on correctness-“No,
that’s not the right way to say it”
Students are forced to speakmajor cause of poor articulation
and grammatical control, as well
as stress overload
Students are forced to complete
work above their competence
level-above their stage of
development in language
acquisition
Adapted from “The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom” by Stephen Krashen and
Tracy Terrell (Alemany Press, 1983)
Two levels of English Language Proficiency
You may have heard teachers say, “Why does he need ESL? He speaks
English very well. He talks all the time.” When asked how the student is
functioning academically, the response is, “He’s below grade-level, and not
doing well, but the problem must be something other than language.” This
child has acquired the social language (Basic Interpersonal Communication
Skills-BICS), but not yet achieved the academic language (Cognitive
Academic Language Proficiency-CALP), or full proficiency in English. He
needs more time for focused academic language development.
(From: Amazing English by Teresa Walter)
BICS: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
BICS are Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills. These are the language skills needed for
everyday personal and social communication. Second language learners must have BICS in
order to interact on the playground and in the classroom. It usually takes students from 1-3 years
to completely develop this social language. BICS are not necessarily related to academic
success.
Time to master:
§ 1 to 3 years
Characteristics:
§ Basic “survival” English
§ Context embedded-applies to real life situations; can be pointed to or
acted out
§ Carry on intelligible conversations about cognitively undemanding topics
(TV, classroom activities, friends, family)
§ Interact with English-speaking peers
§ Use language needed to function in everyday interpersonal contexts
(pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary)
§ Can mislead teachers
CALP: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
CALP is Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency is the language associated with native
language literacy and cognitive development. These are the language skills needed to undertake
academic tasks in the mainstream classroom. It includes content-specific vocabulary. It may take
students from 5 to 7 years to develop CALP skills. CALP developed in the first language
contribute to the development of CALP in the second language.
Time to master:
§ 3 to 10 years
Characteristics:
§ Language needed to succeed in school
§ May be more abstract and less connected to real life
§ Language needed to accomplish academic tasks
§ Context reduced language, abstract
§ Literacy skills & content area knowledge
§ Opinions and feelings expressed
§ Skills needed to manipulate language outside of the immediate
interpersonal context
§ Content-reduced, cognitively demanding language used in classroom
activities, such as writing, spelling and test taking
Language Development Stages
When working with students who are learning English as a second language, it is
important to realize that many students often progress through a series of natural
language acquisition stages. The duration of each stage may vary greatly from
student to student. As teachers we can facilitate development within each stage
and progression from one stage to the next by being aware of which stage or
stages our students are in and by engaging students in activities appropriate for
their level of development.
•
Preproduction
•
Early Production
•
Speech Emergence
•
Intermediate Fluency
•
Continued Language
Development
Students observe and internalize the new language.
They use gestures, pointing, and nodding
tocommunicate.
Students continue to acquire English and they
use language patterns, yes/no responses and single
words to communicate.
Students begin to use simple sentences. At this
stage they may begin to initiate discussion.
Students are fairly comfortable in social language
situations. They state opinions and ask for
clarification.
Students participate in classroom activities with
additional support for comprehension, academic
language and cultural information.
Stage 1:Pre-production:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Teachers can facilitate language development during this stage by doing
the following:
Do not force production (speech). Students will begin to use English when
they are ready.
Provide materials in the native language.
Use visuals such as pictures, objects, or gestures to aid in
comprehension.
Modify your speech: speak more slowly, emphasize key words, simplify
grammar and vocabulary, do not talk out of context, and do not speak
more loudly.
Involve students in activities that require them to listen and do. Such
activities might include making art projects, drawing pictures, following
simple classroom directions.
Stage 2: Early Production:
As the name of this stage suggests, students begin using a limited number of
words and phrases in English. At this stage, you can encourage language
production in the following ways:
•
Use questioning techniques including: yes/no questions such as, Is this
your coat?; choice questions such as, Is this your coat or Maria's?;
questions which can be answered with a single word such as, What is in
•
•
•
•
•
your hand?; open sentence with a pause for a response such as, Lin is
wearing blue pants, but Lou is wearing ____ pants.
Do not overtly correct student errors as this may inhibit students from
using language. Subtle forms of modeling may be used as indicated by
the following interaction:
o Student: I goed to the store last night.
o Teacher: Oh, you went to the store. What did you buy?
Expand student responses when possible.
Continue to use activities indicated for the Comprehension stage, but
encourage students to use their language to give commands and describe
pictures.
Have students keep dialogue journals.
Use shared reading.
Stage 3: Speech Emergence:
During this stage, speech production will usually improve in both quantity and
quality. Vocabulary will expand, and grammatical errors will decrease if students
are involved in a language-rich environment. At this stage, students need to be
encouraged to use oral and written language. There are many activities which
foster development during this stage. Some suggestions are:
•
•
•
•
•
Involve students in activities that encourage them to compare/contrast,
sequence, and problem solve with charts, graphs, tables, maps, and other
visuals.
Use skits and role play to contextualize situations for students.
Play games.
Use the Language Experience Approach to encourage reading and
writing.
Use semantic mapping to develop vocabulary.
Stage 4: Intermediate Fluency:
At this stage, students are orally quite fluent in English. They will continue to
make some grammatical errors, and their vocabulary is expanding to include
words beyond the concrete, immediate environment. Though their oral skills may
be very well developed, oftentimes, academic skills and reading and writing skills
in English may lag behind. Students need to be included in content-area activities
at all stages, but at this stage in particular, activities that encourage both contentarea development and language development need to be included.
It is also important to realize the different demands placed upon ELL students
depending on whether they are using language for social purposes (often
referred to as “Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills” or BICS) or for
academic purposes (often referred to as “Cognitive Academic Language
Proficiency” or CALP). Language which is social in nature is usually less complex
and is often heavily contextualized, making it easier to learn and less cognitively
demanding. Students often acquire this type of language rather quickly, within
one to two years.
Academic language, on the other hand, makes use of more complex grammatical
and rhetorical patterns – in both its written and oral forms – as well as specialized
and technical vocabulary. Also, this type of language is not inherently contextual.
Because academic language is more cognitively demanding than social
language, it is more difficult for ELL students to acquire. Many students require
anywhere from 5-7 years to learn this type of language. Much current research,
however, has shown that this amount of time can be reduced if students have a
firm foundation in their native language. Thus, native language instruction in the
content areas and in reading and writing should be provided whenever possible.
Below is a chart that provides a framework from which to understand the various
language demands placed upon ELL students, in terms of both the amount of
extra-linguistic context and the degree of cognitive complexity.
Second Language Acquisition
Key Concepts
There is a common underlying
language proficiency (language
acquisition device) for first and second
language acquisition.
Second language acquisition is similar,
although not identical, to first language
acquisition.
Bilingual education programs allow
students to stay on grade level as they
acquire English language competence.
Rather than which language a child
speaks, the more critical variable is the
quality of interaction they experience
with adults.
General Implications
Speaking a language other than
English does not interfere with the
acquisition of English.
Students in bilingual education
programs may need 5-7 years to
become English proficient. Students in
ESL programs may take 8-10 years.
The amount of time needed is
influenced by native language/literacy
skills.
Students should not be exited until
they have acquired academic
language proficiency in English. If they
are exited before this, regular
classroom teachers must continue the
students’ ESL program. Since
premature exit is almost always the
case, we must train regular classroom
teachers in ESL techniques.
Parents should be encouraged to
speak to their children in their native
language.
Implications for Special Education
Speaking a language other than
English is not evidence of a disability.
Many children are exited out of special
language programs when they have
acquired conversational skills.
Academic problems are likely related
to their lack of academic language
proficiency, not to cognitive deficits or
learning disabilities.
IF tested, children who have been
exited prematurely are likely to show
an IQ-Achievement discrepancy. This
is not sufficient to classify the student
as having a learning disability.
If limited English proficient parents
speak English to their children, they
may limit cognitive development.
Moreover, they present a model of
English that may need to be corrected.
If this is the case, children do not have
disabilities. Their language
development is the responsibility of
regular classroom teachers.
Alba A. Ortiz, Department of Special Education, College of Education, the University of Texas at Austin
Second Language Acquisition
Key Concepts
Children must have a high level of
linguistic competence in at least one
language to be academically
successful. The native language is the
foundation for learning English.
Some language minority students who
come from homes and communities
other than English is spoken do not
qualify for bilingual education program
or ESL programs. They speak too
much English to qualify.
Some children will come to school with
language skills which are not
appropriate and functional for their
speech and language community but
which are not adequate for schooling.
LEP children, who have true disorders,
have a right to bilingual education
and/or ESL instruction.
General Implications
Children must be given the opportunity
to develop interpersonal
communication skills and academic
language proficiency in the native
language
These students, even though they are
considered to be English proficient,
may not have the same level of English
competence as do their Anglo peers.
Therefore, regular classroom teachers
must provide language development
programs.
