Teaching for Deep Understanding

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Teaching for Deep Understanding
Teaching for
Deep
Understanding
An ETFO Curriculum
Learning Resource Compilation
Learning Resources written based on the Book:
Teaching for Deep Understanding
Towards the Ontario Curriculum That We Need
Sponsored by the
Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario
Ontario Institute for Studies In Education University of Toronto (OISE/UT)
and Funded in part by the Government of Ontario
Funded in part by the
Government of Ontario
It is the goal of the Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario to work with
others to create schools, communities, and a society free from all forms of
individual and systemic discrimination. To further this goal, ETFO defines equity
as fairness achieved through proactive measures which result in equality, promote
diversity, and foster respect and dignity for all.
This incredible curriculum resource on Teaching for Deep Understanding is the result of a ministry
funded project and the Ontario Institute for Studies In Education University of Toronto (OISE/UT),
under the guidance of Dr. Anne Rodrigue, Executive Staff, Professional Services,
and with the contribution of ETFO teacher members.
ETFO Teacher Members:
(Listed in alphabetic order by surname)
Diva Anderson
Kimberly Arfo
John Bertram
Kathleen Campbell
Anne Georgas
Stacey Anne Grochowina
Ross Haley
Valerie Harth
Sumona Roy
Edward Schroeter
ETFO Staff:
Dr. Anne Rodrigue, Executive Staff, Professional Services
Mona L. Renzone, Administrative Assistant to Dr. Anne Rodrigue (Book Design and Layout)
Editing:
Gene C. Hayden, GCH Communications
Mary Labatt, Labatt Editing
Published by:
Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario (ETFO/FEEO)
Fédération des enseignantes et des enseignants de l’élémentaire de l’Ontario
480 University Avenue | Suite 1000 | Toronto | Ontario | M5G 1V2
Tel: 416.962.3836 x2249 | Toll Free: 1.888.838.3836 | Fax: 416.642.2424
www.etfo.ca
Copyright©2013 by the Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without the prior permission of the copyright owner.
Teaching for
Deep
Understanding
An ETFO Curriculum
Learning Resource Compilation
Learning Resources written based on the Book:
Teaching for Deep Understanding
Towards the Ontario Curriculum That We Need
Table of Contents
1
Literacy: Helping Students Make Deep Connections..................................... 16
By Diva Anderson
Part One: Teacher as Learner.................................................................................................................... 16
Learning Object Abstract...................................................................................................................... 16
Purpose of Learning Object.................................................................................................................. 17
Learner 1............................................................................................................................................... 17
Description of Learning Tasks...................................................................................................17
Curriculum Connections....................................................................................................................... 18
Required Resources.............................................................................................................................. 18
For the Workshop Leader.........................................................................................................18
For the Workshop Participants.................................................................................................18
Assessment........................................................................................................................................... 18
Scope and Sequence............................................................................................................................. 18
Accommodations or Modifications....................................................................................................... 19
Differentiation....................................................................................................................................... 19
Research Base....................................................................................................................................... 19
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice.............................................................................. 19
Other Applications (Extensions)............................................................................................................ 19
Integration of Subjects.............................................................................................................19
Testing................................................................................................................................................... 20
Impact Analysis..................................................................................................................................... 20
Impact on the Student..............................................................................................................20
Impact on the Teacher..............................................................................................................20
Impact on the School...............................................................................................................20
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning........................................................................................... 20
Table of Contents - Page 4 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Part Two: Teacher as Leader..................................................................................................................... 21
Learning Object Abstract...................................................................................................................... 21
Purpose of Learning Object.................................................................................................................. 21
Description of Learning Tasks............................................................................................................... 22
Curriculum Connections....................................................................................................................... 22
Required Resources.............................................................................................................................. 22
For the Teacher.........................................................................................................................22
For the Students.......................................................................................................................23
Assessment........................................................................................................................................... 23
Students...................................................................................................................................23
Teacher as Leader.....................................................................................................................23
Scope and Sequence ............................................................................................................................ 23
Accommodations or Modifications....................................................................................................... 24
Differentiation....................................................................................................................................... 24
Research Base....................................................................................................................................... 25
Evidence of innovation and/or Exemplary Practice.............................................................................. 25
Teacher as Leader.....................................................................................................................25
Other Applications (Extensions)............................................................................................................ 25
Impact Analysis..................................................................................................................................... 26
Impact on the Student..............................................................................................................26
Impact on the Teacher as Learner and Leader.........................................................................26
Impact on the Teacher and Student.........................................................................................26
Impact on the School...............................................................................................................26
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning........................................................................................... 27
Looks Like - Sounds Like - Part One: Teacher as Learner...................................................................... 27
Establishing the Criteria for Teaching for Deep Understanding................................................27
Looks Like - Sounds Like - Part Two: Teacher as Leader....................................................................... 28
Creating a Social Studies Module for Teaching for Deep Understanding.................................28
2
Teaching for
Deep Connections in Science. .........................................................................29
By Kimberly Arfo
Learning Object Abstract...................................................................................................................... 29
Purpose of Learning Object.................................................................................................................. 29
Description of Learning Tasks............................................................................................................... 29
Curriculum Connections....................................................................................................................... 30
Required Resources.............................................................................................................................. 30
Assessment........................................................................................................................................... 30
Scope and Sequence............................................................................................................................. 30
Accommodations or Modifications....................................................................................................... 30
Differentiation....................................................................................................................................... 31
Research Base....................................................................................................................................... 31
Articles to Support Deep Understanding in Science....................................................31
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice.............................................................................. 32
Other Applications (Extensions)............................................................................................................ 33
Impact Analysis..................................................................................................................................... 33
Impact on the Student..............................................................................................................33
Impact on the Teacher..............................................................................................................33
Sample Module: Grade Three.............................................................................................................. 33
Learning Object Abstract..........................................................................................................33
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Table of Contents - Page 5
Purpose of Learning Object......................................................................................................33
Description of Learning Tasks...................................................................................................33
Culminating Tasks.....................................................................................................................33
Guiding Questions....................................................................................................................34
Introductory Tasks....................................................................................................................34
Inquiry Tasks (Experiential).......................................................................................................34
Inquiry Tasks (Literature)..........................................................................................................34
Connecting/Reflective Tasks.....................................................................................................34
Curriculum Connections...........................................................................................................35
Required Resources..................................................................................................................35
Background Knowledge/Skills..................................................................................................35
Other Applications (Extensions)...............................................................................................36
Looks Like - Sounds Like........................................................................................................................ 36
Creating a Teaching for Deep Connections in Science..............................................................36
Teaching Strategies and Resources....................................................................................................... 37
Literature to Support Science Module.....................................................................................37
Literature to Support Science Module.................................................................................................. 41
Literature to Support Inclusive Classrooms.......................................................................................... 42
Primary and Junior Levels.........................................................................................................42
Literature to Support Science Big Ideas................................................................................................ 47
Primary and Junior Levels.........................................................................................................47
Activities that Help Reflection............................................................................................................... 48
Discourse and Reflection..........................................................................................................48
Inside/outside Circle.................................................................................................................49
Placemat...................................................................................................................................49
Quick write...............................................................................................................................49
Graffiti......................................................................................................................................49
Rally Robin................................................................................................................................49
Four Corners.............................................................................................................................49
Q Chart.....................................................................................................................................49
Journal Reflections...................................................................................................................50
Building an Inclusive Classroom Atmosphere....................................................................................... 50
Two for Everyone......................................................................................................................50
Two Truths and a Wish.............................................................................................................50
I Am From - We Are From.........................................................................................................51
Who is in Our Group?........................................................................................................................... 51
Author Board............................................................................................................................51
Time-line of My Life..................................................................................................................52
Me in an Inside/Outside Circle.................................................................................................52
What’s in Your Suitcase?..........................................................................................................52
Listening and Speaking Anchor Charts.....................................................................................52
Listening Triads.........................................................................................................................53
Experiment Templates.......................................................................................................................... 54
Experiment Template...............................................................................................................55
Experiment - Plant Needs.........................................................................................................57
Experiment - Plant and Water..................................................................................................59
Experiment - Soil Separation 1.................................................................................................61
Experiment - Soil Separation 2.................................................................................................63
Experiment - Grass and Soil......................................................................................................65
Experiment - Bean Seeds..........................................................................................................67
Experiment - Plants Drinking Water.........................................................................................69
Experiment - Sea Water and Bean Plants.................................................................................71
Table of Contents - Page 6 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Experiment - Erosion 1.............................................................................................................73
Experiment - Erosion 2.............................................................................................................75
3
Habitats and Communities, Structures and Mechanisms, and Science
Technologies...................................................................................................77
By John Bertram
Habitats and Communities: Grade Four Life Systems Strand...................................................................... 77
Learning Object Abstract...................................................................................................................... 77
Purpose of Learning Object.................................................................................................................. 77
Description of Learning Tasks............................................................................................................... 78
Culminating Tasks.....................................................................................................................78
Curriculum Connections....................................................................................................................... 78
Required Resources.............................................................................................................................. 78
For the Teacher.........................................................................................................................78
For the Student........................................................................................................................78
Skill Level Needed for the Teacher...........................................................................................78
Scope and Sequence............................................................................................................................. 79
Accommodations or Modifications....................................................................................................... 80
Differentiation....................................................................................................................................... 80
Research Base....................................................................................................................................... 80
Foundation Literature...............................................................................................................80
Mid-Twentieth Century Research.............................................................................................80
Twenty-first Century Research.................................................................................................80
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice.............................................................................. 81
Other Applications (Extensions)............................................................................................................ 82
Impact Analysis..................................................................................................................................... 82
Impact on the Student..............................................................................................................82
Impact on the Teacher..............................................................................................................82
Impact on the School...............................................................................................................83
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning........................................................................................... 83
Understanding Structures and Mechanisms - Flight: Grand Six Strand....................................................... 84
Learning Object Abstract...................................................................................................................... 84
Purpose of Learning Object.................................................................................................................. 84
Description of Learning Tasks............................................................................................................... 84
Culminating Task.......................................................................................................................84
Curriculum Connections....................................................................................................................... 84
Required Resources.............................................................................................................................. 85
For the Teacher.........................................................................................................................85
For the Student........................................................................................................................85
Skill Level Needed for the Teacher...........................................................................................85
Skill Level Needed for the Student...........................................................................................85
Assessment........................................................................................................................................... 85
Scope and Sequence............................................................................................................................. 86
Accommodations or Modifications....................................................................................................... 86
Differentiation....................................................................................................................................... 86
Research Base....................................................................................................................................... 87
Foundation Literature...............................................................................................................87
Mid-Twentieth Century Research.............................................................................................87
Twenty-first Century Research.................................................................................................87
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice.............................................................................. 88
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Table of Contents - Page 7
Other Applications (Extensions)............................................................................................................ 88
Impact Analysis..................................................................................................................................... 88
Impact on the Student..............................................................................................................89
Impact on the Teacher..............................................................................................................89
Impact on the School...............................................................................................................89
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning........................................................................................... 90
Science/Technology In-Depth Teaching - A Workshop for Teachers............................................................ 90
Learning Object Abstract...................................................................................................................... 90
Purpose of Learning Object.................................................................................................................. 90
Description of Learning Tasks............................................................................................................... 91
Culminating Tasks.....................................................................................................................91
Curriculum Connections....................................................................................................................... 91
Required Resources.............................................................................................................................. 91
Workshop Leader.....................................................................................................................91
Teacher/Participant .................................................................................................................91
Workshop Leader Skill Level Needed.......................................................................................92
Teacher Participant Skill Level Needed.....................................................................................92
Assessment........................................................................................................................................... 92
Scope and Sequence............................................................................................................................. 92
Accommodations or Modifications....................................................................................................... 93
Differentiation....................................................................................................................................... 93
Research Base....................................................................................................................................... 93
Foundation Literature...............................................................................................................93
Mid-Twentieth Century Research.............................................................................................93
Twenty-first Century Research.................................................................................................93
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice.............................................................................. 94
Other Applications (Extensions)............................................................................................................ 95
Impact Analysis..................................................................................................................................... 95
Impact on the Student..............................................................................................................95
Impact on the Teacher..............................................................................................................96
Impact on the School...............................................................................................................96
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning........................................................................................... 96
Looks Like - Sounds Like........................................................................................................................ 97
For Science and Technology.....................................................................................................97
Feels Like..................................................................................................................................98
4
Desert Habitat..............................................................................................100
By Kathleen Campbell
Learning Object Abstract.................................................................................................................... 100
Purpose of Learning Object................................................................................................................ 100
Benefits for Teachers..............................................................................................................100
Benefits for Students..............................................................................................................101
Description of Learning Tasks............................................................................................................. 101
Ideas to Begin the Unit...........................................................................................................101
Throughout the Unit...............................................................................................................101
Use Content-Area Textbooks..................................................................................................101
Use Learning Logs...................................................................................................................102
Using Logs to Write – Quick Writes........................................................................................102
Mapping, Diagrams and Charts..............................................................................................102
Author Study..........................................................................................................................102
Table of Contents - Page 8 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Technology.............................................................................................................................102
Description of Learning Tasks............................................................................................................. 103
Curriculum Connections..................................................................................................................... 103
Grade Four Science Curriculum.......................................................................................................... 103
Systems and Interactions........................................................................................................103
Sustainability and Stewardship...............................................................................................104
Understanding Life Systems: Grade Four...............................................................................104
Grade Four Language Curriculum....................................................................................................... 104
Reading...................................................................................................................................104
Writing....................................................................................................................................104
Required Resources............................................................................................................................ 105
Teacher Preparation...............................................................................................................105
Questioning Chart..................................................................................................................105
Children’s Text Resources.......................................................................................................106
Children’s Web Resources......................................................................................................107
Commercial Units and Resources...........................................................................................107
Teaching Resources............................................................................................................................. 108
Anticipation Guide: Deserts...................................................................................................108
Assessment......................................................................................................................................... 109
Categories of Knowledge and Skills........................................................................................109
Culminating Assessment Task.................................................................................................109
Enrichment.............................................................................................................................110
Assessment of Culminating Activity.................................................................................................... 110
Double Entry Journals............................................................................................................111
Reflective Writing Rubric.................................................................................................................... 111
Class Participation Scoring Guide...........................................................................................112
Other Assessment Tools.........................................................................................................113
Scope and Sequence........................................................................................................................... 113
Characteristics - Time, Choice, Response...............................................................................113
Components...........................................................................................................................113
One-Day Plan..........................................................................................................................114
Accommodations or Modifications..................................................................................................... 115
Differentiation........................................................................................................................115
Research Base.........................................................................................................................115
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice................................................................115
Sets clear goals and challenges for students..........................................................................115
Actively involves learners.......................................................................................................115
Other Applications and Extensions..................................................................................................... 116
Grade Three Science Curriculum - Fundamental Concepts and Big Ideas.......................................... 117
Systems and Interactions........................................................................................................117
Sustainability and Stewardship...............................................................................................117
Grade Six Science Curriculum.................................................................................................117
Impact Analysis................................................................................................................................... 117
Impact on the Student............................................................................................................117
Impact on the Teacher............................................................................................................118
Impact on the School.............................................................................................................118
Copyright/Paper Citation Considerations........................................................................................... 118
Workshop Model................................................................................................................................ 119
A Mile Wide and An Inch Deep vs. Deep Understanding.......................................................119
Reflections on Depth (Chapter Two, Teaching for Deep Understanding)...............................119
Big Ideas: Moving from Literal to Critical...............................................................................119
Discovery and Problem-Solving..............................................................................................120
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Table of Contents - Page 9
5
Practical Example...................................................................................................................120
Closing....................................................................................................................................120
Literacy: Helping Students Make Deep Connections................................... 121
By Anne Georgas
Purpose of Learning Object................................................................................................................ 121
Description of Learning Tasks............................................................................................................. 122
Curriculum Connections..................................................................................................................... 122
Oral Expectations...................................................................................................................122
Reading Expectations ............................................................................................................122
Writing Expectations .............................................................................................................123
Media Literacy Expectations...................................................................................................123
Required Resources............................................................................................................................ 123
Reading Strategies..................................................................................................................123
Graphic Organizers.................................................................................................................123
Instructional Strategies...........................................................................................................123
Assessment......................................................................................................................................... 124
Literacy and Numeracy Webcasts....................................................................................................... 124
Scope and Sequence........................................................................................................................... 124
Accommodations or Modifications..................................................................................................... 124
Differentiation..................................................................................................................................... 125
Research Base..................................................................................................................................... 125
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice............................................................................ 125
Other Applications (Extensions).......................................................................................................... 125
Impact Analysis.......................................................................................................................125
Impact on the Student............................................................................................................125
Impact on the Teacher............................................................................................................125
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning......................................................................................... 126
Literacy and Numeracy Webcasts....................................................................................................... 126
Copyright/Paper Citation Considerations........................................................................................... 126
Looks Like - Sounds Like...................................................................................................................... 126
The Q Chart......................................................................................................................................... 127
Language Arts..................................................................................................................................... 128
Instructional Strategies to Support Deep Understanding................................................................... 130
Comprehension Strategy Planning Template...................................................................................... 132
Comprehension Strategies: Resource List........................................................................................... 133
Inferring..................................................................................................................................133
Making and Connecting..........................................................................................................133
Determining Important Ideas.................................................................................................133
Synthesizing............................................................................................................................133
Questioning............................................................................................................................133
Visualizing...............................................................................................................................133
Supporting Articles............................................................................................................................. 134
6
Creating a Mathematical Community in the Junior Classroom......................139
By Stacey Anne Grochowina
Learning Object Abstract.................................................................................................................... 139
Purpose of Learning Object................................................................................................................ 139
Table of Contents - Page 10 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Description of Learning Tasks............................................................................................................. 139
Graphing ................................................................................................................................139
A Study of Fractions................................................................................................................139
Creativity with Creatures........................................................................................................140
Curriculum Connections..................................................................................................................... 140
Overall Expectations...............................................................................................................140
Number Sense and Numeration.............................................................................................140
Patterning and Algebra...........................................................................................................140
Language................................................................................................................................141
Required Resources............................................................................................................................ 141
Assessment.............................................................................................................................143
Scope and Sequence........................................................................................................................... 143
Accommodations or Modifications..................................................................................................... 143
Differentiation..................................................................................................................................... 144
Research Base..................................................................................................................................... 144
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice............................................................................ 145
Other Applications (Extensions).......................................................................................................... 145
Exploring Social Issues through Graphing..............................................................................145
A Study of Fractions................................................................................................................145
Impact Analysis................................................................................................................................... 146
Impact on the Student............................................................................................................146
Impact on the Teacher............................................................................................................146
Impact on the School.............................................................................................................146
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning......................................................................................... 147
Copyright/Paper Citation Considerations........................................................................................... 147
7
Projects in the Science and Technology Curriculum...................................148
By Ross Haley
Learning Object Abstract.................................................................................................................... 148
Purpose of Learning Object................................................................................................................ 148
Description of Learning Tasks............................................................................................................. 148
Initiating Activity: Water Drops on Pennies...........................................................................148
Rationale for Teaching for Deep Understanding....................................................................149
Curriculum Connections..................................................................................................................... 149
Science and Technology: The Ontario Curriculum, 2007 ......................................................149
Language: The Ontario Curriculum, 2006..............................................................................149
The Arts: The Ontario Curriculum, 1998................................................................................150
Mathematics: The Ontario Curriculum, 2005........................................................................150
Required Resources............................................................................................................................ 151
Skill Level Needed for Both Teacher and Student...................................................................151
Assessment.............................................................................................................................151
Scope and Sequence........................................................................................................................... 151
Accommodations or Modifications..................................................................................................... 151
How they Can Used for Specific Identified Groups of Students.............................................151
Research Base..................................................................................................................................... 151
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice................................................................152
Other Applications (Extensions).............................................................................................152
Impact Analysis................................................................................................................................... 153
Impact on the Teacher............................................................................................................153
Looks Like - Sounds Like...................................................................................................................... 153
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Table of Contents - Page 11
Design Process.................................................................................................................................... 155
Research-Correlated Study Process.................................................................................................... 155
Water Drops on Pennies Challenge..................................................................................................... 156
Investigation Test A............................................................................................................................. 157
Investigation Test B............................................................................................................................. 158
Investigation Test C............................................................................................................................. 159
Science Quiz: Observations................................................................................................................ 160
Science Quiz: Sci-Tech Process Unit.......................................................................................161
8
Teaching Social Justice through Literacy and the Arts in the Junior and
Intermediate Grades......................................................................................163
By Sumona Roy and Valerie Harth
Learning Object Abstract.................................................................................................................... 163
Purpose of Learning Object................................................................................................................ 163
Description of Learning Tasks............................................................................................................. 163
Curriculum Connections..................................................................................................................... 164
Language................................................................................................................................164
The Arts..................................................................................................................................164
Required Resources............................................................................................................................ 164
Assessment......................................................................................................................................... 164
Scope and Sequence........................................................................................................................... 165
Lesson 1..................................................................................................................................165
Lesson 2..................................................................................................................................165
Lesson 3..................................................................................................................................165
Lesson 4..................................................................................................................................165
Lesson 5..................................................................................................................................166
Lesson 6..................................................................................................................................166
Lesson 7..................................................................................................................................167
Lesson 8..................................................................................................................................167
Lesson 9..................................................................................................................................167
Lesson 10................................................................................................................................168
Lesson 11................................................................................................................................168
Lesson 12................................................................................................................................168
Lesson 13................................................................................................................................168
Lesson 14................................................................................................................................169
Teacher Resource: Key Terms............................................................................................................. 170
Teacher Resource: One...................................................................................................................... 171
Anticipation Guide: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Plain Language Version....171
Anticipation Guide: The Librarian of Basra............................................................................172
Teacher Resource: Two..........................................................................................................173
Teacher Resource: Three.......................................................................................................174
Teacher Resource: Five . .................................................................................................................... 178
Accommodations or Modifications..................................................................................................... 181
Differentiation..................................................................................................................................... 181
Research Base..................................................................................................................................... 181
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice............................................................................ 182
Other Applications (Extensions).......................................................................................................... 182
Impact Analysis................................................................................................................................... 182
Impact on the Student............................................................................................................182
Impact on the Teacher............................................................................................................182
Table of Contents - Page 12 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Impact on the School.............................................................................................................182
Teaching Strategies............................................................................................................................. 182
The Anticipation Guide...........................................................................................................182
Exit Cards................................................................................................................................183
Venn Diagram.........................................................................................................................183
Think-Pair-Share.....................................................................................................................183
Mind Map...............................................................................................................................183
Four Corners...........................................................................................................................184
Steps in Four Corners.............................................................................................................184
Hints and Management Ideas................................................................................................184
Benefits of Four Corners.........................................................................................................185
Tableaux.................................................................................................................................185
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning......................................................................................... 186
Copyright/Paper Citation Considerations........................................................................................... 186
Handout - Anticipation Guide.................................................................................................191
Handout - 101 Suggested Titles.......................................................................................................... 192
Reading Response..................................................................................................................192
Handout - Anticipation Guide.................................................................................................195
Handout - One Sweet World by Dave Matthews....................................................................197
Handout - Cry Freedom by Dave Matthews...........................................................................198
Handout - The Paradoxical Commandments By Kent M. Keith..............................................199
Handout - Websites................................................................................................................200
9
Enable Students to Blossom:
Prune Curriculum Overgrowth to the Essential Deep Understandings.......201
By Edward Schroeter
Unit Plan Grade Level.......................................................................................................................... 201
Audience............................................................................................................................................. 201
Module Description............................................................................................................................ 201
Workshop Outcomes.......................................................................................................................... 202
Purpose of Learning Module.............................................................................................................. 203
Workshop Activities . .............................................................................................................205
Required Resources............................................................................................................................ 208
Teachers As Learners and Leaders: Knowledge To Be Developed....................................................... 208
What Is Deep Understanding?................................................................................................208
Planning..................................................................................................................................210
Instruction..............................................................................................................................210
Assessment......................................................................................................................................... 211
Students as Learners (JK-SK)............................................................................................................... 212
Developing a Unit Plan...........................................................................................................212
How to Craft a Deep Understanding.......................................................................................212
Synthesizing Deep or Enduring Understandings from the Curriculum Documents................213
Determining the Big Ideas in the Curriculum.........................................................................214
Assessing Deep Understandings Requires
Articulating Learning Goals based on Curriculum Expectations.............................................216
Assessment of Deep Understanding uses Authentic Performance Task(s).............................216
Developing the Engaging Scenario for the Culminating
Performance Task using the GRASPS Model . ........................................................................217
Assessment of Learning Products/Authentic Performances (Summative Assessment).........218
Assessing with Criteria...........................................................................................................218
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Table of Contents - Page 13
Basis of Teacher Assessment Rubric,
Performance Standard, and Student Success Criteria............................................................220
Planning and Processing:
Investigating, Analyzing, Interpreting, Concluding, Proposing, Creating, Evaluating.............220
Application: Performance and Problem-Solving....................................................................221
Communication......................................................................................................................221
Self-Evaluation........................................................................................................................221
Curriculum Expectations........................................................................................................221
Student...................................................................................................................................222
Print and Audio-Visual Resources....................................................................................................... 223
Fiction.....................................................................................................................................223
Non-fiction.............................................................................................................................224
For Text Feature Instruction...................................................................................................224
Examples of Best Practices in Teaching for Deep Understanding....................................................... 224
Pre-Assessment (alternate terms: diagnostic assessment, assessment for learning)............224
Formative Assessment . .........................................................................................................226
Formative Assessment/Performances....................................................................................226
Post-Assessment and Evaluation............................................................................................228
Sequence of Instruction of the Unit.................................................................................................... 229
Learning Tasks (Instructional Design).....................................................................................229
Accommodations or Modifications..................................................................................................... 232
Philosophy..............................................................................................................................232
Making Accommodations and Curriculum Modifications......................................................232
Examples of Accommodations...............................................................................................232
Instructional Accommodations..............................................................................................233
Environmental Accommodations...........................................................................................233
Assessment Accommodations................................................................................................233
Potential Program Modification(s).........................................................................................234
Unit Curriculum Modification(s).............................................................................................234
Differentiation .......................................................................................................................235
Differentiation of the Unit’s Content, Process, and Products.................................................235
Further Differentiation of Process..........................................................................................239
Further Differentiation of Product..........................................................................................239
Research Base..................................................................................................................................... 240
Definition of an Effective Pedagogy Based on T4DU..............................................................240
What the New Pedagogy Would Look Like.............................................................................240
The Pertinent T4DU Research Base in Science (the Specific Discipline/ Subject Area)....................... 241
How the Research is Applicable.............................................................................................242
Impact Analysis................................................................................................................................... 242
How Does this T4DU Project Make a Difference?..................................................................242
How Does it Change Student Learning Engagement and Motivation.....................................243
What is the Teacher Impact on
Instructional Practice, Designing for Learning and Decision Making? ...................................245
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning......................................................................................... 247
Books......................................................................................................................................247
Training Models......................................................................................................................247
Articles....................................................................................................................................247
DVD Video..............................................................................................................................248
PowerPoint Presentations......................................................................................................249
Websites and Wikis................................................................................................................249
Website PowerPoint Presentations on
Planning for T4DU Using Backward Design Procedures.........................................................250
Table of Contents - Page 14 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Research-based Professional Journal Articles........................................................................250
Learning Context....................................................................................................................252
Product Focus.........................................................................................................................252
Ongoing Assessment and Evaluation.................................................................................................. 253
Rubrics....................................................................................................................................253
Scaffolding..............................................................................................................................253
Graphic Organizers.................................................................................................................253
Teacher Reflection..................................................................................................................253
Differentiated Instruction and Technology.............................................................................253
References.......................................................................................................................................... 255
For Further Investigation.................................................................................................................... 256
Unit Planning...................................................................................................................................... 256
Unit Sub-task Planning...........................................................................................................256
Differentiation........................................................................................................................256
Journal Articles.......................................................................................................................257
Teaching for Deep Understanding (General Information)......................................................257
Curriculum Design and Planning (General Information)........................................................257
Inquiry Learning (General Information)..................................................................................257
Online Articles........................................................................................................................257
Video Clips..............................................................................................................................257
Citation Considerations....................................................................................................................... 258
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Table of Contents - Page 15
Literacy: Helping Students
Make Deep Connections
By Diva Anderson
1
Part One: Teacher as Learner
Learning Object Abstract
The workshop, From Facts to Deep Understanding Part One: The Teacher as Learner, is for all elementary
teachers to grade six. In the workshop, participants analyze the text, Teaching for Deep Understanding (T4DU)
using nine constructivist principles, an applied framework in the Social Studies curriculum, and the role prior
knowledge plays in learning and developing deep understanding.
They use the three Rs which are:
•
recognizing the nine cognitive principles as the basis of teaching for deep understanding;
•
reconciling the nine cognitive principles with the Social Studies curriculum; and
•
reconstructing a grade three Social Studies overall expectation to demonstrate that learning the facts can
lead to deep understanding.
The participants engage in activities which:
•
investigate prior knowledge as the key to deep understanding, as indicated in the nine cognitive
principles;
•
create expectations which combine the nine cognitive principles with the Social Studies curriculum;
•
create a Social Studies unit, (i.e., students compare the life of early settlers to their own lives: grade
three);
•
specify ways to assess and evaluate students’ work for facts and deep understanding; and
Chapter 1- Page 16 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
•
reflect on the day’s activities.
Purpose of Learning Object
The module provides an opportunity for each participant to plan, practice, and reflect on the complex
relationship between teacher and learner in a teaching for deep understanding classroom. It enables the
teacher as learner to:
•
analyze the nine cognitive principles as a pedagogical foundation for teaching for deep understanding;
•
identify the role of prior knowledge in the nine cognitive principles, thereby honouring the diverse
backgrounds and learning styles that exist in the classroom;
•
recognize the need for accurate assessment tools and the issues associated with evaluating deep
understanding; and
•
create a Social Studies unit (with specific assessment and evaluation instruments) using curriculum
guidelines and the nine cognitive principles, ensuring the students’ prior knowledge will help identify
specific content, and Social Studies concepts such as community, inclusion, multiculturalism, and
diversity.
Learner 1
Description of Learning Tasks
Each participant keeps a diary throughout the workshop (Parts One and Two). This diary provides the basis for
self-assessment regarding deep understanding of reconciling the nine cognitive principles with the curriculum
guidelines. It is the focal point of assessment and evaluation for the entire workshop.
The participants are divided into six working groups based on grade levels. The culminating task has each
group post its reconciliation chart to show how the nine cognitive principles of teaching for deep understanding
support the strands and expectations of the Social Studies curriculum. Each chart lists the nine cognitive
principles.
Next to each principle is an overall or specific expectation which is compatible with the principle (+). The chart
will also include expectations which can’t be reconciled (-) and those which are questionable or puzzling (?)
when looked at through the lens of the nine cognitive principles.
Each group examines the posted results of the other groups. Each group fields questions, comments and
concerns as they present in sequence from grade one to grade six. A participant summarizes each grade
presentation on chart paper as the discussion takes place.
For the next part of the culminating task, participants identify similarities in reconciliation from grade to grade.
Where do the reconciliation similarities occur? Where are the conflicts between the curriculum guidelines and
the nine cognitive principles? Do some guidelines support more principles than others? Is there one or more
strategies to reconcile the conflicts?
In the last part of the culminating task, participants make tangible connections between and/or among all grades
to show common reconciliation expectations and principles. These connections may be shown by a (+) sign, a
(√) mark, or by yarn strung from chart to chart. See John Bertram, #3 Culminating Task. This analysis remains
posted for part two, Teacher as Leader.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
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Curriculum Connections
All six groups chose Social Studies strand, Canada, and World Connections.
Science/Technology:
Life/Systems strand, Grade Four: Habitats and Communities (See John
Bertram, Curriculum Connections)
Language:
Reading applied to research; gathering information: writing applied
to research; writing information: oral language applied to research;
presenting information.
The Arts:
Visual Arts: finding appropriate graphic means of communicating
information; Music: providing examples of a particular culture.
Physical Education and Health:
Nutrition
Required Resources
For the Workshop Leader
The workshop leader should have in-depth understanding of prior knowledge theory, as well as knowledge of
the text Teaching for Deep Understanding and Ontario curriculum documents. The leader should have extensive
practice in team building, and in authentic analysis techniques, as well as an ability to assist participants in their
roles as learners, and Workshop Part One (Teacher as Learner) and Workshop Part Two (Teacher as Leader).
Equipment and Materials:
Overhead connected to laptop, magic markers in eight colours, chart
paper, and tape.
For the Workshop Participants
Good working knowledge of the Ontario curriculum documents, some understanding of prior knowledge, and a
willingness to give teaching for deep understanding a try.
Equipment and materials: Teaching for Deep Understanding (often referred to as T4DU), curriculum documents,
hand-out of PowerPoint notes from workshop leader’s presentation, including The Learning Model, magic
markers, chart paper, tape, and yarn.
Assessment
Each participant keeps a diary throughout the workshops. This diary is be the basis of self-evaluation at the end
of the workshop. Using the charts, whole group assessment takes place as participants discuss the common (+)
marks found on all charts. The group decides on what deep understanding of the nine cognitive principles really
means when incorporating the principle(s) into the Social Studies curriculum.
Small group assessment takes place as participants examine the other grade charts, noting not only the (+)
marks, but also the (–) marks, and (?) marks. The group should speculate on reasons for apparent conflicts and
confusions between the curriculum and the principles. What is preventing deep understanding?
Self-assessment takes place as each participant records his/her degree of confidence in creating a Social Studies
unit using the curriculum guidelines and incorporating deep understanding principles. See Assessment in Part
Two.
Scope and Sequence
Not applicable to part one, Teacher as Learner. See Part Two, Teacher as Leader.
Chapter 1- Page 18 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Accommodations or Modifications
Not applicable to Part One, Teacher as Learner. See Part Two, Teacher as Leader.
Differentiation
Not applicable to Part One, Teacher as Learner. See Part Two, Teacher as Leader.
Research Base
The work of John Dewey, Jean Piaget, and Maria Montessori all speak to the effectiveness of an education
program which emphasizes understanding concepts and developing skills rather than memorizing facts.