Teachers must accept and respect
language differences. They must also
provide instruction to develop the
language skills needed to be
successful in the school context. The
need for school language development
is typical of students from lower
socioeconomic environments. It may
also be true of students who learn
English from individuals who are not
native speakers of English. The need
for language development may be
present in the native language and/or
in English.
They should not be prematurely exited
from special language programs.
Implications for Special Education
A child whose native language skills
are significantly deviant from those of
age level peers from the same speech
and language community is likely to
have a disability.
If language development programs are
not provided, students may experience
communication or achievement
difficulties. These problems are
related to inappropriate instruction, not
to the presence of a disability.
The education of children with
language differences is the
responsibility of regular educators. If
teachers do not provide language
development, students are likely
candidates for remedial instruction or
special education referral. If they do
not have disabilities, special education
should refuse to serve them.
Special education teachers must be
trained to provide native language
and/or ESL instruction. Placement in
and English language special
education class, without adaptation,
does not provide appropriate
educational opportunities.
Alba A. Ortiz, Department of Special Education, College of Education, the University of Texas at Austin
Misconceptions about Language Acquisition
McLaughlin (1992) cites five unfounded assumptions about language learning that can
give teachers unrealistic expectations of the language-acquisition process in the
classroom:
•
"Myth 1: Children learn second languages quickly and easily." Current
research indicates that children have no biological advantage in learning
languages, although social factors may favor child learners. Unlike adults,
however, children do not have the command of vocabulary or memory
techniques to help them easily acquire proficiency in a second language.
•
"Myth 2: The younger the child, the more skilled he or she will be in
acquiring a second language." Instead, each age group has its own
advantages and brings its own skills to the language-learning process. Research
has found that older children are better language learners in a school setting, but
younger children may have an advantage in learning correct pronunciation.
•
"Myth 3: The more time students spend in a second language context, the
quicker they learn the language." On the contrary, studies of immersion
programs indicate that time on task provides no advantage in second-language
acquisition. Instead, McLaughlin (1992) notes that continued support in the home
language has proven beneficial to children:
"The use of the home language in bilingual classrooms enables children to
maintain grade-level school work, reinforces the bond between the home and the
school, and allows them to participate more effectively in school activities.
Furthermore, if the children acquire literacy skills in the first language, as adults
they may be functionally bilingual, with an advantage in technical or professional
careers."
•
"Myth 4: Children have acquired a second language once they can speak
it." In reality, proficiency in face-to-face communication does not imply the more
complex cognitive proficiency that is required in classroom activities. McLaughlin
notes, "All teachers need to be aware that children who are learning in a second
language may have language problems in reading and writing that are not
apparent if their oral abilities are used to gauge their English proficiency."
•
"Myth 5: All children learn a second language in the same way." Different
learning styles and cultural communication methods have an impact on language
learning, just as they do on other types of learning. McLaughlin says, "Effective
instruction for children from culturally diverse backgrounds requires varied
instructional activities that consider the children's diversity of experience."
For further information, refer to Myths and Misconceptions About Second Language
Learning (McLaughlin, 1992).
Common Myths and Questions
Why is it necessary to identify language minority students? Are we required to
have an English-language assistance program?
Yes. The U.S. Office for Civil Rights, Department of Education, through the Civil
Rights Act of 1964, requires the identification of language minority students by
level of English language proficiency. While some language minority students
are able to participate fully in a curriculum designed for monolingual Englishspeaking students, others need language support services to further develop
their English language proficiency.
What if I only have a small number of students needing services?
They, just as any special-needs students, require services. Have a staff teacher
enroll in an ELL endorsement program (thus making your district eligible for state
funding) and teach one segment a day gathering all eligible students in one
location. Student transportation may be used for English Language Learners
(ELL) (same rule that governs special education).
Do ELL students learn English easily and quickly simply by being exposed to
and surrounded by native English speakers?
Learning a second language takes time and significant intellectual effort on the
part of the learner. Learning a second language is hard work; even the youngest
learners do not simply "pick up" the language.
When ELL learners are able to converse comfortably in English, have they
developed proficiency in the language?
It can take 6-9 years for ELL students to achieve the same levels of proficiency
in academic English as native speakers. Moreover, ELL students participating in
thoughtfully designed programs of bilingual or sheltered-content instruction
remain in school longer and attain significantly higher rates of academic
achievement in comparison to students without such advantages.
In earlier times, didn't immigrant children learn English rapidly and assimilate
easily into American life?
Many immigrant students during the early part of this century did not learn
English quickly or well. Many dropped out of school to work in jobs that did not
require the kinds of academic achievement and communication skills that
substantive employment opportunities require today.
Do I need to speak the student's home language to teach ELL?
No. Although knowing firsthand the experience of learning any second language
is advantageous, it is not required. Teachers are encouraged to know some
important words, ex: stop, danger, or phrases such as, "There is a fire…." in the
language of the children they teach, especially if they have a very low English
Proficiency level. The goal of ELL is to allow our students to fully participate in an
English instructional environment, graduate from high school and seek further
educational and vocational opportunities. The key is comprehensible input. With
more exposure to the contextual use of English, the more acquisition will occur.
If students sound fluent in English, why would we screen them for ELL?
Conversational proficiency is the ability to use language in face-to-face everyday
situations. In these situations the context is salient and the language demands
are reduced. Academic English is in a context-reduced environment and the
language demands are high. Classroom contacts also require stronger literacy
skills and the ability to guess at meaning since both lecture and reading/writing
situations reduce opportunities for feedback to check comprehension. As we all
know with native English speakers, oral language skills are not always a
predictor for literacy skills.
Don't younger children learn a second language faster than older ones?
No. Although younger students appear to have faster gains in fluency, learning a
second language is equally difficult at any age. This does not contradict the
research pointing to a critical period for initial (any) language exposure in very
young children. The apparent gains in younger students reflect less fossilization
in muscle movement affecting pronunciation, new information is normally more
concrete than abstract and the vocabulary and structural requirements are not as
extensive for younger children in any language.
Do all children learn a second language the same way?
Yes. Although patterns of language use may vary amongst cultures, the stages
of how English is acquired do not vary. There is a natural order of English
language acquisition with more salient features such as the progressive "-ing"
suffix learned prior to the subtle "-ed" suffix for simple past. There are of course
as many variables to learning language as there are to learning anything. These
variables are individualistic not cultural. When viewing an ELL student's learning
strategies keep in mind the factor of the child's history. The amount and quality
of formal schooling a child has received both in the United States and in their
home country has a great impact. Literacy skills are transferable no matter what
alphabet is used in the first language. The student's first language or home
culture should not be viewed as being a hindrance to learning any subject
including ELL.
Two Misconceptions about Learning English
I. Students have acquired enough English to succeed in school once they
can speak it. Even though students have acquired the ability to converse, it takes
much more time to be able to use English in a variety of academic ways. Students
may have perfect English pronunciation and appear as if they are native-like in
their competence; however, they may still need a great deal of reading and writing
practice using a variety of language activities.
2. Younger students have more potential to acquire competence in all
aspects of English use. This is not necessarily true. Students who start learning
English in grades K-3 may not have adequately achieved competence in their first
language; as a result, they may have difficulty transferring concepts into English.
On the other hand, adolescent students learning English for the first time are also
at risk because they may not have enough time in school to practice and to acquire
academic language equal to their grade level. The optimum time for students to
succeed in academic use of English is when they start learning English between
the ages of approximately 8-12. At this age students have usually acquired enough
proficiency in their first language to attain conceptual knowledge in English, and
they have enough time in school to catch up with their native speaker peers.
Sources:
1
TESOL "1998 Training Others to Use the ESL Standards", Alexandria (VA); TESOL
Larsen-Freeman, Diane (2000).
2
"Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching New York", Oxford University
Press.
The Immigrants: Myths and Reality
To hear many anti-immigration groups tell it, people who move to the United States
from abroad these days are a pretty sorry lot. Immigrants, these groups say, come here
to suck up free social services, not to better themselves. If they do work, they steal jobs
from Americans and increase unemployment. They bring all kinds of diseases with
them, and once here they despoil the environment for native-born Americans. To many
people, these kinds of statements have the ring of truth. But studies from an array of
groups--from the conservative Cato Institute to the liberal National Immigration Forum to
the nonpartisan National Academy of Sciences--give the lie to these unfounded
allegations. Here is the truth about some of these myths:
Myth: Immigrants use more government services than they pay for with their
taxes.
Reality: Actually, the National Academy of Sciences found that the average immigrant
annually contributes $1,800 more in taxes than he or she receives in benefits. Over
their lifetimes, immigrants and their children will each pay an average $80,000 more in
taxes than they will receive in local, state and federal benefits combined. Because
states provide most services used by immigrants, they can be net financial losers, while
the federal government is typically a net gainer.
Myth: Immigrants increase unemployment and reduce wages.
Reality: In line with a number of other studies, the Cato Institute found that immigrants
do not increase joblessness, even among the lowest-paid workers. The institute studied
the relationship of unemployment and immigration between 1900 and 1989 and found
"no statistically reliable correlation" between the two. Other studies have found that
immigration either has no effect on wage levels or, at worst, a very slight effect on a
very small number of the lowest paid jobs in high-immigrant areas. There is a
consensus among business leaders that immigration is vital to maintaining economic
growth. Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan said recently that immigration is
critical to mitigating "inflation pressures".
Myth: Immigrants bring disease.
Reality: Even though most immigrants come from countries poorer than the United
States, recent immigrants are healthier than the U.S.-born population in virtually every
particular. The Cato Institute also found that general health indicators like birth weight
and infant mortality are better among babies to immigrants than to U.S.-born mothers.
Myth: Immigrants degrade the environment.
Reality: Since 1965, when the current high levels of immigration began, there is no
evidence that the environment has worsened overall. In fact, many environmental
indicators like air and water quality have generally improved. The Cato Institute, citing
the data's complexity, reported that it could not "prove a causal connection" between
environmental problems and the number of immigrants entering the United States.
Source: Southern Poverty Law Center
Myths About Second Language Learning
Several myths regarding second language learning prevail both among many lay
persons and some educational professionals and policy makers. One intent of this
document is to refute these myths.
Myth 1: ESOL students learn English easily and quickly simply by being
exposed to and surrounded by native English speakers. Fact: Learning a
second language takes time and significant intellectual effort on the part of the
learner. Learning a second language is hard work; even the youngest learners do
not simply "pick up" the language.
Myth 2: When ESOL learners are able to converse comfortably in English,
they have developed proficiency in the language. Fact: It can take 6-9 years
for ESOL students to achieve the same levels of proficiency in academic English
as native speakers. Moreover, ESOL students participating in thoughtfully designed
programs of bilingual or sheltered content instruction remain in school longer and
attain significantly higher rates of academic achievement in comparison to students
without such advantages.
Myth 3: In earlier times immigrant children learned English rapidly and
assimilated easily into American life. Fact: Many immigrant students during the
early part of this century did not learn English quickly or well. Many dropped out of
school to work in jobs that did not require the kinds of academic achievement and
communication skills that substantive employment opportunities require today.
Culture
“Our ability to give every child a chance to succeed in
school depends upon a full understanding of culture and
learning styles. After all, effective educational decisions and
practices must emanate from an understanding of the ways
that individuals learn. Consequently, knowing each student,
especially his or her culture, is essential preparation for
facilitating, structuring, and validating successful learning for
all students.” Guild, 1994
Someone once said that when a teacher stands in front of his or her
classroom, the student sees the culture. All of us are products of our culture.
Who we are, how we think, how we respond to situations and other humans, are
all influenced by the culture we share in our tribe, village or nation. It is
impossible to put that influence aside because it is such a part of us.
The ELL student has that same pervasive influence in his life and brings it
with him into the classroom. It is crucial to remember that an exchange of cultural
perspectives will characterize the relationship of the ELL student not only with the
adults in authority in school, but also with peers. It becomes critical then, that all
school personnel understand the need to become more adept at communicating
cross-culturally and at helping both the ELL student and his peers to do the
same.
Some practices that can help at school are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Create a welcoming environment at school for all children and
parents.
Use visuals (posters, art work, etc.) that reflect the diversity of the
school population.
Allow children to talk about their experiences in their home country.
Allow children to share about celebrations, traditions, etc. in their
own culture.
Help all children in the classroom to recognize differences and to
celebrate similarities.
Encourage parents to participate in school “life” by providing
interpreters.
Have a school-wide Culture Fair.
These are just a few ways to incorporate everyone’s culture in the daily life
of the school. However, the most important habit is to reflect the tolerance and
acceptance that will help every child to learn and succeed. See Culture
Comparison Charts
Source:
P. Guild. May,1994. The Culture/Learning Style Connection. Educational
Leadership. Vol 51. #8.
Cultural Comparison
Aspect
Mexico
USA
Asian
Family
Family is the first priority.
Children are celebrated
and sheltered. Important:
Extended family and
obligation to each other
Family is usually second to
work. Children often
minimally parented, are
independent. Wife often
fulfills dual roles. Nuclearfamily concept
Family members have a
clearly defined roles and
individuals act in
accordance with role
expectations.
Male and female roles are
more interchangeable,
greater equality of sexes,
more freedom,
interdependence and selfreliance among women.
Male head of household
and authority unquestioned.
The wife is absorbed into
her husband’s family.
Women are subservient to
their husbands. Do not
achieve status until
becoming a mother-in-law
Children’s upbringing
stresses obedience and
respect for parental
authority.
Children’s upbringing is more
permissive; independence
and self-reliance are
stressed
Elder children have greater
value. Elder children take
on parental role and
considered an authority
figure
Mixed religion
“Master of own life” outlook.
Religion
Long Roman Catholic
tradition. Fatalistic
outlooks “As God wills”
Education
Often sacrificed as child
feels obligated to help
family make ends meet.
Priority for the family.
Parents want children to
have a “better life” than they
did
Confucian influence is
apparent. Represented as
saint and teacher, thus
teachers given great
respect
Nationalism
Very nationalistic. Proud
of long history and
traditions
Very patriotic. Proud of
“America way of life”
Assumes everyone shares
his/her materialistic values
The teaching great leaders
such as Confucious and
Buddah have shaped the
cultural distinctive society of
Asians.
Difficult separating work
and personal
relationships. Sensitive to
difference of opinion.
Fear loss of face,
especially publicly.
Shuns confrontation
Separates work from
emotions/personal
relationships. Sensitivity
seen as weakness. Tough
business front. Has difficulty
with subtlety.
One’s success honors
oneself, parents, family and
ancestors. Self-disciplined
individuals.
Dress and groom are
status symbols
Appearance is secondary to
performance
Gender
Children
Personal
Sensitivity
Personal
Appearance
Male superiority
(machismo) protection
and shelter women. Male
and female roles are
separated at an early age
and rigidly outlined.
Cultural Comparison
Aspect
Mexico
USA
Time
Time is static entity. Life
as it comes, there is little
regard for punctuality or
schedules.
Is time-oriented. Life
ordered along a time
segmented continuum;
emphasis on schedules, time
appointments, etc.
Punctuality is very important.
Organized, orderly plan of
life.
Unsystematic and
unplanned temporary
experiences in everyday
life.
Friendship
Status
Ethics
Asian
Friendship patterns are
casual, friendly and
noncommittal. Unconcerned
about the opinions of others,
usually very self-confident
and optimistic. Does not fear
or think of failure..
Harmonious relationships
with others are important.
Friendships resemble
sibling relationships so that
friends are often called
“brothers” and “sisters”
Title and position more
important than money in
eyes of society
Money is main status,
measure and is reward for
achievement
Self-discipline is the unity of
the society. One can rule
family, kingdom and world.
Truth is tempered by
need for diplomacy.
Truth is a relative
concept.
Direct Yes/No answers given
and expected.
Truth seen as absolute
value.
Philosophy focuses on
human life and morality.
Truth is a balance with
people, matter and nature.
Friendship patterns are
restrictive, involve
complete commitment,
loyalty and devotion.
Seeks the approval and
the opinion of others,
fears rejection, failure and
deception
LEARNING STYLES
Hispanic
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tactile and visual learners
Field sensitive
Holistic approach
Socially Oriented
Non-competitive
Incentives and motivations are
important
Teacher support and practice is
needed
Asian
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Visual learners
Traditional lectures and notes
Rote memorization, not
application
Saving face is important
Social competition is strong
Homework is expected
Teachers are “Authority”
Learning is associated with the
written word
Native American
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Visual learners
Silent observers and patient
Active listeners
Group oriented
Sharing is priority
Homework needs to be justified
Desires anonymity
“Concrete”
CLASSROOM
Hispanic
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Don’t snap “ok” gesture
Eye contact is disrespectful
No touching between sexes
Emotionally expressive
Personal space
Personal honor
Teachers are respected
Copying and cheating is acceptable
because it is not copying and cheating
Asian
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Don’t point
“come here” gesture
“good luck” gesture
Eye contact is rude
Don’t touch the head
Emotional, not logical (covers
face)
Personal space is very close
P.E. can be difficult
Conformity is priority
Teachers are respected
Copying and cheating is acceptable
because it is not copying and cheating
Native American
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Eye contact is disrespectful
No physical contact
No outward emotions
Personal space 2-3 inches
P.E. can be difficult
Group harmony is a priority
Elders are respected
Copying and cheating is acceptable
because it is not copying and cheating
FAMILY
Hispanic
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extended family
Young children are indulged
Gender roles are well defined
Family is high priority
Teacher visit is significant
School experiences may not be
extensive
Father is authority
Economic issues
Trust school
Asian
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Multi-generational
Sons are important
Gender roles are well defined
Success honors whole family
Teacher visit is significant
School experience is usually
complete
Father is authority
Desire to please parents
Trust school
Native American
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Communal
Discipline is less physical
Gender roles redefined
Family and tribe important
Teacher visit is significant
School experiences may be
inconsistent
Father substitute
Allowed independence
Distrust school
Internal (Hidden) Cultural Characteristics
To better understand the cultural filter that may affect children’s behavior; the
following is a sample of some general, key cultural factors:
Passive/Active Movement and Talking
• In some classrooms, talking or moving about the classroom is usually
teacher – directed.