Keith Stanovich’s Psychology for Teachers, the works of Otto Weiniger, and Hildred Rawson demonstrate how to
use prior knowledge and the nine cognitive principles of constructivist teaching to motivate students by building
on their successes.
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice
For the teacher as learner, Teaching for Deep Understanding (T4DU) offers an innovative approach to the
teaching/learning process. It starts with the fundamental first step of teaching for deep understanding, i.e.,
identifying the prior knowledge of each student before any new topic, skill and/or concept can be taught.
T4DU expects that teachers already have strategies to find out about each student’s ability to learn the new
expectations, regardless of the student’s learning style, cognitive development, academic knowledge, and skill
level.
Some teachers may assume that if a student is in a given grade, he/she should be able to learn the grade
content and skills in the traditional manner. According to T4DU, we need to engage in innovation, starting
with identifying each student’s prior knowledge before engaging in the best practices of the teaching/learning
process, as identified by the nine constructivist principles for T4DU using ministry guidelines.
Teaching for Deep Understanding reaffirms traditional, effective methods of teaching while, at the same time,
challenging teachers to recognize newer methodologies. When teachers view themselves as learners, they are
motivated to stop relying exclusively on traditional methodology, in favour of exploring different, exciting ways to
develop topics and activities for today’s classroom situations and curriculum expectations.
Other Applications (Extensions)
For possible extensions, the teacher as learner may wish to investigate these two areas, among others:
•
integration of subjects for combined and regular grades; and
•
testing.
Integration of Subjects
The teacher as learner can look at the transferability of the Social Studies module to virtually any other subject
area (See John Bertram, Science and Technology, Grade Four and Grade Six, Lighter than Air Module, Appendix
p78). The teacher can also consider the implications for combined grades by looking at prior knowledge and
teaching for deep understanding, based on expectations from different grades.
It is possible to effectively use strategies, such as research activities, creative writing and out-of-class activities, to
integrate subjects with related skills and ministry expectations. Teachers of regular and combined grades can use
traditional, as well as innovative methodologies to ensure all students participate actively and are successful in
meeting ministry guidelines.
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Chapter 1- Page 19
The teacher can do this because deep understanding for each grade is part of the ministry expectations.
Testing
The teacher as learner gives up relying totally on traditional testing methods and explores new ways to develop
tests and activities which contribute to overall student evaluation, i.e., research products, self and peer
evaluations.
Impact Analysis
A major impact is recognizing that overall ministry expectations in a given subject are compatible with teaching
for deep understanding, planning, and implementation.
Impact on the Student
Ideally, in a T4DU school, all students achieve at a high level because progress is built on the student’s prior
knowledge, what each one is ready to learn. Success breeds success. With each success, students are motivated
to be even more successful.
Impact on the Teacher
Teachers develop awareness that knowledge and understanding are different. Knowing the facts (literal
comprehension) does not necessarily lead to understanding (inference, analysis, and synthesis). Teachers will
look beyond memorization and literal meaning for signs of understanding.
Recognizing the difference between knowledge and understanding has an impact on teaching methods. When
teachers use a variety of methods to satisfy different learning styles and levels of thinking (See Bloom), they see
increased student involvement in academic activities.
Teachers learn that integration of subjects can further deep understanding by using similar skills and concepts
with different contents.
With teaching for deep understanding, both teacher and student realize each has input into the learning process.
Both are motivated to go further because of teaching/learning successes.
Teachers recognize that traditional testing methods are important in the assessment process, but that more data
is needed when evaluating a student’s progress. Process, as well as products, will be considered.
Impact on the School
With the administration’s recognition of the different stages, learning styles, and experiences that affect learning
comes support for T4DU teachers. The administration takes pro-active measures to help parents and prime
caregivers understand that for each learner, progress, not grades, is the most important product. The school
ethos reflects the message that each student is unique and will be given the best practices to help him/her
achieve realistic expectations as recommended by the Ministry of Education.
School colleagues understand that success is not determined by teaching all the expectations listed in the
curriculum guidelines but by what the child learns. The school motto is: We believe in learning, not ‘teaching’.
Expectations are set for the whole child, not just for specific content and academic skill acquisition. Thinking
skills, psychomotor skills, and affective skills are also evaluated.
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning
Adapted by Anderson, D. (2008). Developmental Stages Chart. pp1-5.
Chapter 1- Page 20 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Ceci, S. (March 2009). Success in Math. Psychological Bulletin. pp48-53.
Dweck, C. (2008). Mindset: the New Psychology of Success. Stanford University Press.
Einstein, G. (2007). Sex and the Brain. University of Toronto Press.
Gordon, A. (March 5-7, 2009). Testing 1,2,3. The Toronto Star. Section L.
Leithwood, K., McAdie, P., Bascia, N., and Rodrigue, A., eds. (2004). Teaching for Deep Understanding: Towards
the Ontario Curriculum that we Need. ETFO and OISE/UT.
Part Two: Teacher as Leader
Learning Object Abstract
From Facts to Deep Understanding Part Two: The Teacher as Leader (for all elementary teachers to grade six).
Part two of this workshop focuses on the teacher leading his/her students through learning Social Studies facts
to a deep understanding of Social Studies concepts such as community, inclusion, diversity, and multiculturalism.
The workshop provides a forum for the participants to analyze and apply the prior knowledge and cognitive
principle theories which they examined in part one, while ensuring curriculum guidelines are followed regarding
expectations, assessment, and evaluation.
They work together to produce individual Social Studies modules which they can use in their own classrooms.
The culminating activity is an analysis and reflection by each participant regarding the usefulness and likely
implementation of what they experienced in parts one and two.
Each participant participates in creating his/her own Social Studies module to demonstrate competence in:
•
providing techniques to determine students’ prior knowledge as the key to deep understanding;
•
stating expectations which will combine the nine cognitive principles with the Social Studies curriculum;
•
creating a Social Studies module describing specific learning opportunities with teaching/learning
activity details; and
•
specifying ways, throughout the module, to assess and evaluate students’ work for facts and deep
understanding.
Finally, the candidates demonstrate an ability to analyze and reflect on parts one and two as a learning
experience which they can implement.
Purpose of Learning Object
The teacher as leader will be able to:
•
analyze the nine cognitive principles as a pedagogical foundation for teaching for deep understanding;
•
identify the role of prior knowledge in the nine cognitive principles;
•
identify the role of prior knowledge in Social Studies; and
•
create a Social Studies unit using the curriculum guidelines and the nine cognitive principles, ensuring
the student’s prior knowledge will guide learning-specific content and Social Studies concepts as
community, inclusion, multiculturalism, and diversity.
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Chapter 1- Page 21
Description of Learning Tasks
The culminating task for each grade group will focus on the students’ research. An example is the grade four
module based on an investigation of Maryvale, the farm of Senator Fred O’Connor and Laura Secord. The overall
expectation is an understanding of region. One of the specific expectations investigates economic factors which
affect a region or its parts. The culminating task has three parts.
In part one, the grade four students create a three-dimensional exhibit of the Maryvale region in 1935, when
the 850-hectare farm was flourishing. They also create a model of the 850-hectare farm today which is an urban
development. They use facts, such as maps, primary source documents, historical accounts, music, pictures,
photographs and diagrams to create the past and present.
Part two contains written reports, attached to the models, answering questions such as the following: Name
significant changes to the area. What do these changes mean for the people, the plant and animal life, and the
environment? How does a community keep its identity while inevitable economic change takes place?
Part three has the students using the information/facts and conclusions about Maryvale and formulating
deep understanding questions. What is a community? How can we create a community classroom? These
conclusions are oral presentations captured on chart paper.
Curriculum Connections
All six groups chose the Social Studies strand, Canada and World Connections.
Grade Four Overall Expectation:
Identify, analyze, and discuss economic and cultural relationships which
link communities and regions within Ontario and across Canada.
Grade Four Specific Expectation:
Formulate questions to guide research and clarify information on study
topics.
Science/Technology: Life/Systems strand, grade four: Habitats and Communities (See John
Bertram, Curriculum Connections).
Language: Reading applied to research; gathering information: writing applied
to research; writing information; oral language applied to research;
presenting information.
The Arts: Visual Arts; finding appropriate graphic means of communicating
information: Music; providing examples of a particular culture.
Physical Education and Health:
Nutrition.
Required Resources
For the Teacher
The teacher needs knowledge of:
•
techniques for determining the prior knowledge of the students regarding content to be investigated;
•
at least one of the nine cognitive principles to determine students’ deep understanding;
•
the Ontario curriculum guidelines pertinent to the grade, for at least one expectation;
•
the content of the module, i.e., the O’Connor story including Maryvale Farm and Laura Secord candies.
Chapter 1- Page 22 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
•
the ability to instruct students in building three-dimensional models; and
•
how to ask and encourage probing questions to help students look beyond the facts.
Equipment and materials:
•
Overhead connected to laptop, magic markers, chart paper, tape, samples of three-dimensional exhibits
to show the students, books, pictures, maps, photographs, and diagrams.
For the Students
The students need:
•
the maximum reading/writing ability appropriate for their grade level;
•
the ability to gather information from print and/or other graphics;
•
the ability to formulate questions about the research assignment, for example, grade four students will
‘question’ Senator O’Connor, Maryvale, and Laura Secord.
•
the ability to report information in writing and other graphic forms; and
•
the ability to go to a deeper understanding of a Social Studies concept, i.e., for grade four, the concept of
a community.
Equipment and materials:
•
Model-building materials, poster paint, glue, magic markers, chart paper, tape, samples of threedimensional exhibits, books, pictures, maps, photographs, and diagrams.
Assessment
Students
A criteria template for completion of model, research skills and report is provided for self, peer, and teacher
assessment for each student.
Each student submits responses to the deep understanding questions in number three, the Culminating Tasks.
The teacher will determine which, if any, deep understanding principle is evident.
Teacher as Leader
Each participant keeps a diary throughout the workshop, both part one and part two. This diary is the basis of
self-evaluation at the end of the workshop.
Self-assessment takes place as each participant records his/her confidence to try to create a Social Studies unit
using the curriculum guidelines and incorporating deep understanding principles. (See Assessment - Part Two)
Scope and Sequence
The grade four module focuses on the local community and its economic and cultural history. This module is
best executed in the spring because the introductory activity is a walk through the community, with a trip to the
O’Connor property as the main event.
It is also best delivered in the spring after the class has investigated the community earlier in the year. Prior
knowledge exists now for observing and analyzing the past and present. The module requires five to six weeks.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 1- Page 23
The class will have worked on writing biography, family migration from other countries, and migration from
other neighbourhoods prior to introducing this module. Research skills form the basis of the module. The
introductory lesson focuses on concepts: community, urban, rural, change, and economics. The students work
through the existing characteristics of the community and what it was like 10, 20, 50, 100 years ago. As they
gather information, they also plan how they will present their findings in three-dimensional form.
•
The final activities also include a report answering questions of this type: What changes have occurred?
What are the probable reasons for the changes?
•
Digging deeper: Are the changes better or worse for the community? What could have been done to
make the changes benefit it?
•
Deep understanding: What are positive characteristics of a community? Is our classroom a community?
How can we ensure our classroom is a good community of learners?
Note: Future development and change in the community are studied in the next module.
Accommodations or Modifications
Each student is unique. Each student can learn and each student brings to this module a store of prior
knowledge. Coupled with prior knowledge is each student’s thinking and personal academic skills, which are
identified and maximized for optimal learning, including deep understanding.
Each lesson uses teaching/learning materials that are:
•
concrete: “Let’s walk around the community”;
•
representational: “Let’s examine photos and pictures of our community from the present to 100 years
ago”; and
•
abstract: “Let’s read books, newspapers, journals, letters about our community, past and present.”
Each student uses all three types of teaching/learning materials to the best or his/her ability. Teachers and
group members provide interpretation for students for whom print materials are a restricted learning resource.
Human resources, as well as teaching and materials, are adapted for accommodations and modifications. The
students are grouped according to strengths. Each group includes a good reader, report writer, illustrator,
researcher, builder, leader, talker, and organizer.
If the group lacks a particular strength, the teacher facilitates the process. Since each group is multi-talented
and facilitated by the teacher when necessary, accommodations and modifications are inherent in the module
process. Each student is responsible for learning the facts, contributing to the model, and reporting as he/she is
capable.
Differentiation
Differentiation for the students is evident in each model and report. Each model and report reflects the
differences in the group’s abilities in different academic areas. The products produced by the groups may be as
different as the groups themselves. For example, one group may submit a ten-page written report accompanied
by a shoebox-size diorama, while another group may submit a desk-top size model with labels, captions and
point-form chart paper responses. Each submission, if it meets the stated criteria, can be considered work well
done.
Chapter 1- Page 24 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Research Base
The works of John Dewey, Jean Piaget and Maria Montessori speak to the effectiveness of an education program
which emphasizes understanding concepts and developing skills rather than memorizing facts.
Keith Stanovich’s Psychology for Teachers and the works of Otto Weininger and Hildred Rawson demonstrate
how to use prior knowledge and the nine principles of constructivist teaching to motivate students by building
on their successes.
Evidence of innovation and/or Exemplary Practice
Teacher as Leader
The first classroom innovation sees the teacher using prior knowledge activities before any new unit or topic
is started. These activities are presented to the students to inform the teacher of each student’s cognitive/
academic knowledge and skills on which to build the new learning.
The teacher strives to create a learning community through teaching for deep understanding learning principles
using ministry guidelines. For example, today’s good teaching practices are enhanced (turned into best
practices) by the fact that the class community is strengthened by recognizing and honouring different learning
experiences. This turns learning experiences into potential teaching experiences for all students and the teacher.
The classroom shows a high level of activity with interaction among students and between teacher and student.
This is an innovation from traditional methodology which sees the teacher as the deliverer of knowledge, and
students as recipients of that knowledge. In teaching for deep understanding classrooms, the students and
teacher share their own experiences in the teaching/learning process. The teacher gains insights necessary to
pursue new, innovative approaches based on best practices and the experiences of the classroom community.
Student learning is enhanced by the fact that the class community is strengthened as students recognize their
dual roles as student and teacher. When it is appropriate, the student as teacher and the teacher as student is
evidence of innovation.
Teaching for Deep Understanding innovations are based on sound pedagogical methods of teaching which
encourage students to question, illustrate, and explain beyond the facts. The students demonstrate interest
in exploring further and delving deeper into a topic, while showing greater levels of comprehension. More
students take ownership of researching a topic and producing a report.
The teacher is motivated to look for new combinations of teaching/learning activities using prior knowledge,
teaching for deep understanding, and ministry expectations. As a result, the teacher as leader delves for
deep understanding in working for the success of the students. In turn, the students are engaged to strive for
understanding, rather than merely regurgitating facts.
Other Applications (Extensions)
The teacher as leader may be willing to try extensions, which could be employed in the following areas (among
others):
•
integration of subjects for combined and regular grades; and
•
testing.
Moving from teaching single subjects to integrating subjects with specific expectations could be an added
extension. The teacher as leader tries to find ways to use the nine constructivist principles for teaching for deep
understanding with specific expectations related to two or more subjects in the same grade.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 1- Page 25
This gives students with different learning styles and interests more than one way to meet ministry expectations.
The Social Studies module is transferable to other subject areas by using prior knowledge, the nine constructivist
principles for T4DU, and ministry guidelines. While the content of this module is geared specifically to grade
four Social Studies, the approach can be followed in all grades and subjects with similar expectations. Innovative
approaches in combined grades are particularly effective in teaching for deep understanding.
The teacher as leader looks to the relatedness of subject matter and skills within all the subject areas. Finding
common elements among the curriculum subject expectations allows for integration across subjects. (See
Appendix One, John Bertram, Science and Technology, Grade Four and Grade Six).
The teacher as leader gives up relying totally on traditional testing methods and explores new ways to develop
tests and activities which contribute to overall student evaluation, i.e., research products and oral presentations.
Different learning styles and different teaching methods suggest that different assessment and evaluation
procedures need to be employed for an accurate picture of an individual student’s progress.
Impact Analysis
A major impact is recognizing that overall ministry expectations in a given subject are compatible with teaching
for deep understanding planning and implementation.
Impact on the Student
Idealistically, in a teaching for deep understanding school, all students are successful and achieve at a high
level because success is determined by what each student is ready to learn (prior knowledge). Success breeds
success. Success drives motivation to be even more successful.
Impact on the Teacher as Learner and Leader
Teachers develop awareness that knowledge and understanding are different. Knowing the facts (literal
comprehension) does not necessarily lead to understanding (inference, analysis, and synthesis). Teachers look
beyond memorization and literal meaning for signs of understanding.
Recognizing the difference between knowledge and understanding will impact teaching methods. When
teachers use a variety of methods to satisfy different learning styles and levels of thinking (See Bloom), they see
increased student involvement in academic activities. Teachers learn that integration of subjects can further
deep understanding by using similar skills and concepts with different contents.
Impact on the Teacher and Student
Because of the impact of Teaching for Deep Understanding, will realize each has input into the learning process.
Both are motivated to go further because of teaching/learning successes.
Teachers recognize that traditional testing methods are important in the assessment process, but that more data
is needed when evaluating a student’s progress. Process as well as products will be considered.
Impact on the School
With the administration’s recognition of the different stages, learning styles, and experiences that affect learning
comes support for T4DU teachers. The administration takes pro-active measures to help parents and prime
caregivers understand that for each learner, progress, not grades, is the most important product. The school
ethos reflects the message that each student is unique and will be given the best practices to help him/her
achieve realistic expectations as recommended by the Ministry of Education.
Chapter 1- Page 26 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
School colleagues understand that success is not determined by teaching all the expectations listed in the
curriculum guidelines but by what the child learns. The school motto is: We believe in learning, not ‘teaching’.
Expectations are set for the whole child, not just for specific content and academic skill acquisition. Thinking
skills, psychomotor skills, and affective skills are also evaluated.
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning
Adapted by Anderson, D. (2008). Developmental Stages Chart. pp1-5.
Ceci, S. (March 2009). Success in Math. Psychological Bulletin. pp48-53.
Dweck, C. (2008). Mindset: the New Psychology of Success. Stanford University Press.
Einstein, G. (2007). Sex and the Brain. University of Toronto Press.
Gordon, A. (March 5-7, 2009). Testing 1,2,3. The Toronto Star. Section L.
Leithwood, K., McAdie, P., Bascia, N., and Rodrigue, A., eds. (2004). Teaching for Deep Understanding: Towards
the Ontario Curriculum that we Need. ETFO and OISE/UT.
Looks Like - Sounds Like - Part One: Teacher as Learner
Establishing the Criteria for Teaching for Deep Understanding
Looks Like
There are chart paper displays around the room with
words capturing the essence of the ideas, comments
and concerns about the relationship among the three
components of teaching for deep understanding (the
nine cognitive principles, Social Studies curriculum
guidelines, and prior knowledge) as requisites of deep
understanding.
Comments are recorded in the following colours:
•
white = agreement
•
blue = puzzlements
•
red = objections
Sounds Like
The discussions in small groups and in the large group
run the gamut from very enthusiastic attempts to
make connections among the three components of
teaching for deep understanding to skeptical concerns
about meeting the curriculum guidelines. Sample
comments are as follows:
•
“Show me how so I can try.”
•
“How can a teacher assess deep
understanding?”
•
“Teaching for deep understanding is not
possible in today’s ‘expectations’ climate.”
Reports from each group summarizing their
reactions to teaching for deep understanding and its
components are presented.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 1- Page 27
Looks Like - Sounds Like - Part Two: Teacher as Leader
Creating a Social Studies Module for Teaching for Deep Understanding
Looks Like
The walls contain six Social Studies modules on chart
paper. Each Social Studies module is posted next
to each group’s chart produced in part one. (See
last chart.) Each module identifies the grade and
the Social Studies investigation based on curriculum
guidelines. Each module shows the connection
between the nine principles, students’ prior
knowledge, and grade level expectation(s).
Each participant’s reflections on the processes and
products of parts one and two are recorded on an
overhead in semi-darkness. The overhead includes
words or phrases which capture an idea, comment,
concern and/or criticism of the entire session or parts
thereof.
Attached to each module are sticky notes:
•
Green for go - “Yes, I’ll try”
•
Yellow for caution - “Maybe I’ll try”
•
Red for stop - “No, I’m not
ready.”
Chapter 1- Page 28 Sounds Like
You can hear small group discussions working out the
details of a grade specific Social Studies module, or
each group taking the three components of teaching
for deep understanding and trying to create a feasible
plan for specific classrooms.
Words stating the pros and cons of using different
Social Studies expectations are heard. Sometimes
words like “impossible work” for teachers to attempt
to teach for deep understanding come out of the
discussion. A participant calls out any word, or phrase
to capture an idea, comment, concern and/or criticism
of the entire session or parts thereof.
Comments include statements like: “When do you
teach inclusion and/or community?” “How can I be
sure I’m teaching for deep understanding?” “How
do I ensure I’m paying attention to different learning
styles?” “I still don’t know how to connect the
curriculum with a principle.” “How can I learn if I
don’t try?
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Teaching for
Deep Connections in Science
By Kimberly Arfo
2
Learning Object Abstract
A module for teachers that provides strategies and resources to build a community of learners, develops a
Science program around the big ideas, and promotes stewardship using literature and hands-on activities, and
activate and generate background knowledge in students. This workshop provides strategies and resources for
teaching for a deeper understanding of the Science concepts through a higher level of student discourse and
reflective practices.
Purpose of Learning Object
To provide knowledge, tools, and strategies to enable teachers to plan and develop the necessary community
of learners in their classrooms, teach for deep understanding in Science using the big ideas and stewardship,
be able to integrate appropriate literature, and use student prior knowledge to ignite learning in a balanced
classroom that is both gender and culturally inclusive. To provide the tools and strategies teachers need to
promote a higher level of discourse and reflective practices within their classroom Science program.
Description of Learning Tasks
To help students make deeper connections with science, develop a Science module planning template to
organize knowledge, tools and strategies of teaching for deep understanding. A number of community-building
activities are identified on the planning template to facilitate deeper conversation between and among students.
Teachers use the Science curriculum as a starting point to determine big ideas and social issues to introduce
Science modules to students. Quality literature, both fiction and non-fiction, is used as a springboard for deeper
reflection and discussion, a variety of hands-on activities and specific teaching strategies are embedded within
the module planning template.
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Curriculum Connections
Science strand expectations are examined for each module, particularly the specific expectations that relate
to overall expectation number one, in order to determine a social and/or environmental issue from which to
organize and present deeper connections to Science and society. Subsequent expectations within a strand of
Science are also be included within the planning template completed by teachers. Language expectations and
Social Studies expectations may also be examined, dependent on the module being planned by each teacher.
Required Resources
•
Bibliography of literature supporting big ideas;
•
list of activities to build community of learners;
•
list of teaching strategies to build deeper connections;
•
list of examples of student activities in a variety of teaching modes, including differentiation strategies;
•
list of ideas for possible assessment for learning opportunities; and
•
list of tools and strategies for assessment purposes.
Assessment
Ideas about assessment for learning are examined and a list of possible assessment for learning strategies
is provided to teachers. Integrating assessment for learning into planned activities is also addressed. Such
examples include how to use placemat strategy, concept maps, journal entries for formative assessment, and
how to develop higher levels of reflective practices, such as meta-cognition in students. Ideas for differentiated
assessment practices are presented to teachers.
Teachers are shown how to locate, introduce and plan quality culminating tasks and assessments using the big
ideas and prompting questions provided in the curriculum. The prompts and big ideas are used to introduce the
module, as well as integrated within the learning activities, and connected within the culminating tasks to show a
deeper understanding of the underlying science concepts and connections.
Scope and Sequence
Although teachers are encouraged to develop modules to ensure students are making connections with all
science concepts learned throughout the school year, each teacher is expected to develop a single module
encompassing one strand of science within their school year. Suggestions on how to create modules for
combined grades is briefly addressed.
Accommodations or Modifications
Teachers are provided with ideas and strategies to develop activities with multiple entry points, accommodate
using different recording templates for students, including assessing oral explanations, and anecdotal records of
hands-on activities. Similar differentiated strategies are also included in assessment practices. Peer-tutoring,
personal dictionary or vocabulary thesaurus with first language, pictorial representations, student oral sharing
of ideas before written assignments, explicit teaching of crucial vocabulary where necessary, and building of
experience where prior knowledge is showing gaps relating to specific science concepts. Strategies also include
use of first language with translations and sharing of scientific prior knowledge from different cultural, gender or
other perspectives.
Chapter 2 Page 30 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Differentiation
Many of the strategies presented to teachers have multiple entry points, can be assessed orally and in writing,
and sometimes represented pictorially. These strategies include: Graphic organizers that reduce language
output, vocabulary study, variety of groupings for discussion, fiction as well as non-fiction, methods to activate
and build prior knowledge to connect science issues to students’ personal schema, and read aloud or guided
reading strategies where the reading of text is required. For students requiring vocabulary support, a list of
vocabulary words is provided to aid in completion of concept maps. Some students may require vocabulary
printed onto cards to enable cut-and-paste of a concept map.
Research Base
Articles to Support Deep Understanding in Science
Mueller, Andrea. (Winder 2002). Time To Talk: Creating Classroom Contexts Where Students Begin To Talk
Science. Alberta Journal of Educational Research. Edmonton. Vol.48. Iss.4.
Abstract
Inquiry and opportunities are necessary for students to articulate, defend, and explain their ideas in
the classroom context if they are to be active participants in learning science. If students are to be well
educated in science, mathematics, and technology, they must participate in scientific investigations where
misconceptions are not left uncorrected. Students require large blocks of time to research, develop, and
communicate their ideas. In one adventure, students were to create a biosphere that could support life
for one year. Students would select six individuals to live in their biosphere. The classroom teacher and
I had been successful in creating an exciting science challenge, but we also needed to guide students to a
final outcome that they had only envisaged at the beginning. Nevertheless, giving students time to explore
and talk about their ideas, share their questions with the class, and investigate possible solutions remained
critical throughout this adventure.
It is important to consider what counts as science in a classroom and to provide opportunities for students
to engage in science and in the practices of scientists. When classroom members act as a community of
scientists, they create a set of practices that includes a classroom discourse to develop an understanding
of science. Through science adventures, students learned about the complexity of scientific work.
Collaborative efforts as a class created a community of learners working together toward the same goal.
Unique about this learning experience was students’ abilities to explain their scientific understandings in
their own words and their expressed excitement about the relevance of the science they were learning in
school.
Mueller, Andrea. (Fall 1998). Creating Spaces Of Inquiry: Participation In Elementary School Science. Alberta
Journal of Educational Research. Edmonton. Vol.44. Iss.3. p333.
Abstract
Science in school often emphasizes what is known, or the facts from certain perspectives. That is, science
curriculum guides generally emphasize expected learning outcomes, rather than emphasizing participation
and inquiry in the spirit of science. Wassermann and Ivany (1996) argue that: to know Science is not merely
to learn the words, the names of Science (p5). Their idea of Sciencing promotes participation and describes
a generative process and approach to elementary Science education. If elementary science education
focuses on Sciencing, then inquiry, exploration, and adventure will feature more prominently.
This research project identifies three distinct spaces of inquiry in and across extended science projects.
These spaces provide diverse opportunities for children to participate and provide a model for teachers
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about how to create contexts for participation in school science. Spaces of inquiry are not fixed by
location, but rather are characterized by social interactions and purpose of inquiry. There is inquiry at the
group level, inquiry at the class level, and inquiry at a larger community level. Overall, opportunities to
participate in different spaces of inquiry contribute to diverse learning opportunities for students. Initial
data analysis reveals the importance of contexts for participation in elementary school science. In particular,
the researcher identifies spaces of inquiry that afforded students diverse opportunities to participate with
science content in a community of inquiry. These spaces of inquiry seem important because they provide
an alternative way to think about learning and teaching science, they provide opportunities for designing
collaborative group work, and they challenge educators to consider children’s contributions to their Science
learning.
Brown, Patrick L. and Abell, Sandra K. (Summer 2007). Cultural Diversity in the Science Classroom. Perspectives:
Research and tips to support Science education. NSTA.
Abstract
When students come to class, they bring a variety of perspectives formed, in part by their cultural heritage,
religious beliefs, and family background. This creates challenges for students whose experiences are
different from typical ways of knowing science. All students require experiences with school science that
connects with their everyday lives and their own background knowledge. Inquiry-based instruction can help
bring cultural backgrounds and foster science learning success. Teachers can help all students learn science
by allowing diverse approaches to scientific reasoning in their classrooms. By opening up the science class to
different languages and types of reasoning, teachers can encourage students to cross borders between their
cultural backgrounds and the Science classroom.
Nadelson, Louis S. (Spring 2009). How Can True Inquiry Happen in K-16 Science Education? Science Educator.
Vol.18. Iss.1.
Abstract
The integration of scientific inquiry into the curriculum is closely linked with the philosophy of constructivist
learning, which allows students to construct their own knowledge and develop deeper understanding
through experience. Perhaps the greatest obstacle impeding the effectiveness of inquiry instruction is the
limited experience and prior knowledge of students. Direct instruction to help students build background
knowledge will guide them into higher level thinking about science concepts. Authentic inquiry, pure
discovery, and problem-based learning require a great deal of mental effort and higher-level thinking.
Teachers therefore should use a technique that scaffolds (Vygotsky and Cole, 1978) the process by providing
guidance at critical points during investigations, and partitioning the overall process into attainable elements.
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice
Teaching for deep understanding requires teachers to take advantage of the teachable moment, and also to
enable students to express their honest thoughts and feelings about the topic at hand. Only a teacher who is
willing to let students participate in the teaching role will take the time to make sure all student ideas are heard
and honoured.
This kind of teaching means there is no guarantee as to the exact outcome of some conversations. Teachers
must be prepared to learn along with their students to some degree. However, the benefits of teaching for deep
understanding far outweigh the drawbacks. It is professionally and personally gratifying to see students choose
to complete a concept map so they may develop fuller understanding, or reach deeper levels of reflection, about
a controversial issue.
Chapter 2 Page 32 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Other Applications (Extensions)
By integrating literacy into the science module, students have a way to present different perspectives of social
and/or environmental issues. The literacy component also enhances their reading comprehension of science
materials. Analysis of the specific expectations that are connected to the number one overall expectation in the
science curriculum shows that there are opportunities to integrate the big ideas from the social studies program.
The extent of this merger depends directly upon the strand and grade of the science module.
Impact Analysis
Impact on the Student
Students learn science in a way that makes a lasting impression and promotes appreciation for how science
affects the lives of people and living things.
Impact on the Teacher
Teachers are equipped to develop instructional practices to teach for deep understanding in the science
classroom, and help students make deeper connections with science.
Sample Module: Grade Three
Learning Object Abstract
This sample science module for grade three students includes strategies and resources for building a community
of learners, a science program built around big ideas, and stewardship using literature and hands-on activities. It
activates and builds on background knowledge of concepts surrounding the big ideas to understand social and
environmental issues at a deeper level, from a variety of perspectives.
This module is a sample to support the umbrella module Teaching for Deep Connections in Science for all
primary and junior teachers.
Purpose of Learning Object
To provide background knowledge, develop inquiry skills, and connect the knowledge and skills to bigger ideas
around social and environmental issues.
To develop a community of learners where students freely discuss and compare social and environmental issues
from diverse perspectives and relate these understandings to different parts of the world.
To use and connect big ideas around Growth and Changes in Plants and Soils in the Environment strands to
develop a deeper level of understanding around stewardship and social impact. As well, the purpose is to
integrate ideas from literature, activate background knowledge to ignite excitement, and foster learning in a
balanced classroom that is gender and culturally inclusive.
Description of Learning Tasks
Culminating Tasks
Students show their learning, based on their understanding of the guiding questions. Students are permitted to
use a variety of formats to present their learning. Choices include the creation of an extensive concept map, a
written booklet (including detailed reflections, facts, illustrations, and graphic organizers), media texts (poster,
brochure, information commercial, and/or leaflet), PowerPoint or other technology-based format, a theatrical
presentation, or an extensive portfolio (including detailed reflections and learning goals). Students may also
submit a detailed proposal for an alternate format that meets the required expectations.
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Guiding Questions
•
Why are plants important?
•
What is important to plants?
•
To whom (or what) are they important?
•
What different points of view can be taken into consideration when we assess the importance of plants
and plant habitats?
•
What are the impacts of different human activities on plants, and what steps can be taken in order to
minimize adverse effects and enhance good effects? (i.e., clear-cutting of forested areas, the impacts on
the habitat, including soil erosion, from environmental, consumer, and lumber industry perspectives).
Introductory Tasks
Students are introduced to the module through a variety of prompting questions, read-aloud activities to
promote thinking, activation of prior knowledge, and recourse activities to promote reflection and purpose for
the module. Students are introduced to the overall prompting questions that will guide their thinking in the
culminating task to promote connectedness between activities and the final outcome of learning.
Inquiry Tasks (Experiential)
Students learn how to write experiments using the concepts of fair testing through a gradual release of
responsibility while learning how plants meet their basic needs. Recording sheets with a gradual release of
scaffolding are provided. Students are given the opportunity to use their skills and knowledge of scientific
inquiry/experimentation skills in activities designed by students as an independent level activity.
Inquiry Tasks (Literature)
Students complete short literature inquiry tasks and with the larger group. The variety of topics related to plants
may include: different plant habitats around the world, life cycles of different plants, how plants get energy
from the sun (photosynthesis), how plants provide energy to animals who eat them, how humans from different
cultures use plants, different ways plants grow (agriculture, wild habitats, etc.), and different environmental
conditions that may threaten plant and animal survival. After students share their own topic of inquiry, they are
given activities to compare and contrast the different plants, habitats, life cycles, and environmental conditions,
etc.
Connecting/Reflective Tasks
Throughout the module, students are introduced to a number of reflective activities, in both oral and written
formats. Students are expected to connect the learning tasks with the overall prompting questions throughout
the module, on a regular basis.
Such activities include many protocols including:
•
inside/outside circle;
•
musing to music;
•
value lines;
•
think-pair-share;
•
role play to experience different perspectives;
Chapter 2 Page 34 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
•
graphic organizers to compare/contrast ideas individually and in small groups;
•
placemat;
•
T-charts;
•
regular journal entries;
•
portfolio to collect information and activities;
•
reflective sheets to reflect upon portfolio entries; and
•
KWL charts.
Many whole class activities use literacy, read-aloud, and guided reading as a springboard to discuss a variety of
perspectives and assess human impact on plants, as well as human needs for plants.
Curriculum Connections
Grade three big ideas that relate to overall expectations in the Understanding Life Systems strand, Growth and
Changes in Plants and the related big ideas that relate to an overall expectation from the Understanding Earth
and Space Systems strand, Soils in the Environment. The big ideas will include:
•
plants having distinct characteristics;
•
similarities and differences among various types of plants;
•
plants as an important source of food, shelter, and other uses;
•
humans needing to protect plants and their habitats;
•
plants being important to the planet; and
•
living things, including humans, interacting with plants and soils, and can cause positive or negative
changes. The overall grade three expectations will include:
•
assess ways in which plants have an impact on society and the environment, and ways in which human
activity has an impact on plants and plant habitats;
•
investigate similarities and differences in the characteristics of various plants, and ways in which the
characteristics of plants relate to the environment in which they grow;
•
demonstrate that plants grow and change and have distinct characteristics; and
•
assess the impact of soils on society and the environment, and of society and the environment on soils.
Required Resources
The collection of quality literature in both fiction and non-fiction around topics relating to plants, plant habitats,
conservation, human effects on plant habitats (including clear-cutting and agricultural issues), uses of a variety of
plants including trees and lumber related products, and how these products are used and required by humans.
Activity materials include a variety of seeds, seedlings, soils, garden gloves, planting materials, and plastic pop
bottles (for terrarium).
Background Knowledge/Skills
It is assumed that an inclusive community of learners has been built through equity and diversity tasks and
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 2 Page 35
community building activities. It is also assumed that all students’ cultural, heritage, family structure, gender
and other backgrounds have been included within the overall classroom dynamics. Multi-literacies and identity
texts have been used and students are familiar with constructivist methods of learning. Experiential inquiry
activities are set up to allow teachers to use a gradual release of responsibility model. Teachers should be
familiar with Vygotsky’s ideas of gradual release of responsibility and explicit teaching strategies.
Other Applications (Extensions)
This module can be integrated with the grade three Understanding Earth and Space Systems strand, Soils in the
Environment in order for students to make deeper connections between the two strands.
The module can also be seamlessly combined with the grade four Understanding Life Systems strand, Habitats
and Communities to ensure deep understanding in a combined grade three/four classroom. Language
expectations relating to comprehension and higher-order thinking such as point of view and perspective are also
integrated within the module.
Looks Like - Sounds Like
Creating a Teaching for Deep Connections in Science
Looks Like
Sounds Like
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
community of learners developed early in
school year;
explicit teaching early in the school year of
cultural proficiency, peer and self assessment,
how to provide descriptive feedback, how
to conduct respectful discussions (including
disagreements), and reflection skills;
modelled, guided, and independent science
investigations;
integration of other subject areas;
fiction and non-fiction literature to support
big ideas and social issues in science;
science issues investigated, discussed and
reflected upon from different perspectives,
including culturally;
students actively listening, reflecting one
another’s views, beliefs, and discoveries;
students involved with providing descriptive
feedback to peers;
outcomes (expectations) are transparent;
criteria to show performance co-constructed
with students;
students actively involved with investigations,
peer tutoring, co-constructing of criteria for
assessment;
students doing the learning;
teacher observing, stepping in occasionally
to redirect where necessary; students on task
and motivated to discover;
different products illustrating different
perspectives or dimensions and that respond
to students’ multiple intelligences;
Chapter 2 Page 36 •
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
students discussing differing values,
perspectives and reflections on science issues
from multiple perspectives;
social interactions while students work
collaboratively to solve problems and/or
issues related to Science big ideas;
social issues related to science big ideas
as focus for discussion and application of
science;
fun;
sharing of ideas in partners, small groups, and
whole group;
safe learning environment where all students’
voices are heard and valued;
descriptive feedback on-going student-tostudent and student-to-teacher;
students retelling other students’ ideas and
explanations in their own words;
disagreements voiced respectfully;
excitement over upcoming field trip or ROM
kit and discussion about the connections to
the science issue/concept;
discussions of relevant information to support
(or not) a particular point of view around
science social issues; and
multiple intelligences, student collaboration,
and a supportive environment at work.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Looks Like
•
•
•
•
Sounds Like
choices for students that fall within the
parameters of the expectations; gradual
release of responsibility in guided science,
modelled science, and independent
application of science activities;
activation of and development of background
knowledge;
culturally appropriate literature and activities;
and
graphic organizers of students’ reflections
and understandings posted, (KWL, RAN,
KWC, Venn, T-charts, placemats, mind maps,
concept maps, etc.).
Teaching Strategies and Resources
Outline for a three-hour module
Literature to Support Science Module
Time
Topic
10 min. Welcome and Introductions:
• purpose of module;
• agenda; and
• parking lot for questions explained.
30 min. Building a community of learners:
• participants experience a number of
activities that promote the building of
an inclusive learning environment; and
• further activities are shared and handed
out to participants for use in the
classroom.
Debrief:
• includes the importance of students’
gender, backgrounds, cultural
connections to science;
• explanations of why a community
of learners is necessary to immerse
students in debate and discussion
where they must justify their ideas and
thinking;
• explanations of importance of
promoting discussions regarding
students’ own and others’ cultures and
backgrounds; and
• the use of different protocols to
conduct focused disagreements that
remain respectful within a positive and
supportive atmosphere.
Other Details
• resources on display;
• background provided;
• why teaching for deeper understanding is
so important;
• agenda posted with approximate times;
• parking lot for questions posted.
• participants experience the difference in
atmosphere when these type of activities
are presented to students;
• hand-out of list and description of
activities for teachers to choose according
to their own classrooms needs;
• importance of inclusive environment
in the classroom, taking into account
the cultural and gender issues in the
classroom atmosphere;
• making the goals visible to students to
ensure understanding of purpose of
building community; and
• taking into account interests (motivators),
learning styles, multiple intelligences,
prior knowledge, etc.
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Chapter 2 Page 37
Time
Topic
Other Details
10 min. Big ideas and stewardship in science program:
• strategies for teachers to help students
• program is developed from the big
develop strong ethical positions
ideas instead of treating curriculum as a
regarding relationships among sciences,
checklist;
technologies, individuals, societies, and
• Where to find the big ideas and the
environments for deeper understanding in
scientific issues (stewardship) will be
science; and
pointed out in the revised science
• big ideas are connected to the ethical
curriculum (2007)
issues being investigated.
• how the curriculum was used to develop
the module for deeper understanding in
science; and
• quality literature to promote deeper
discussion and reflection around those
social and/or environmental issues
related to the concepts.
30 min. Activate and generate background knowledge:
• strategies for teachers to address the
• participants experience a variety of
differing backgrounds of students are
activities that can be used in their
provided
own classrooms to activate students’
• experiential activities can be delivered
prior knowledge, make connections
to help provide deeper background
between students’ different background
knowledge, and also provide necessary
knowledge, and organize information for
knowledge for other students to hang
students to examine and reflect upon;
their learned knowledge onto;
• assessment for learning will be
• English language learners may have
integrated into the activities, but will be
different background knowledge, but still
made transparent for teachers so that
contribute diverse knowledge that can
they too can use these strategies;
benefit all students; and
• Further activities will be provided to
• connections to big ideas.
participants to ensure they are able to
build a growing repertoire of strategies
to use in their own classrooms; and
• the importance of accurate assessment
of students’ background knowledge (and
valuing all knowledge) will be discussed.
45 min. Teaching for deeper understanding:
• the number and type of modelled and
• the importance of looking at different
guided activities will depend upon where
levels as well as different ways
the students are on the continuum of
to develop knowledge; applying
independence;
knowledge to higher order thinking;
• students with a great deal of background
and constructing deeper understanding
knowledge and practical Science
through reflection and discourse.
experience in the issues being investigated
will be far more likely to be more
Vygotsky’s gradual release of responsibility:
independent in focused learning;
• participants provided with information
• importance of students constructing their
about the importance of gradual
own knowledge is key;
release of responsibility to teach
•
students need to be taught how to
students to turn independent inquiries
construct their own knowledge;
into meaningful and deeper learning
experiences;
Chapter 2 Page 38 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Time
Topic
•
Other Details
a variety of examples of what activities
• once students gain sufficient expertise
might look like at each level of
and confidence, they can be encouraged
independence is provided;
to conduct student-directed, open-ended
• information and assessment for learning
science and invention projects;a wide
strategies is provided to participants
range of knowledge about a science
to ensure they are comfortable with
issue, as well as more detailed knowledge
making professional decisions on when
about a science concept are important for
to use these activities; and
deeper understanding;
• all activities are connected to the big
• students need to gain their knowledge
ideas and around the stewardship links.
not only through a gradual release
of responsibility, but also through
Modeled Activities:
a variety of learning modes; and a
• teachers need to model and discuss with
variety of teaching strategies including
students how to do science activities
literacy inquiries, experiments, handsin order for all students to learn
on activities, discussions, debates, the
important concepts; and
use of technology, and other modes of
• these activities should be interactive
information gathering. is provided within
and involve students so they are able to
the framework of the modelled, guided,
construct their own understanding in
and independent activities;
more student directed activities.
• the importance of representation
Guided activities:
of women, other cultures etc. is be
• these are activities meant to develop
addressed in the literature;
independent inquiry skills while still
• integrating learning across subject areas
being guided by the teacher;
and making those connections visible;
• these activities are often needed for
• the importance of using graphic organizers
building specific knowledge; and
to organize information, as well as
• provide practice with more student
samples of graphic organizers; and
directed activities.
• a bibliography to supplement the unit is
provided to teachers that includes both
Independently driven activities:
fiction and non-fiction titles, as well as a
• when are students ready for
synopsis on how each title might be used.
independent activities and how the
science classroom be differentiated to
suit all students;
• using assessment as learning is
emphasized;
• the importance of students constructing
their own knowledge is emphasized;
• independent inquiry activities are
emphasized; and
• student-directed activities where
students are able to construct their own
deeper understanding.
45 min. Discourse and reflective practices:
• the gathering of scientific information
• participants experience a number of
does not automatically transfer into
strategies to promote discourse and
knowledge;
reflection in their classroom;
• teachers need to teach students to reflect
• they are provided with further strategies
upon and discuss their perspectives and
to promote within their own classrooms;
connected thoughts;
and
• a number of perspectives of the same
• the use of concept maps to organize
issue are placed on each of the tables for
information is introduced.
participants to complete this activity;
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Chapter 2 Page 39
Time
Topic
Other Details
45 min. One possible activity:
• chart paper and markers are also
• participants are provided with a choice
provided;
of using a concept map or one of a
• hand-out of strategies to develop
variety of graphic organizers to help
reflection skills in students;
organize the collective knowledge within
• strategies to help students ask
their group;
thought provoking questions and to
• participants are asked to fill in one of the
examine scientific issues from different
graphic organizers (or create a concept
perspectives;
map) at their table group;
• concept maps, when created by consensus
• using the information gathered within
within cooperative groups, create an
the graphic organizer or concept map,
atmosphere of discourse and visibly
each group is asked to select one big
provides connections for students to see;
idea (science issue) that is at their
• the use of concept maps allow for
table, to discuss (note: each table will
assessment that is embedded into the
have the same issue, but from different
program
perspectives);
• concept maps immediately show
• each group is asked to record their
what students know and what their
information and thoughts around the
misconceptions are;
issue once consensus has been reached
• how to use students’ misconceptions and
within the group;
knowledge to build deeper understanding
• each group shares their information
through discussion and defending of ideas;
with the whole group and a protocol is
• using oral discussion and graphic
put into place that will allow for a whole
organizers as springboards for deeper
group discussion on the issue;
written reflections;
• participants are asked to complete a
• the importance of key vocabulary is
reflection activity on what they learned
highlighted; and
throughout the above activity; and
• key vocabulary is be used in the creation
• after participants complete one of a
of concept maps.
variety of reflection activities, they are
• parking lot questions responded to (if not
provided with a number of other ideas
already);
and strategies to help students learn to
• goal-setting activity for participants:
reflect on their own thoughts and ideas.
something they are excited about,
something they learned, and something
Debrief:
they would like to try in their class; and
• importance of reflection on information
• evaluation of workshop to be filled out,
linked to meta-cognition;
including something they would like more
• importance of discourse and how we get
in-servicing on.
students to share what they know and
•
•
•
Chapter 2 Page 40 think is linked back to the community of
learners;
importance of small group and whole
group information gathering and debate
in a safe environment;
the importance of sharing knowledge
from different perspectives and making
connections between the perspectives;
the importance of examining both
the pros and the cons of scientific and
technological advances; and
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Time
Topic
•
Other Details
higher level questioning and how to get
students to ask those questions as a
result of discourse and reflection.
Where we go from here:
• questions answered;
• question boards and other inquiry
generating strategies are discussed;
• participants reflect upon what they are
willing to try within their classroom; and
• evaluation of workshop and module.
Literature to Support Science Module
Title
A Native American Thought Of It
Apples Here!
Birthday Tree, The
Changing Countryside, The
Diary of a Wombat
Fighting for the Forest
First Snow in the Woods
Great Kapok Tree, The
Giving Tree, The
How Many Seeds in a Pumpkin?
If…
Imagine a House
In My Garden
In the Trees, Honey Bees
Lorax, The
Let’s Go Home
Let’s Build a Clubhouse
Love Your World
My Little Round House
Maxine’s Tree
One Green Apple
Our Big Home
Old House, The
One Potato, Two Potato
On Grandpa’s Farm
Planting a Rainbow
Potatoes, Potatoes
Pumpkin, Pumpkin
Serious Farm
Salmon Forest
ISBN
9781554511549
0807503975
9780763626044
9780976205647
0805054669
9780977010868
015200520X
0060256656
9780375840142
9780892363216
0972684905
0688076319
9781584691143
9780394823379
9781416908395
9780618306701
9780756645908
9780888999344
0920501389
9780618434770
0761316507
9780525477969
9780374356408
0395765064
9780152626099
0060518170
0688056954
061822694X
1550549375
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 2 Page 41
Title
Stranger in the Woods
Searcher and the Old Tree, The
Science in Ancient Egypt
Science in Ancient Rome
Science in Ancient Mesopotamia
Science in Ancient China
Science in Ancient Greece
Science in Early Islamic Cultures
S is for Save the Planet
Thea’s Tree
Tractor Day
Ten Things I Can Do To Help My World
Umbrella, The
Varmints
Why War is Never a Good Idea
Wonderful Houses Around the World
Wump World
ISBN
9780967174808
9781580892230
0531159159
0531159167
0531159302
0531159140
0531159299
9781585364282
9780525474432
9780802780904
9780763641443
0399242155
9780763637965
9780060753856
9780936070346
0395311292
Literature to Support Inclusive Classrooms
Primary and Junior Levels
Title
Almost to Freedom
All the Colours We Are
Ashanti to Zulu, African Traditions
All Kinds of Families
Amelia to Zora
Abuela’s Weave
A Remainder of One
Always Prayer Shawl, the
Are You a Boy or a Girl?
A Northern Alphabet
Angel Child, Dragon Child
Asha’s Mums
ABC I Can Be
Amos and Susie, an Amish Story
A Light in the Darkness
Amazing Grace
Babies Can’t Eat Kimchee!
Black Book of Colors, The
Baya, Baya, Lulla-by-a
Chapter 2 Page 42 ISBN
9781575053424
0934140804
0140546049
0807502820
9781570915239
1880000202
9780618250776
0140561579
1896781144
0887762336
0590422715
0889611432
1564581217
1561480886
0968067891
0711206708
9781599900179
0888998732
068984932X
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Title
Baseball Saved Us
Bracelet, The
Belinda the Balerina
Brown Honey in Broomwheat Tea
Boy in the Attic, The
Beethoven Lives Upstairs
Breadwinner, The
Bullies are a Pain in the Brain
Brother Eagle, Sister Sky
Baseball Bats for Christmas
Between Earth and the Sky
Black Snowman, The
Big Storm, The
Bare Naked Book, The
Bein’ With You This Way
Best Best Colors
Chanuka Lights Everywhere
Chicken Sunday
Crane Girl, The
Celebrating Chinese New Year
Children Just Like Me
Carpet Boy’s Gift, The
Canada Celebrates Multiculturalism
A Candle for Christmas
Chin Chiang and the Dragon’s Dance
A Calendar of Festivals
Cornrows
Crying Christmas Tree, The
Children’s Book of Kwanzaa
Cliques, Phonies and Other Baloney
Composition, The
Corn Grows Ripe, The
Chrysanthemum
Chinese New Year’s Dragon
Carrying
Colors Around Me
Charlie Anderson
Caribbean Dream
Celebrations of Light
Come Sit By Me
Dear Children of the Earth
ISBN
1880000199
039922503X
0670035491
0064434397
00888993307
1895555213
0888994168
1575420236
0803709692
1550371444
0152020624
0590448730
1550741179
0920303536
1880000261
1884834698
0152024476
0698116151
077375718X
0823413934
155158019X
0884482480
0865053006
0888947836
0888991673
190122368X
0698114361
092182713X
0689815565
1575420457
0888995504
0140363130
0688147321
0671886029
157505373
0910030154
0689801149
0399232303
068931986X
0889611416
1559712252
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 2 Page 43
Title
Dumpling Soup
Don’t Laugh At Me
Daniel’s Dog
Dear Willie Rudd
Diwali
Echoes from the Square
Explorers
Eid-ul-Fitr
Everybody Cooks Rice
Elijah’s Angel
Everett Anderson’s Goodbye
Fire at the Triangle Factory
Fly Away Home
From Far Away
Freedom child of the Sea
Fighting for the Forest
Girls Hold Up This World
Granny and Me
Girl who Loved Caterpillars, The
Great Kapok Tree, The
Gleam and Glow
Grandfather’s Journey
Great Peace March, The
Giving Tree, The
Holly’s Secret
Home
Hooway for Wodney Wat
Hopscotch Around the World
Help is on the Way
How My Parents Learned to Eat
Handful of Seeds, A
Hands are not for Hitting
Hush!
It’s Okay to be Different
If You Could Wear My Sneakers
I Hate English!
I Have a Dream
If the World Were a Village
I’m Deaf and It’s Okay
Inuksuk Journey
Imagine That!
Chapter 2 Page 44 ISBN
0316730475
1582460582
0590732056
0671797743
0713640280
0921156995
0778700267
0713640839
0876145918
0152015582
0805008004
0876149700
0395559626
155037396X
1550373722
0805054669
043987937
0889611955
0698113934
015200520X
0152025960
0395570352
0805053506
0060256656
0374332738
0064434702
0395923921
0688084192
1557895057
0395442354
1895555272
1575420775
0590208330
0531095002
0316666033
0385256779
0590423045
0590205161
9781550747799
0807734722
9781897349267
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Title
Imani’s Gift at Kwanzaa
In the Snow
Inuksuk Book, The
Is there Really a Human Race?
JoJo’s Flying Side Kick
Just Add One Chinese Sister
Jeremiah Learns to Read
Just Kids
Journey to Jo’burg
Just Us Women
Jobs People Do
Kids Book of Canada, The
Keeping Quilt, The
Kevin and His Dad
Kyle’s Bath
Kente Dress for Kenya, A
Little Oh
Lulie the Iceberg
Little Water and the Gift of the Animals
Love You Forever
Lights for Gita
Living Things
Love is as Strong as Ginger
Loving
Light in the Darkness, A
Legend of the Pointsettia
Mr. Lincoln’s Way
Musicians
Mrs. Katz and Tush
Maple Moon
Music for Everyone
Mud City
Magical Starfruit Tree, The
My Two Uncles
My Little Book of Chinese Words
Mufaro’s Beautiful Daughters
Mama Do You Love Me?
Magid Fasts for Ramadan
Mama’s Saris
Name Jar, The
Nutmeg Princess, The
ISBN
0773732217
0671798413
0805031723
1895688914
0060753463
0689821921
1563979896
0590249274
0525456465
0064402371
0064430561
1551441667
1550746155
0689820909
0316798991
0919143059
0590537350
0688142095
1568362722
0887764002
0920668372
092900619
1550743430
0689812485
0688136133
0968067891
0399216928
9780399237546
0778700313
044049365
0773730176
0688078117
0888995423
0941831892
080755507X
9780735821743
0590420585
0590459848
039566892
9780316011051
037580613X
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 2 Page 45
Title
Nobel Prize Winners
Napachee
No Word for Good-bye
One Hundred Shining Candles
One Grain of Rice
Owen and Mzee
O Christmas Tree
On the Day You Were Born
One is Canada
One
One Peace
Peace Begins with You
Parvanna’s Journey
Peace One Day
Paperbag Princess, The
People Who Hugged the Trees
Political Leaders
Polar Bear Son, The
Raisel’s Riddle
Rough Faced Girl, The
Red Tree, The
Roses in my Carpets, The
Rosa Parks
Ramadan
Rainbow is Our Face
Red Parka Mary
Shades of Black
Something From Nothing
Sacred Places
Sadako
Sandwich, The
Silent Music
Stop Picking On Me
Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt
Smokey Night
Squarehead
Somewhere In the World Right Now
Silence in the Mountains, The
Something Beautiful
Stand Up Speak Out
Somewhere Today
Chapter 2 Page 46 ISBN
1-55037236X
0778700291
0888784031
07772590060
1550136364
059093998X
9780439899598
1563972379
0152579958
0006386636
9780972394642
9781551438924
0316774405
0888995199
0399243305
0920236162
1879373505
0778700305
0395975670
0374361681
0399218599
9780968876831
0773730923
0064420256
082341275X
0863162177
092187504
0439148928
0590745573
9780152699536
0698115880
0919964028
9781596432765
043976680X
0679874720
0152018840
0618083782
0679885498
0531300846
0440412102
158728514X
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Title
Seven Candles for Kwanzaa
Touch of the Zebras, A
Too Many Tamales
Tiger Flowers
Ten Little Fingers and Ten Little Toes
Token Gift, The
Too Far Away to Touch
Thank You, Mr. Falker
Tallchief: American Prima Ballerina
Talking Walls
Two Pairs of Shoes
Tiktala
Talk About Books: Brothers
Talk About Books: Sisters
Tiny Kite of Eddie Wing
Writers
Who’s In a Family?
We Are All Born Free
Working Cotton
Willow and Twig
W is for World, Around the World ABC
Why Are People Different?
The Wall
Waiting for the Whales
William’s Doll
Weird Parents
Wolf Island
Yetsa’s Sweater
Zen Ties
Zoom!
ISBN
0807575453
01140564284
0889614105
0399221468
0803714076
9780152060572
1550374982
0395689686
043909836X
0670887560
0884481654
0927827156
0773729208
1550372742
1550372750
0773728651
0778700275
188367266X
9781845076504
0152996249
0141306696
071121364X
0746010141
0395629772
0920501966
0064430677
01405494242
0550740954
9781550391558
9780439634250
Literature to Support Science Big Ideas
Primary and Junior Levels
Title
A Native American Thought Of It
An Egg is Quiet
Changing Countryside, The
Crow and the Pitcher, The
Disappearing Island, The
Diary of a Wombat
ISBN
9781554511549
9780811844284
9780976205647
9781582460871
068980539X
9780002005616
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 2 Page 47
Title
First Snow in the Woods
Fighting for the Forest
Great Kapok Tree, The
If…
Lorax, The
Librarian Who Measured the Earth
Love Your World
Making the World
Maxine’s Tree
On My Island
Our Big Home
One Tiny Turtle
Salmon Forest
Stranger in the Woods
Science Verse
Scientists
Science in Ancient Egypt
Science in Ancient Rome
Science in Ancient Mesopotamia
Science in Ancient China
Science in Ancient Greece
Science in Early Islamic Cultures
Sun, the Wind and the Rain, The
S is for Save the Planet
Ten Things I Can Do To Help My World
Umbrella, The
Varmints
Warlord’s Alarm, The
What’s Older than a Giant Tortoise?
Why War is Never a Good Idea
Winston of Churchill
Wump World
ISBN
9780977010868
0805054669
015200520X
9780892363216
9780394823379
03165155264
9780756645908
9780689813580
0920501389
088899396X
0761316507
0439582903
1550549375
9780967174808
0670910570
0778700283
0531159159
0531159167
0531159302
0531159140
0531159299
0805014810
9781585364282
9780763641443
0399242155
9780763637965
9781589803787
0807588326
9780060753856
9781570615436
0395311292
Activities that Help Reflection
Discourse and Reflection
Discourse and reflection are crucial for students to deepen their understanding of social and ecological issues
related to science topics. Students need opportunities to share their thoughts orally, practice within small
groups, and also in written form. Asking students to revisit prompts, as they learn more information about
scientific concepts, promotes an avenue for deeper, more meaningful thought. A call to action for students is a
valuable motivator.
Chapter 2 Page 48 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
When students are passionate about a topic and allowed to write letters, or create an information campaign,
they begin to independently investigate further.
Inside/outside Circle
Have students number off one, two. Have the number one students form a circle, and then face outwards. Have
number two students face a partner. The result is a double circle, with each student having a partner. Students
complete a prompt or answer a question with their partner. Ask students in the outside circle to move two
people to the right, while the inside circle remains in the same place. Students are able to practice and refine
their thoughts while hearing other students’ perspectives on the same question or prompt in a safe arena.
Placemat
Students begin by drawing a circle or rectangle in the centre of chart paper and then organize areas surrounding
the centre shape in order to equally share the remaining space. Placemat is a collaborative group activity where
each student fills in his or her thoughts about a prompt or topic independently into a specific area of a graphic
organizer. They share their thoughts in round robin fashion to ensure all students have a voice. The students
collaborate and come to agreement on a group effort to responds to the prompt or topic, and then record the
information in the centre of the organizer.
Quick write
The purpose of a quick write is to generate a number of initial ideas in a very short time. Quick write generates a
flow of ideas. Students can then share some of their thoughts.
Graffiti
Students are provided with a several related prompts, one on each of several chart paper pages. Each group
is provided with one chart at a time. Students record quick thoughts onto the chart in graffiti style for several
minutes (in response to the specific prompt), and then pass the chart paper to the next group. As each group
receives a new chart paper, the group reads the new prompt and the graffiti already written and then records
their new thoughts onto the paper. Once the chart paper pages return to the original owners, the group reads
over the chart and summarizes the thoughts recorded.
Rally Robin
Teachers provide a prompt or question for students to focus on. Student partners share ideas to respond to the
prompt, back and forth like a tennis match, without repeating ideas. Students have a predetermined time frame
within which they share ideas.
Four Corners
The teacher provides four perspectives on an issue or prompts. Students are either directed, or free to choose
the perspective that interests them. Once at their area, they discuss and possibly record their ideas from the
given perspective. For example, after reading Who’s In Maxine’s Tree by Diane Leger, students go to one of four
areas to discuss and respond to one of four different group perspectives. Students might be asked to discuss the
clear cutting of Carmanagh Valley from the perspective of a paper mill, the hikers (Maxine’s family), the loggers,
or the marbled murrelet. Once students have discussed the issue of clear cutting, they present their arguments
from the perspective of their corner.
Q Chart
The Q Chart is a graphic organizer that helps students develop higher level questions. Teachers should model
its use before asking students to develop their own higher-level questions. This way, teachers and students can
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 2 Page 49
begin to develop prompts that promote critical literacy and higher level of thinking for students to respond both
orally and in writing. Journal prompts can be generated using the Q Chart and big ideas, or environmental issues
from literature.
Journal Reflections
Teachers may wish to follow up oral activities where students practice their views and thoughts on prompts and/
or issues presented, by having students write their reflections in regular journal entries. Students should reflect
on the issues, relate it to their own perspectives/experiences as well as others, and respond with possible actions
they could take to help correct the issue. For instance, researching a topic further, writing letters to someone
who could make a difference, or taking some sort of social action could be part of the solution. Students who
are provided with opportunities to revisit issues after learning more about the topic from different perspectives,
will be able to make deeper connections to their own sense of justice and global understanding. Prompts for
journal reflections might be generated using the big ideas, critical literacy responses to literature, or from a Q
Chart.
Building an Inclusive Classroom Atmosphere
Two for Everyone
This is an activity that works particularly well to bring the students closer together, and promotes a general
feeling of belonging for all students. This activity been used in junior classrooms, but could be easily completed
orally in primary classrooms as well.
Students are provided with a class list and asked to provide two statements for each student that describes
that person. Statements MUST be positive and not about appearance. Comments such as: has a good sense of
humour, makes me feel welcome, or is really good at math, are examples of acceptable statements. I usually
begin this activity with a candid talk about how everyone has good qualities, no matter how old they are, or who
they are. Some people may not be as friendly, but perhaps they do nice things. Some students may not feel as
comfortable with written work but can verbally explain a math problem when using manipulatives. In tae kwon
do, a white belt may not be as proficient at the sport as a black belt, but still may be doing many positive things
at that level. Everyone has good qualities no matter who they are. Your job is to come up with two truthful,
positive statements for everyone. Begin with those that come easily to you, and finish the rest over the next
couple of days.
I compile the comments on single typed pages with each student’s name at the top of the page. This takes a
little time, but the outcome is worth every minute. In the beginning of the year, I place the lists on a bulletin
board. At some point throughout the year, I actually put the lists into the students’ report cards. The results are
a boost to self-concept, feelings of cohesion, and belonging for every student. I have never had a student unable
to find two positive statements for all. I have included some actual lists, but have changed the names.
Two Truths and a Wish
Having students get to know each other at a deeper level helps build empathy for each other. Such activities
as this one do wonders to build trust and empathy, and while they are effective throughout the year, they are
particularly helpful in the beginning of the year. Talking with students regularly about what empathy, inclusion,
and team work requires should also accompany these activities.
Students make two statements about themselves that other students may or may not know, and then add one
statement that is not quite true, that other students may or may not know. The class guesses what’s true and
what is a wish. I find it works best if the teacher provides two truths and a wish first.
Chapter 2 Page 50 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
I Am From - We Are From
Have students work individually first to create an I am From poem using the following prompts:
•
I am from… (describe a favourite food to eat)
•
I am from… (a geographical path I cross or pass each day)
•
I am from… (a favourite family saying)
•
I am from… (a keepsake that I would never throw away)
•
I am from… (a place in the world I would visit if I could go anywhere)
Students share their poems with the table group. Once everyone has shared, the group creates a table group
poem to share with the whole class. The following prompts could be used, but a different set of prompts could
be selected to suit the make-up of the class:
•
We are from… (the favourite foods of the group)
•
We are from… (the items passed by each of the group members each day)
•
We are from… (favourite family sayings)
•
We are from… (things that will never be thrown away)
•
We are from… (the places in the world the members would like to travel to)
Each group shares with the whole class. The whole class could make up a poem using the same or new prompts.
If there is a wide diversity of family backgrounds or family heritage, this might make a great prompt for the
whole class. Post the poem of We Are From… to remind students of where they are from, collectively.
Who is in Our Group?
Have students complete a survey and graph to determine where everyone’s family or ancestors are from. You
may need to have students research at home to find out which countries everyone in their family is from. Some
students’ family ancestors may have multiple countries of origin. A map of the world with markers showing
family origins might be quite interesting. You may define how far back you wish students to go if there are
aboriginal students in the class. A discussion about the immigration of people to Canada is a natural next step to
this activity.
Ask students to create a graph of how many languages everyone knows. Depending on the make-up of the
class, you may wish to define knowledge as being able to count to ten, or to hold a simple conversation, in that
language. Some students may know some Korean words if they take tae kwon do, or may already know French
or Spanish through television shows. Others may learn a language at home. This activity promotes a positive
attitude towards diversity.
Author Board
Have students create an author’s biography for themselves. First investigate the types of things found in an
author’s biography. Take pictures of students and post the pictures and biographies together. I photocopied
these to put in the back of any published work the students completed. It builds self-worth and pride in their
accomplishments.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 2 Page 51
Time-line of My Life
Have students create a map or time-line of their lives. They should first think of all the key points in their lives.
Some examples may be: when my baby sister was born, when I lost my first tooth, when I learned to ride my
bike, when I moved, etc. Students should be able to colour and create illustrations and captions to help them
share with a partner. Students should be reminded to include those things they are comfortable sharing.
Partners should be able to determine what the similarities and differences are in the two life timelines/maps.
Have students share with the whole class something positive and interesting they learned from their partner.
Me in an Inside/Outside Circle
Have students first reflect upon the following prompts. They may wish to record some of their ideas on an
organizer. Remind students that only positive comments are acceptable.
•
I am always…
•
I like to…
•
I need…
•
I value…
Number the students off one, two. Have the students who are numbered one create a circle. Once they have
organized a circle, have them remain in their circle but face outwards. Those students who are numbered two
can then join the circle by facing a student already inside. The result is an inside circle of students, facing an
outside circle of students. Have students share their responses to their prompts and ask any questions with the
person they are facing.
Once students have finished sharing, have the outside circle move two people to the right. The students on the
inside circle stay where they are. Once each student is facing a new partner, they may share their responses
and ask any questions. Students may move several times and share their responses with several partners. Once
students have done this several times, they may sit in their seats again. Ask students if they have changed their
minds at all after listening to their classmates’ ideas. Ask students what they learned from this activity.
What’s in Your Suitcase?
Model this activity for your students before asking them to do it themselves. It will help provide a connection
between yourself and your students. By selecting artifacts that reflect parts of you, you provide kinesthetic
manipulatives to guide a sharing of yourself. Encourage students to be creative with their artifacts. Remind
them that all comments and connections must be positive things about you. I often share a favourite picture
book because I love good books, something that reminds of how much I love teaching, something that reminds
me of my own children, a coffee cup because I love good coffee and a ticket because I love theatre. I pull each
item out of a tacky suitcase I found at a dollar store, and explain each item’s connection to myself.
Sometimes, I also use this activity to share key messages in a story from the Literature to Support Inclusive
Classrooms list. I might share the artifacts before reading the book, and ask students what they are and how
they might be connected to the story. After reading the book, I again ask students to reflect upon what the
artifacts might mean or connect to the story. A discussion of the key messages in the story then follows.