Implication for the classroom:
How are children regarded who are more active and talkative?
Verbal versus Non-Verbal Communication
• Verbosity is interpreted by some cultures as friendly, outgoing or indicating
a high level of language development, and by other cultures as rude.
Implications for the classroom:
If a child smiles or nods, do we assume he/she understands?
Proximity and Touching
• Some cultures value privacy and separate rooms vs. the importance of
extended family and sharing living space.
• In some cultures, demonstrative and informal behavior is common
between children and adults.
Implications for the classroom:
What is the “zone of comfort” for interactions? (distant vs. pushy)
Is there a small, close work space or wide-open work area?
Do the children sit close together or spread out?
Eye Contact
• Some cultures show respect by not looking persons of authority in the eye
Implications for the classroom:
Is certain behavior interpreted as disrespectful?
Could children be missing directions?
Time
• There are different perceptions of the concept of time: being on time or
wasting time
• Time runs vs. time walks
• Relationships vs. punctuality
Implications for the classroom:
Are students late to school? Do they hand in assignments on time?
Are tests based on speed?
Gender
• Cultures have different expectations of how boys and girls should behave
and what is expected of them.
Implications for the classroom:
Is there a difference in the student’s performance if the assessor
is male or female?
Cooperation versus Competition
• Come classrooms typically value competition and “doing better than
others”.
• Winners and losers
• Working alone vs. cheating
Implications for the classroom:
What does “doing your best” mean?
Family versus Individual Orientation
• Some cultures place more value on the family than on individual
achievement.
Implications for the classroom:
Is family pride a concern if the student fails or succeeds?
Is there pressure to perform?
Fate versus Individual Responsibility
• Some cultures believe in individual responsibility, while others feel that
control lies outside of themselves (God, fate, natural forces).
• “We missed the bus” vs. “The bus left us”.
Implications for the classroom:
How do we perceive students who don’t accept responsibility for?
their actions according to our expectations?
Explanation for poor test preparation or performance?
Adapted from Chamberlain and Landurand, 1991 by Beverly Fine, Illinois Resource
Center, 2000
Parent Involvement
Schools can increase the effectiveness of their bilingual and ESL programs by
including a parent involvement program. Offering parents a significant role in
their child’s schooling helps teachers and administrators develop and implement
appropriate strategies. Parent involvement also directly benefits the students and
parents themselves.
A parent involvement program can be effective only if it addresses the needs of
the community that it serves. An effective program requires that schools have an
accurate picture of the population to be served, implement a variety of projects
that meet the needs of the school, parents and students and monitor the program
to make sure that stated goals are met. Program planners can determine these
needs by learning about the parents’ backgrounds, concerns, and interests.
Understanding these factors will help ensure that the program provides relevant
services, responds to widespread interests, and makes use of the valuable
resources parents can bring to the program. (note attached parent survey)
Information that schools need to learn and know about parents include the
following:
Background Information
•
•
•
•
•
Language background of student and their parents
Cultural values and practices of different linguistic groups
Parents’ attitudes toward education
Work schedules of parents
Child care needs
Information on Concerns and Interests
•
•
•
•
Parents’ concerns about their child’s academic performance
Parents’ knowledge or concern about their child maintaining their first
language and/or English
Parents’ ability and willingness to become involved in the school’s
decision-making processes.
Parents’ ability and willingness to assist in non-instructional school
services
Parental Involvement in a Multicultural Setting
• In many cultures, teaching is left to the teachers
• Many parents did not have opportunities for education and do not
understand the US educational system
Factors that Affect Parental Involvement
Taken from: Fostering Home-School Cooperation Involving Language Minority Families
as Partners in Education
•
•
•
•
•
•
Length of residence in the U.S.: newcomers will especially need an
orientation to clarify school expectations.
English language proficiency: parents may find it intimidating to talk to
school staff.
Availability of support groups and bilingual staff: native language parent
groups and bilingual staff can be crucial in building rapport. Translators
can ensure that information is clear.
Prior Experiences: Families may differ in the extent with which they are
familiar and comfortable with schools. Different cultures view the parents’
role in very different terms. “Parents of minority language students often
have deep reverence towards the school. In some cultures, teachers and
administrators are highly respected professionals, and some parents may
not be certain of how to respond when the program encourages their
involvement in school activities.” (Careaga, 1998)
Work schedules of parents: meeting times should be scheduled when
most parents can attend.
Child care needs: many parents need babysitting to attend meetings, and
other school functions.
How do we get parents involved in the school?
Once parents’ background, concerns and interests are identified, program
developers can design a parent involvement component that meets the needs of
the school and parents. Some parents will be eager to participate, others may
not. By making the programs relevant and convenient, parent participation can
be maximized. To increase parent participation in school activities,
communication with parents, opportunities to participate and parental supports
are critical. The following strategies can assist school personnel in the planning
and implementation process of a parental program.
Communication with Parents
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make a positive first impression
Maintain positive communication with parents
Communicate directly with parents
Familiarize parents with school buildings and system
Provide frequent and flexible opportunities for parent conferences
Promote and provide frequent opportunities for school visit
Make parents feel some worth
Think what you are asking of the parent
Always have an interpreter available
•
Learn simple phrases
English
Spanish
Good morning
Good afternoon
Hello
Thank you
Buenos dias
Buenas tardes
Hola
Gracias
Development of Effective Parent-Teacher Conferences
•
Parent Conferences: Bilingual staff contracts parents to put them at
ease and clarify the purpose of the meeting. Scheduling for the
working and non-working parents must be considered. Alternative
times for conferences, such as early morning and evenings should be
explored. Most importantly, it’s vital to let parents know that their
participation is so important.
•
Information which the teacher can provide to the parent at parentteacher conferences:
o The child’s academic and social behavior at school.
o Areas of strength and weakness in various subjects.
o Independent and guided work habits.
o Relationships with teachers and other students.
o Self-discipline and response to teacher authority.
o Response to the rules of reward and punishment in school.
o Ideas to help their child’s academic performance.
o School policy on discipline.
o The need for parental cooperation to help both in and out of the
classroom and the important role that parents can play in the
early learning years.
•
Information which the parent can provide to the teacher at parentteacher conferences:
o Activities they do not want their child to participate in.
o How much time is spent with the child in family activities.
o Their expectations for the child at school.
o The type of discipline the child responds to.
o The child’s interests and hobbies.
o Daily activities, television habits, children’s games and the
child’s general behavior at home.
Helpful strategies for Involving ELL Parents
Mary Diaz, Comprehensive Center-Region VI, Minnesota Field Office
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Send a “Welcome” letter home at the beginning of the school year in
the parents’ first language, giving details of the beginning of school and
offering details about how and when they can be in contact with the
school in their first language;
Post friendly directional signs at the front entrance of the school in
languages the parents can understand;
Send school communications home in a language the parents can
understand: (1) Translate written communications and (2) Send taped
messages home for parents who do not read;
Have a bilingual person make periodic friendly telephone calls to the
home to see if there are any comments and concerns, making it very
clear that this is routine and that their children have done nothing
wrong
Schedule tours of the schools with bilingual staff;
Provide maps of each school with important information translated;
Initiate as a school project a video tour of the school that parents can
see in their homes, using ELL and mainstream students as narrators;
Provide interpreters for parent conferences and all school functions for
ELL parents;
Produce a periodic newsletter for ELL parents, and all school staff,
translating it into the languages of the parents and offering important
school information as well as highlighting students, parents, and
program events;
Invite ELL parents to visit their children’s classrooms or for a school
assembly to give demonstrations or perform;
Have first language printed materials (children’s books, magazines,
newsletters, community information) in a Parent Resource Room and
help parents feel comfortable using them and checking them out to
read themselves and to their children;
Have a bilingual person available for telephone calls to the school at
certain regular hours every week and be sure parents know that they
can call and speak to someone who will understand them easily and
be able to get answers to their questions;
Provide transportation and child care for school functions whenever
possible;
Offer school news in the parents’ first language at a regularly
announced time on a local radio station;
Offer school news in the parents first language regularly in a local
newspaper column;
Start a “buddy” system with mainstream parents to help new ELL
parents initially become familiar and comfortable with the school and
understand procedures and parents roles
•
•
•
•
•
Compile a cookbook with recipes in two languages with recipe
donations from parents and make it available to all staff and the
community;
Remember that many of the above suggestions will enhance your
school’s or district’s involvement with multicultural educational
experiences for all students;
Generate other good ideas yourselves at a staff meeting.