Listening and Speaking Anchor Charts
Accountable talk is important in an inclusive classroom. Students need to be explicitly taught how to listen and
how to respond to classmates respectfully. A Guide to Effective Literacy Instruction, Ontario Ministry, (2006)
provides a sample that can be used in the classroom.
Chapter 2 Page 52 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Students should discuss and find examples of what each example looks, sounds like, and feels like.
Actions
• talk one at a time;
• make eye contact;
• watch the speaker;
• stay on topic;
• setting goals for the conversation;
• seek input from listeners;
• offer opinions in a respectful way;
• express ideas and opinions;
• nodding in agreement;
• smiling to encourage others;
• writing ideas; and
• maintain focus and concentration.
Words
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
“I like the way you…”
“We can build on ….’s idea by… .”
“Can you explain your…”
I think _______ is saying…”
I agree with ______ because…”
I disagree with ______’s statement
because...”
“That’s a great idea, ______!”
“Can you help me to understand…?”
Listening Triads
This activity creates a situation where students practice listening, paraphrasing, and providing descriptive
feedback to one another. Have students work in triad groups. Assign each student a number or letter. Explain
that each student will have a chance to practice each role. The roles will be observer, speaker, and listener. The
observer will watch the speaker and listener for evidence of listening and speaking respectfully. The observer
will provide descriptive feedback to the speaker and listener on how well they did in their roles.
Remind observers to find at least one positive comment and provide one or two suggestions for improvement.
The listener should use the anchor charts to follow the rules of active listening. Once the speaker has finished
speaking, the listener is to paraphrase what the speaker said. The speaker is to then clarify any statements that
weren’t as clear to the listener.
The speaker will be able to speak about a topic for two to five minutes (dependent on grade level). The speaker
should use the anchor charts to help speak respectfully. There should be three rounds of this activity to ensure
all students are able to practice each role.
Round one
Round two
Round three
Student Number One
Observer
Speaker
Listener
Student Number Two
Listener
Observer
Speaker
Student Number Three
Speaker
Listener
Observer
When finished, debrief with the students by asking the following questions:
•
Why was it important to have an observer?
•
How can you tell if someone is being a good listener?
•
How well did you attend to the listening?
•
How well did you paraphrase what you heard?
•
How can we be better listeners and speakers?
•
How could this process be used to problem solve during an argument?
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 2 Page 53
Experiment Templates
Experiment
Title
Scientist:
Date:
Your Name
Purpose:
To explain exactly what you will be testing in future tense.
Hypothesis:
This will happen. A logical explanation of what you feel should happen. State this in present or future
tense and be direct. No wishy-washy wording!
Materials:
A complete list
Procedure:
1. In past tense.
2. Numbers indented slightly.
3. Must explain all the important steps of the experiment clearly using scientific words.
4. Must be able to tell that it was a fair test by looking at the procedural steps.
Observations:
• Pictures and words or just words.
• Use labels for pictures.
• Use a ruler where possible.
• Use scientific vocabulary to explain what happened.
• In past tense.
• Be precise and use details.
Conclusions:
Go back to the purpose and reply to the statement. If the observations did not show what they should
have, explain what should have happened. If the observations did show what they were supposed to,
explain why. This should be more than one sentence, but no more than seven.
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Experiment Template
Experiment on:
Scientist:
Date:
Your Name
Purpose:
Hypothesis:
Procedure:
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Observations:
Conclusions:
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Experiment - Plant Needs
Title
Scientist:
Date:
Your Name
Purpose:
What does a plant need to grow?
Hypothesis:
Procedure:
1. Plant six sets of beans in the cups provided.
2. Label and test one of each of the cups for one of the following:
• dark
• light
• soil
• no soil
• warmth
• no warmth
3. Design and write up steps to test each variable.
4. Observe what happens to each plant.
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Observations:
Conclusions:
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Experiment - Plant and Water
Title
Scientist:
Date:
Your Name
Purpose:
Do flowers (plant) drink water?
Hypothesis:
The flowers will turn the same colour as the water. The flower in the clear water will stay white. This
will happen because flowers and plants do drink water.
Procedure:
1. Put a white carnation in water with blue food colouring.
2. Put a white carnation in water with red food colouring.
3. Put a white carnation in water with no food colouring.
4. Wait several days.
5. Observe the flowers. What do you see? What does this tell you?
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Observations:
Conclusions:
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Experiment - Soil Separation 1
Title
Scientist:
Date:
Your Name
Purpose:
What different parts of soil are there?
Can you separate the parts using a soil sieve?
Hypothesis:
Materials:
Procedure:
1. Place about four cups of potting soil into a soil sieve, a little at a time until all soil is worked through
to the next level.
2. Take turns working the soil through the different levels of the soil sieve using a spoon. It will take a
long time. Be careful not to damage the soil sieve.
3. What happened? Did the soil separate into parts? What is in each part of the separated soil?
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Observations:
Conclusions:
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Experiment - Soil Separation 2
Title
Scientist:
Date:
Your Name
Purpose:
What different parts of soil are there?
Can you separate the parts using water?
Hypothesis:
Materials:
Procedure:
1. Place potting soil into a jar that has an air-tight lid. The jar should be two-thirds full of soil.
2. Add water until the jar is just more than three-quarters full.
3. Replace lid tightly. Make certain that it doesn’t leak.
4. Shake the solution vigorously for about three minutes.
5. Let the solution rest for at least thirty minutes before making any observations.
6. What do you see in the jar? Did the soil separate? What happened?
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Observations:
Conclusions:
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Experiment - Grass and Soil
Title
Scientist:
Date:
Your Name
Purpose:
What type of soil does grass and other plants grow the best on?
Hypothesis:
Procedure:
1. Plant equal amounts of grass seed on the following types of soil:
• Clay;
• Humus;
• potting soil; and
• sand mixture.
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Observations:
Conclusions:
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Experiment - Bean Seeds
Title
Scientist:
Date:
Your Name
Purpose:
What way will a bean plant grow if it is planted upside down?
Hypothesis:
Procedure:
1. Place a folded paper towel in a baggie and moisten the paper to ensure the bean seeds have enough
water.
2. Plant four bean seeds in a plastic baggie.
3. Two seeds should be upside down and two seeds should be upside right.
4. Label the baggie with your name and hang on the bulletin board.
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Observations:
Conclusions:
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Experiment - Plants Drinking Water
Title
Scientist:
Date:
Your Name
Purpose:
Do plants drink water?
Hypothesis:
Procedure:
1. Put a celery stalk in water with blue food colouring.
2. Put a celery stalk in water with red food colouring.
3. Put a celery stalk in water with no food colouring. This is our control group.
4. Wait several days.
5. Dry off the celery stalks and observe them.
6. Use a plastic knife to cut out the tubes and observe them. (Hint: cut the stalk cross wise to find
them and then cut it lengthwise to cut them out)
7. What happened? How do you know?
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Observations:
Conclusions:
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Experiment - Sea Water and Bean Plants
Title
Scientist:
Date:
Your Name
Purpose:
Will plants grow if they are watered with salt water?
Hypothesis:
Procedure:
1. Plant two separate cups of bean seeds in the same type of soil.
2. Treat them the same except for the water used to water them.
3. Water one cup of beans with a mixture of salt water.
4. Water the other cup of beans with fresh water.
5. Wait a couple of weeks, watering each cup the same amount of the two different water solutions.
6. What happened to each set of bean plants?
7. What would happen if other plants were watered with fresh rain water?
8. What would happen if other plants were watered with sea water?
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Observations:
Conclusions:
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Experiment - Erosion 1
Title
Scientist:
Date:
Your Name
Purpose:
What happens when water (rain) falls slowly onto soil? Does the type of soil make a difference?
Hypothesis:
Materials:
Procedure:
1. Using your hands, pack some potting soil onto a board. It should be 2 cm thick.
2. Place the board on an angle using something stable.
3. Slowly drip water onto the soil as though it were raining.
4. Gradually drip the water at a greater pace, as though the rain were getting heavier.
5. What happens?
6. Repeat the experiment for different types of soil.
7. Compare the soils and how they erode when water is dropped onto them.
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Observations:
Conclusions:
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Experiment - Erosion 2
Title
Scientist:
Date:
Your Name
Purpose:
What happens when water (rain) falls slowly onto soil with grass growing on it?
Does the type of soil make a difference? Why?
Hypothesis:
Materials:
Procedure:
1. Using samples of grass growing on different types of soils, carefully place all the soil and the grass on
a board.
2. Place the board on an angle using something stable.
3. Slowly drip water onto the soil as though it were raining.
4. Gradually drip the water at a greater pace, as though the rain were getting heavier.
5. What happens?
6. Repeat the experiment for different types of soil.
7. Compare the samples and how they erode when water is dropped onto them. Was there a
difference? Why do you think this happened?
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Observations:
Conclusions:
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Habitats and Communities,
Structures and Mechanisms,
and Science Technologies
By John Bertram
3
Habitats and Communities: Grade Four Life Systems Strand
Learning Object Abstract
This is a research-based unit reflecting student-created questions coupled with authentic activities, which
engages prior knowledge. The application of this knowledge builds upon and enhances the students’ developing
skills while addressing the various learning styles of the participants. The study of habitat/community in nature
is compared and contrasted to their habitat/community in their class and in their own home communities.
Purpose of Learning Object
The purpose of the learning is to:
•
identify factors that affect habitats and communities of plants/animals through questions, centres, and
reflections of prior knowledge from books, documents, video, and audio sources;
•
investigate interrelationships of plants/animals in a specific community through four authentic activities;
•
describe ways humans can change habitats and the effects on these communities by preparing reports,
demonstrations, and presentations reflecting their learning styles; and
•
build a class community through inclusive participation.
These will be accomplished through co-operative group work and individual contributions alike. The participants
will realize the applicability of their learning to many habitats/communities.
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Description of Learning Tasks
Culminating Tasks
The culminating tasks involve:
•
a creation of a varieties of shoe-box dioramas each representing a specific habitat;
•
six groups of students choose, research and create a depiction of their chosen habitat, complete with the
appropriate flora and fauna demonstrating how they interact, and how they are dependent upon their
own environment;
•
after each group presents their research and product, they assemble the dioramas in a such a way as to
demonstrate the inter-relatedness and the effects that each habitat (environment) has on the next; and
•
a thread or coloured string can connect each diorama to the other to demonstrate the connectedness as
well as the fragile nature of their co-existence, should one of the habitats cease to exist or collapse.
Curriculum Connections
Following are the curriculum subject areas and links to Ontario curriculum.
Social Studies: Canada & World Connections: Provinces & Territories of Canada. See Diva
Anderson.
Language: Oral communication, Reading, Writing, and Media Literacy.
The Arts: Visual Arts.
Mathematics: Problem-solving, Reflecting, Connecting, and Representing.
Health and Physical Education: Healthy Living.
Required Resources
For the Teacher
Books, DVDs, pictures, art supplies, and internet.
For the Student
Books from which to select their own topic, imagination, curiosity, and a sense of wonder.
Skill Level Needed for the Teacher
Demonstrated ability to model and to facilitate inquiry-based research and time management to complete the
culminating activity.
Skill Level Needed for the Student
A grade four reading level and an open mind with a willingness to explore, research, and formulate hypotheses
based upon findings. A capacity to integrate the findings into a completed product to be presented and
discussed, a willingness to work in a research-based group (community).
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Assessment
Teaching for Deep Understanding includes a template for formative assessment and a detailed account of the
assessment process that is pertinent to best practices. A four-step method is to be used for ongoing, formative
assessment.
Step one:
Understanding the issue and searching for the questions arising from their puzzlement (habitat
with all of its subtleties i.e., looking at it holistically). This will be addressed through open-ended
questions, interviews and conferences.
Step two:
Creating a plan reflecting upon prior knowledge and comparing it to other past and present
experiences (regarding the habitat and well as the task at hand) and selecting the appropriate
strategies to research and proceed with the inquiry. This will be addressed through journals,
task lists, and problem-solving work plans, each group setting the tasks to be covered, the goals,
and the division of workload.
Step three:
Carry out the plan. Be able to articulate the plan, sharing and listening to input from others.
Review and complete the plan. This will be addressed through conferences, problem-solving,
and T-charts.
Step four:
Reviews the methods, checks for accuracy and the effectiveness of presentation in order share
the deeper learning, while ensuring that each individual’s ideas and experiences are honoured,
and adding values being demonstrated and discussed. This will be addressed by observation of
the demonstration, interviews of all participants, questioning and self-assessment tools for each
group.
Each of the four steps will be assessed through a variety of means, including, but not limited to, observations,
interviews, conferences, journals, problem-solving, and open-ended questioning. The value of each approach is
dependent upon the nature of the projects and the depth of understanding being sought.
A physical template may be created based on the depth of knowledge being sought and pertaining to the
individual class needs and background knowledge.
Scope and Sequence
This module would be best suited to the early fall or spring terms due to the need for the students to observe
active habitats (although hibernation should be discussed). Typically, this module would take approximately five
to six weeks to be deeply explored and fully understood. The suggested order of events is as follows.
Beginning: an activity to introduce interdependence, a classroom discussion and game that reinforces the
concept of dependence, a query corner where students may write down or record their questions about habitats
and communities, and a research centre to discover answers.
Middle: a number of observations through discussions, research in books, field trips and mini-projects chosen
by groups, and activities and demonstration of how humans can affect each one, thereby affecting all of the
habitats and communities.
End: a celebration of learning, as each group of children present their shoebox dioramas which demonstrate the
interdependence and inter-relatedness of life as represented inside the shoebox. Students can tie these boxes
together representing a more global picture of interdependence of habitats and communities. As a final activity,
they can create dramas, or become news reporters about stewardship of the planet, and how we need to protect
our environment(s). The ultimate goal is to more deeply understand how changes in habitats have a larger effect
and that we rely greatly upon plants and animals.
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Accommodations or Modifications
While this module is designed for general class study, it may be used for specifically identified groups of
students. Multiple intelligences, individual learning styles (visual, auditory, and tactile), and specific needs will
be addressed, along with student levels of prior knowledge.
Each group will present according to the group members needs and approaches. Each group is comprised of
students representing their own unique abilities and learning levels. These include ESL/ESD students who are
becoming familiar with new vocabulary while being introduced to the elements of their new home.
It includes special needs students whereby outdoor activities and varied media will engage gross motor and
hands-on investigation without relying heavily upon pencil-paper tasks and reading from dense texts. It also
includes all students of all abilities whereby strengths are emphasized and weaknesses are supported by the
variety of approaches in expressing their deeper understanding.
Differentiation
The tasks will be differentiated in the following manner. Hands-on activities would include sorting through
visual/pictorial cards, sorting out images to form a viable community, exploring an outdoor environment with
magnifying lenses, drawing paper, plasticine, cameras, tape recorders, binoculars, and note pads. Research
tasks will include reading picture books, texts, magazine and newspaper articles, and viewing and listening
to audio-visual materials. Rich discussion and questions will arise from each of these approaches. The
intention is to reach children with all types of learning styles and needs and to assure success. Each group will
present according to their specific aspect of the topic chosen and each presentation will reflect the depth of
understanding achieved for that group.
Research Base
Foundation Literature
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education.
Montessori, M. (1909). The Method of Scientific Pedagogy As Applied to Infant Education in the Children’s
Houses.
Piaget, J. (1928). The Child’s Conception of the World. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.
Mid-Twentieth Century Research
Burnett, A. (1962). Montessori Education Today and Yesterday. The Elementary School Journal. Vol.63. pp7177. (The developmental aspects of the whole child are the basis for school curriculum.)
Elkind, D. (1970). Children and Adolescents: Interpretative Essays on Jean Piaget. Oxford University Press: New
York. (Ensuring age/grade appropriateness to achieve success and increase self-confidence.)
Holt, J. (1967). How Children Learn. (Revised 1983). (A holistic approach to learning.)
McLuhan, M., Hutchon, K., and McLuhan, E. (1977). City As Classroom: Understanding Language and Media.
The Book Society of Canada Ltd: Agincourt, ON. (Building class community through language and media.)
Teacher’s Guide included.
Twenty-first Century Research
Beard, C. and Wilson, J. P. (2002). The Power of Experiential Learning: For Trainers and Educators. Kogan Page.
London. (Prior knowledge based on attention to students’ ideas.
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Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. (2008). Getting Started in Science: A Blueprint for Elementary School
Science Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Washington, D.C. (A research paper,
which illustrates the need for and suggestions for hands-on reflection and deep understanding.)
Booth, D. and Barton, B. (2000). Storyworks: How Teachers can use Shared Stories in the New Curriculum.
Markham, ON: Pembroke. (Insuring that students’ shared ideas are deepened through classroom
experiences.)
Hodson, D. (1998). Teaching and Learning Science: Towards a Personalized Approach. Maidenhead: Open
University Press. (Connecting Science and Technology with a student’s prior knowledge.)
Lilliard, A. (2006). Science. The Early Years: Evaluating Montessori Education. September 29, 2006. (Exploring
more than strictly academic success.)
Marks, G. N. (2008). Accounting for the Gender Gaps in Student Performance in Reading and Mathematics:
Evidence from 31 Countries. Oxford Review of Education. Vol.34. Iss.1. pp89-109.
McTighe, J. and Wiggins, G. (1999). The Understanding by Design Handbook. Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development. (A format for lessons, ensuring deep understanding.)
Wells, G. (1994). Changing Schools from Within: Creating Schools of Inquiry. Toronto/Portsmouth: NH; OISE
Press/Heinemann. (For inquiry-based programming.)
Submitted by John Bertram: Habitat (Grade 4), Flight (Grade 6) Science and Technology.
Submitted by Diva Anderson: A Region: Economic and Cultural Relationships (Grade 4 Social Studies)
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice
Teaching for Deep Understanding presents topics and activities in a logical, holistic way thereby ensuring
the ownership of the learning to the students. The students take great pride and joy in their completed,
comprehensive projects, these projects being the shoebox dioramas which reflect the interdependence and
inter-relatedness of life.
Teaching for Deep Understanding affirms the sound pedagogical methods of teaching while it challenges
teachers to recognize students’ ideas, objections, and puzzlements. The number of questions being raised in
the query corner illustrates the growing interest and ownership of the students in the topic. Lists of questions,
possible solutions, and findings are presented in informal ways. The student is driving the research and inquiry
via books, media and computers.
Present teaching practice is enhanced by the fact that the class community is strengthened and the interests
and the experiences of the children are being recognized and honoured. The noticeable positive buzz in the
classroom demonstrates the high level of engagement of the students as their points of view and insights are
considered. Mini-projects and discussion groupings as selected by the students effectively move the topic deeper
and farther than before.
Teaching for Deep Understanding affirms student learning by demonstrating the connection of their past
experiences to present situations. It challenges student learning by the fact that it succeeds only by pursuit of
deeper understanding through shared experiences and is applicable to world issues important to us a human
beings. The students demonstrate a keen need to explore further and to dig deeper in their topics while
showing greater levels of comprehension. At the completion of this module, the students will have an enhanced
idea of how to approach a topic of any kind, the understanding of community-based learning and the sense of
honouring each other’s ideas, perspective and values.
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Other Applications (Extensions)
This method of delivery of this module is transferable to other grade levels and subject areas. While the content
of this module is geared specifically to grade four, the approach can be followed in all grades. See grade six,
Lighter Than Air. It is particularly useful in combined grades three/four or four/five as the discussions can carry
over and issues, ideas and puzzlements may be compared and contrasted and the investigative techniques can
be shared. There is a logical connection with grades three/four Habitats and Communities (Grade Four) and
Growth and Changes in Plants (Grade Three), or Human Organ Systems (Grade Five).
Several subjects are related and the skills for each play ideally into this type of approach. These include:
Language Arts, Health, Math, Visual Arts, Social Studies (Canada and World Connections) as well as other strands
in Science and Technology.
Impact Analysis
The fact that Teaching for Deep Understanding is fully compatible with the Ontario curriculum and the ministry
expectations is both reassuring and motivating in itself. The teachers, students and school community at large
review previous methods and realize that surface knowledge is not enough and that by the teaching of deeper
understanding, the students assume more ownership of their learning and therefore feel motivated to explore
further and to try to comprehend the issues and topics more fully and completely.
Impact on the Student
Students become actively engaged as they take ownership of the learning. They are now becoming the masters
of their learning, their motivation increases exponentially.
This project makes a difference in the world of the learner as they become stewards of the earth. Their ideas,
interests and experiences are recognized and validated. The students are able to articulate why the issues and
questions are key to their interests and to human survival.
Since the topics and activities are geared to those that are important for human beings, the students become
better prepared for their own futures. They are more able to deeply comprehend how each habitat is unique
and have its place in our world and why it is so important to protect it.
This whole process enhances both the investigative and organizational aspects of student learning. Student
confidence in presenting learning, plus the “aha” insights which they demonstrate as they understand the
implications of their learning, is evidence of the impact of this process.
The class experiences the further development as an educational community both in the cognitive as well as the
affective domain. Students become more able to relate, question and disagree agreeably in their own problemsolving efforts. The holistic manner of approach demonstrates the applicability of their learning to daily life
experiences. The students see the bigger ideas, ask the big questions, and articulate the key concepts more
knowledgeably.
Impact on the Teacher
Instructional practices, design learning and decision-making take on a new focus and a better-informed delivery.
Through more effective lessons and classroom organization, the class experiences become further developed as
an educational community both in the cognitive as well as the affective domains. Through encouraging a sharing
of ideas, each of the students feel validated and this, in turn, strengthens the feeling of class community.
The teacher sees evidence that the students are more able to relate, question and disagree agreeably in their
own problem-solving efforts.
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The holistic manner of approach demonstrates the applicability of deeper understanding to daily life
experiences.
The success with this approach is noted by the evidence that the students recognize the bigger ideas, ask the big
questions, and articulate the key concepts more knowledgeably.
Impact on the School
The impact has been realized as it has been shared will fellow colleagues. The recognition that the students
were previously learning at a rudimentary, surface level was a concern universally raised by the staff.
From observing the enthusiasm, excitement and motivation expressed by the students who were exposed to this
type of learning, it became noteworthy that the students themselves could more ably articulate what they had
learned and could discuss deeper issues and unearth more driving questions to which they were motivated to
seek the answers.
Further successes were experienced as more and more staff began to incorporate units, topics, and issues which
directly impacted on the students’ prior knowledge, experiences and interests, puzzlements, and ideas.
Broader issues ensued as staff and students collectively focused on topics, which were important to human wellbeing. As a result of this approach, all students are more prepared to complete projects and presentations with
confidence and pride.
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning
Bosak, S. (1992). Science is…A Source Book of Fascinating Fact, Projects and Activities. Scholastic. ISBN 0-59074070-9.
Corney, B. (2004). Inventeering: A Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Technology. Trifolium Books. ISBN
1-55244-014-1
Curriculum Plus. (2001). Sci-Tech Connections Grade 6. Curriculum Plus.
Lawson, J. (2000). Hands-on Science - Level Four. Peguis Publishers. ISBN 1-894110-46-0.
Lawson, J. (2000). Hands-on Science - Level Five. Peguis Publishers. ISBN 1-894110-56-0.
Lawson, J. (2000). Hands-on Science - Level Six. Peguis Publishers. ISBN 1-894110-66-0.
Leithwood, K., McAdie, P., Bascia, N., and Rodrigue, A. (Eds.). (2004). Teaching for Deep Understanding:
Towards the Ontario Curriculum that we Need. ETFO and OISE/UT.
McDonald, H. (1998). Puddle Questions for Science Grade Four: Performance Assessment Investigations.
Creative Publications. ISBN 1-56107-844-x.
McDonald, H. (1998). Puddle Questions for Science Grade Five: Performance Assessment Investigations.
Creative Publications. ISBN 1-56107-845-x.
McDonald, H. (1998). Puddle Questions for Science Grade Six: Performance Assessment Investigations. Creative
Publications. ISBN 1-56107-846-8.
Moline, S. (2001). Show Me! Teaching Information and Visual Texts Grades 3-4. Scholastic Publishing. ISBN
0-7791-0673-3.
Moline, S. (2001). Show Me! Teaching Information and Visual Texts Grades 5-6. Scholastic Publishing. ISBN
0-7791-0674-1.
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National Science Foundation. (2004). Exploring Energy With Toys Grades 4-8. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-064747X.
Pan Canadian. (2000). Science Place: Program and Assessment Guide Grades 4-6. Scholastic Publications. ISBN
0-7791-0093-X.
Understanding Structures and Mechanisms - Flight: Grand Six Strand
Learning Object Abstract
This is a research-based unit reflecting student-created questions, coupled with authentic activities, which
engages prior knowledge. The application of this knowledge builds upon and enhances the students’ developing
skills while addressing the various learning styles of the participants.
The study of flight encourages the students to ask questions arising from their own observations of air
movement and flight. The properties of flight are logically discovered, introduced and integrated.
Purpose of Learning Object
The purpose is:
•
to identify factors that affect flight of birds, objects and planes through questions, centres, and
reflections of prior knowledge from books, documents, video and audio sources, and from past practices.
Kite flying and paper plane making are included;
•
to investigate the physical properties that affect flight through authentic activities;
•
to discover the forces of lift, drag, thrust, and gravity and the effects of these on flight by preparing
reports, demonstrations, and presentations, each reflecting their learning styles; and
•
to build a class community through inclusive participation.
Through co-operative group work and individual efforts, participants realize the applicability of their learning to
the concept of flight.
Description of Learning Tasks
Culminating Task
The culminating task is a celebration of the assimilation of the properties of flight through a paper airplane
design contest. Groups create a variety of plane designs, each including the application of knowledge gained
about specific properties that affect flight.
Six distinct groups of students will choose, research, and create a model of their chosen plane design, and will
demonstrate the effectiveness of their design.
After each group presents their research and product, they will assemble the planes in order of the most to least
successful. After the flight tests are completed, each team is given the opportunity to make modifications to
their designs and to explain their reasoning.
Curriculum Connections
Curriculum subject areas and links to Ontario curriculum include the following:
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Social Studies: Canada and World Connections: Canada’s Links to The World.
Language: Oral communication, Reading, Writing, and Media Literacy.
The Arts: Visual Arts, Graphic Design.
Mathematics: Calculation, Measuring, Problem-solving, Reflecting, Connecting, and
Representing.
Health and Physical Education: Healthy Living
Required Resources
For the Teacher
Books, DVDs, pictures, art supplies, and internet.
For the Student
Books from which to select their own topic, imagination, curiosity, and a sense of wonder.
Skill Level Needed for the Teacher
Demonstrated ability to model and facilitate students in inquiry-based research and time management in
completing the culminating activity.
Skill Level Needed for the Student
A grade six reading level and an open mind with a willingness to explore, research and formulate hypotheses
based upon findings, a capacity to integrate the findings into a completed product to be presented and
discussed, a willingness to work in a research based group (community).
Assessment
The assessment process used is pertinent to best practices in Teaching for Deep Understanding. A four-step
method is to be used for ongoing, formative assessment.
Step one: Understanding the issue and searching for the questions arising from their puzzlement (the
properties of flight with all of its complexities i.e., looking at it holistically). This is addressed
through open-ended questions, interviews, and conferences.
Step two: Creating a plan while reflecting upon prior knowledge and comparing it to other past and
present experiences (regarding the effects of air on flight and well as the task at hand), selecting
the appropriate strategies to research and proceed with the inquiry. This will be addressed
through journals, task lists and problem-solving work plans, and design initiatives. Each group
sets the tasks to be covered, the goals, and the division of workload.
Step three: Carrying out the plan, being able to articulate the plan, sharing and listening to input from
others, reviews, and completes the plan. This will be addressed through conferences, problemsolving, and T-charts.
Step four: Reviews the methods, checks for accuracy and effectiveness of presentation to share the deeper
learning, while ensuring that each individual’s ideas and experiences are honoured. Identifying
values demonstrated and discussed. This is addressed by observation of the demonstration,
interviews of all participants, questioning, and self-assessment tools for each group.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 3 Page 85
Each of the four steps is assessed through a variety of means including, but not limited to, making predictions,
observations, interviews, conferences, journals, problem-solving, and open-ended questioning. The value of
each approach depends upon the design of the projects and the depth of understanding being demonstrated
and sought. A physical template may be created based upon the depth of knowledge being sought and
pertaining to the individual class needs and background.
Scope and Sequence
This module is suitable for any term as students may conduct all parts indoors where they will be best able to
observe the effectiveness of their work. Typically, this module would take approximately five to six weeks to be
deeply explored and fully understood. The suggested order of events is as follows.
Beginning: A number of activities to introduce the concept of flight both in the animal world as well as in
their own experiences, a classroom discussion and brainstorming that sets the stage for deeper
inquiry, the properties of flight, a flight corner where students may write down or record their
questions about air, air currents, flight, and aeronautics, a research centre to discover answers.
Middle: A number of observations through hands-on activities, discussions, research in books, past
experiences, and mini-projects chosen by groups, as well as activities and demonstration of how
the properties of air can affect animals as well as humans.
End: A celebration of learning, as each group of children present their airplane designs which
demonstrate the understanding of the properties of air and how their designs have taken these
into account. These designs will go together to represent a more global picture of the history of
our understanding of flight.
As a final activity, students can create dramas, or become news reporters covering famous pilots, inventors,
and scientists who had to overcome the effects of the properties of air. The ultimate goal is to more deeply
understand flight and to begin to apply that concept to their understanding of space travel.
Accommodations or Modifications
While this module is designed for general class study, it may be used for specifically identified groups of students.
Multiple intelligences, individual learning styles (visual, auditory, and tactile), and specific needs are addressed,
along with their own levels of prior knowledge.
Each group presents according to their needs and approaches, each group being comprised of students
representing their own unique abilities and learning levels. These include ESL/ESD students who are becoming
familiar with new vocabulary while being introduced to the elements of their new home. It also includes special
needs students whereby outdoor activities and varied media will engage gross motor and hands-on investigation
without relying upon pencil-paper tasks and reading from dense texts. All students of all abilities are supported
by a variety of approaches in expressing their deeper understanding where strengths are emphasized and
weaknesses are supported.
Differentiation
The tasks will be differentiated through hands-on activities. Hands-on activities include sorting through visual/
pictorial cards, sorting out images to represent all things that fly, investigating how the properties of air are all
around us, i.e., wind and leaves, birds in flight, paper airplanes, kites, etc., with drawing paper, cameras, tape
recorders, binoculars, and note pads. Research tasks will include reading picture books, texts, magazine and
newspaper articles, and viewing and listening to audio-visual materials. Rich discussion and questions will arise
from each of these approaches.
Chapter 3 Page 86 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
The intention is to reach children with all types of learning styles and needs and to assure success. Each group
presents according to the specific aspect of the topic chosen and each presentation reflects the depth of
understanding achieved for that group.
Research Base
Foundation Literature
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education.
Montessori, M. (1909). The Method of Scientific Pedagogy As Applied to Infant Education in the Children’s
Houses.
Piaget, J. (1928). The Child’s Conception of the World. Routledge and Kegan Paul. London.
Mid-Twentieth Century Research
Burnett, A. (1962). Montessori Education Today and Yesterday. The Elementary School Journal. Vol.63. pp7177. (The developmental aspects of the whole child are the basis for school curriculum.)
Elkind, D. (1970). Children and Adolescents: Interpretative Essays on Jean Piaget. Oxford University Press: New
York. (Ensuring age/grade appropriateness to achieve success and increase self-confidence.)
Holt, J. (1967). How Children Learn. (Revised 1983). (A holistic approach to learning.)
McLuhan, M., Hutchon, K., and McLuhan, E. (1977). City As Classroom: Understanding Language and Media.
The Book Society of Canada, Ltd: Agincourt, ON. (Building class community through language and media.)
Teacher’s Guide included.
Twenty-first Century Research
Beard , C. and Wilson, J. P. (2002). The Power of Experiential Learning: For Trainers and Educators. Kogan Page,
London. (Prior knowledge based on attention to students’ ideas.) The Power of Experiential Learning: A
handbook for trainers and educators.
Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. (2008). Getting Started in Science: A Blueprint for Elementary School
Science Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Washington D.C. (A research paper,
which illustrates the need for and suggestions for hands-on reflection and deep understanding.)
Booth, D. and Barton, B. (2000). Storyworks: How Teachers can use Shared Stories in the New Curriculum.
Markham ON: Pembroke. (Insuring that students’ shared ideas are deepened through classroom
experiences.)
Hodson, D. (1998). Teaching and Learning Science: Towards a Personalized Approach Maidenhead: Open
University Press. (Connecting Science and Technology with a student’s prior knowledge.)
Lilliard, A. (2006). Science. The Early Years: Evaluating Montessori Education. September 29, 2006. (Exploring
more than strictly academic success.)
Marks, G. N. (2008). Accounting for the Gender Gaps in Student Performance in Reading and Mathematics:
Evidence from 31 Countries. Oxford Review of Education. Vol.34(1). pp89-109.
McTighe, J. and Wiggins, G. (1999). The Understanding by Design Handbook. Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development. (A format for lessons, ensuring deep understanding.)
Wells, G. (1994). Changing Schools from Within: Creating Schools of Inquiry. Toronto/Portsmouth: NH. OISE
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 3 Page 87
Press/Heinemann. (For inquiry-based programming.)
Submitted by John Bertram: Habitat (Grade 4), Flight (Grade 6) Science and Technology.
Submitted by Diva Anderson: A Region: Economic and Cultural Relationships (Grade 4 Social Studies)
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice
Teaching for Deep Understanding presents topics and activities in a logical, holistic way thereby ensuring
the ownership of the learning to the students. The students take great pride and joy in their completed,
comprehensive projects. These projects are the final paper airplane designs, which reflect their deep
understanding of the properties of air and flight.
Teaching for Deep Understanding affirms sound pedagogical methods of teaching while it challenges teachers
to recognize students’ ideas, objections, and puzzlements. The number of questions being raised in the flight
corner illustrates the growing interest and ownership that the students are taking of the topic. Lists of questions,
possible solutions, and findings are presented in informal ways. The research and the inquiry are being driven by
the student via books, media, practical trial and error tasks, and computers.
Present teaching practice is enhanced by the fact that the class community is strengthened and the interests and
the experiences of the children are being recognized and honoured. The noticeable positive buzz demonstrates
the high level of engagement of the students as their points-of-view and insights are considered. Mini-projects,
challenges, designs, and discussion groupings as selected by the students, effectively moves the topic deeper and
farther than before.
Teaching for Deep Understanding affirms student learning by demonstrating the connection of their past
experiences to present situations. It furthermore challenges student learning by the fact that it succeeds only by
pursuit of deeper understanding through shared experiences and is applicable to world issues important to us
as human beings. The students demonstrate a keen need to explore further and to dig deeper into their topics
showing greater levels of comprehension.
At the completion of this module, the students will have an enhanced idea of how to approach a topic of any
kind, the understanding of community-based learning and a sense of honouring each other’s ideas, perspectives,
and values.
Other Applications (Extensions)
This method of delivery of this module can this be transferred to other grade levels and subject areas. While the
content of this module is geared specifically to grade six, the approach can be followed in all grades. See Grade
Four, Habitats and Communities.
This approach is particularly useful in combined grades five-six as the discussions can carry over to other subject
areas. And issues, ideas, and puzzlements may be compared and contrasted. The investigative techniques can be
shared. There is a logical connection between grade six Structures and Mechanisms: Flight with the grade five
topics, Structures and Mechanisms: Space and Earth Systems.
Several subjects are related and the skills for each are ideally suited to this type of approach. These include:
Language arts, Health, Math (especially measurement), Visual Arts (especially design), and Social Studies as well
as other strands in Science and Technology.
Impact Analysis
The fact that Teaching for Deep Understanding is fully compatible with the Ontario curriculum and the Ministry
expectations is both reassuring and motivating in itself. The teachers, students and school community at large
Chapter 3 Page 88 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
reviewed previous methods and realized that surface knowledge is not enough and that by the teaching of
deeper understanding, the students assume more ownership of their learning and therefore feel motivated to
explore further and to try to comprehend the issues and topics more fully and completely.
Impact on the Student
Students become actively engaged as they take ownership of their learning, and since they are now becoming
the masters of their learning, their motivation increases exponentially.
This project makes a difference in the world of the learner as they become more aware of the world and its
properties.
Their ideas, interests and experiences are recognized and validated. The students are able to articulate why the
issues and questions are key to their interests and to their future in space.
Since the topics and activities are geared to those that are important for human beings, the students become
better prepared for their own futures. They are more able to deeply comprehend how the properties of nature
around them will ultimately affect their own future plans.
This whole process enhances both the investigative and organizational aspects of student learning. Their own
confidence in presenting their learning plus the Aha! insights that they demonstrate as they understand the
implications of their learning is the evidence of its impact.
Impact on the Teacher
Instructional practices, design learning, investigation, and decision-making take on a new focus and a betterinformed delivery. Through more effective lessons and classroom organization, the class experiences become
further developed as an educational community both in the cognitive as well as the affective domains.
Through encouraging a sharing of ideas, the teacher can see the students feeling validated and see the
strengthening of the feeling of class community. The teacher sees evidence that the students are more able to
relate, question, and disagree agreeably in their own problem-solving efforts.
The holistic approach demonstrates the applicability of deeper understanding to daily life experiences. The
success of this approach is evidenced by the way the students recognize the bigger ideas, ask the big questions,
and articulate key concepts more knowledgeably.
Impact on the School
The impact on the school has been realized as the deep understanding approach has been shared with fellow
colleagues. The recognition that the students were previously learning at a rudimentary, surface level was a
concern that was universally raised by the staff. From observing the enthusiasm, excitement and motivation
expressed by the students who were exposed to the deep understanding approach, it became noteworthy that
the students themselves could more ably articulate what they had learned and could discuss deeper issues.
Students could also come up with more driving questions and were motivated to seek the answers.
Further successes were experienced as more and more staff began to incorporate units, topics, and issues which
directly impacted on the students’ prior knowledge, experiences and interests, puzzlements, and ideas. Broader
issues ensued as the staff and students collectively focused upon topics, which were important to human wellbeing. As a result of this approach, all students are more prepared to complete projects and presentations with
confidence and pride.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 3 Page 89
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning
Bosak, S. (1992). Science is…A Source Book of Fascinating Fact, Projects and Activities. Scholastic. ISBN 0-59074070-9.
Corney, B. (2004). Inventeering: A Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Technology. Trifolium Books. ISBN
1-55244-014-1.
Curriculum Plus. (2001). Sci-Tech Connections Grade 6. Curriculum Plus.
Lawson, J. (2000). Hands-on Science - Level Six. Peguis Publishers. ISBN 1-894110-66-0.
McDonald, H. (1998). Puddle Questions for Science Grade Five: Performance Assessment Investigations.
Creative Publications. ISBN 1-56107-845-X.
Leithwood, K., McAdie, P., Bascia, N., and Rodrigue, A. (Eds.). (2004). Teaching for Deep Understanding:
Towards the Ontario Curriculum that we Need. ETFO and OISE/UT.
McDonald, H. (1998). Puddle Questions for Science Grade Six: Performance Assessment Investigations. Creative
Publications. ISBN 1-56107-846-8.
Moline, S. (2001). Show Me! Teaching Information and Visual Texts Grades 5-6. Scholastic Publishing. ISBN
0-7791-0674-1.
National Science Foundation. (2004). Exploring Energy With Toys Grades 4-8. McGraw-Hill. . ISBN 0-07-064747X.
Pan Canadian. Science Place: Program and Assessment Guide Grades 4-6. Scholastic Publications. ISBN 0-77910093-X.
Science/Technology In-Depth Teaching - A Workshop for Teachers
Learning Object Abstract
Appropriate for all elementary grade levels. By engaging prior knowledge, the teachers will participate, explore
and discover how Sci/Tech strands may be presented and integrated effectively and immediately into their
classrooms.
The focus includes concepts and procedures while addressing learning styles, investigation, and instructional
techniques through authentic, equitable and inclusive activities.
The value for teachers in this approach becomes evident as the participants realize the applicability of the
learning to world experiences. Various forms of assessment, evaluation, reflection, and application will be a
natural and realistic outcome.
Purpose of Learning Object
The teachers reflect what deeper understanding means when teaching Sci/Tech through the unit entitled Habitat
and Communities (Grade Four).
By familiarizing themselves with the nine implications for teaching, they are able to articulate the knowledge and
see the applicability of these implications in their own teaching, while addressing student learning styles.
Through this workshop and by building upon prior knowledge, teachers identify and learn how to teach the
Chapter 3 Page 90 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
deep inquiry skills considered essential by the Ontario curriculum while being equitable and inclusive. From this
learning, the participants plan, discuss, and present how they will teach their Sci/Tech units/strands through
authentic learning activities.
The evaluation of this workshop is directly linked to the engagement of the participants, and their success in
recognizing the relevance of the tasks for creating effective classroom communities.
Description of Learning Tasks
Culminating Tasks
The participants create of a number of centres, which demonstrate what deeper understanding looks like in the
Sci/Tech curriculum.
The participants choose one strand (of their choice) from the Sci/Tech curriculum and one grade (of their
choice). Like-grade groupings or strands are advisable.
Using the grade four module Habitats and Communities as a sample, the participants look at the nine essential
learnings and explore, discuss, and formulate where they are able to address these needs in the science and
technology curriculum for the grade/strand which they have chosen.
The participants list how they can begin to meet essential understandings while addressing the key concepts of
their own Sci/Tech modules.
The final task is for each group to present their findings to the whole group, while staying alert for the natural
connections to the findings of other groups. As a final task, the participants tie a string from one chart to the
next, connecting the essential elements which they consider to be in common.
From this point, the participants are able to see how interconnected the nine essential elements are and how
their lessons are interrelated.
Curriculum Connections
Curriculum subject areas and links to Ontario curriculum are as follows:
Social Studies: Heritage and Citizenship, Canada & World Connections.
Language: Oral communication, Reading, Writing, and Media Literacy
The Arts: Visual Arts
Mathematics: Problem-Solving, Reflecting, Connecting, and Representing.
Health and Physical Education: Healthy Living.
Required Resources
Workshop Leader
Teaching for Deep Understanding text, curriculum documents (Sci/Tech), chart paper, markers, string, a keen ear
to identify participants’ puzzlements, and Insight Chart.
Teacher/Participant
Teaching for Deep Understanding text, note pad, and pen.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 3 Page 91
Workshop Leader Skill Level Needed
Facilitation skills, working knowledge of the Ontario curriculum, knowledge of the nine essentials for deep
understanding, good listening skills, and ability to build a learner community.
Teacher Participant Skill Level Needed
Basic knowledge of the Ontario Sci/Tech curriculum for their grade(s), an introductory, rudimentary
understanding of the nine essentials (presented at an earlier stage of this workshop), a willingness to work in a
research-based group (community), and an openness to share past and present experiences and look beyond the
cognitive dimension of knowledge.
Assessment
Participants assess the success of their charts based upon a cross-reference to the nine essential learnings, as
well as to the key learnings from their particular stand/grade. Each group self-assesses the level of success which
they have achieved in the goals of this activity. Each group creates a possible assessment chart for a lesson in
their module.
Groups have an opportunity to listen to and address each other’s ideas, objection and puzzlements. Groups
recognize and honour the past and present experiences and learnings of the participants and how these support
this workshop.
This formative assessment also reviews opportunities for critical thinking skills, and individual learning styles. In
this case, the assessment is completed by discussions, conferences, demonstration and sharing
Additions to the Insight Chart. This chart is present throughout the session and participants are encouraged to
write down their Aha! moments to share with the group.
The development of a learning community takes on a life of its own as participants share their e-mails and other
contact information to enable mutual support as they continue to design programs that include teaching for
deeper understanding principles.
The final assessment is reflected by the success and sharing of the group over an extended period of time and is
reflected by more effective deeper understanding by their own students.
Scope and Sequence
This module would be best suited for presentation at a summer academy or at least in early fall sessions, due to
the need for the teachers to be prepared for their school year. Typically, this module would take three days to be
deeply explored and fully understood. The suggested order of events is as follows.
Beginning: An activity to introduce deeper understanding. Look at the nine essential learnings and what
they mean to each teacher/participant and then review them based upon the needs and
strengths of their students. Include a Query/Quandary corner.
Middle: A number of activities and discussions regarding the integration of the nine essential learnings
with the individual strands of the Science/Technology curriculum for their grade followed by the
addition of the strengths and needs of their students.
End: A celebration of learning as the teacher/participants present their discoveries which
demonstrate how their selected stands can be delivered effectively utilizing the concepts of
deeper understanding, and can demonstrate how to successfully tie these together while
keeping the students in mind.
Chapter 3 Page 92 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Accommodations or Modifications
While this module is designed for teachers/participants with general classes, it may be used to meet the needs
of teachers of specifically identified groups of students as well. Multiple intelligences, individual learning
styles (visual, auditory, and tactile), ESL/ESD students, and special needs students (where specific needs will be
addressed, as indicated through the IEP).
Every individual’s ideas are respected and made available to other members of the group.
Differentiation
The tasks will be differentiated as demonstrated in the grade four student Science/Technology module, Habitats
and Communities.
Modified or alternative expectations are clearly identified and specific, realistic, and observable achievements
are described by the teacher/participants. The intention is to assist the teacher/participant to reach children
with all types of learning styles and needs.
Each group will present their application of deeper understanding according to their specific aspect as indicated
by their students’ strengths and needs.
Research Base
Foundation Literature
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education.
Montessori, M. (1909). The Method of Scientific Pedagogy As Applied to Infant Education in the Children’s
Houses.
Piaget, J. (1928). The Child’s Conception of the World. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.
Mid-Twentieth Century Research
Burnett, A. (1962). Montessori Education Today and Yesterday. The Elementary School Journal. Vol.63. pp7177. (The developmental aspects of the whole child are the basis for school curriculum.)
Elkind, D. (1970). Children and Adolescents: Interpretative Essays on Jean Piaget. Oxford University Press: New
York. (Ensuring age/grade appropriateness to achieve success and increase self-confidence.)
Holt, J. (1967). How Children Learn. (Revised 1983). (A holistic approach to learning.)
McLuhan, M., Hutchon, K., and McLuhan, E. (1977). City As Classroom: Understanding Language and Media.
The Book Society of Canada, Ltd: Agincourt. (Building class community through language and media.)
Teacher’s Guide included.
Twenty-first Century Research
Beard, C. and Wilson, J.P. (2002). The Power of Experiential Learning: For Trainers and Educators. Kogan Page,
London, 2002. (Prior knowledge based on attention to students’ ideas.) The Power of Experiential Learning:
A handbook for trainers and educators.
Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. (2008). Getting Started in Science: A Blueprint for Elementary School
Science Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Washington D.C. (A research paper,
which illustrates the need for and suggestions for hands-on reflection and deep understanding.)
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 3 Page 93
Booth, D. and Barton, B. (2000). Storyworks: How Teachers can use Shared Stories in the New Curriculum.
Markham ON: Pembroke. (Insuring that students’ shared ideas are deepened through classroom
experiences.)
Hodson, D. (1998). Teaching and Learning Science: Towards a Personalized Approach. Maidenhead: Open
University Press. (Connecting Science and Technology with a student’s prior knowledge.)
Lilliard, A. (September 29, 2006). Science, The Early Years: Evaluating Montessori Education. (Exploring more
than strictly academic success.)
Marks, G. N. (2008). Accounting for the Gender Gaps in Student Performance in Reading and Mathematics:
Evidence from 31 Countries. Oxford Review of Education. Vol.34. Iss.1. pp89-109.
McTighe, J. and Wiggins, G. (1999). The Understanding by Design Handbook. Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development. (A format for lessons, ensuring deep understanding.)
Wells, G. (1994). Changing Schools from Within: Creating Schools of Inquiry. Toronto/Portsmouth: NH. OISE
Press/Heinemann. (For inquiry-based programming.)
Submitted by John Bertram: Habitat (Grade 4), Flight (Grade 6) Science and Technology.
Submitted by Diva Anderson: A Region: Economic and Cultural Relationships (Grade 4 Social Studies)
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice
Teaching for deep understanding presents topics and activities in a logical, holistic way to ensure participant
ownership of the learning. The teachers share their confidence in their completed, comprehensive
presentations.
It affirms the sound pedagogical methods of teaching while it challenges teachers to recognize other teachers’
ideas, methodologies, objections, and questions. The number of questions raised illustrates the growing interest
and ownership of the participants in the topic. Present teaching practice will be enhanced by the fact that the
class community is strengthened and the interests and the experiences of the children are being recognized and
honoured. There is a noticeable, positive buzz which demonstrates the high level of engagement of the students
as their points-of-view and insights are considered. Mini-projects and discussion groupings as selected by the
students effectively move the topic deeper and farther than before.
This approach affirms the teachers’ learning by demonstrating the connection of their past experiences to
present situations while exploring new ways to develop topics. It furthermore challenges their learning by the
fact that it succeeds only by the pursuit of deeper understanding through shared experiences that are applicable
to important classroom issues. The participants demonstrate a motivated interest to explore further and to
delve deeper in this topic while showing greater levels of comprehension.
The result is a confident willingness to continue to develop their own teaching technique while utilizing the nine
essential understandings. The students take great pride and joy in their completed, comprehensive projects
which reflect their own interests, questions, and puzzlements.
This approach affirms the holistic method of teaching and challenges teaching which focuses upon rote, surface
learning. At the completion of this module, the students have an enhanced idea of how to approach a topic
of any kind, the understanding of community-based learning, and a sense of honouring each others’ ideas,
perspective and values.
Chapter 3 Page 94 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Other Applications (Extensions)
This method of delivery of this module is transferable to other grade levels and subject areas. While the content
of this module is geared specifically to grade four, the approach can be followed in all grades.
This approach is particularly useful in combined grades as the discussions can carry over and issues, ideas, and
puzzlements may be compared and contrasted and the investigative techniques can be shared.
Several subjects are related and the skills for each fit ideally into this type of approach. These include, Language
Arts, Health, Math, Visual Arts, Social Studies (Canada and World Connections) as well as other strands in Science
and Technology.
While the content of any module may be geared to a specific grade, the approach can be followed in all grades.
This approach is particularly useful in combined grades as the discussions can carry over into other areas. Issues,
ideas, and puzzlements may be compared and contrasted and the investigative techniques can be shared. There
are often logical connections among the Science and Technology strands, and this would be the ideal opportunity
to take advantage of these while integrating the arts in a realistic, logical manner.
Impact Analysis
This project makes a difference in the world of the learner. Their ideas, interests and experiences are recognized
and validated. Since the topics and activities are geared to those which are important for human beings, the
students will be better prepared for their own futures.
This whole process enhances both the investigative and organizational aspects of student learning. The class
experiences further development as an educational community in both cognitive and affective domains.
The holistic approach demonstrates the applicability of their learning to daily life experiences. The fact that the
Ontario curriculum, the ministry expectations, and teaching for deep understanding are fully compatible is both
reassuring and motivating in itself.
The teachers, students, and school community at large review previous methods and realize that surface
knowledge is not enough and that by the teaching of deeper understanding, the students assume more
ownership of their learning and therefore feel motivated to explore further and to try to comprehend the issues
and topics more fully and completely.
Impact on the Student
Students become actively engaged as they take ownership of the learning. Since they are now becoming the
masters of their learning, their motivation increases exponentially.
This project makes a difference in the world of the learner as they become involved in topics related to human
well-being. Their ideas, interests and experiences are recognized and validated. The students are able to
articulate why the issues and questions are key to their interests and to human survival.
Since the topics and activities are geared to those which are important for human beings, the students become
better prepared for their own futures. They are more able to deeply comprehend how each person is unique
and why it important to recognize all members of their community.
This whole process enhances both the investigative and organizational aspects of student learning. Student’s
increased confidence in presenting their learning, plus the Aha! insights, which they demonstrate as they
understand the implications of their learning, are evidence of its impact.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 3 Page 95
Impact on the Teacher
Instructional practices, design learning, and decision-making take on a new focus and a better-informed delivery.
Through more effective lessons and classroom organization, the class experiences become further developed as
an educational community both in the cognitive as well as the affective domains.
Through encouraging a sharing of ideas, each of the students feel validated and this, in turn, strengthens the
feeling of a class community. The teacher sees evidence that the students are more able to relate, question, and
disagree agreeably in their own problem-solving efforts.
The holistic manner of approach demonstrates the applicability of deeper understanding to daily life
experiences. The success with this approach is evidenced by the fact that the students recognize the bigger
ideas, ask the big questions, and articulate the key concepts more knowledgably.
Impact on the School
The impact has been realized as it has been shared will fellow colleagues. The recognition that the students
were previously learning at a rudimentary, surface level was a concern that was universally raised by the staff.
From observing the enthusiasm, excitement and motivation expressed by the students who were exposed to this
type of learning, it became evident that the students could more ably articulate what they had learned and could
discuss deeper issues, and unearth more driving questions, to which they were motivated to seek the answers.
Further successes were experienced as more and more staff began to incorporate units, topics, and issues which
directly impacted on the students’ prior knowledge, experiences, interests, puzzlements, and ideas. Broader
issues ensued as the staff and students collectively focused upon topics which were important to human
wellbeing. As a result of this approach, all students are more prepared to complete projects and presentations
with confidence and pride.
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning
Bosak, S. (1992). Science is…A Source Book of Fascinating Fact, Projects and Activities, Scholastic. ISBN 0-59074070-9.
Corney, B. (2004). Inventeering: A Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Technology. Trifolium Books. ISBN
1-55244-014-1.
Curriculum Plus. (2001). Sci-Tech Connections Grade 6. Curriculum Plus.
Lawson, J. (2000). Hands-on Science - Level Four. Peguis Publishers. ISBN 1-894110-46-0.
Lawson, J. (2000). Hands-on Science - Level Five. Peguis Publishers. ISBN 1-894110-56-0.
Lawson, J. (2000). Hands-on Science - Level Six. Peguis Publishers. ISBN 1-894110-66-0.
Leithwood, K., McAdie, P., Bascia, N., and Rodrigue, A. (Eds.). (2004). Teaching for Deep Understanding:
Towards the Ontario Curriculum that we Need. OISE/UT and ETFO.
McDonald, H. (1998). Puddle Questions for Science Grade Four: Performance Assessment Investigations.
Creative Publications. ISBN 1-56107-844-X.
McDonald, H. (1998). Puddle Questions for Science Grade Five: Performance Assessment Investigations.
Creative Publications. ISBN 1-56107-845-X.
McDonald, H. (1998). Puddle Questions for Science Grade Six: Performance Assessment Investigations. Creative
Publications. ISBN 1-56107-846-8.
Chapter 3 Page 96 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Moline, S. (2001). Show Me! Teaching Information and Visual Texts Grades 3-4. Scholastic Publishing. ISBN
0-7791-0673-3.
Moline, S. (2001). Show Me! Teaching Information and Visual Texts Grades 5-6. Scholastic Publishing. ISBN
0-7791-0674-1.
National Science Foundation. (2004). Exploring Energy With Toys Grades 4-8. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-064747X.
Pan Canadian. (2000). Science Place: Program and Assessment Guide Grades 4-6. Scholastic Publications. ISBN
0-7791-0093-X.
Looks Like - Sounds Like
For Science and Technology
Looks Like
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Question corner, puzzle board, openness to
inquiry.
Chronological chart of topic development,
experience charts, discovery data, and
models.
Chart or display of why it is important in their
lives to study the topic.
Relating the topic to daily life experiences is
evident, the personal connection to the issue
at hand (reflective as well as engaging prior
knowledge).
Centres where students can explore, research
and discover the topic in further depth in a
collaborative manner, while recording data to
prove their hypotheses.
Class library or lending centre where books,
(fiction and non-fiction) pictures, multimedia, and student owned materials are
displayed, borrowed and utilized.
Evidence of collaborative, co-operative
groups and exploratory activities are built
in, respectful interchange is taught and
reinforced.
A depth and breadth of study beyond the
basic knowledge is evident, honouring the
individual’s learning styles.
Key concepts, topics/activities being explored
are integrated and authentic.
The teacher’s role is that of facilitator.
Sounds Like
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Hearing a buzz of debates, questions and
insights being shared.
Discussion groups reflecting upon
the processes both past and present
(summarization, syntheses, and application).
Pro and con charts demonstrating differing
points of view, and dramatic presentations
supporting these.
Students speaking with familiarity and
confidence referring to their connection with
the topic, while being open to new points of
view or facing challenging discoveries.
A hum of concentration and engaged activity
on in-depth study of the topic.
Movement of children evident as they
present and share information from books
and media.
In the groups’ centres, there is an articulation
of tasks and a reporting of progress.
Reports, research presentations being
assembled in a collaborative fashion to be
presented to the rest of the group which
articulate the concepts being studied.
A confident culminating presentation of the
topic is presented, reflecting comprehensive
study, and identification of his/her own
learnings. Enduring understandings are
evident.
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Chapter 3 Page 97
Feels Like
Feels Like
I have included the last section as I feel very strongly that we must always consider the affective domain of
children as we work with them. (Johnson and Johnson).
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mutual respect for each other’s opinions and queries (puzzlements).
Honouring the value of prior learning.
Being able to disagree agreeably and respecting each other’s points of view.
Confidence to speak their own mind without fear (safe space) (having a voice).
Happy, fun environments in which one can explore freely, reflecting his/her own particular learning
styles and multiple intelligences.
A comfort level to move about in the room with purpose.
A validation of their tasks and responsibilities.
A collegial feeling of gathering data, information and materials to achieve success for all.
A positive celebration of all of the process, which have led up to, this final point. A final reward for
doing a job well. A lot of creative fun!
Deeper Inquiry into Science and
Technology/Science and Technology
Curriculum Resources Workshop: Three Hours
Time
Topic
15 min. Introduction
30 min
The Ontario
Curriculum:
ETFO Resource
Chapter 3 Page 98 Other Details
• Prior knowledge (or what do they need to know?) as a foundation of
teaching for deep understanding is introduced through an activity entitled
Habitat/Community.
• Each participant has the opportunity to learn and practice through
scientific investigations which results in life-long skills based upon this
specific knowledge, (addressing a number of principles as listed under
Implications for Teaching.
• Point number three is: The experience of deeply understanding something
encourages further learning. Teaching for Deep Understanding, p14).
• Investigate nine principles taken from Teaching for Deep Understanding.
The participants are put into nine groups. Each group is responsible for
examining one of the principles and reporting back to the large group for
comments, questions, and concerns.
• A summary of the discussion for each principle and the Ontario curriculum
is recorded on chart paper to be referred to as the workshop proceeds for
clarification and application to authentic classroom situations.
• ETFO Resource (July, 2008) is distributed and analyzed in large group
discussion.
• Deep Learning: Critical thinking
• Explore creativity as outlined in the ETFO document and the Science and
Technology curriculum.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Time
30 min
Topic
What is
Science and
Technology?
15 min
40 min
Break
The Strands of
Science and
Technology
Other Details
• What does the Ontario curriculum expect the students to learn?
• What does deep understanding mean when teaching Science and
Technology?
• How do we teach the deep inquiry skills considered essential by
the Ontario curriculum?
• Two groups analyze deep learning, two groups analyze critical thinking, and
two groups analyze creativity. Each group looks at the deep understanding
components using the ETFO resource and the Ontario Science and
Technology curriculum.
•
The participants review a fully developed module (Habitat/Community)
and create a module for their own use, which is be recorded on chart
paper for a storefront presentation. This is just a starting point.
Curriculum Questions:
•
•
How can your module ensure a commitment to equity and inclusion
through the content, skills and attitudes being taught and learned in your
unit?
What technology will be used by the students to further their deep
learning of the content, skills?
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Chapter 3 Page 99
Desert Habitat
By Kathleen Campbell
4
Learning Object Abstract
The desert ecosystem is an interdisciplinary grade four science unit that allows students to be self-directed
learners while covering curriculum content. It enables students to apply literacy skills to content area subjects
while exploring big understandings about the relationships found in nature, and our stewardship responsibilities
towards our environment.
Purpose of Learning Object
Benefits for Teachers
Going Deeper:
Teachers develop proficiency in facilitation skills by guiding students with thoughtprovoking questions that probe for the big understandings. Big ideas go beyond discrete
facts or skills to focus on larger concepts, principles, or processes. (Wiggins and McTighe,
1998, Understanding by Design, p10).
Time management:
As the students are given responsibility for their learning, the teacher is freed from
micro-managing and can instead spend time managing the process and direction of
students’ learning.
Behaviour: When students are empowered to solve problems and probe deeper into issues, they
are engaged in their work, and behaviour management becomes a different role for the
educator. The teacher is now in the position to coach and guide students towards more
effective communication and better co-operative group skills.
Trying to understand how the world works is what children do naturally and it is what you need to take
advantage of when teaching science [and technology].
Chapter 4 Page 100 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Just remember: Avoid being the knowledge authority. (…) Instead, cultivate a sense of excitement for exploring
and inquiring about our world and for generating and testing possible explanations. (Bloom, J., 2006, Creating a
Classroom Community of Young Scientists, 2nd ed., p4)
Benefits for Students
Content: Students have time to explore topics that interest them, discovering, and remembering
content at their own pace.
Central Concepts:
The content is put in context of the big ideas contained in the unit so the students are
able to see the relevance to their personal situation.
Investigations: Problems and issues are presented and the students are given time to explore and
improve both their inquiry skills and knowledge building.
Student Driven: Questioning is encouraged so that students’ inquiries relate to their own queries and
need for understanding. It’s not about producing projects and answers but more about
the process of investigation and learning – letting the critical thinker emerge.
Authenticity: The issues explored are current. Students will be working with real problems that are
affecting our lives and our planet.
Description of Learning Tasks
Ideas to Begin the Unit
Introductory activity such as the Anticipation Guide (See Resources) allows the teacher to begin listing questions
for further inquiry. This list of questions is continued and added to after each mini-lesson.
KWL Chart: To introduce the topic, to identify research topics, to formulate questions about human
interaction with the desert (See Resources).
Read Aloud: Desert Voices by Byrd Baylor (for example) during the literacy block.
Use Animal Adaptations video (See Resources). Present Science expectations and culminating assessment task.
Throughout the Unit
Read from the Resource List Daily
•
Make a chart titled, What’s the Big Idea? and record responses. Afterwards, the chart can be revisited
and other big ideas can be explored and recorded.
•
Model the use of a variety of graphic organizers for recording facts. See Web Resources for graphic
organizers.
•
Model the use of an index or glossary.
•
Think aloud: Recognize the problem-solution structure in respect to adaptations. See Web Resources for
graphic organizers.
Use Content-Area Textbooks
•
Writing Summaries: During a mini-lesson demonstrate the SQ3R strategy. Model the following: Skim
the first and last paragraph of a non-fiction piece on the desert. Turn the sub-headings into questions
and record. Read each section to record answers to the questions that you have created. Write a two-
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 4 Page 101
sentence introduction and conclusion.
•
Model the use of a data-chart to summarize information. Refer to Resources - Graphic Organizers.
Use Learning Logs
•
Establish reflective inquiry practices through the use of double entry journals and reading logs. Have
children reflect on new understandings, formulate questions for inquiry, record their investigation
strategies. Refer to Structure and Assessment Tools.
Using Logs to Write – Quick Writes
•
Read learning logs daily and conference with children or groups so that each child receives feedback
weekly.
•
Schedule a short amount of time daily for students to record in their learning logs and also for those who
wish to share something from their log. Model the skills of the attentive listener who asks clarifying,
growth questions. Refer to Required Resources - Samples of Questions.
Mapping, Diagrams and Charts
•
Identify deserts on a world map, landforms;
•
draw a life-cycle collaboratively with the class;
•
compare hot and cold deserts using a semantic feature analysis chart;
•
draw a food chain collaboratively;
•
make word/animal/plant posters;
•
make a problem-solution chart on desert adaptation (Refer to Web Resources - Graphic Organizers);
•
compare deserts and swamps; and
•
compare hot and cold deserts.
Author Study
•
Share information about Byrd Baylor, Desert Voices;
•
read the author’s book that are set in the desert;
•
write letters to the author;
•
identify her point-of-view, investigate alternative viewpoints;
•
share information about B. Lopez and his views on the Inuit struggle;
•
read his books about arctic fishing and hunting; and
•
identify his point of view, compare with B. Baylor’s bias, investigate alternative viewpoints.
Technology
•
Research animals, plants and people in the desert, (Refer to Resources - Weblinks);
•
develop PowerPoint presentations about the desert; and
Chapter 4 Page 102 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
•
use Inspiration software to create concept maps and to use in the culminating assessment task.
Description of Learning Tasks
Science Experiment: Developing and Organizing Content Creating Water from Nothing. (Lesson adapted from an
example found at: http://www.teachnet.com/lesson/science/earth/waterdesert.html
Overview:
•
This is such a neat little experiment! Based on the process of condensation, it appears to create water
from nothing (which is, of course, not the case).
Teacher Preparation:
•
Aquarium sand, clear plastic, small container like a jar lid, plant, water.
Procedure Ideas:
1. Put 5-10 cm of sand in aquarium.
2. Hollow out a 10-15 cm depression in the sand.
3. Place jar lid in the centre of the hole, and plant material (small whole plants or broken up larger ones)
around the container on the sand.
4. Lay 20 cm x 20 cm clear plastic over the hole, and hold in place with sand or pebbles around the edges.
5. Put just enough sand or a pebble in the very centre of the plastic to make it sag slightly. Too much
weight will pull the plastic loose around the edges.
6. To speed up the process, place a light bulb over the aquarium to warm the sand and plastic, as the sun
might.
7. Water from the plants will form on the underside of the plastic by evaporation (from the plants and
residual moisture in the sand) and condensation. If the plastic sags enough, the moisture will run to the
centre of the plastic and drip into the container in the bottom of the hole.
Curriculum Connections
A scientifically and technologically literate person is one who can read and understand common media
reports about science and technology, critically evaluate the information presented, and confidently engage in
discussions and decision-making activities that involve science and technology.
Ontario Curriculum, Science (from: Science Coordinators’ and Consultants’ Association of Ontario (SCCAO) and Science
Teachers’ Association of Ontario (STAO/APSO), Position Paper: The Nature of Science. 2006, p1.
Grade Four Science Curriculum
Fundamental Concepts and Big Ideas
Systems and Interactions
Plants and animals are interdependent and adapt to meet their needs from the resources available in their
particular habitats.
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Chapter 4 Page 103
Sustainability and Stewardship
Changes to habitats (whether caused by natural or human means) can affect plants and animals and the
relationships between them. Society relies on plants and animals.
Understanding Life Systems: Grade Four
Plants and animals are interdependent and adapt to meet their needs from the resources available in their
particular habitats. Changes to habitats can affect plants and animals and the relationship between them.
Society relies on plants and animals.
Stewardship involves understanding that we need to use and care for the natural environment in a responsible
way and making the effort to pass on to future generations no less than what we have access to ourselves.
(Ontario Science Curriculum, p5)
Grade Four Language Curriculum
Reading
Demonstrating Understanding
1.4
demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts by summarizing important ideas and citing supporting
details.
Purpose
1.2
identify a variety of purposes for reading and choose reading materials appropriate for those purposes.
Extending Understanding
1.6
extend understanding of texts by connecting the ideas in them to their own knowledge, experience, and
insights, to other familiar texts, and to the world around them.
Text Features
2.3
identify a variety of text features and explain how they help readers understand texts.
Writing
Research
1.3
gather information to support ideas for writing using a variety of strategies and oral, print, and electronic
sources.
Developing Ideas
1.2
generate ideas about a potential topic using a variety of strategies and resources.
Classifying Ideas
1.4
sort and classify ideas and information for writing in a variety of ways.
Organizing Ideas
1.5
identify and order main ideas and supporting details and group them into units that could be used to
develop a summary, using a variety of graphic organizers.
Chapter 4 Page 104 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Review
1.6
determine whether the ideas and information gathered are relevant and adequate for the purpose, or
whether more research is necessary.
Producing Finished Works
3.8
produce pieces of published work to meet identified criteria based on the expectations related to
content, organization, style, use of conventions, and use of presentation strategies.