Provide parents with handouts such as “What Parents of ELL’s Should
Know About Learning English” and “Ways to Help Children Learn to
Read for Parents Who Do Not Read English”. ( Note Addendum)
Provide parents with the “Parent Tips Handout” by Dr. Catherine
Collier ( Note addendum)
Common Time-Tested Parental Practices
Parents can be asked to assist in the following :
• Advisement of teachers and administration
• Advocacy
• Art/science activities
• Bulletin Board
• Calling other parents
• Celebrations and awards
• Classroom speaker
• Clerical activities
• Coffees
• Cultural Events
• Expert parent/speaker
• Extracurricular activities
• “Family of the Week”
• Field trips
• Fund-raising
• Homework management and support
• Learning a new language
• Math and Science fun
• Mentoring
• Modeling learning and technology
• Newsletters
• Open House
• Parent Resource Center
• Photography
• Pot lucks
• Reading
• School gardens
• Selected television viewing (with parental guidance)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Special events
Story telling
Supervising learning activities
Training opportunities
Translator/interpreter
Tutoring
Writing projects
Young author’s day
From: Barney Bérubé, (2000), Managing ESL Programs in Rural and Small
Urban Schools, published by TESOL, Inc. Arlington, VA
Parent Involvement: Major Resources, Linkages and Information Available
to Assist State Education Agencies
Overview
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 defines parental involvement as
regular, two-way, and meaningful communication between the parents
and the school to ensure that parents are full partners in their children’s
educational experience.
The vision of the Secretary of Education and the Director of O.E.L.A. is
that parents, community organizations, and governmental agencies will
work together to make sure that no child is left behind.
O.E.L.A. provides a specialist who has the responsibility of identifying and
developing human and written resources to support this vision; forming
linkages with other parent outreach specialists at the local, state, and
Federal levels; and assisting the parents of English language learners to
understand their rights and responsibilities under the Law.
Resources
Within Educational Department
The O.E.L.A. Parent Involvement Specialist maintains a daily, on going,
working relationship with his counterparts in other program offices and
those offices that specifically address parent involvement under NCLB.
This includes the Office of Parent and Community Involvement; The Office
of Elementary and Secondary Education; The Office of Civil Rights; The
Office of Safe and Drug Free Schools; and the Office of Faith Based and
Community Organizations.
Each unit listed above provides an abundance of human and material
resources to facilitate effective parent and community involvement
consistent with the Act.
External to Educational Department
O.E.L.A. has established linkage with such organizations as The National
Coalition For Parent Involvement In Education (NCPIE). This is the
Nation’s largest consortium of parent outreach specialists. Included in the
membership of NCPIE are such well-known organizations as the National
Parents and Teachers Association; The Council of Chief State School
Officers; The National Education Association; and The National Council of
La Raza. However, as an organization they have not, yet, focused their
efforts on the specific needs of the parents of English language learners.
The Plan
The following specific support services, information, and resources are
either immediately available to State and local educational agencies, or
are in the process of development in pursuit of the effective involvement of
the parents of English language learners, nationwide:
1. A brochure, for distribution, training, and presentation purposes that
outlines, in layman’s language, the parents’ and schools’ rights and
responsibilities under Title III, NCLB. (Available in Spanish and
English)
2. A National Parent Leadership Training Workshop to facilitate the
training and development of a national cadre of parent leaders to
assist parents of English language learners to understand their
rights and responsibilities under the Law. (This session will be
planned in conjunction with the OELA Summit of 2003)
3. To facilitate, with the assistance of State Educational agencies,
community organizations, Federal government parent specialists,
and others, the National Coalition of Parents of English Language
Learners. (NCPELL). The purpose of this organization is to expand
the network of parents of ELL’s that are knowledgeable of the
provisions and their rights under Title III, NCLB.
4. To prepare written resources, in a language that parents can
understand, to further assist parents to understand their rights and
responsibilities under the Law and to assist them in being a
resource to their children in the learning process. (Such a
document as “Helping Your Child Learn English” is an example of
the type of resource.)
5. To develop a continuing communication link between the Parent
Specialist of OELA, The Division of Consolidated State Grants, The
National Clearing- house for English Language Acquisition, and the
State Educational Agencies for the sharing of information on
effective parent involvement practices throughout the Country.
The Need
1. A National Parent Involvement Team consisting of three representatives of
State Educational Agencies; Three members of the staff of the Division of
State Consolidated Grants, and OELA’s Parent Involvement Specialist to
facilitate and implement the above.
2. A daily network, through the Internet, of communication with OELA,
NCELA, The National Coalition for Parent Involvement in Education, and
(when established), the National Coalition for the Involvement of Parents
of English Language Learners. The purpose of the network is to
disseminate information on effective parent involvement practices for
potential replication.
James H. Lockhart ( [email protected])
“The way schools care about children is reflected in the way schools
care about the children’s families.” Epstein, 1995
Parent Tips Handout
By Dr. Catherine Collier
Helping Your Children Become Bilingual
• Speak your native language whenever and wherever possible
• Use your dialect with comfort
• Insist your children respond to you in the language in which they are
addressed
• Use your most proficient language
• Speak with your children about what they are learning in school
• Read books and magazines in your most proficient language
• Balance the use of both your native language and English
• Discuss clarification in your native language
Helping Your Children Become Good Readers
• Talk with your children about their experiences
• Encourage your children to think about events
• Read aloud to your children
• Provide your children with writing materials
• Help your children acquire a wide range of knowledge
Helping Your Children Learn A Second Language Which You Do Not Speak
• Ask your child to describe what they are doing in the second language
class (using your native language)
• Ask your child to describe or demonstrate their assignments using your
native language and the second language
• Ask your child to demonstrate one of the activities they have done in the
second language class, explaining in your native language the vocabulary
words they will be using in the second language
• Ask your child to read a passage to you from their second language books
and materials
• Practice saying vocabulary words with your child. Have your child tell you
what they mean in your native language
• Ask your child and classmates to demonstrate some of their second
language interactions for you
• Have your child teach you and other family members greetings, yes/no, or
simple words in the second language; use these during dinner or other
family activities
• Encourage your child to practice the second language communications
everyday
• Always use your most proficient language in the best quality you can with
your children. Tell them to always respond in the language in which they
are addressed, i.e. if you speak to them in the native language, they
should respond in the native language and if you speak to them in the
second language, they should respond in the second language
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Encourage your child by telling him/her how proud you are that he/she is
learning a second language
Do not feel discouraged if, at the beginning, your child seems nervous
about this new experience. Some students may experience some stress
initially. Parents need to be supportive and understanding of both their
child and the teacher during the initial stages of second language learning.
Do not expect your child to start speaking the second language after the
first few days and do not try to force him or her to do so. Your child will
start to use the second language at his or her own individual pace.
Get to know your child’s teacher either by a phone call or a personal visit.
Take the time to get involved in some of the class activities. The teacher
will certainly appreciate your assistance and your interest in the class.
Be actively involved in your child’s school
Keep informed on second language education
Encourage but do not force your child to speak the second language at
home
Never attempt to correct your child if you are uncertain of the correct
expression or pronunciation. If you are familiar with the second language,
model it through interaction with your child rather than by correcting him or
her
Do not give in to temptation to compare your child’s progress to that of the
neighbor children. No two teachers and no two students work at the same
rate
Teach your child the songs and nursery rhymes that are part of his or her
own heritage. Read to your child in your native language as you normally
would.
Take advantage of any opportunities to expose your child to the second
language and its culture(s) outside of the school setting
Let your child know that you are pleased with his/her progress.
Speech & Language Development
Here are some things parents can do to help children improve their speech,
language and hearing.
1. Talk to your child about everything. Children need a lot of verbal
stimulation from infancy on. Play games with sounds and words. Your
children pick up most of their vocabulary from YOU.
2. Listen to your child and expand on his/her language. Use well-formed
sentences that are a little longer than his/hers. Use new words.
3. Read to your child frequently. Talk about pictures and situations in books.
Your child learns new words, concepts and patterns of speech from being
read to. Read cereal boxes, signs-everything! Use the library and make
reading a part of your daily life.
4. Provide new experiences. Take field trips, make things, do science
experiments. Involve your child in daily activities. Talk about everything
you do.
5. Play games with your child. S/he can learn coordination, how to follow
rules, how to communicate with others and new concepts. Play hospital,
zoo, store, restaurant or airport. Use puppets. These activities develop
creativity and help your child learn about life situations.
6. Classify. Help your child sort things or make set so s/he will learn
concepts of color, size, matching, comparison, etc.
7. Limit TV use to learning programs and spend more time in family
interaction.
8. Make language and speech fun for your child. Reinforce his/her attempts
and praise him/her. Do not allow other family members to tease, make
fun of, imitate or label him/her.
Math
Here are some things parents can do to encourage children to think of
themselves as mathematicians who can reason and solve problems.
1. Show your children that YOU like numbers. Play number games and
think of math problems as puzzles to be solved.
2. From the time your child is very young, count everything. When you
empty a grocery bag, count the number of apples. Count numbers of
stairs, etc.