Required Resources
Teacher Preparation
Trying to understand how the world works is what children do naturally and it is what you need to take
advantage of when teaching science [and technology]. Just remember: avoid being the knowledge authority.
(…) Instead, cultivate a sense of excitement for exploring and inquiring about our world and for generating and
testing possible explanations. (Bloom, J. W., 2006, Creating a Classroom Community of Young Scientists, 2nd ed.
p4.)
The preparation of a questioning chart assists students to adopt the role modelled by the educator during
sharing sessions. Having these questions visible will assist the teacher to provide a focus on the big ideas.
Internalizing these prompts will provide children with life-long critical thinking skills.
Questioning Chart
•
Could you give me an example?
•
Is this always the case?
•
What do you think caused this?
•
Why is that important?
•
How could we find out if that is true?
•
Do you think that sounds right? Why?
•
What is influencing those people or animals to act that way?
•
How would another animal respond differently?
•
If someone disagreed with you, what would they say?
•
What else might be affected by that?
•
How is that different from our environment or experiences?
•
What question does this information make us wonder?
Examples of Questions for Inquiry
•
What is the biggest desert in the world?
•
What makes deserts hot or cold?
•
When do desert flowers grow?
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 4 Page 105
•
What do the leaves of desert plants look like?
•
How do desert animals keep cool?
•
How do animals survive without drinking?
•
What is an oasis?
•
Why are the deserts of the world getting bigger?
•
What have people done that has put the plants and animals of the desert at risk?
•
Why can’t some plants survive in the desert?
•
How do people survive in cold deserts/hot deserts?
•
How do cacti protect themselves from thirsty animals?
•
Why are desert plants mostly round?
•
Why are small feet useful for walking on hot sand?
•
How do frogs usually stay wet? How do desert frogs stay wet?
•
What animals use burrows for their homes? In Canada, in deserts?
•
Why don’t spiders build webs in the desert?
•
Why can’t snakes stay out in the sun for a long time?
•
What would happen if you tried to reach a mirage?
•
What do you think the deserts will look like in a thousand years?
•
Should we try to make the deserts more fertile? Why? Why not?
Adapted from: World About Us: Deserts. Refer to Resource List
Children’s Text Resources
Banting, E. (2006). Deserts. United States: Weigl Publishers Inc.
Brown, H. (2007). World About Us: Deserts. United States: Aladdin Books.
Campbell, A. (2005). Who Eats Who in the Desert. London: Franklin Watts.
Cole, M. (2003). Wild America Habitats: Deserts. United States: Blackbirch Press.
Fridell, R. (2005). Life in the Desert. Canada: Scholastic.
Jackson, K. (2007). Explore the Desert. Minnesota: Capstone Press
Spilsbury, R. (2005). Desert Food Chains. Chicago: Heinemann Library.
Star, F. (2007). Eye Wonder: Desert. London: DK Publishing.
Steele, C. (2002). Desert Animals. Austin, Tx: Raintree Steck-Vaughn.
Chapter 4 Page 106 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Children’s Web Resources
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/biomes/label/desert/
http://www.arthur.k12.il.us/arthurgs/desanim.htm
http://lsb.syr.edu/projects/cyberzoo/desert.html
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/biomes/desert/desert.shtml
http://www.desertusa.com/life.html
http://www.mbgnet.net/sets/desert/index.htm
http://www.tramline.com/tours/sci/desert/_tourlaunch2.htm
http://www.virtualguidebooks.com/SouthCalif/SouthernDeserts.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YaUfpUwbtuQ&feature=email
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7HxAtGzFzwc&feature=email
Adobe town: Crown Jewel of the Red Desert in Wyoming – a short video about sand erosion with good footage
of the desert.
Desert Wildlife – animal adaptations with video footage of animals in their desert habitat.
Commercial Units and Resources
Journeys in Science 3:
•
Chapter 12: Plant and Plant Responses
•
Chapter 13: Plant Adaptations
Silver Burdett and Ginn Science 4:
•
Chapter 2: The World of Plants
•
Chapter 4: How Living Things Survive
Project Wild:
•
The Beautiful Basics
•
What’s That, Habitat?
•
Tracks
•
Make a Coat
•
Graphananimal
•
Too Close for Comfort
•
Ethi-Thinking
•
Can Do
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 4 Page 107
Teaching Resources
Anticipation Guide: Deserts
Before Reading
Yes / No
After Reading
Yes / No
Statements
In deserts, it is very hot and sunny during the day but freezing cold at
night.
Camels have three eyelids that help protect their eyes during sand storms.
A cactus can grow to be seven meters tall and store over six thousand kg
of water in its trunk.
The plants and animals in the desert are protected by the government. It
is not legal to build cities in the desert.
Penguins live in a desert.
The soil in a desert is not very rich in minerals. It is difficult to grow
anything in such poor soil.
Note: There are several ambiguous statements in the anticipation guide. For example: In cold deserts the
temperature is cold both day and night. Development and protection of deserts varies between countries.
Penguins only live in cold deserts. Many deserts have very fertile soil but all lack water. The ambiguity in these
statements is intended to stimulate active discussion and further research.
Below are some sites with examples of graphic organizers:
http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/graphic_organizers.htm
http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/actbank/sorganiz.htm
http://www.k111.k12.il.us/LAFAYETTE/FOURBLOCKS/graphic_organizers.htm
KWL CHART
K
W
L
What we think we know
What we want to know
What we have learned
Chapter 4 Page 108 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Assessment
Categories of Knowledge and Skills
From the Ontario Science Curriculum, p23
Knowledge and Understanding: Subject-specific content acquired in each grade (knowledge), and the
comprehension of its meaning and significance (understanding).
Thinking and Investigation: The use of critical and creative thinking skills and inquiry and problem-solving skills
and/or processes.
Communication: The conveying of meaning through various forms.
Application: The use of knowledge and skills to make connections within and between various contexts.
Culminating Assessment Task
Sample Lesson: Jet Setting Pets!
This lesson is adapted from an example found at www.educationworld.com
In this lesson, students select a pet and a desert destination. They then find four things/places the pet could see
at that locale and four animals the pet could interview at that locale. (Designed for use with Inspiration).
Process
•
Students on their own or in a group will:
•
select a pet;
•
select a desert location;
•
read information and select four animals to interview and four places to view; and
•
optional: create an Inspiration web that includes the pet, the location, and the places of interest.
Materials Helpful for Technology Link
•
Access to Inspiration/Kidspiration.
•
Access to the Internet.
Lesson Plan
Note: We will be using Inspiration a graphic organizer software program. If you do not have either program,
you can complete the lesson using Microsoft Word.
Begin the lesson by sharing a few photos of the teacher on a vacation, visiting points of interest. Ask students,
in small groups of three or four, to discuss an interesting vacation place they or someone they know, recently
visited and photographed. It could be local, the town library, or a faraway destination.
Show students the site Cats in Paris. Look at a number of pictures and ask: “Did these cats really go to these
places?” Explain that the cats’ owner used a computer to cut and paste the pictures of the cats into the pictures
of the locations. Explain that this is the cats’ imaginary travel journal! Tell students that they are going to create
their own travel journal for a pet, telling about desert places where that pet went and what animals or living
things it saw there.
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The next part of the lesson can be done individually or as a whole group, depending on students’ ages, writing
ability, and access to computers.
Walk students through these steps:
•
Select a pet. Tell them to look through the pictures available in Inspiration. If pictures are not available,
choose clip art images in Microsoft Office, pictures off the internet (www.pics4learning.com), or pictures
students bring of their own pets. If doing a whole class version of this lesson, you might take a picture of
the classroom snake, ferret, bunny, hamster, etc.
•
Have students select to which desert they want their pet to travel.
•
Research. Use print resources and web resources. At this point it is important to share with the students
the evaluation rubric that will be used. There is one at the end of this lesson for your convenience.
•
Select things to do, important places to see, and four living things at their chosen destination. Be sure
that, as they’re reading, students have index cards, a window with Word open, or some other way
to take notes. They should think about questions that a pet would ask or things a pet would notice.
Brainstorm a possible list of areas to enquire about (i.e., homes, shelter, food, water, enemies, animal
babies, and/or extreme weather protection, etc.).
•
Create the journal. In groups of three or as individuals, students open Inspiration. Type the pet’s name,
species, and location (Freddy the Snake in The Sahara) in the main idea bubble, click white space, and
type each of the things the pet does or sees there. Click the Link button and click from the main idea
button to each idea.
Note: This makes a simple brainstorm web, with all arrows radiating from the main idea to the other ideas.
Finally, students click each bubble and replace it with a picture of the pet and something to do/see. Feel free to
use clip art or real photos.
Print your work. You might want to use a colour printer if one is available. Display the student work. Write a
paragraph that contains interesting information about the photos. (My pet cat Rambo recently visited the Namib
Desert in Africa and there he….)
Enrichment
If students are comfortable editing images, give them the task of inserting their chosen pet into pictures of the
assigned location. Start with a photograph of a pet and then use both the selection and cropping tools found in
paint or photo tools.
Assessment of Culminating Activity
Level four
Includes interesting
information about
the resources plants
and animals use and
how they access those
resources to fulfill their
basic needs.
Chapter 4 Page 110 Level three
Includes information
about the resources
plants and animals use
and how they access
those resources to fulfill
their basic needs.
Level two
Includes limited
information about
the resources plants
and animals use and
how they access those
resources to fulfill their
basic needs.
Level one
Includes incorrect or very
limited information about
the resources plants
and animals use and
how they access those
resources to fulfill their
basic needs.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Level four
Level three
Level two
Level one
Explains how animals
and plants have adapted
to live together in a codependent relationship in
the desert.
Explains how animals
and plants have adapted
to live together in the
desert.
Includes limited
information about how
animals or plants have
adapted to live in the
desert.
Includes incorrect or no
information about how
animals or plants have
adapted to live in the
desert.
Demonstrates knowledge
of the food chain and
how specific changes to
the environment can put
plants and animals at
risk.
Demonstrates knowledge
of the food chain and
how changes to the
environment can put
plants and animals at
risk.
Demonstrates that
changes to the
environment can put
plants and animals at
risk.
Demonstrates limited
knowledge of how
changes to the
environment can put
plants and animals at
risk.
Double Entry Journals
Space is left so that related facts and observations that support or connect to the entry can be added as the
unit progresses. The unit’s big ideas and curriculum expectations are displayed for reference. The teacher may
ask for an entry to be made, children may make entries independently. The journal could be presented during
sharing time and/or be used during individual conferences with the teacher.
Reflective Writing Rubric
Level four
Level three
Level two
Level one
Proficient
Acceptable
Needs Improvement
Unacceptable
Demonstrated
Growth
Demonstrate strong
growth as a reader,
writer, and thinker,
with the ability
to connect ideas
effectively and
independently most
of the time
Demonstrate
acceptable growth
as a reader, writer,
and thinker, with the
ability to connect
ideas effectively
some of the time
Demonstrate
inconsistent or
limited growth as a
reader, writer, and
thinker, with the
ability to connect
ideas on a limited
basis or without
even results
Demonstrate little
to no growth as a
reader, writer, and
thinker over the
unit, with little or
no ability to connect
ideas.
Depth of
Reflection
Demonstrate
a thoughtful
awareness of the
‘big ideas’ explored
throughout the unit.
Demonstrate a basic
awareness of some
of the ‘big ideas’
explored throughout
the unit.
Demonstrate a
limited awareness
of just one or two
of the ‘big ideas’
explored throughout
the unit.
Demonstrate little or
no awareness of the
‘big ideas’ targeted
throughout the unit.
Substantiation
of Claims
Use relevant
evidence to
support claims and
interpretations,
with an attempt to
explain thoughts.
Use evidence to
support most of the
claims and some
interpretations, with
a basic attempt to
explain thoughts.
Use incomplete or
vaguely developed
evidence to only
partially support
claims and
interpretations.
Use little or no
evidence to
support claims and
interpretations.
Skills
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 4 Page 111
Level four
Level three
Level two
Level one
Proficient
Acceptable
Needs Improvement
Unacceptable
Scientific
Language Use
Use language that
is scientific and
specific. Is able to
clearly explain ideas
and attempts to
persuade.
Use basic but
specific language. Is
able to explain ideas
and reflections.
Use language that is
vague or imprecise
for the purpose.
Has some difficulty
explaining ideas.
Uses language that
is not specific or
vague. Has difficulty
explaining ideas.
Conventions
Illustrations, labels
and references are
used effectively.
Work is clear and
well – organized.
Uses illustrations to
explain ideas. Makes
some reference
to readings. Basic
organization is
evident.
Some illustration,
labels and
references. Work
shows some
organization.
Little or no
illustrations, labels
or references. Work
is not organized.
Skills
Class Participation Scoring Guide
Level four: Students consistently take an active role in their own learning. They participate regularly in
class discussions and frequently volunteer their ideas, ask thoughtful questions, and defend
opinions. They listen respectfully to their classmates and are willing to share ideas as a
result of having completed assignments. Though never causing disruption to the class, these
students always demonstrate a consistent commitment to make the most out of our class time,
each and every day.
Level three: Students sometimes take an active role in their own learning, sharing relevant ideas and asking
appropriate questions. Although reluctant to take risks, they contribute regularly to class
discussions. These students listen to their classmates and respect their opinions. As a result of
having completed assignments, these students are prepared to answer questions when called
upon. They rarely need reminders to stay on task, to make the most of our class time, or to
increase their level of commitment to the course.
Level two: Students occasionally take an active role in their own learning. They participate and ask
questions infrequently. They hesitate to share their ideas or to take risks, and they may not
always listen to or respect the opinions of others. These students usually participate only
when called upon. As a result of assignments being sometimes incomplete or missing, they
may not be prepared to answer thoughtfully with detail or substance. These students need
regular reminders to stay on task, and a conference with the teacher and parent(s) is required
to re-establish the expectations for participation.
Level one: Students rarely take an active role in their own learning. They often do not participate and
rarely share ideas or ask questions. These students display poor listening skills, and they may
be intolerant of the opinions of others. As a result of being unprepared or disengaged from
class, these students often refuse to offer ideas even when called upon. These students are
not a positive influence towards the overall progress of the class, and a conference with the
grade-level administrator and parent(s) is required to re-establish classroom expectations and
identify clear consequences for inappropriate participation.
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Other Assessment Tools
•
Concept maps and data charts can be collected and used as assessment tools;
•
circulating to observe and coach students as they complete their research;
•
conferencing with students about their planning cluster and progress;
•
observing group processing to assess how group members work together and process their information;
and
•
assessing how students use their social skills in presentations and whole-group activities.
Scope and Sequence
Teaching for deeper understanding requires time for both student and teacher reflection. In this unit, a
workshop approach (Nancie Atwell, 1987) to programming is used. Students are involved in authentic reading,
writing and investigative projects during the instructional time.
Characteristics - Time, Choice, Response
The three characteristics of this approach are time, choice and response. The students are given blocks of halfhour to 45 minutes to work individually or in small groups. They take ownership of their learning because they
self-select topics/tasks with the assistance of the teacher (as required). Students respond by sharing their new
understandings in a variety of recorded forms. Their responses are shared during conferences with the teacher,
rough drafts with their classmates, and completed projects with genuine audiences.
Components
There are four components to each learning session:
Read aloud: By the teacher, of material carefully chosen to spark interest, raise questions, provide
background or introduce a new area for investigation. The resource chosen is often too
difficult for the students to read themselves. Critical comprehension skills are demonstrated
(see Sharing). (10 minutes)
Mini-lesson: Direct instruction of a skill, response model, or process. There may be a follow-up exercise for
students to demonstrate their knowledge. (15-20 minutes)
Responding: Time for students to explore websites, materials, read, and prepare charts, diagrams, record in
their learning logs. Time for the teacher to conference with individuals/groups and/or circulate
to observe and coach group processes. (30-45 minutes)
Sharing: The class gathers so that some students can share what they’ve been working on as the
teacher models questioning, critical thinking, making connections, reflecting on values,
challenging thinking and building on the ideas of others.
Once students have the skills modeled by the teacher, small groups can be set up for sharing, with the teacher
circulating among the groups. (15 minutes)
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One-Day Plan
Example of
One Day’s Plan
Many variations are possible but it’s important that two considerations be met:
Literacy block
Mini-lesson (15 minutes)
•
•
•
•
Responding time should be in one block.
Each of the four components should be included.
Main and supporting facts – read page 4 of Deserts – co-operatively fill out
graphic organizer with the information on page four. Display as an anchor
chart.
Responding (45 minutes)
Students:
•
Read, explore, and work on their chosen areas of investigation.
Teacher:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Science Period
Circulates among class, prompts and guides work as needed.
Guided small group instruction for one work group (10 minutes).
Circulates among class, prompts and guides work as needed.
Individual learning conferences (15 minutes).
Read aloud (10 minutes)
Pages 42 and 43, Is it a Desert? Compare and contrast the information about
Antarctica with the anchor chart produced this morning.
Sharing (10 minutes)
Ask children who are working on a chart about the differences between
deserts to share their progress and learning.
Mini-lesson (15 minutes)
•
Recording our inquiries: Measure the amount of water in half an apple.
Children complete the predictions and place the graphic organizer in
portfolios to be continued tomorrow.
Sharing (15 minutes)
•
Continued: Have others share their work in progress while modeling critical
thinking processes.
Assessment (15 minutes)
•
Chapter 4 Page 114 Have students complete their double-entry journals and hand in to the
teacher for review.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Accommodations or Modifications
Encourage students to use colour, illustrations, recordings, collages, etc., in their journals so that they are more
easily understood by everyone with different styles of learning. Freedom to use illustrations, etc, assists children
with weaker literacy skills to express their learning.
Students may ask for a scribe to record their thoughts if needed.
To assist ESD learners, and identified students, make available a wide range of resources at various levels of
complexity, including many picture resources and videos.
Differentiation
Research and successful classroom practice show that an inquiry approach, with emphasis on learning through
concrete, hands-on experiences, best enables students to develop the conceptual foundation they need. When
planning science and technology programs, teachers will provide activities and challenges that actively engage
students in inquiries that honour the ideas and skills students bring to them, while further deepening their
conceptual understanding, and essential skills. (Ontario Science Curriculum, 2007)
The children will be self-selecting projects and investigations they would like to do. Allowing this choice requires
the teacher to guide the students into appropriate response forms. For example, children may want to utilize
pictures, point form, or oral presentation forms.
Research Base
Grennon, J. (2002). Schooling for Life: Reclaiming the Essence of Learning. Alexandria: Va.
Wiggins, G. and McTighe, J. Understanding by Design. http://starfish.k12.ar.us/1_Facilitator_resources_TIA_
UBD/Articles/Article_Backward_Design.doc. In this article, the authors discuss the need for a presentation of
the curriculum that is always focused on the big ideas contained within it.
http://tip.psychology.org/bruner.html. This is a website that explains the origins of the constructivist theory of
children’s learning.
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice
Teaching for deep understanding using the forum outlined in this unit exemplifies excellent teaching practices in
six major areas:
Sets clear goals and challenges for students
•
Sharing clear learning outcomes for the class.
•
Identifies big concepts or ideas and helps students to understand and apply them.
•
Identifies key steps for students to achieve learning goals.
•
Actively helps students to accomplish goals and meet challenges.
•
Sets high, yet reasonable, expectations of students’ learning.
•
Explores topics that are important to our planet and our well-being.
Actively involves learners
•
Knows that learning is a process which transforms and changes learners.
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•
Encourages appropriate student participation.
•
Organizes effective learning experiences that connect to student’s experiences.
•
Evaluates and assesses goals and learning outcomes.
•
Integrates technology, facilitates student participation.
•
Attention is given to building the classroom community.
•
Encourages student’s self-directed learning activities.
Communicates with students
•
Expresses expectations clearly and discusses these with students.
•
Balances collaborative and individual student learning.
•
Attends to classroom dynamics that enhance learning.
•
Engenders enthusiasm and interest in subject matter.
•
Extensive attention given to student’s ideas and questions.
•
Ensures that there are forums for sharing everyone’s ideas.
•
Uses fair and reasonable methods of evaluating learning.
Attends to intellectual growth of students
•
Provides criteria for assessing learning.
•
Acquires regular and varied feedback on students’ accomplishments.
•
Reviews students’ progress in achieving learning outcomes.
•
Actively works to ensure shared ideas are deepened.
•
Provides advanced learning opportunities for those students who seek them.
Respects diverse talents and learning styles of students
•
Promotes a stimulating learning environment.
•
Accommodates different learning styles.
•
Demonstrates sensitivity to moral and environmental issues and explores diverse values.
Adapted from University of British Columbia’s, Principles of Exemplary Teaching and Teaching for Deep Understanding:
Implications for Teaching, by Leithwood, McAdie, Bascia and Rodrigue
Other Applications and Extensions
Fostering students’ communication skills is an important part of the teacher’s role in the science and technology
classroom. Students need to be able to use oral communication, reading, writing, and media literacy skills to
gain new learning in science and technology and to communicate their understanding of what they have learned.
Oral communication skills are fundamental to the development of scientific and technological literacy and are
essential for thinking and learning. Through purposeful talk, students not only learn to communicate information
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but also explore and come to understand ideas and concepts, identify and solve problems, organize their
experience and knowledge, and express and clarify their thoughts, feelings, and opinions.
Ontario Science Curriculum, p38
Science and technology also support the development of a student’s ability to apply the mathematical processes
of problem solving, communicating, representing, connecting, reasoning and proving, reflecting, and selecting
appropriate tools and strategies. For example, clear, concise communication often involves representing
quantitative information numerically using charts and tables or graphically using diagrams and graphs. The
science and technology curriculum provides opportunities for students to interpret and use graphic texts.
Students apply the knowledge and skills they acquire in their study of data management in mathematics to
gather, interpret, and describe data collected through hands-on investigations of relationships in science and
technology.
Ontario Science Curriculum, p39
Grade Three Science Curriculum - Fundamental Concepts and Big Ideas
Systems and Interactions
Plants have distinct characteristics.
There are similarities and differences among various types of plants.
Plants are the primary source of food for humans.
Sustainability and Stewardship
Humans need to protect plants and their habitats.
Plants are important to the planet.
Grade Six Science Curriculum
Assess human impact on biodiversity, and identify ways of preserving biodiversity.
Investigate the characteristics of living things, and classify diverse organisms according to specific characteristics.
Demonstrate an understanding of biodiversity, its contributions to the stability of natural systems, and its
benefits to humans.
Impact Analysis
Impact on the Student
Student Learning Engagement and Motivation
Students use critical thinking skills in science and technology when they assess, analyze, and/or evaluate
the impact of something on society and the environment; when they form an opinion about something and
support that opinion with logical reasons; or when they create personal plans of action with regard to making
a difference. In order to do these things, students need to examine the opinions and values of others, detect
bias, look for implied meaning in their readings, and use the information gathered to form a personal opinion or
stance.
Ontario Science Curriculum, p38
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Impact on the Teacher
Teaching for deep understanding allows educators to maintain a clear focus throughout the year. By knowing
exactly WHAT your students need to know, and HOW they are going to prove to you they know it, teachers can
more readily modify lessons and activities to keep students on track.
If the teacher is mindful of the steps that the students need to take to achieve the end result, the teacher can
transfer this knowledge to the students so they can take an active role in their own learning. After all, isn’t
that the desired result of our teaching, to enable the children to continue learning long after they leave our
classroom?
By understanding the end goal we can scaffold the process so students can be successful in the final task.
Impact on the School
The following comments are taken from a discussion among teachers about the benefits of teaching for deep
understanding.
•
My idea is that teaching for deep understanding creates harmony in education. It unites teaching,
learning and assessment into one common goal and that is developing an enduring understanding.
•
By connecting knowledge and skills across all subjects students become more engaged!
•
By designing our assessments in advance we are better able to integrate various curriculum areas. I
know that by planning for deep understanding I am better able to harmonize math and science for
example- because I can pick out what fits together and teach them in unison.
•
Many times we have probably found ourselves straying off into other lessons ideas/topics just because
they can be “easy” lessons and save us so called extra work. Especially in the primary section with
multiple teachers teaching the same grade, having a common focus or end goal in mind may help
maintain continuity with teachers in a given grade level.
•
A big idea related to teaching for deep understanding is having the race course and finish line clearly
marked before starting the race. All know where they are going if the finish line (summative assessment)
is clearly outlined at the beginning. And all should and WILL finish (at their own pace) when trails are
clearly marked and have been trained on.
•
I love that everyone can get to the finish line in time. They can indeed. All have the enduring knowledge
if, and when, all teachers get that there is more to teaching than delivering the content, giving the test
and moving on to the next thing.
•
Sometimes we don’t give our students the big picture of what they are learning as we probably haven’t
mapped it out for ourselves. Teaching for deep understanding really asks us to get to those big ideas
as those are the ones that are the most engaging for our students and create rich culminating tasks for
them.
Copyright/Paper Citation Considerations
Web clipart.
www.istockphoto.com.
http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/
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Workshop Model
A Mile Wide and An Inch Deep vs. Deep Understanding
Community building exercise to create a safe learning culture and to set the stage.
Anticipation Guide: Have participants fill out the before reading portion of the Desert Anticipation Guide.
Distribute an article to each table, which is to be read by the table group. Using the after reading column,
change answers if applicable.
Give participants three minutes to circulate among large group to find answers to statements they are unsure
about. Discuss ambiguities with the group and begin a list of Questions for Exploration that arise from the
statements.
Discuss the methods for using anticipation guides and the rationale.
•
Activates background knowledge. Introduce Principle Number Two.
•
Creates an atmosphere of inquiry. See Principle Number One.
•
Motivational. See Principle Number Nine.
Reflections on Depth (Chapter Two, Teaching for Deep Understanding)
Using a jig-saw approach and numbered heads, have the table read the six sections of chapter two, share and
discuss. Use a graffiti poster with pictures, colour, phrases, and words that illustrates this new idea and its
implications for teaching.
Big Ideas: Moving from Literal to Critical
Use the graphic organizer, SWBS and read the account of the Tortoise and the Hare from the perspective of the
hare. Using a vertical half piece of chart paper, have teachers work in groups of three to complete the chart from
different perspectives; the hare, spectators, the author, and the tortoise. Post and compare. Discuss whether
these accounts represent facts (proven, measurable), or opinions (deduced, inferred).
Point-of-view is important to understand. Read an excerpt from The Book of Negroes about slave traders
rescuing Africans from their lives of savagery. See page 16 in Teaching for Deep Understanding for an
explanation of the difference in perspective between Columbus discovering America from a European
perspective and a Native American view.
Use the graphic organizer, What’s the Big Idea? to introduce Debbie Millar’s concentric circles of meaning. Elicit
that the main idea of the story could move from literal to deeper, value-based meanings. For example:
•
Don’t take breaks when you have work to do.
•
Slow and steady can win the race.
•
Bragging can backfire.
•
Arrogance’s cousin is the bully.
•
Talents can be undermined by lack of discipline.
•
Competition can have damaging self-esteem effects, even though highly motivating.
•
Win/lose situations are not synergistic.
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•
Co-operation leads to larger, better solutions, etc.
Which principles are being illustrated in the Tortoise and the Hare? See Teaching for Deep Understanding,
Principles One, Two, Three, Five, and Six, p14).
Discovery and Problem-Solving
Think/Pair/Share, Numbered Heads, and/or Placemat techniques:
•
Review current background and research by working through an excerpt from the book Teaching For
Deep Understanding, doing a concept attainment exercise and a statement sort.
Practical Example
Using techniques from the unit and an adult article, the teachers work through a word map, problem-solution
structure, and quick-writes.
Check for new learning by using some of the following techniques:
•
Using Give one, get one, have teachers circulate to share new learnings. Using a dotmocracy strategy,
have the teachers decide what elements of critical literacy were explored and led to a deeper
understanding.
•
Present a concept map of the unit and examine the elements: colour, pictures, content. Working in
grade groups, have educators design a concept map that integrates at least two curriculum areas and
makes use of instructional intelligence techniques. Review maps with others to ensure that relevant and
critical components are in place to ensure teaching for deep understanding is in place.
•
Use a video from www.curriculum.org and show examples of classrooms in action, engaged in the types
of activities that result in deep understanding.
•
Use a placemat technique to define teaching for deep understanding and share the group’s findings.
Closing
Distribute unit, play a bingo type search game to familiarize teachers with the content. Distribute a reflection
sheet that asks for new learnings, plans for change or barriers.
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Literacy: Helping Students
Make Deep Connections
By Anne Georgas
5
5
Learning Object Abstract
Teachers experience the why and how of creating a classroom that promotes a student’s deep understanding of
literacy. Included are resources that support comprehension strategies as well as instructional strategies that
can be implemented by the classroom teacher.
Purpose of Learning Object
The purpose of this workshop is the following:
•
to enable participants to experience a number of activities that promote the building of an inclusive
learning environment;
•
to explore the importance of knowing students’ backgrounds and cultural connections;
•
to identify why a community of learners is necessary to immerse students in debate and discussion
where they must justify their ideas and thinking;
•
to explore how to promote discussions using protocols that allow students to justify their ideas, thinking,
and respectful disagreements within a positive and supportive atmosphere;
•
to provide a look at comprehension strategies (What are they?);
•
to develop instructional strategies that can be used by teachers;
•
to explore resources to support both professional knowledge and teaching literacy; and
•
to identify a collection of books (picture books, short stories, etc.) that help the classroom teacher
develop and promote a deeper understanding of what students read.
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Description of Learning Tasks
This three-hour workshop is meant for teachers. Teachers attending are introduced to the what, how and why of
teaching for a deep understanding in their classrooms.
Teachers attending the workshop develop lessons (cross-curricular) that reflect time, resources, and opportunity
for students to go deeper with their understanding of the material and concepts covered.
Curriculum Connections
The Revised, Language Arts Curriculum clearly views critical thinking as a priority. The document includes
the following description of successful learners: Successful language learners: communicate – that is, read,
listen, view, speak, write, and represent – effectively and with confidence; make meaningful connections
between themselves, what they encounter in texts, and the world around them; think critically. (Language Arts
Curriculum, p4)
The document also outlines the importance of higher-level thinking skills: In recent years, research has shown
that effective readers and writers unconsciously use a range of skills and strategies as they read and write,
and that these strategies and skills can be identified and taught to enable all students to become effective
communicators. The language curriculum focuses on comprehension strategies for listening, viewing, and
reading; on the most effective reading and writing processes; on skills and techniques for effective oral and
written communication and for the creation of effective media texts; and on the language conventions needed
for clear and coherent communication. In addition, it emphasizes the use of higher-level thinking skills, including
critical literacy skills, to enable students not only to understand, appreciate, and evaluate what they read
and view at a deeper level, but also to help them become reflective, critical, and independent learners and,
eventually, responsible citizens. (Language Arts Curriculum, p5)
And finally in Consideration for Program and Planning, we are told that: Effective teaching approaches involve
students in the use of higher-level thinking skills and encourage them to look beyond the literal meaning of texts
and to think about fairness, equity, social justice, and citizenship in a global society. (Language Arts Curriculum,
p25)
In each of the four strands, Oral, Reading, Writing, and Media Literacy, the Expectations, both overall
and specific, strongly indicate that our students must be able to demonstrate critical thinking (a deeper
understanding) in what they read, see, hear and write.
The following expectations support Teaching for Deep Understanding.
Oral Expectations
Overall students will:
•
listen in order to understand and respond appropriately in a variety of situations for a variety of
purposes;
•
use speaking skills and strategies appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of
purposes; and
•
reflect on and identify their strengths as listeners and speakers, areas for improvement, and the
strategies they found most helpful in oral communication situations.
Reading Expectations
Overall students will:
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•
read and demonstrate an understanding of a variety of literary, graphic, and informational texts, using a
range of strategies to construct meaning;
•
recognize a variety of text forms, text features, and stylistic elements and demonstrate understanding of
how they help communicate meaning; and
•
reflect on and identify their strengths as readers, areas for improvement, and the strategies they found
most helpful before, during, and after reading.
Writing Expectations
Overall students will:
•
generate, gather, and organize ideas and information to write for an intended purpose and audience; and
•
draft and revise their writing, using a variety of informational, literary, and graphic forms and stylistic
elements appropriate for the purpose and audience; and use editing, proofreading, and publishing skills
and strategies, and knowledge of language conventions, to correct errors, refine expression, and present
their work effectively.
Media Literacy Expectations
Overall students will:
•
demonstrate an understanding of a variety of media texts;
•
identify some media forms and explain how the conventions and techniques associated with them are
used to create meaning;
•
create a variety of media texts for different purposes and audiences, using appropriate forms,
conventions, and techniques; and
•
reflect on and identify their strengths, areas for improvement, and the strategies they found most
helpful in understanding, and creating media texts.
Required Resources
Reading Strategies
Skills to be introduced include: determining main idea, inferring, making connections, synthesizing, questioning,
visualizing, and inferring. Using the Gradual Release of Independence Model students gain independence in
using the reading strategies.
Graphic Organizers
Graphic organizers are introduced, and scaffolded to independence by students. Graphic organizers assist
students to read and help them organise their thinking. Graphic organizers provide the text form format of what
is being read or viewed.
Instructional Strategies
The following can all be found at http://www.readwritethink.org/index.asp.
•
Applying question - answer relationships to pictures
•
Scaffolding - comprehension strategies using graphic organizers
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•
Using student-centered comprehension strategies with Elie Wiesel’s Night
•
Critical literacy in action - multimodal texts on global warming
•
Cross-curricular planning template
Assessment
Assessment for, as and of learning is critical in creating culturally sensitive, developmentally appropriate lessons.
As well, multiple intelligences and learning styles need to be considered.
Assessment strategies used by teachers vary, depending on the teachers’ goals, and the make-up of students in
the class.
Clearly articulated and demonstrated goals are key. Students need a clear understanding of what the final
product looks and sounds like. Teachers are encouraged to use a criterion that is well defined, in child friendly
language. The use of exemplars can also be helpful.
In planning for assessment and in creating a final performance task, teachers must consider how to give students
the opportunity to demonstrate their learning in a way that is respectful and appropriate to their learning needs
and strengths. For example, students should have the option to orally present, perform, and draw, etc., to show
their learning.
Literacy and Numeracy Webcasts
High-yield Strategies to Improve Student Learning - May 2, 2008
Quality Teaching: It’s Intentional - April 21, 2009
Scope and Sequence
The influence of Teaching for Deep Understanding is not short-term. It begins on the first day of school, and
impacts every day of the rest of students’ lives. I want each reader to be able to read whatever texts he or she
wants to or has to read, and to approach each text confidently, critically, and perhaps appreciatively. (…) We
need to move towards supporting readers’ decisions about the print resources they select – their newspapers,
novels, magazines, their work and organizational materials and what they read for fun and games. (Booth, 2004,
Teaching for Deep Understanding, p35).
In September, teachers assess where their students are. Throughout the year, literacy instruction is planned
through the lens of Teaching for Deep Understanding. As the school year progresses, lessons are scaffolded
with the Gradual Release of Independence model, so that by the end of the school year, students are able to
independently use reading strategies to deepen their understanding of what they have read.
Accommodations or Modifications
In any given classroom, students may demonstrate an extensive range of learning needs. Some may, for
instance, have difficulties with reading, writing, or mathematics. Others may be new to our languages and
culture, or speak another language with more fluency than the language of the classroom. Still others may read
complex books or understand advanced mathematical concepts. Some may appear to lack motivation or be
underachievers relative to their abilities.
Whatever the reasons for the student’s needs, teachers must be prepared to respond effectively and ensure that
each student is learning to his or her potential. (Education for All, p3).
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Differentiation
In our present day classrooms, our task as teachers is to prepare students to be literate citizens of tomorrow’s
world. It is important to meet the needs of students based on learning styles, ability, strengths, and interests. As
well, resources that are used must be culturally sensitive. Students connect to resources that they can relate to.
Connections can be based on previous experiences, culture, or interest.
In the classroom that teaches for deep understanding, teachers assess the needs, strengths, and interests of the
students and use this information to plan and acquire appropriate resources.
Research Base
The books and articles listed in the link below provide resources that a teacher can use to augment professional
knowledge. As well, the resources may be used to create additional lessons in literacy that focus on developing
deep understanding of what is heard, viewed and read by the student.
See READ WRITE THINK
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice
Through teacher moderation, teachers can continue to thoughtfully and purposefully develop their craft.
Other Applications (Extensions)
Reading for understanding and learning extends through every subject area and every aspect of daily life.
Students who learn to think deeply in response to what they see, hear or read will experience a richer life. These
are the students who will be able to explore many aspects of life, question what they see, hear or read, and lead
as the critical thinkers of the next generation.
Impact Analysis
David Booth’s quote beautifully addresses the impact of Teaching for Deep Understanding: We want to develop
readers who construct meaning by summarizing the content and responding personally to what they have read
by reflecting on their process of reading and assimilating these aspects of learning into a holistic understanding
of being literate. (Booth, 2004, Teaching for Deep Understanding, p33)
Impact on the Student
Students who participate in learning that is developmentally appropriate, at an optimal learning level, respectful
of their learning style, and relates to their interests, are connected to their learning. These are the students who
stay engaged and are successful in school.
Precision teaching (precise targets identified through assessment practice) meets the direct and specific needs
of students). This phrase by Michael Fullan constitutes one-third of the equation that makes up our moral
imperative for teaching: precision teaching, professional learning, and personalization. Precision teaching meets
the needs of the student as it is targeted teaching that is specific and purposeful. It is also measurable in that
clear goals and criteria are set. (Fullan, 2006)
See Literacy for All: David Booth
Impact on the Teacher
Literacy and Numeracy Webcasts
Teaching and Learning Critical Pathways, September 8, 2008
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The Teaching and Learning Critical Pathway is a collaborative model based on moderation of student work. It
empowers teachers to provide personalized and precise instruction that meets the needs of every student in a
timely and doable manner. (Teaching and Learning Critical Pathways webcast, September 8, 2008).
Through teacher moderation, teachers can continue to craft their skills in planning, instructional, and assessment
strategies. Planning, assessing, and evaluating not only student work, but teacher practice can be a strong
professional cycle and assist teachers in continuing to develop their craft.
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning
Elementary Teacher’s Federation of Ontario (ETFO). (2002). We’re Erasing Prejudice for Good. Toronto.
Education for All. Chapter 2: Planning for Inclusion: Universal Design for Learning and Differentiated Instruction.
Fullen, M. (2006). Breakthrough. Toronto: OISE/UT.
Literacy and Numeracy Webcasts
All Children Can Achieve: A Focus on Equity of Outcome - September 10, 2007
Differentiated Instruction: Continuing the Conversation - March 29, 2009
Dr. Allan Luke: The New Literacies - May 31, 2007
Effective Instruction in Reading Comprehension - October 25, 2006
Copyright/Paper Citation Considerations
See References.
Looks Like - Sounds Like
Teaching for Deep Understanding: Literacy
Looks Like
Sounds Like
Dialogue:
Dialogue:
•
•
•
•
•
Opportunity for daily discussions,
conversations built into daily plans.
Resources such as Tribes, First Steps –
Oral Resource Book provide protocols for
conversations (being a good listener, turntaker, etc.).
Literature circle roles and the Gradual Release
of Responsibility model are built into planning
and communication skills.
Conversational vocabulary developed
providing students the opportunity to clearly
articulate their experiences, new knowledge,
and reflections.
Chapter 5 Page 126 •
•
•
Protocols for dialogue and conversations that
are inclusive and respectful.
Students feel safe to voice ideas, thoughts,
opinions, agreements, and disagreements.
Teacher modeling, conversation, and
introducing new vocabulary.
Teacher providing opportunities for students
to both listen and speak respectfully.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Looks Like
Sounds Like
Material/Resources:
Material/Resources:
•
•
•
A wide variety of literacy resources:
fiction, non-fiction, media (media literacy),
books, graphic novels, magazine articles,
advertisement, and art etc.
Resources to meet the interests, reading
levels, and cultural diversity needs of
students.
Graphic organizers that students can use
to demonstrate learning (KWL charts, Venn
diagrams, and T-charts).
•
Students discussing and responding to a wide
variety of texts – being able to critique, share,
and reflect what they have read.
Technology:
•
Technology such as SMART Ideas,
Premier (voice-assisted software), can
provide students with the opportunity to
demonstrate their learning in a variety of
ways as well as accommodating different
learning styles.
Instructional Strategies:
•
•
Reading comprehension strategies (Guide to
Effective Instruction in Reading K-3, Guide to
Effective Instruction in Literacy 4)
Modeled, guided, shared, and independent
opportunities for conversations.
Assessment:
•
•
•
Assessment tools that are for, of and about
learning.
A variety of assessment tools that include
written, oral, and performance tasks.
Clear communication of criteria and
expectations by teacher.
Differentiation:
•
Awareness and respect of the varied
history of each group of students, cultural
differences, learning styles, and the collection
of knowledge and experiences that students
bring to the classroom.
Instructional Strategies:
•
Students can independently apply reading
strategies (predicting, determining important
ideas, evaluating, synthesizing, and critiquing)
to deepen their understanding of what they
see, and hear.
Assessment:
•
Students reflecting on their own learning and
being able to provide feedback on their work,
and that of their peers.
Differentiation:
•
Respectful and safe environment.
The Q Chart
•
Choose one word from the left-hand column to combine with a word from the top row (i.e., where and
would).
•
Use these words to create a question. (i.e., Where do you think the main character in the story would
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 5 Page 127
like to go on vacation?)
•
Questions generated using intersections in the upper left hand area tend to be “right there” questions
requiring recall of facts and events.
•
Questions generated using intersections in the bottom right hand area tend to be inferential and opinion
questions requiring deeper thinking.
is/are-
did/does
can/could
would
will
might
What
Where
Which
Who
Why
When
How
Language Arts
OVERALL
EXPECTATION SE
Read and demonstrate an understanding of a variety of literary, graphic and
informational texts, using a range of strategies to construct meaning.
1.4
Grades one to three:
• demonstrating understanding of a text by retelling the story or restating
information from the text (grade one).
Retell:
• demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts by identifying important ideas and
some supporting details (grade three).
Grades four to eight:
Summary:
• demonstrating understanding of a variety of texts by summarizing important ideas
and citing supporting details.
Demonstrating
Understanding
1.5
Making
Inferences
Interpreting Text
Chapter 5 Page 128 Grades one to three:
• use stated and implied information and ideas in tests, initially with support and
direction, to make simple inferences and reasonable predictions about them.
Grades four to eight:
• make inferences about text using stated and implied ideas from the texts as
evidence
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
OVERALL
EXPECTATION SE
Read and demonstrate an understanding of a variety of literary, graphic and
informational texts, using a range of strategies to construct meaning.
1.6
Grades one to three:
• extend understanding of texts by connecting the ideas in them to their own
knowledge and experience, to other familiar texts, and to the world around them.
Grades four to six:
• Extend understanding of texts by connecting the ideas in them to their own
knowledge, experience, and insights, to other familiar texts, and to the world
around them.
Grades seven and eight:
• Extend understanding of texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, by
connecting the ideas in them to their own knowledge, experience, and insights, to
other texts, and to the world around them.
Extending
Understanding
1.7
Analyzing Texts
1.8
Responding to
and Evaluating
Text
1.9
Responding to
and Evaluating
Texts
Grades one to three:
• Identify the main idea and a few elements of texts, initially with support and
direction.
Grades four to six:
• Analyze increasingly complex texts and explain how the different elements in them
contribute to meaning.
Grades seven and eight:
• Analyze a variety of texts, including complex or difficult texts, and explain how the
various elements contribute to meaning, and influence the reader’s reaction.
Grades one to three:
• Express personal opinions about ideas presented in texts.
Grades four to six:
• Made judgments and draw conclusions about ideas in texts and cite stated or
implied evidence from the text to support their views.
Grades seven and eight:
• Evaluate the effectiveness of a text based on evidence taken from the text.
Grades one to three:
• Identify the point of view presented in a text, and suggest some possible
alternative perspectives.
Grades four to six:
• Identify point of view presented in texts; determine whether they can agree with
the view, in whole or in part, and suggest some other possible perspectives.
Grades seven and eight:
• Identify the point of view presented in texts, including increasingly complex or
difficult texts, give evidence of any biases they may contain, and suggest other
possible perspectives.
OVERALL
EXPECTATION SE
Recognize a variety of text forms, text features, and stylistic elements and demonstrate
understanding of how they help communicate meaning.
2.1
Grades one to three:
• Identify and describe the characteristics of a variety of text forms with a focus on
literary texts such as a fable or adventure story.
Grades four to six:
• Analyze a variety of text forms and explain how their particular characteristics help
communicate meaning, with a focus on literary texts such as a myth.
Grades four to eight:
• Explain how the characteristics (of the text form) help communicate meaning.
Text Forms
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 5 Page 129
2.2
Text Patterns
2.3
Text Features
2.4
Elements of
Style
Grades one to three:
• Recognize a few organizational patterns of texts of different types, and explain
how the patterns help readers understand the texts.
Grades four to six:
• Identify a variety of organizational patterns in a range of texts and explain how
they help readers understand the texts.
Grades seven and eight:
• Analyze a variety of text forms and explain how their particular characteristics help
communicate meaning, with a focus on literary texts such as a memoir.
Grades one to three:
• Identify a variety of text features and explain how they help readers understand
texts.
Grades four to eight:
• Identify a variety of text features and explain how they help communicate
meaning.
Grades one to six:
• Identify various elements of style – including voice, work choice, and the use of
hyperbole, strong verbs, dialogue, and complex sentences, and explain how they
help communicate meaning.
Grades seven and eight:
• Identify a range of elements of style, including symbolism irony analogy, metaphor,
and other rhetorical devices, and explain how they help communicate meaning
and enhance the effectiveness of texts.
OVERALL
EXPECTATION SE
Reflect on and identify their strengths as readers, areas for improvement, and the
strategies they found most helpful before, during and after reading.
4.1
Metacognition
Grades one to three:
• Identify, initially with some support and direction, what strategies they found most
helpful before, during and after reading, and how they can use these and other
strategies to improve as readers.
Grades four to eight:
• Identify the strategies they found most helpful before, during and after reading
and explain, in conversation with the teacher and/or peers or in a reader’s
notebook/reflective journal, how they can use these and other strategies to
improve as readers.
4.2
Grades one to three:
• Explain, initially with some support and direction, how their skills in listening,
speaking, writing, viewing, and representing help them make sense of what they
read.
Grades four to eight:
• Explain in conversation with the teacher and/or peers or in a reader’s notebook/
reflective journal, how their skills in listening, speaking, writing, viewing.
Interconnected
Skills
Instructional Strategies to Support Deep Understanding
The following quotes are useful in considering the importance of strategies for teaching for deep understanding.
Students need to learn strategies of comprehending a wide variety of texts, including both fiction and nonfiction.
National Reading Panel, 2000
Chapter 5 Page 130 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
… good comprehension instruction includes both explicit instruction in specific comprehension strategies and a
great deal of time and opportunity for actual reading, writing, and discussion of text.
Duke and Pearson, 2002
Children need scaffolded lessons in which the teacher gradually releases the responsibility for using the strategy.
Kletzein and Dreher, 2004
Explicit instruction in the physical presentation of text and or text structures facilitates reading comprehension.
Cickson, Simmons, and Kameenui, 1998
Strategy
Description
Activating prior knowledge
•
Learners connect to concepts about to be taught by using activities that
engage/activate prior knowledge and experiences.
Questioning
•
Students to apply who, what, when, where, why, how to what they
have read or viewed. Or ask students to generate higher order thinking
questions using a Q Chart.
Classroom Questioning
Guide to Effective Instruction in Reading (p8.4)
•
•
Drama
•
(Pantomime)
•
The expression of ideas using only movement and gestures. In
differentiating instruction for all learners, the opportunity for students
to demonstrate their understanding/comprehension of what they have
read through drama including pantomime.
NARRATIVE PANTOMIME
Analogies
•
Students to make comparisons to what they have read with similar
connected examples.
Art
•
(Posters)
•
Students to create a piece of artwork such as a poster to illustrate their
understanding of a concept.
As well, teachers may use art work such as a poster, sculpture to engage
students in thought and conversation.
Graphic Organizers
•
(Concept Map)
•
Graphic organizers are visual frameworks to help the learner make
connections between concepts. Graphic organizers assist the reader to
communicate the relationship between ideas and what was read.
Graphic organizers can be used before, during and after reading. Before
reading graphic organizers may be used to demonstrate what students
already know, think they know, or may be looking for in their readings.
Keyword
•
Students to identify keywords in reading passage.
KWL
•
Know, Want to know, Learn: Students identify what they know about
a topic, what they want to know, and after reading they identify what
they learned or would still like to learn. In particular it can be used with
non-fiction (factual) texts.
Metacognition
•
Metacognition is thinking about thinking. Students are encouraged/
guided to think about their thinking in what they have read i.e., to ask
questions of themselves as they read a passage, to ask questions about
conclusions or thoughts around their reading.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 5 Page 131
Strategy
Description
Reader’s Theatre
•
One or more students rehearse and present literature, as a story, play,
and poetry, etc. The presentation is read aloud expressively rather than
acted.
Review/Check for Prior
Knowledge
•
•
Assist students in accessing prior knowledge, experiences.
Connections help acquire a deeper understanding.
Think-Pair-Share
•
Students listen to questions, individually think about a response, discuss
their ideas with a partner, and then share their ideas with the class.
Visualizing
•
Guide to Effective Instruction in Reading (p8.5)
Inferring
•
Guide to Effective Instruction in Reading (p8.5)
Determining what is
important
•
Activating prior knowledge and making connections before, during, and
after reading. Students need to be explicitly taught to use their prior
knowledge, or schema, to help them understand a text. This means
that they think of all the things they know, the places they have been
to, or the experiences they have had related to a topic. When you use
your schema, it helps you use what you know to better understand and
interact with the text. (Miller, 2002, p57)
Guide to Effective Instruction in Reading (p8.4)
Summarize
•
Comprehension Strategy Planning Template
Comprehension Strategy Planning Template Literacy:
• Oral
• Reading
• Writing
• Media
Grade_____________________
Numeracy
Social Studies
Science
Making
Connections
Visualizing
Determining
Important Ideas
Asking Questions
Inferring
Synthesizing
Chapter 5 Page 132 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Comprehension Strategies: Resource List
Inferring
Wagner, Jenny. (1988). John Brown, Rose and the Midnight Cat. New York: Puffin Books. ISBN 0140503064.
Weisner, David. (1992). June 29, 1999. New York: Clarion Books. ISBN 0395597625.
Weisner, David. (1991). Tuesday. New York: Clarion Books. ISBN 0395551137.
Making and Connecting
*Bunting, E. (1991). Fly Away Home. New York: Clarion Books. ISBN 0395559626.
Hoffman, M. (1991). Amazing Grace. New York: Dial Books for Young Readers. ISBN 0803710402.
Steig, W. (1977). Amos and Boris. New York: Puffin Books. ISBN 0140502297.
*Silverstein, S. (1999). The Giving Tree. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 006028451X.
Stead, Tony. (2000). Should there be Zoos? New York: Mondo Publishing: distributed in Canada by Scholastic.
ISBN 1572558172.
Watt, Melanie. (2006). Scaredy Squirrel. Toronto: Kids Can Press, 2006. ISBN 9781553379591
Determining Important Ideas
Freedman, Russell. (1995). Immigrant Kids. New York: Puffin Books. ISBN 0140375945
Synthesizing
*Bunting, Eve. (1999). Smoky Night. San Diego: Voyager Books. ISBN 0152018840.
*Coerr, Eleanor. (1993). Sadako. New York: Putnam and Grosset Group. ISBN 0698115880.
De Paola, T. (1979). Oliver Button is a Sissy. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0152578528.
Questioning
*Abercrombie, B. (1990). Charlie Anderson. New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books. ISBN 0689504861.
Rylant, C. (1998). The Van Gogh Café. Toronto: Scholastic Canada. ISBN 0590907174.
Steig, W. (1986). Brave Irene. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0374309477.
Van Allsburg, C. (1986). The Stranger. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0395423317.
Visualizing
Fletcher, R. (1997). Twilight Comes Twice. New York: Clarion Books. ISBN 0395848261.
Kasperson, J. (1995). Little Brother Moose. Nevada: Dawn Publications. ISBN 1883220335.
Mazer, A. (1991). The Salamander Room. New York: Knopf. ISBN 039482945X.
McPhail, D. (1997). Edward and the Pirates. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0316563447.
Moore, E. (1988). Grandma’s Promise. New York: Lothrop, Lee and Shepard Books. ISBN 0688067409.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 5 Page 133
Weisner, D. (1990). Hurricane. New York: Clarion. ISBN 0395543827.
* Referred to Elementary Teacher’s Federation of Ontario, 2002, We’re Erasing Prejudice for Good. (Toronto: the
Federation).
Supporting Articles
Gill, S. R. (October 2008). The Comprehension Matrix: A Tool for Designing Comprehension Instruction. Reading
Teacher. Vol.62. Iss.2. pp106-113.
Abstract
Recent reading research has shown teachers how to help students comprehend and has identified
strategies that good comprehenders use. At the same time, however, researchers report that few if any
of these techniques are used in classrooms. Reading teachers and content area teachers alike need to be
able to design lessons that help students comprehend (i.e., learn from) specific texts and need to develop
comprehension strategies that readers can use on many different types of texts. The Comprehension Matrix
provides teachers with a way of dealing with the overwhelming amount of information available on the
teaching of comprehension by helping them organize activities into pre-reading, during reading, and postreading categories.
Mokhtari, K., Kymes, A. and Edwards, P. (December 2008). Assessing the New Literacies of Online Reading
Comprehension: An Informative Interview with W. Ian O’Byrne, Lisa Zawilinski, J. Greg McVerry, and Donald
J. Leu at the University of Connecticut. Reading Teacher. Vol.62. Iss.4. pp354-357.
Abstract
The constantly changing nature of literacy, brought about by the internet and other forms of information
and communication technologies (ICTs), has pressed researchers and practitioners to seek new ways of
addressing the complexities of reading comprehension and writing on and with the internet. In this brief
interview, members of the New Literacies Research Lab share valuable insights on the assessment of the new
literacies of online reading comprehension.
Headley, K. N. and Dunston, P. J. (November 2000). Teachers’ Choices Books and Comprehension Strategies as
Transaction Tools. Reading Teacher. Vol.54. Iss.3. pp260-68.
Abstract
Describes in detail three interactive teaching strategies that actively engage students in meaning
construction and in developing comprehension strategies (K-W-L Plus, Directed Listening-Thinking Activity,
and Discussion Web), with primary grade readers, using three excellent children’s books.
Pardo, L. S. (November 2004). What Every Teacher Needs to Know about Comprehension. Reading Teacher.
Vol.58. Iss.3. pp272-280.
Abstract
This article presents a model of comprehension to support classroom teachers as they engage their students
in making meaning from text. Four areas contribute to the comprehension process: the reader, the context,
the text, and the transaction, which is described as the intersection of the reader and text situated within
a specific context. This model is used to describe research-based, practical applications for teachers as
they provide support for comprehension in grades kindergarten to grade six. Teachers support the reader
by teaching decoding skills, helping children build fluency, building and activating students’ background
knowledge, teaching vocabulary skills, motivating students, and engaging students in personal response
Chapter 5 Page 134 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
to text. Teachers support the text by teaching text structures, modelling appropriate text selection, and
providing regular independent reading time. Teachers create and support a socio-cultural context that
values reading and writing, contains a wide variety of texts, allows students to take risks, and provides
time for reading aloud independently. Teachers support transaction by providing explicit instruction of
comprehension strategies, teaching children to monitor and repair, using multiple strategy approaches,
scaffolding support, and making reading and writing connections visible to students.
Liang, L. A. and Dole, J. A. (May 2006). Help with Teaching Reading Comprehension: Comprehension
Instructional Frameworks. Reading Teacher. Vol.59. Iss.8. pp742-753.
Abstract
This article presents five instructional frameworks demonstrated by research as being effective in teaching
reading comprehension: (1) The Scaffolded Reading Experience (SRE); (2) Questioning the Author (QtA); (3)
Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR); (4) Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS); and (5) Concept-Oriented
Reading Instruction (CORI). The frameworks focus on two components of comprehension instruction:
instruction in understanding the content of a given text, and instruction in using comprehension strategies to
understand all texts. A vignette is presented for each framework to show what it looks like in the classroom,
and various aspects of the frameworks are discussed to assist educators in making instructional decisions
about their use.
Berne, J. I. and Clark, K. F. (September 2008). Focusing Literature Discussion Groups on Comprehension
Strategies. Reading Teacher. Vol.62. Iss.1. pp74-79.
Abstract
In many literacy classrooms, teachers provide instruction in comprehension by helping students to practice
explicit comprehension strategy use when they encounter difficult texts. In many of those same literacy
classrooms, students are placed in peer-led groups to discuss literary texts as a way to increase their
engagement with difficult reading. This article describes an instructional model that combines these two
activities. Peer discussion groups are intentionally arranged to be practice sites for comprehension strategy
use. Thus, two instructional goals are met within the same framework. As they engage authentically and
meaningfully in peer discussions about books, students also practice comprehension strategy use. Practicing
strategic talk with peers and listening to strategic talk from peers helps children become more facile with
strategies as they encounter increasingly difficult texts.
Annotated Bibliography
Anstey, M. and Bull, G. (2006). Teaching and Learning Multiliteracies: Changing times, Changing Literacies.
Newark. DE: International Reading Association. ISBN 9780872075863.
A look at how literacy is changing. This resource guides teachers to going beyond books to media texts,
electronic web pages, etc. The authors address the implications of these new literacies with how and why
to use the multiliteracies. Included are lesson plans and suggestions to effectively teach literacy in the new
millennium.
Beers, K. (2003). When Kids Can’t Read; What Teachers Can Do, A Guide for Teachers, 6-12. Portsmouth, NH:
Heinemann. ISBN 086709519.
This comprehensive handbook for teachers includes strategies to help readers improve their skills and
attitude towards reading. Kylene Beers also addresses the issue of student confidence, in particular how
attitude and reading skill are tightly woven with confidence. Filled with student transcripts, detailed
strategies, reproducible materials, and extensive booklist, this book will be act as a resource and inspirational
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 5 Page 135
guide. As students gain confidence and reading skill, they are able to access a deeper understanding of what
they read, and the world around them.
Benedict, S. and Lenore, C. (1999). Beyond Words. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Primary teachers have long been aware of the value of picture books in promoting literacy. However, as the
voices in Beyond Words reveal, the potential value of this body of literature for readers and writers extends
far beyond the primary years. Within these pages, teachers from first grade through high school detail how
they have used picture books in reading and writing classrooms, enriching the literate lives of their students.
Bennett, B. and Rolheiser, C. (2001). Beyond Monet: The Artful Science of Instructional Integration. Toronto:
Bookation Inc.
In Beyond Monet, the authors have combined their strengths to create a resource that can be used by
both teacher candidates and teachers to help develop their own repertoire of instructional strategies. All
teachers, whether new to the profession or experienced and ready to retire, could learn from the strategies
the authors present. The authors also provide examples of how the strategies have been tested in various
classroom settings. Clear and well written, the authors examine how to develop meaningful lessons and
provide the reader with the tools to do so. This book is valuable because it not only explains the theory
behind the strategies it presents, but also provides the reader with ideas and models which they can apply in
their own classrooms. Bennet and Rolheiser truly explain the art of teaching.
Coelho, E. (2004). Adding English: A Guide to Teaching in Multilingual Classrooms. Ontario: Pippin Publishing
Corporation. ISBN 0887510957.
Adding English: A Guide to Teaching in Multilingual Classrooms is intended for all educators with various
amounts of experience in dealing with English language learners. Elizabeth Coelho writes for the teacher
in training, the new teacher, the ELL/ESL teacher and the experienced teacher integrating second language
learners into mainstream from kindergarten to grade twelve. Although intended for teachers, the book is
not written in formal academic style but is extremely clear and to the point, making it effortless for readers
to follow and grasp the key concepts. The book challenges the traditional way of dealing with English
language learners. It is quickly being regarded in educational circles as the new bible of teaching English
language learners.
Fountas, I. C. and Pinnell, G. S. (2006). Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Thinking, Talking and Writing
about Reading, K-8. Portsmouth NH: Heinemann. ISBN 032003084.
Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, K-8 is a fulsome picture of how to teach for fluency and how to
help students gain a deep understanding of what they read, both fiction and non-fiction. Fountas and Pinnell
include high-yield instructional strategies for fiction and non-fiction texts, assisting the reader within a text,
beyond the text, and about the text. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency K-8 also guides the teacher
how to select instructional strategies, appropriate expectations, and assess reading, student levels and
needs. With the resource there is also a DVD that includes useful material to support teachers in teaching
and assessing comprehension and fluency.
Harvey, S. and Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that Work: Teaching Comprehension To Enhance Understanding.
Markham: Ontario. ISBN 157113104.
A practical guide of lessons that are focused on reading strategies (making connections, asking questions,
visualizing, inferring, determining important ideas, and synthesizing). Each of the strategies is embedded in
lessons with examples of student responses. The goal of the lessons is to assist students in gaining a deep
understanding of what they read. There are also suggestions as to how teachers can promote self-reflection
Chapter 5 Page 136 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
among students. As well, an assessment guide is included.
Heffernan, L. (2004). Critical Literacy and Writer’s Workshop: Why Kids Can’t Read. Bloomington: Indiana.
ISBN 07-972075419.
Lee Hefferman recounts a year of her own teaching where the focus is on grade three students and
their writing. Hefferman focuses her lessons on critical literacy and students’ schema to deepen their
understanding of what they read and write.
Hoyt, L. (2005). Spotlight on Comprehension: Building a Literacy of Thoughtfulness. Portsmouth NW. ISBN
0325007195.
Spotlight on Comprehension is a professional resource that is meant to be read in short segments
or chapters. Each section/segment focuses on one topic and includes the latest research on reading
comprehension and assessment. The resource itself is a collection of articles contributed by well-known
educators, researchers and presenters such as Ellin Keene, Tony Stead, and Franki Sibberson - all written
with the focus of improving children’s comprehension strategies, especially questioning, inferring, and
summarizing. Topics include second language readers, using writing to build reading comprehension, and
expanding vocabulary. Each section includes reflective, guiding questions that assist the classroom teacher
in developing a community of thoughtful readers.
Gould Lundy, K. (2004). What Do I do About the Kid Who ….? 50 Ways to Turn Teaching into Learning.
Pembrooke Publishers: Markham, Ontario.
What Do I do About the Kid Who ….? 50 Ways to Turn Teaching into Learning offers fifty ways to turn
teaching into fun learning experiences. The book is organized around five chapters that reflect the key
elements for effective learning. Within each chapter are simple and effective activities that teachers can
adapt to make learning happen in a contextualized, inclusive, respectful and creative way. The main purpose
of the book is to show teachers how to create classrooms where learning is more joyful, exciting, and
involving for students – students who are engaged in what they read become better, deeper readers.
Meyers, M. (1993). Teaching to Diversity: Teaching and Learning in the Multi-Ethnic Classroom. Annotation.
Toronto: Addison Wesley Publishing Company.
Teaching to Diversity is an excellent resource book of classroom strategies for ELL students that compliments
and highlights many of the points addressed and suggested in the Ontario Ministry of Education documents.
The book, in an unbiased fashion, offers a sound, well-developed theoretical base and a thorough overview
of methodology. It discusses current approaches and practices in refugee and immigrant education, as well
as in integrated, mainstream and ELL programs. Practical, innovative, classroom-tested strategies include
integrating language teaching, active learning, process writing, thematic planning, co-operative learning,
student publishing, and education through a global perspective. This book also includes various reproducible
black-line masters (i.e., co-operative learning assessments, self-assessments, and checklists, etc.). (Editorial
Review - Amazon.com)
Taberski, S. (2000). Strategies For Teaching Reading K-3. Portsmouth NH: Heinemann. ISBN 0325002274.
Strategies For Teaching Reading K-3 looks at not only teaching reading strategies but also scheduling,
conferences, assessment and differentiating instruction to meet the needs of students. Taberski
demonstrates strategies to support students in modelled, guided, shared, and independent reading.
Taberski, also addresses the reading-writing connection, and demonstrates how writing assists students in
becoming better readers. Her topics include strategies for selecting the appropriate book for independent
reading, vocabulary development, word study, and self-monitoring.
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Tomlinson, C. A. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria, VA.
In The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners, Tomlinson focuses on how to
engage students with different learning styles, and needs, in a regular classroom. She focuses on meeting
the needs of student through differentiating instruction, the learning environment, and resources. This
resource gives practical examples of lessons and includes the why, how and what of differentiation in the
class. Both individual and small group instruction are addressed.
Vasquez, V., et. al. (2003). Getting Beyond “I like the Book”. Newark Delaware. International Reading
Association. ISBN 0872075125.
This book describes how to use picture books, as well as other children’s literature to gain a deep, critical
understanding of what is being read and observed in the world around them. Vasques, et. al., assist
teachers in initiating and developing conversations with their students that focus on a critical view of text,
media, and the world around them.
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Creating a Mathematical Community
in the Junior Classroom
By Stacey Anne Grochowina
6
Learning Object Abstract
Creating a Mathematical Community in the Junior Classroom Through Deeper Understanding: The Power of
Representation, Dialogue, and Problem-Solving
Purpose of Learning Object
As a mathematical community, the students and teacher engage in a collaborative inquiry and problem-based
journey by actively participating in a number of open-ended learning opportunities (i.e., representation, and
problem-solving) to encourage risk taking, dialogue, and discovery (i.e., Gallery Walk, Match Congress and
Bansho.pdf).
As students participate, they seek the core concepts while making connections to literature, art, and world
issues. In doing so, all learners in the classroom will gain a deeper, more conceptual approach toward the
understanding and application of mathematics within their learning environment and beyond.
Description of Learning Tasks
Graphing
Exploring Social Issues
In this activity, students choose a social issue that interests them.
They carefully craft survey questions, conduct their surveys with their peers, collect results using tally charts,
explore the understanding of mean/mode, document their findings, and lastly, interpret their results. (See
Student Artifact Example Social Issues Graphing Project Rubric.pdf).
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A Study of Fractions
A Tasty Treat Through Punch Recipes
Students explore a variety of concepts associated with the study of fractions, such as important fraction
benchmarks (i.e., half, quarter, three quarters, and whole), equivalent fractions, and percentage-fraction
relationships through the use of recipes. The recipes (on black-line masters and student artifacts) create an
open-ended opportunity for all students to work collaboratively, demonstrate their thinking in diverse forms
(i.e., modes of representation) and establish personal connections to real-life situations. By connecting to a
real-life situation, such as a recipe, students are able to quickly engage and explore the importance of fractions
in everyday situations while strengthening, discovering, and fostering their mathematical knowledge through a
hands-on conceptual approach, and accountable/positive talk. See A Study of Fractions and Student Examples.
pdf.
Creativity with Creatures
An Algebra Adventure
This activity is adapted and modelled from Marilyn Burn’s Two of Everything and Iguana Lessons. Students
explore and apply their understandings of algebra by creating their own creature with pattern blocks or shapedstickers. The series of activities and classroom discussions integrate the use and application of important
vocabulary (i.e., T-chart, input/output, variable, constant, pattern rule, algebraic expression, coordinates, and
growing/shrinking/repeated patterns) by using, sharing, and applying these understandings in a collaborative,
problem-solving, and creative learning context. Refer to the Lesson Outline, which includes black-line masters
and Student Artifacts.
Curriculum Connections
Overall Expectations
Data Management and Probability
•
Collect and organize discrete or continuous primary and secondary data and display the data using charts
and graphs, including broken-line graphs; and
•
read, describe, and interpret primary and secondary data presented in charts and graphs including
broken-line graphs.
Number Sense and Numeration
Specific Expectations – Quantity Relationships/Proportional Relationships
•
Represent, compare, and order fractional amounts with like denominators, including proper and
improper fractions and mixed numbers, using a variety of tools (i.e., fraction circles, Cuisenaire rods, and
number lines) and using standard fractional notation; and
•
demonstrate and explain the concept of equivalent fractions, using concrete materials (i.e., use fraction
strips to show that ____ is equal to nine twelfths); describe multiplicative relationships between
quantities by using simple fractions and decimals (i.e., If you have four plums and I have six plums, I can
say that I have one, or one and one-half times as many plums as you.)