3. Put things into groups. When you do laundry, separate items of
clothing: all of the socks in one pile, shirts in another and pants in
another. Divide the socks by color and count the number of each.
Draw pictures and graphs of clothes in the laundry.
4. Tell you children that anyone can learn math. Point out numbers in
your child’s life: in terms of weight (pounds and ounces),
measurements in terms of size, shapes, ages, temperature and time.
5. Help your children do math in their heads with lots of small numbers.
Ask questions:”If I have four cups and I need seven, how many more
do I need?” or “If I need twelve donuts for the class, how many
packages of three donuts will I need?”
Ways to Help Children Learn to Read for Parents
Who Do Not Read English
Mary Diaz, Comprehensive Center, Minnesota
1. Talk to your children, tell them stories, describe things in detail and in
order.
2. Ask your children questions and listen to their answers. Ask why. Then
discuss your and their points of view.
3. Show that you are interested in books and printed things. Tell stories from
picture books. Talk about pictures in books and magazines and other
printed things. Show the front and back, beginning and end of books, and
top and bottom of pages. Have a special place in your house for books
and other printed things.
4. Give your opinions to your children and ask them to express their
opinions.
5. Ask your children to read to you, in any language.
6. Take your children to the public library and spend time there with them.
Ask the librarian to help them find what they want or to read them a story.
7. Tell your children that it is important to read. They need to know that you
think it’s important.
8. If possible, try to learn to read (in any language). Your children will be
helped by your example. Ask your child’s school if they have reading
classes for parents. Ask a friend or relatives to help you a few minutes
every day.
9. Have written materials in your home. Examples could be: library books,
newspapers, magazines, comic books, children’s story books, letters and
notes, and catalogues.
10. If you have only a few things to read in your home, trade and share
reading materials with friends, family, and neighbors. You can ask your
school librarian and your child’s teacher for some suggested materials that
help literacy development.
11. Turn off the television some times, and ask your children to read or write
for awhile.
12. Let your children stay up five or ten minutes later if they use that time to
read before bed.
What Parents Of ELL Students
Should Know About Learning English
Mary Diaz, Comprehensive Center-Region VI, Minnesota Field Office
1. Your children don’t need to stop using and learning your home
language in order to learn English.
2. Children who know their first language well will learn English
better and more easily.
3. You can teach your children many important things at home in
your home language that will help them to do better in school.
4. If you are proud of your home language and culture it will help
your children. They and you, too can be successful in more
than one language and cultural setting. Being able to
communicate in each language is a talent.
5. Talk to your children, tell them stories, teach them to express
their thoughts and feelings in your home language and it will
help them to do this better in English. Encourage other
members of your family to do this, too.
6. If you know how to read, read to your children in your home
language. It is good for your children to see you read for
pleasure, for work, and for useful information in any language
that you can. It will help them learn to read in English better.
7. Some extra school activities that may not seem like serious
study can actually be very good activities for your children to
practice their English. Sometimes sports, music and school
clubs are good for practicing English. It is good for your
children to practice English with children their age both in
school and in playing outside of school.
8. Children that are able to listen, speak, read and write in their
home language will learn these things more easily in English.
Keep In Mind That….
• Both the teacher and the parents are interested in the
best interests of the child;
• Many of the ELL parents may have had limited or no
school experience themselves;
• Parents are not language specialist;
• Some of the parents of ELL students may not read in
any language;
• Parents may not sign and return forms that they cannot
read (or even worse, they may);
• You and the parents may have different ideas of what
your role as a teacher and their roles as parents should
be;
• Some of the parents of ELL students may feel that their
lack of English skills and formal schooling makes their
presence in school more of an embarrassment than an
attribute to their child’s education;
• Many of the ELL parents of school aged children have
much stress and trauma in their lives;
• If parents of ELL students are not participating in
school, there is a reason.
Mary Diaz, Comprehensive Center-Region VI, Minnesota Field Office
Ideas for Involving ELL Parents
• Send a “Welcome” letter home at the beginning of the school
year in the parents’ first language, giving details of the
beginning of school and offering details about how and when
they can be in contact with the school in their first language;
• Post friendly directional signs at the front entrance of the school
in languages the parents can understand;
• Send school communications home in a language the parents
can understand: (1) Translate written communications and (2)
Send taped messages home for parents who do not read;
• Have a bilingual person make periodic friendly telephone calls
to the home to see if there are any comments and concerns,
making it very clear that this is routine and that their children
have done nothing worn;
• Schedule tours of the schools with bilingual staff;
• Provide maps of each school with important information
translated;
• Initiate as a school project a video tour of the school that
parents can see in their homes, using ELL and mainstream
students as narrators;
• Provide interpreters for parent conferences and all school
functions for ELL parents;
• Produce a periodic newsletter for ELL parents, and all school
staff, translating it into the languages of the parents and offering
important school information as well as highlighting students,
parents, and program events;
• Invite ELL parents to visit their children’s classrooms or for a
school assembly to give demonstrations or perform;
• Have first language printed materials (children’s books,
magazines, newsletters, community information) in a Parent
Resource Room and help parents feel comfortable using them
and checking them out to read themselves and to their children;
• Have a bilingual person available for telephone calls to the
school at certain regular hours every week and be sure parents
know that they can call and speak to someone who will
understand them easily and be able to get answers to their
questions;
• Provide transportation and child care for school functions
whenever possible;
• Offer school news in the parents’ first language at a regularly
announced time on a local radio station;
• Offer school news in the parents first language regularly in a
local newspaper column;
• Start a “buddy” system with mainstream parents to help new
ELL parents initially become familiar and comfortable with the
school and understand procedures and parents roles;
• Compile a cookbook with recipes in two languages with recipe
donations from parents and make it available to all staff and the
community;
• Remember that many of the above suggestions will enhance
your school’s or district’s involvement with multicultural
educational experiences for all students;
• Generate other good ideas yourselves at a staff meeting.
Mary Diaz, Comprehensive Center-Region VI, Minnesota Field Office
Interpreters and Translators
The appropriate use of individuals as interpreters for educational purposes is a
major concern in providing quality services to children and families from nonEnglish speaking backgrounds. The significance of having trained interpreters in
school setting should not be underestimated.
Interpreting and Translating
Neither interpreting nor translating is word for word equivalent. If done word for
word, translation can often lead to an incorrect message. Interpreting and
translating requires accurate conversion of a message from the point of view of
its content, style and cultural concepts. An interpreter must receive training in
interpreting techniques as well as background material specific to the field.
What is the difference between an interpreter and a translator?
An interpreter orally converts one language into another between two or more
individuals who do not speak each other’s language. A translator converts one
language to another in writing. Although the intent is the same, the skills and
knowledge required of a translator is more extensive. Written translation requires
knowledge of grammatical context, idiomatic expressions, syntax and colloquial
terms as well as cultural concepts in both cultures and languages. Just because
a person is “presumably” bilingual, one should not assume that the individual is
qualified to be an interpreter or a translator.
Why must trained interpreters always be used?
Interpreting requires learned techniques and practice. Often bilingual staff
members are called upon to provide interpreting services. The accuracy of the
information converted from one language to another relies on the interpreter’s
proficiency level in both languages. It is also important to note that English
speakers can be at a disadvantage when using someone who is “presumably”
bilingual. Unless the interpreter has been tested for proficiency in both
languages, an English speaker may not be able to determine if the interpreter
can accurately maintain the conversation. Untrained interpreters tend to edit
information. Key words, concepts may be omitted, added, or changed in
meaning. In addition certain words or concepts may not exist in one language or
culture that exists in another. Lack of knowledge may impact a diagnosis,
decision, or treatment plan. Untrained interpreters, especially family members
may give unwarranted advice, opinions or may elect to withhold information. The
biggest danger in using family members is that ethics are violated. The issue of
confidentially is crucial.
Why is it inappropriate to use children as interpreters?
In the school setting you will often see parents as well as school personnel use
children to interpret for them. Often it is assumed that after a year or two of
school that children can use and understand English well enough to interpret.
Children regardless of their English language proficiency are limited by their age
and their experience. It puts a heavy burden on children to interpret a
conversation that should be between adults. Using children to interpret for their
parents inadvertently encourages this practice, resulting in children being kept
out of school.
Iowa House File 2241- Interpreters Bill
The Iowa Legislators passed House File 2441-Interpreters Bill in April 2004. This
bill allows the Iowa Commission of Latino Affairs to develop a state wide system
of qualifications, protocols, listings and evaluation of interpreters. As this
information becomes available, an update will be provided.
Educational Equity Coordinator Roles and Functions
State and federal regulations specify no specific duties or functions of the
coordinator beyond the general requirement that she/he “coordinate” an agency’s
compliance activities. The potential scope of such coordination responsibilities
extend through every aspect of an agency’s policies, programs, and practices.
However, there are five basic functions an effective coordinator is called on to do.
They are the following:
1. Dissemination of information: to disseminate information about federal
and state civil rights legislation to board members, administrators and all
employees, students, parents and applicants for employment regarding
their rights and responsibilities under the law.
2. Staff Development: To plan, facilitate or provide training for employees
that will help them carry out the expectations of the laws.
3. Facilitate the Grievance Process: to mediate conflicts and to facilitate
the use of the internal grievance procedure to be used when parents, staff
or students allege they have been the victims of discrimination and
harassment.
4. Documentation: to record or document the agency’s efforts to comply
with civil rights laws and compliance activities.
5. Monitoring: to monitor and evaluate the implementation of equity
programs, the incorporation of equity and multicultural, gender fair
educations concepts into the Comprehensive School Improvement Plan.
Educational Equity
The condition that exists when educational programs challenge the learners,
regardless of their race, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, disability, or
socio-economic status, to perform at the boundary of their individual abilities and
to test and extend their limits in school, at home and at work. This condition
reflects fairness, justice and high expectations for all learners and provides
alternatives to help students reach them.
Diversity
• Race
• Gender
• National Origin (Language)
• Level of ability or disability
• Age
• Religion
• Socio-economic status
• Sexual orientation
• Marital status
Equity Review: Selection Criteria
• Time Since Last Review
• Review of Data
• Demographic Changes
• Concerns Raised by Staff, Students, Parents or Clients
• Referrals from Other State Agency Reviews
• Racial Isolation/Integration Plan
• Requests
Federal and State Civil Rights Laws
Federal:
• Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of
1964 (race & national origin)
• Title IX of the Educational
Amendments of 1972 (gender)
• Section 504 of the Rehabilitation
Act of 1973 and the Americans
with Disability Act of 1992
(disability)
• No Child Left Behind Act (2002)
State:
• Sections 280 and 216.9 of the
Iowa Code (gender, race, national
origin and disability)
• Section 256.11 of the Iowa Code
Multicultural, Gender Fair
Education
• Chapter 19B.11 of the Iowa Code
(Equal Employment Opportunity &
Affirmative Action)
• Chapter 280 of the Iowa Code
(services to English Language
Learners)
English Language Learners Principles to Remember
1. It is not necessary to give up or forget a first language in order to learn a
second language.
2. Lack of skill and proficiency in English does not in itself make a student
eligible for Special Education services
3. It may take a long time to learn English well enough to participate fully in
an all-English language mainstream classroom (3-10 years)
Court Decisions:
1. Lau vs. Nichols 1974:
• Same treatment does not constitute equal treatment
2. Plyler vs. Doe 1982:
• Refusing to enroll children of undocumented immigrants was
unconstitutional
3. Diana vs. State Board of Education 1970
• Require special education testing to be done in the student’s
primary language or in a language neutral way. Require
districts to justify overrepresentation.
Legislation:
• Title VI Civil Rights of 1964
• May, 1970 HEW Memorandum
• Bilingual Education Act, 1968 (amended in 1974 & 1978)
• Equal Educational Opportunity Act of 1974
Iowa Code Chapter 280.4: Uniform School Requirement
Legislation Requires:
1. Non-discrimination on the basis of national origin
2. Affirmative steps to rectify language deficiency related to inability
to write or speak English
3. Informed notice to parents of school actions and activities which
are called to the attention of other parents
4. Avoid including in or excluding from special education, gifted or
tracking programs strictly on the basis of English language skills
5. Funding support for language assistance programs
Sexual Harassment
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, sexually motivated
physical contact, or other verbal or physical conduct or communication of a
sexual nature when one or more of the following are met:
• Submission to the conduct or communication is a term or condition,
either explicitly or implicitly, of obtaining education
• Submission or rejection of the conduct or communication is used as a
factor in decisions affecting a person’s education
• The conduct or communication creates an intimidating, hostile or
offensive learning environment, which interferes with a person’s
education
Comprehensive Harassment
Harassment on the basis of race, color, creed, religion, gender, age, disability,
marital status or sexual orientation means conduct of verbal or physical nature
that is designed to embarrass, distress, agitate, disturb or trouble persons when:
• Submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or
condition of a person’s employment or advancement of a student’s
participation in school programs or activities
• Submission or rejection of such conduct by an employee or student is
used as a basis for decisions affecting the employee or student
Such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an
employee or a student’s working or learning environment
Harassment: Board Policy
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Sets forth the school’s commitment to protect students from harassment
and violence
• Identifies types of harassment prohibited
• Requires staff to report harassment
• Explains how to report and who to report to
• Describes steps the school will take when harassment is reported
• Includes formal complaint procedures
• Prohibits retaliation
Ensures that parents, students, and staff are aware of their responsibilities
Harassment and/or Discrimination Formal Complaint Procedures
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Notice to parents, students and employees of the process and how and
where complaints can be filed
Prompt, thorough and impartial investigation, including the opportunity to
present witnesses and other evidence
Notification of the outcome of the complaint consistent with any legally
required privacy restrictions
Effective remedies when discrimination is found
Student to Student Harassment Davis vs. Monroe
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First supreme court case to establish a private cause for action based
upon student to student harassment
Harassment must be severe and pervasive to the point that it undermines
or detracts from the educational experience
School administration knows about the harassment, but takes no action to
stop it
Harassment: Investigation of Complaints
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Interview with complainant
Interview with alleged harasser(s)
Interviews with witnesses
Analysis of results
Determination of action
Notification and follow through
Multicultural, Gender Fair Education and School Improvement
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Diversity reflected on school improvement advisory committee
Disaggregation of data by race, national origin, gender, disability and
socioeconomic status
Multicultural, gender fair education goals
Diversity and MCGF related staff development
Multicultural, gender fair standards and benchmarks
16 Principles: Inclusive Schools
1. Inclusive learning environment
2. Community engagement
3. Educational choices and alternatives
4. Inclusion and socioeconomic status
5. Inclusive curriculum (MCGF)
6. Staff development
7. Parental and Family involvement
8. Staff diversity/role models
9. Equitable resources
10. Inclusive leadership
11. State leadership and local flexibility
12. Accountability for student achievement
13. Emphasis on voluntary over involuntary
14. School board decision-making and inclusion
15. English Language Learners and students with disabilities
16. Inter-district collaboration and open enrollment
Teacher Resources
Books
Explanations
Adding English Helping ESL Learners
Succeed Written by Katherine Maitland
& Published by Good Apple.
This is a very basic, but helpful 111
page book and includes information on
how to integrate language learning in
the content areas.
The More than just surviving Handbook
ESL For Every Classroom Teacher
Written by Barbara Law and Mary
Eckes Published by Peguis
This book offers a lot of information on
SLL. It is a good book for teachers
with several ESL students in one
classroom, for districts, or schools to
share.
Making Content Comprehensible for
English Language Learners: The SIOP
Model. Written: Echevarria, J. Vogt,
M., & Short, D.J. (2000) Boston, MA:
Allyn and Bacon
This book outlines a list of 30 indicators
of effective instruction for English
language learners in the content
classroom, which makes up the
Sheltered Instruction Observation
Protocol (SIOP). The researched list
is divided into manageable chapters
that include teaching vignettes that
illustrate and explain examples and
non-examples for each indicator. This
book forms a meaningful basis for a
professional development program that
includes study, collaboration and
implementation, monitoring and
feedback.
So Much to Say: Adolescents,
Bilingualism, & ESL in the Secondary
School. Written by: Faltis, C.J. &
Wolfe, P., eds (1999). New York:
Teachers College Press
A great collection of information on
many aspects of educating secondary
LEP students. Several chapters are
dedicated to each of the following
topics: the students, the curriculum,
and program considerations.
Culture Bound: Bridging the Culture
Gap in Language Education. Written
by: Valdes, J.M. ed (1986). New York:
Cambridge University Press
A solid collection of work on issues of
language and culture, and culture in
the classroom. The authors of the
chapters within take a subject that is
often dealt with gingerly or quaintly and
enlighten the reader with researchbased, useful information and
examples.
The Teacher’s Handbook;
Contextualized Language Instruction.
Written by: Shrum, J.L., & Glisan, E.W.
(1994). Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle
This is great resource for language
teachers to learn about or update their
instructional methods. Designed for
teachers of any language, this
handbook starts with a review of
current research on language
instruction and provides examples for
moving from theory to practice.
The CALLA Handbook: Implementing
the Cognitive Academic Language
Learning Approach. Written by: Uhl
Chamot, A. & O’Malley, J.M. (1994).
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
CALLA has earned its good reputation
for supporting comprehensive, schoolwide programs for language learners.
The CALLA approach requires
commitment and participation from
school administration as well as
teachers, however, so do not use this
as a textbook for individual teacher
professionals’ development. There
are, however, useful diagrams and
examples from different content areas
that effectively supplement any of the
above resources on sheltered
instruction.
The Learning Strategies Handbook.
Written by Uhl Chamot, A., Barnhardt,
S., El-Dinary, P.B. & Robbins, J.
(1999), White Plains, NY: AddisonWesley Longman
This follow-up to CALLA takes the
chapter on learning strategies and
expands it into a full-length, teacherfriendly book. It includes 5 phases for
teaching students to use the thinking
strategies that research has shown
most successful student employ. Also
included are sample lessons that
integrate learning strategies into
classroom instruction. This book has
only one shortfall: it is geared too
exclusively to language teachers. This
approach is highly recommended for
content teachers, who will have to think
a little harder to apply it to their area
due to lack of content examples. Used
in a professional development program
that provides collaborative discussion,
practice, implementation and follow-up,
this book is a great resource for helping
teachers help students learn to learn
better.
The Classroom Teacher's ESL Survival
Kit, by Elizabeth Claire & Judie Haynes
(Prentice Hall, 1994).
The Inner World of the Immigrant Child,
by Cristina Igoa (St. Martin's Press,
1995).
Living Things: Concept Science:
This series of eleven books is an
excellent introduction to basic concepts
about animal classification. Using very
simple language, each book clearly
develops the basic attributes of nine
classifications of animals. There is a
quiz at the end of each book along with
a few pages of activities.
Books for children that address the newcomer experience:
I Hate English!, by Ellen Levine (Scholastic Inc., 1995).
How My Family Lives in America, by Susan Kuklin (Simon & Schuster, 1992).
Journey to America, by Sonia Levitin (Aladdin, 1987).
Helpful Websites
These sites include a wealth of resources, from legal information to professional
research articles to collections of sample language and sheltered instruction
programs and grant opportunities.
Center for Applied Linguistics
1118 22nd Street NW
Washington, DC 20037
(202)-429-9292
http://www.cal.org
The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a private, nonprofit organization that
has been involved in applying research and information about language and
culture to educational, cultural, and social concerns since 1959.
Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence
University of California, Santa Cruz
1156 High Street
Santa Cruz, CA 95064
(831)-459-3500 ~(831)-459-3502 (fax)
www.crede.ucsc.edu
The OERI’s Center for Research of Education, Diversity & Excellence (CREDE)
is one of five national educational research and development centers that assists
the nation’s diverse students at risk of educational failure to achieve academic
excellence.
National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction
Education Programs
At George Washington University
2121 K. Street, NW, Suite 260
Washington, DC 20037
http://www.ncela.gwu.edu
http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/classroom/toolkit/index.htm
classroom ideas and strategies
Southwest Educational Development Laboratory
211 East Seventh Street
Austin, TX 78701-3281
http://www.sedl.org
TESOL: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc.
700 South Washington Street Suite 200
Alexandria, Virginia, 22314 USA
Tel: 703-836-0774, FAX: 703-836-7864
http://www.tesol.org
U.S. Department of Education
400Maryland Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20202-0498
1-800-USA-LEARN
www.ed.gov
The English Language Learner Knowledge Base
Developed by:
The University of Oklahoma Region VII Comprehensive Center and Northrop
Grumman Information Technology Applied Science & Technology
www.helpforschools.com
This is a centralized electronic warehouse containing: forms, communications,
sample policies, legal guidance, and “hand-picked” websites.
About.com’s Guide to English as a Second Language
http://esl.about.com
This site includes quizzes, vocabulary study pages, interactive polls, chat rooms,
pen pal information, and a weekly e-mail newsletter.
U.S. Citizenship Study pages
http://www.uscitizenship.org
This site offers a web-based course to help immigrants prepare themselves to
take the U.S. citizenship test.
CNN Newsroom for ESL
http://lc.byuh.edu/CNN_N/CNN-N.html
Real reports aired on CNN are formatted as cloze exercises on this Web page.
Students may fill in answers and obtain immediate results. Most of these
exercises are suitable for students who are working at an intermediate to
advanced level.
Colorful Clothesline
http://easternlincs.worlded.org/docs/clothing/index.html
This is a lesson created to introduce level 1 ESL students to clothing, colors, and
color patterns. Students can test their knowledge of colors of clothing. Select a
category below to practice vocabulary. Then take a quiz to test what was
learned.
www.escort.org
printable kits for elementary and secondary teachers
http://teacher.scholastic.com/prducts/bilingual.htm
bilingual resources
www.leapfrogschoolhouse.com
English Language Development products for “leapfrog” and bilingual
Dave’s ESL Cafe
www.eslcafe.com
Dave’s ESL Café offers a chat room for students and teachers, a graffiti wall for
students, and a message exchange board. The Café also includes pages on
phrasal verbs, current slang, idioms, and quizzes on a variety of topics. For
teachers there are ideas pages, job boards, a bookstore, and link to other ESL
websites.
E.L. Easton Materials for Teaching English
http://eleaston.com/english.html
This site offers links to numerous resources on the web that ESL teachers can
use to support their instruction such as song lyrics, maps, calendars and clocks,
newspapers, and country profiles.
Everything ESL
www.everythingesl1.net
This site features lesson plans, teaching tips, downloadable classroom activities,
discussion topics, and resource picks.
First Find Info
http:///www.firstfind.info
This is a collection of websites reviewed by librarians that provide basic
information about a wide range of topics. All the websites are accurate, up-todate and easy to use, including topics on Government, Health, History and
immigration for ESL learners.
Internet for ESL Teachers
http://edvista.com/claire/internet-esl.html
This site has links related to the Internet with ESL teachers in mind.
Learn English-Have Fun
http://www.englishday.com
This site has word games like crosswords, hangman, ESL word-soup, and
English test.
NCLE
www.cal.org/ncle
The National Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education features ERIC digests
on-line. These materials cover a wide range of topics on ESL literacy education.
Oxford Picture Dictionary Online
http://www.picturedictionary.org/opd
Created as a companion to the print version of the Oxford Picture Dictionary, this
site offers a changing online lesson that correlates to material in the textbook.
Puzzlemaker
http://puzzlemaker.school.discovery.com
DiscoverySchool.com offers this puzzle generation tool that helps teachers
create or customize word searches, crossword puzzles, math puzzles, and
mazes for their classes.
Translation sites:
www.eduportal.com (language translation library-forms in many languages)
www.freetranslations.com
http://babelfish.altavista.com
www.KSVN.com/anhviet.htm
http://sangenjaya.arc.net.my/sent/index-e.html
Office of Civil Rights
http://ed.gov/offices/OCR/ELL
The United States Department of Education’s Office of Educational Research
and Improvement supports university-based national educational research and
development centers to address nationally significant problems and issues in
education, and to help strength learning for all students in U.S.
The ESL Loop
www.linguistic-funland.com/esloop
The ESL Loop is a list of sites relevant to English language teaching and learning
on the World Wide Web
www.eslgames.com
Software
Usborne's Animated First Thousand Words
With this CD-ROM from Scholastic, students can click on a picture, hear the
words, and see how they are written in 35 scenes from everyday life. Originally
designed to help young native speakers of English learn to read, this program is
a great beginning vocabulary builder. In order to find this CD on the publisher's
website, do a search from the homepage using the exact title. I purchase this
item from Educational Resources at http://www.edresources.com/
Suggested ELL Resources for Schools Districts
A Picture Dictionary (Addison Wesley, Longman, and Oxford all publish picture
dictionaries and accompanying materials).
Amazing English: How to Handbook by Walter (Addison Wesley)
Authentic Assessment for English Language Learners by O’Malley and Pierce
(Addison Wesley publication)
Classroom Teacher’s Survival Kit #1 by Claire and Haynes (Alemany Press)
Cooperative Learning by Spencer Kagan (Kagan Publications)
Curious and Creative by Green (Addison Wesley)
ESL Standards for Pre-K-12 Students (TESOL publications)
Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners by Herrill (MerrillPrentice Hall)
Kids Come in All Languages, eds. Spangenberg-Urbschat and Pritchard (TESOL
publications)
Managing ESL programs in Rural and Small Urban Schools by Barney Berbube
(TESOL publications)
Myths and Realities by Samway and McKeon (Heinemann)
Teaching to Diversity by Mary Meyers (Addison Wesley)
The CALLA Handbook by Chamot and O’Malley (Addison Wesley)
The Complete ESL/EFL Cooperative and Communicative Activity Book by Sloan
(National Textbook Company)
The ESL Teacher’s Book of Lists by Kress (Prentice-Hall)
The First Step on the Longer Path: Becoming an ESL Teacher by Ashworth
(Pippin Publishing-Canada)
The Learning Strategies Handbook by Chamot et al. (Longman)
The More than Just Surviving Handbook: ESL for every classroom teacher by
Law and Eckes (Peguis Publishers-Canada)
TESOL Publications can be ordered by mail, telephone, FAX, or the web from
TESOL Publications
PO Box 753
Waldorf, Maryland 20604-0753
Telephone toll free: 1-888-891-0041
Fax: 301-843-0159
Two publishers/distributors that carry many ELL resources from a variety of
different publishers, including most of the titles listed above:
ALTA Book Center (1-800-ALTA-ESL or www.altaesl.com)
DELTA Systems Co. Inc (1-800-323-8270 or www.delta-systems.com)