Patterning and Algebra
Overall Expectations
Chapter 6 Page 140 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
•
Determine, through investigation using a table of values, relationships in growing and shrinking patterns,
and investigate repeating patterns involving translations; and
•
demonstrate, through investigations, an understanding of the use of variables in equations.
Language
Overall Expectations
Oral: (Grade five overall expectations, yet reflective of grades four and six)
•
Listen in order to understand and respond appropriately in a variety of situations for a variety of
purposes;
•
use speaking skills and strategies appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of
purposes; and
•
reflect on and identity their strengths as listeners and speakers, areas for improvement and the
strategies they found most helpful in oral communication situations.
Reading: (Grade five overall expectations, yet reflective of grades four and six)
•
Read and demonstrate an understanding of a variety of literary, graphic, and informational texts, using a
range of strategies to construct meaning;
•
recognize a variety of text forms, text features, and stylistic elements, and demonstrate understanding of
how they help communicate meaning; and
•
use knowledge of words and cueing systems to read fluently; and reflect upon and identify their
strengths as readers, areas for improvement, and the strategies they found most helpful before, during,
and after reading.
Writing: (Grade five overall expectations, yet reflective of grades four and six)
•
Generate, gather, and organize ideas and information to write for an intended purpose and audience;
•
draft and revise their writing, using a variety of information, literary, and graphic forms and stylistic
elements appropriate for the purpose, and audience;
•
use editing, proofreading, and publishing skills and strategies, and knowledge of language conventions,
to correct errors, refine expression, and present their work effectively; and
•
reflect on and identify their strengths as writers, areas for improvement, and the strategies they found
most helpful at different stages in the writing process.
Required Resources
These activities draw upon a variety of skills, interests, and abilities of both the teacher and student. In order to
integrate these activities into a current mathematics program, it is encouraged that the mathematical learning
community have and/or provide the following:
•
establish a set of norms for co-operative learning;
•
build an understanding of the different modes of representation in mathematics by introducing and
discussing mathematical concepts through an open-ended, problem-solving, and conceptual approach.
See An Overview of Representation.pdf.
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Chapter 6 Page 141
•
the classroom should contain a variety of supplies, which will foster a more conceptual approach to
exploring mathematics. These supplies include diverse manipulatives, such as pattern blocks, colour
tiles, fraction strips, and chart paper; and
•
the following professional resources for teachers would also help to assess the students’ background,
foster rich discussions, and generate a stepping-stone to the discovery of the core concepts or big ideas
in these activities. These resources include:
•
•
Canada: Chalkboard. (2006). Canadian Curriculum Teaching Resource Math Tests Grade 4-6.
•
Egan, L. H. (1999). 25 Super Cool Math Board Games. New York, NY: Scholastic.
•
Ennis, B. H. and Witeck, K. S. (2007). Introduction Representation Grades 3-5. Portsmouth, NH:
Heinemann.
•
Fosnot, C. T. and Dolk, M. (2002). Young Mathematicians at Work Constructing Fractions,
Decimals, and Percents. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
•
Fosnot, C. T. (2007). Field Trips and Fund-Raisers Introducing Fractions. Portsmouth, NH:
Heinemann.
•
Giganti, P. (1992). Each Orange Had 8 Slices A Counting Book. New York, NY: Mulberry Books.
•
Hutchins, P. (1986). The Doorbell Rang. Toronto, ON: Scholastic.
•
Paziuk, J., Pitre, S., Dawson, R., Languay, J., and Davis, M. (2004). Making Math Happen in the
Junior Years. Toronto, ON: ETFO.
•
Thiessen, D., Matthias, M., and Smith, J. (1998). The Wonderful World of Mathematics: A
Critically Annotated List of Children’s Books in Mathematics. Restin, VA: National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics.
•
Van de Walle, J. A., and Lovin, L. H. (2006). Teaching Student-Centered Mathematics Grades 3-5.
Toronto, ON: Pearson.
•
Wickett, M., Kharas, K. and Burns, M. (2002). Lessons for Algebraic Thinking Grades 3-5.
Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
•
Yeats, K. L. (2005). Mega-Fun Card-Game Math. New York, NY: Scholastic
Helpful websites for the above mentioned culminating tasks:
•
http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/fractions.html. This website provides a variety of
fraction worksheets and fraction strips (coloured and non-coloured) for conceptual learning and
problem solving.
•
http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/graphing.html. This website provides a variety of
student-friendly worksheets and graphing paper of different sizes.
The mathematical community (student and teacher) should have an understanding and experience in the use
of a Gallery Walk, Match Congress, and Bansho. Refer to Appendix for definitions. As a pre-activity, consider
integrating activities that are textbook, resource or teacher-created before exploring these culminating tasks.
By establishing an understanding of vocabulary, mathematical expressions (i.e., modes of representation), and
core concepts, the mathematical community can explore together the richness and deeper understandings
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associated with these culminating activities. In doing so, students will experience a greater sense of success by
observing and experiencing how they applied and built upon their previous knowledge.
Assessment
By using a Gallery Walk, Math Congress, and/or Bansho, students may be assessed through ongoing observation,
exchange of dialogue, and prompting questions, which will assist the teacher in uncovering authentic student
knowledge. These techniques encourage the teacher to engage as a facilitator who prompts students’ thinking
and explanation through high yield questioning. By keeping a record of student’s work (i.e., portfolios), and
discussion points, the teacher is able to observe, document, and comment on a student’s progress and growth,
which reflects his/her true understanding of core mathematical concepts.
Student rubrics may also be used. (See Student Artifact Example Social Issues Graphing Project Rubric.pdf).
Exit slips or cue cards may be used to assess students on specific concepts learned on a day-by-day basis. The
following article outlines the value of using cue cards. In this article, the teacher decides upon the core concepts
reviewed in a specific lesson or series of lessons and poses an open-ended question, which is to then be
answered, and supported through a written mode of representation.
Quinn, J., Kavanagh, B., Banks, N., and Caro, R. (December 2008/January 2009). Two Thumbs Way, Way Up.
Teaching Children Mathematics. Vol.15. Iss.5. pp295-303.
On-the-spot assessments can also be extremely valuable in assessing a student’s ability to understand,
apply, and represent his/her mathematical thinking. Through effective questioning and prompting, teachers
can record individual responses through quick and easy record keeping (i.e., class list, teacher-created
record sheets), while the students maintain a mathematics portfolio, binder, or student folder. As students
engage in group and/or independent work, these one-to-one or group conferences can yield many learning
moments for both the teacher and student.
The following article outlines this technique: Diezmann, C. Quinn, J., Kavanagh, B., Banks, N., and Caro, R. Two
Thumbs Way, Way Up. (December 2008/January 2009). Teaching Children Mathematics. Vol.15. Iss.5. 290294.
A helpful resource for an overview of assessment techniques with student exemplars is: Allen, C., Ferguson, S. K.,
Gadd, J., Koch, L. C., Kravin, D., Lambdin, D., and Rasmussen, M. (2005). Mathematics Assessment A Practical
Handbook For Grades 3-5. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Scope and Sequence
Depending upon the skill set of the mathematical community, these activities can easily be coordinated within
an existing mathematics curriculum/program. It is recommended that the students and the teacher take
a conceptual approach to mathematics (i.e., fractions, algebra, etc.), through open-ended problem-solving
activities, manipulatives, and dialogue, so that all learners gain a deeper understanding of the positive benefits of
integrating the different modes of representation. On this note, all culminating tasks would be best used during
the second and third terms, when the mathematical community has already established a working knowledge of
the different modes of representation (i.e. manipulatives, language, symbols, etc.), into the everyday routine of
the classroom.
Accommodations or Modifications
In reviewing the overall framework of the culminating tasks, the goal of each activity is to provide an opportunity
for all students to exercise their own skill set, explore their mathematical understandings, develop their
mathematical thinking through personal discovery, and apply/build upon their previous knowledge. The
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culminating activities provide a variety of access or entry points for all students, which also address diverse
classroom cultures and students’ abilities.
In addition, students are able to use a skill, which is unique to them, to apply to their mathematical knowledge,
and explain their thinking (i.e., dialogue and drawing) while making connections with their peers, other
mathematical concepts, and content areas.
Differentiation
These culminating tasks can be explored independently and/or co-operatively. When these activities are
explored in a collaborative fashion, all learners are able to optimize their potential by making rich discoveries
through both written and oral methods (i.e., showing their understanding using symbols, numbers, words, and
orally explaining their understanding to the class).
Gallery Walks, Math Congress, and Bansho are three techniques, which facilitate the rich exchange of meaning
within a classroom, provide different formats (i.e., visual and oral) to show thinking while addressing the
different learning styles and interests of all students. The topic choices of the culminating tasks, for example
the use of recipes or a social awareness issue, can be changed to mirror the interests within the classroom. A
current professional resource written by Marian Small entitled Good Questions: Great Ways to Differentiate
Mathematics Instruction is an ideal resource to assist teachers in understanding and applying the philosophy
of differentiation within the mathematics classroom. In this resource, Small (2009) provides a series of parallel
tasks (i.e., two mathematical tasks are presented linked to a core concept and a student would choose to solve
one of them) across the different strands and grade levels. In addition, she provides prompts for reflection and
diverse models for educators to gain a better understanding of how to ask and create parallel tasks within the
mathematics classroom.
Small, M. (2009). Good Questions Great Ways to Differentiate Mathematics Instruction. Toronto, ON: Nelson
Education.
Research Base
Articles related to deeper understanding within the mathematics classroom:
Barr, G., and Wiest, L. (2007). An Arts-Based Approach to Teaching Fractions. Teaching Children
Mathematics. Vol.14. Iss.2. pp74-80.
Battista, M. T. (February 1994). Teacher Beliefs and the Reform Movement in Mathematics Education. Phi
Delta Kappan. pp462-470.
Murphy, W. J., and Napolim, M. (2007). Integrating Literature and Mathematics: A Mysterious Connection.
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School. Vol.13. Iss.3. pp134-139.
O’Connell, S. R., Beamon, C., Beyea, J. M., Devnir, S. S., Dowdall, L. A., Friedland, N., G., and Ward, J. D.
(November 2005). Aiming for Understanding: Lessons Learned about Writing Mathematics. Teaching
Children Mathematics. Vol.12. Iss.4. pp192-199.
Stein, M. K. and Bovalino, J. (2001). Manipulatives: One Piece of the Puzzle. Mathematics Teaching in the
Middle School. Vol.6. Iss.6. pp356-359.
Sweetland, J. and Fogarty, M. (September 2008). Prove It! Engaging Teachers as Learners to Enhance
Conceptual Understanding. Teaching Children Mathematics. Vol.15. Iss.2. pp68-73.
Van Zoest, L. R. and Enyart, A. Discourse, Of Course: Encouraging Genuine Mathematical Conversations.
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School. Vol.4. Iss.3. pp150-157.
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The articles mentioned above address the debate surrounding the pedagogical shift from a traditional/
instructional approach to teaching mathematics to a conceptual/relational one. In addition, other authors/
researchers outline different issues, such as the use of manipulatives, establishing effective/positive
mathematical discourse, and the integration of mathematical literacy (i.e., writing), all of which contribute to the
creation of a mathematics classroom that encourages all learners to participate, engage, share, and discover the
wonders of mathematics within the classroom, the community, and other content areas.
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice
By creating a mathematical community based on a conceptual approach where open-ended problem-solving,
personal/mathematical connections, and different forms of representations guide the curriculum planning,
lesson delivery, and overall student learning, all members in the classroom community become more confident,
motivated, and engaged with each other, self, and content. Students and teachers become more intellectually,
emotionally, and physically engaged in the learning process. The core mathematics concepts come alive thanks
to the strategies used (i.e., modes of representation), the dialogue exchanged, and the connections established
(i.e., with other mathematical concepts and content areas). Consequently, students become more involved in
the overall mathematical learning experience because they are provided with the needed opportunities to use
their own thinking, understanding, and application of mathematics through personal discovery, experimentation,
creativity, and imagination.
Other Applications (Extensions)
Exploring Social Issues through Graphing
This activity is adapted from the OWA (Ontario Writing Assessment) resource for grade five students. As
a follow-up activity to the Global Awareness Graphing Project, students can write and develop a public
announcement (i.e., persuasive writing) related to their chosen issue (i.e., environment, or gender
discrimination). This resource includes grade appropriate rubrics and student exemplars (See Student Artifact
Example Social Issues Graphing Project Rubric.pdf)). Following the writing activities, students can design and
create posters that support their issues. An oral report or presentation may also be an additional option.
A Study of Fractions
A Tasty Treat through Punch Recipes may be a helpful part of the writer’s workshop and/or literacy block. For
additional information, see the article by Apanay, M. F., and Vavoso, A. C. (October 2008). The Workshop Way:
Creating a Stimulating Intellectual Environment. Teaching Children Mathematics. Vol.15. Iss.3. pp168-173.
Students can pursue procedural writing through a reading/writing activity which focuses on recipe writing. The
learning community can gain a greater understanding of this type of writing while exploring individual goalsetting, real-life applications, vocabulary, and different types of print (i.e., storybooks). Cook-A-Doodle-Doo! is
an ideal mentor text to use as a starting point to this activity. Stevens, J., and Stevens Crummel, S. (2005). First
Voyager Books. See A Study of Fractions and Student Examples.pdf.
Creativity with Creatures - An Algebraic Adventure
Based on the students’ creatures, they can write their own math tale. By drawing upon their algebraic
vocabulary (i.e., variable, constant, pattern rule), concepts, and individual creativity, students can become
authors of their own mathematical adventure. Students can create a story, which can include a set of interactive
lesson(s) on algebra.
These stories can be shared in book buddies or cross-graded reading groups. Due to the open-ended nature of
the activity, teachers can encourage more challenging creatures by requiring that two parts grow at the same
time (i.e., body and tail).
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Teachers can also access additional activities, which support mathematical literacy in Write Math Words Write:
Start Writing Prompts with Rubrics. (Darvill, 1998).
Impact Analysis
The culminating tasks allow the mathematical community (teacher and students) to gain a greater understanding
into a more conceptual philosophy of teaching through observing, experimenting, and connecting with different
forms of instruction and models for imaginative, creative, and holistic learning. The hands-on activities provide
all learners with the opportunity to experience mathematics by exercising their creative and critical thinking skills
and making connections to real-life applications and other content areas. The different teaching strategies like
the Gallery Walk, Math Congress, and Bansho invite students to engage and share their mathematical thinking
with their peers. As they exchange their explanations, students draw upon a variety of written and oral skills,
which uncover many Aha! moments within the classroom. All learners, students and teacher, are continually
involved in the thinking process, and are more engaged due to the active and collaborative nature of the
activities which focus on deeper understanding.
Impact on the Student
When students engage in open-ended mathematical problems, exchange numerical discourse or immerse
themselves in pictorial representations, they become more active learners by participating in a journey into a felt
experience within the world of mathematics. Similar to forms of art, the students create by using a variety of
tools, such as pictures, manipulatives, and discourse.
The use of representation and open-ending problem-solving allows students to explore, create, and imagine
different possibilities to mathematical questions. Representations are: important in that they are vehicles
for learning and communicating; they support learners of many different styles; allowing students to use
combinations of representations to gain more information than would be possible to gain more information than
would be possible with a single representation. (Preston and Garner, p39).
In all, the conceptual and relational paradigms of thinking foster a more meaningful experience in mathematics
and due to these experiences students become better connected with mathematical concepts within the
classroom and beyond.
Impact on the Teacher
By adopting a more conceptual approach to teaching mathematics, the teacher too becomes a learner with his/
her students. Upon implementing activities and teaching strategies that foster deeper understanding, teachers
assume the role of a facilitator who educates and draws out the mathematician within the student by engaging
them in experiences (i.e., open-ended problem-solving, rich, extended activities, hands-on discovery, and reallife applications) in which they explore mathematical concepts and procedures in constructive and conceptual
ways.
Through the integration of problem-solving, dialogue, and hands-on tools (i.e., manipulatives and technology),
teachers create a learning environment that supports mathematical thinking and understanding through
constructive questioning, innovative activities, and conceptual teaching strategies.
Impact on the School
As a Students Understanding Mathematics (SUM) teacher with the District School Board of Niagara, I have
experienced the positive benefits of the pedagogical shift from a traditional/procedural approach to a
conceptual/relational one.
In three years of working on a variety of SUM initiatives, which include book studies, classroom visits, and action
Chapter 6 Page 146 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
research, I witnessed the value of engaging in this needed shift in curriculum planning, instruction, and strategies
that yield long lasting educational gains within student learning, understanding, application and explanation of
mathematical concepts. The big ideas or core concepts in mathematics carry a deeper understanding which
result from engaging in rich open-ended questions, different modes of representation (i.e., pictures, symbols,
numbers), and dialogue.
When more and more classrooms embrace this pedagogical shift, mathematics classrooms become a richer
learning environment where all learners (i.e., both teacher and student) participate in an authentic and active
learning experience.
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning
Artzt, A. F. and Armour-Thomas, E. (2002). Becoming a Reflective Mathematics Teacher A Guide for
Observations and Self-Assessment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Schuster, L. and Anderson, N. C. (2005). Good Questions for Math Teaching Why Ask Them and What to Ask
Grades 5-8. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
Stocker, D. (2008). Math that Matters A Teacher Resource Linking Math and Social Justice. Canada: CCPA
Education Project.
Sullivan, P. and Lilburn, P. (2002). Good Questions for Math Teaching Why Ask The and What to Ask (K-6).
Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
Copyright/Paper Citation Considerations
During the past two years, I have been gradually working towards developing a mathematics program that
focuses on a more conceptual approach to learning rather than that of a traditional one. On this note, I have
selected a number of student artifacts that have guided my own personal learning.
In regards to the lesson entitled, Creativity with Creatures: An Algebraic Adventure, the lessons overview
contains helpful worksheets from various resources, which are reproducible. These resources are valuable to
supplement and to guide anticipation sets and/or review work.
The majority of the professional articles outlined in this module are readily available online through search
engines like EBSCO, in addition to professional board and university libraries. The mentor texts mentioned are
currently in print and may be purchased through Amazon and/or Indigo books.
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Chapter 6 Page 147
Projects in the Science and
Technology Curriculum
By Ross Haley
7
Learning Object Abstract
Teaching for deep understanding in the science and technology curriculum is best evidenced through mini-unit
projects/culminating activities, or more in-depth Science and Technology fair projects. This module would be
an instructional hands-on workshop to develop knowledge and skills of project processes. Inter-disciplinary
connections would be embedded into the processes.
Purpose of Learning Object
Through project-based activities and processes, and culminating tasks or projects, teachers enable students to
construct their own knowledge about their topic. The outcome is that students make better sense of the science
and technology concepts, use their skill sets to demonstrate mastery at more advanced levels of learning, and
acquire a fuller understanding of how science and technology concepts relate to issues in the world around them
and the limitations of that knowledge.
Description of Learning Tasks
Initiating Activity: Water Drops on Pennies
Teachers use pipettes, water, and pennies to determine the maximum number of drops the surface of a penny
can hold without overflowing. The exploratory stage allows teachers to investigate the procedure of dropping
water onto pennies. Through group discussion, the variables affecting the results are identified and method
rules are established for the next step. Teachers use the rules to re-test several pennies to determine patterns
and their findings. Follow-up discussion leads to the need to control variables, the need for replication, the need
for background research, and introduces the experimental error concept.
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Rationale for Teaching for Deep Understanding
The PowerPoint outline of the research rationale for the T4DU culminating activities and the role of crosscurricular integration promotes discussion of the value of teaching for deep understanding in science and
technology education. See T4DU Science and Technology Project Workshop.pdf. The instructional portion
focuses on observational skills activities, inference activities, identifying variables, and measurable behaviours
as common preludes to all activities. Using a common topic/issue, these concepts are consolidated. The next
step is to outline the planning portion of an experimental process involving hypothesizing, setting the purpose
or problem, itemizing the materials and equipment needed, and crafting the method/procedure to be followed.
Interpreting the data collected to find patterns or solutions to the issue is outlined and discussed.
The application of this process in the workshop allows several groups to form around the topics/issues available
to choose from. After a pre-planning period, each group presents their topic with initial thoughts and plans for
feedback from the whole group to help focus, and redirect the learning activity. A working period follows for
each group to complete an investigation. Results are posted for questions and suggestions from the others. See
Resources Science Technology Process Unit Booklet.pdf and Science Technology Process Unit Booklet Teacher’s
Guide.pdf.
The links to other curricula are developed within the group and posted. The link to the science and technology
project would be made for this process. Direct links to the science and technology curriculum topics and
culminating activities are also developed. Two other approaches -- correlated study and innovated design
solution to problem-solving --are outlined. To develop these two processes in a hands-on workshop would
require additional time. Outlining how to build a community of learners, how to differentiate activities, and the
role and examples of informal and formal assessment in the three processes are developed and discussed.
Curriculum Connections
Science and Technology: The Ontario Curriculum, 2007
Big Ideas: Pages 6-11:
•
Goal one: To relate Science and Technology to society and the environment.
•
Goal two: To develop the skills, strategies, and habits of mind required for scientific inquiry and
technological problem-solving.
•
Goal three: To understand the basic concepts of Science and Technology.
•
The Skill Continua: For scientific investigation and Technological problem solving: pages 12-18
•
Developing skills of scientific investigation and technological problem-solving common to all grades:
Follow established safety procedures and humane practices during investigations. Use appropriate
Science and Technology vocabulary in oral and written communication. Use a variety of forms to
communicate with different audiences and for a variety of purposes.
Language: The Ontario Curriculum, 2006
Cross-curricular and Integrated Learning: One example would be a unit linking expectations from Science and
Technology curriculum and the Language curriculum… (p24)
Oral Communication: Demonstrate an understanding of the information and ideas in a variety of oral texts by
summarizing ideas and citing important details; make inferences using stated and implied ideas in oral texts;
extend understanding of oral texts by connecting the ideas in them to their own knowledge, experience, and
insights.
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Chapter 7 Page 149
Speaking to Communicate: Demonstrate an understanding of appropriate speaking behaviour in a variety of
situations; communicate in a clear, coherent manner, presenting ideas, opinions, and information in a readily
understandable form; use appropriate words and phrases from the full range of vocabulary to communicate
meaning accurately and engage the interest of the audience; use a variety of appropriate visual aids.
Reading for Meaning: Demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts by summarizing important ideas and
citing important details; extend understanding of texts by connecting the ideas in them to student knowledge,
experience, and insights, and to other familiar texts and to the world around them.
Writing: Generate ideas about a potential topic using a variety of strategies and resources; gather information
to support ideas for writing using a variety of strategies and oral, print, and electronic sources; sort and classify
ideas and information; identify and order main ideas and group them into units, using a variety of graphic
organizers; determine whether the ideas and information they have gathered are relevant and adequate for the
purpose; identify elements of writing that need improvement using feedback from teacher and peers; make
revisions to improve the content, clarity, and interest of written work; spell familiar words correctly; confirm
spellings and word meanings or word choice using different types of resources; proofread and correct writing;
produce pieces of published work to meet identified criteria.
Media Literacy: Produce media texts for specific purposes and audiences.
The Arts: The Ontario Curriculum, 1998
Visual Arts: Plan a work of art; produce two- and three-dimensional works of art that communicate thoughts,
feelings, and ideas for specific audiences; organize art works to create a specific effect; student identifies
strengths and areas for improvement in their own work.
Mathematics: The Ontario Curriculum, 2005
Cross-curricular and Integrated Learning: The development of skills and knowledge in mathematics is often
enhanced by learning in other subject areas. Teachers should ensure that all students have ample opportunities
to explore a subject from multiple perspectives by emphasizing cross-curricular learning and integrated learning,
as follows:
•
In cross-curricular learning, students are provided with opportunities to learn and use related content
and/or skills in two or more subjects. Students can use the concepts and skills of mathematics in their
science or social studies lessons. Similarly, students can use what they have learned in science to
illustrate or develop mathematical understanding.
•
In integrated learning, students are provided with opportunities to work towards meeting expectations
from two or more subjects within a single unit, lesson, or activity. By linking expectations from different
subject areas, teachers can provide students with multiple opportunities to reinforce and demonstrate
their knowledge and skills in a range of settings. Also, the mathematical process expectation that
focuses on connecting encourages students to make connections between mathematics and other
subject areas.
Measurement: Estimate, measure, and record quantities, using the metric measurement system.
Patterning and Algebra: Describe, extend, and create a variety of numeric and geometric patterns, make
predictions related to the patterns, and investigate repeating patterns.
Data Management and Probability: Collect and organize discrete primary data and display the data using charts
and graphs; read, describe, and interpret primary data and secondary data presented in charts and graphs; read,
describe, and interpret data, and explain relationships between sets of data; make, and evaluate convincing
arguments, based on the analysis of data.
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Required Resources
Teachers need to accumulate materials related to the culminating activities/investigation topic planned.
Teachers have to have measuring equipment available. Physical space to store projects as they are developed is
also needed.
Skill Level Needed for Both Teacher and Student
Teachers need to understand the process of a controlled experiment.
Teachers and students need skill in using equipment in a safe and appropriate manner. Teachers and students
need to be able to measure accurately using instruments.
Teacher and student need to understand and demonstrate skills of observing, inferring, explaining, researching
background concepts, crafting purposes, hypotheses, methods, developing recording charts, calculating means,
identifying patterns, creating graphs to display the data, interpreting and analyzing the results, writing concise
statements of findings, and explaining findings, applying results as to impact, and reflecting/evaluating the work.
Assessment
Provide detailed account of assessment process used that is pertinent to best practices in Teaching for Deep
Understanding, including template for formative assessment.
Scope and Sequence
FIT: The science and technology process unit can be done as an initial series of activities in September for three
to four weeks. Then the process can be adapted in each unit of study during the year. The teacher workshop
should be done in summer academy or during a curriculum workshop day during the year.
Accommodations or Modifications
How they Can Used for Specific Identified Groups of Students
Each different process, investigation, innovative technology or correlated research study works to the differing
skill strengths and aptitudes of students. Topics are developed individually, or in small groups allows students
with lesser skills to collaborate on an activity. Teachers can create computer templates for students who need a
format to follow due to gaps in language skills.
Differentiation
How Tasks will be Differentiated
There are a wide variety of ways an investigation can proceed and adjustments can be made to reflect the nature
of the class differences. Topics selected to reflect the unit big ideas should satisfy the student perceptions of
how the unit impacts the world around them. Different variables can be selected. The method designed can
be as simple or complex as the student skill level. The replication of tests can vary, records of test results can
be organized in many ways, graphing skills can reflect student skill, interpreting results should reflect where the
student is, and self-reflection/evaluation is built on their experiences in other reflective work.
Research Base
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. (2006). Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An
Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching.
Educational Psychologist. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Paul A. Kirschner, Educational Technology
Expertise Center, Open University of the Netherlands, Research Centre Learning in Interaction, Utrecht
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University, The Netherlands, John Sweller, School of Education, University of New South Wales, Richard E.
Clark, Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California. Vol.41. Iss.2. pp75-86. http://www.
cogtech.usc.edu/publications/kirschner_Sweller_Clark.pdf.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. (2007). Educational Psychologist. Scaffolding and Achievement in ProblemBased and Inquiry Learning: A Response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark. (2006). Cindy E. Hmelo-Silver, Ravit
Golan Duncan, and Clark A. Chinn, Department of Educational Psychology Rutgers University. Vol.42. Iss.2.
pp99-107.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. (2007). Educational Psychologist. Is Direct Instruction an Answer to the Right
Question?. Deanna Kuhn Teachers College Columbia University. Vol.42. Iss.2. pp109-113. http://www.
cogtech.usc.edu/publications/kuhn_ep_07.pdf
Dean, D. Jr. and Kuhn, D. (2007). Direct Instruction vs. Discovery: The Long View. Teachers College. Columbia
University. New York, NY 10027, USA. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/sce.20194/pdf.
Gooding, J. and Metz, B. (2008). A Blueprint for cultivating Inquiry. Science Scope.
The above research definitely supports an inquiry approach with some variance of direct instruction to
complement the process. There is an impact on teacher knowledge of the processes and skill when planning
units of study that allow students to develop a deeper understanding of concepts and build skills sets.
When planning cross-curricular units of study, the visions of culminating activities need to be of a wide variance
to catch the interest of students early in the unit. The past half-century of empirical research on this issue has
provided overwhelming and unambiguous evidence that minimal guidance during instruction is significantly
less effective and efficient than guidance specifically designed to support the cognitive processing necessary for
learning. Far from being contrary to many of the principles of guided learning that Kirschner, et. al., discussed,
both problem-based learning (PBL) and independent learning (IL) employ scaffolding extensively, thereby
reducing the cognitive load and allowing students to learn in complex domains. Moreover, these approaches
to learning address important goals of education that include content knowledge, epistemic practices, and soft
skills such as collaboration, and self-directed learning.
The two broad sets of skills that I identify as best serving this purpose are the skills of inquiry and the skills of
argument. These skills are education for life, not simply for school (Anderson, et. al., 2000). They are essential
preparation to equip a new generation to address the problems of the day. Examined over a longer time
frame, results indicate that direct instruction is neither necessary nor sufficient to accomplish this goal. It is
our contention that teachers who cultivate scientific inquiry as suggested by the National Science Education
Standards (NSES) are actually practicing the art, rather than the act, of teaching.
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice
Teaching for deep understanding requires much more rigour when planning curriculum activities. Teachers must
balance instructional methodologies with student knowledge and skill levels. Allowances must be made for
differentiated needs and the interest/age appropriate topics selected as the vehicles of learning. This practice
challenges teachers to think beyond the basic concepts and activities, which are rote in nature. Manipulating
and processing ideas and materials must be included in all science and technology units, whether crosscurricular or not. Students are challenged to collaboratively investigate real-to-them issues in the search for
relevant solutions. It is their self-discovery that affirms their skill and knowledge levels.
Other Applications (Extensions)
This approach lends itself naturally to class, school, and regional science and technology fair opportunities.
Building the school team for competition levels is embedded in daily lessons rather than a specialized unit. It
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allows schools to create Science Fair clubs. This approach leads to demonstrations of performance in other
subject areas, especially language and mathematics.
Impact Analysis
Students are more engaged in science and technology activities and more aware of its impact on the world.
Richer culminating tasks allow them to demonstrate skill and understanding of the unit concepts in meaningful
ways.
Impact on the Teacher
The teacher uses best-practice instructional practices, designs effective learning and encourages decisionmaking.
Looks Like - Sounds Like
Looks Like
Sounds Like
Dialogue:
• Opportunity for discussion, and conversations
in every time period.
• Sharing/collaboration/three processes/
reflective language.
• Conversational vocabulary developed
providing students the opportunity to
clearly articulate their experiences, and new
knowledge, reflections
• Students engaged, excited, and respectful
Dialogue:
• Student to student collaborations – the buzz.
• Teacher as guide on the side/facilitator/tutor/
and process instructor.
• Passionate voice.
• Students articulating their project ideas.
• Making connections to curriculum and the
world, recognizing limitations, and generating
next steps.
• Presentations/reports/demonstrations.
• Students feel safe to voice ideas, thoughts
opinions, and have agreements and
disagreements in partnerships, small groups,
or whole class situations.
• Teacher modelling collaborative discussions.
• Process instruction and modelling introduces
new vocabulary and connects concepts.
• Teacher providing opportunities for students
to both listen, and speak respectfully.
Materials and Resources:
• A wide variety of science and technology
resources in print and electronic form is made
available.
• Technology centres for computer research,
arts design tasks, and technical design tasks.
• Computer templates of the Science and
Technology process recording styles.
• Embedded chart and graph templates in the
recording styles.
• Charts on walls for collaborative idea-sharing
for each person’s project.
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Looks Like
Sounds Like
Instructional Strategies:
• Processes are taught via hands-on activities.
• Modelling of all stages of each process is
evident on charts and in electronic templates.
• Authentic topics/ideas are used to initiate
process development, and to encourage topic
development.
• Differentiated instruction and reporting
methods.
• Reflection and collaboration modeled and
encouraged.
• Co-curricular connections linked to Arts,
Social Studies, Numeracy, and Literacy.
• Support from other staff such as TA or
Librarian.
• Community mentors evident in collaboration.
• Instruction related to research through
letters, interviews, surveys, and electronic
searches.
• Science and Technology concept application
development to out-there issues.
•
•
•
Students can independently apply reading
strategies (predicting, determining important
ideas, evaluating, synthesizing, and critiquing)
in print.
Resources, electronic searches, interviews
notes, survey development and analysis.
Students reflecting on their own learning and
being able to provide feedback on their work
and that of their peers.
Assessment:
• Assessment tools that are for, of and about
learning.
• Assessment rubrics developed in concert with
student.
• A variety of assessment tools that include
written, oral, performance tasks.
• Self-assessment through reflection and
collaborative conversations.
Differentiation:
Differentiation:
• Awareness and respect of the varied
• Respectful and safe environment.
history of each group of students, cultural
differences, learning styles, and the collection
of knowledge and experiences that students
bring to the classroom.
• These lead to accepting the direction taken by
the student to solve a science and technology
problem.
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Design Process
1. Identify a problem or issue that needs a technological solution. Talk with others to determine the value/
impact of your idea/issue.
2. Research all existing background information from text sources, internet sources, and human resources by
making jot notes, and diagrams of text sources (highlight key facts in print copies). Keep a bibliography of all
sources.
3. Generate possible solutions in a graphic style with drawings and jot notes for each idea. Collaborate with
others to get further suggestions.
4. Evaluate the effectiveness and weaknesses of each idea.
5. Select one design solution to try.
6. Plan how this design process will proceed by listing and drawing the materials needed and by listing in recipe
fashion the steps to be followed.
7. Implement the plan and make notes, diagrams, photos, and/or video of each result and/or obstacles.
8. Evaluate the plan at each stage.
9. Revise the plan where necessary: Retest; evaluate; revise; retest; evaluate
10. Assess the success of the solution (including the ergonomics). Determine the strengths and weaknesses.
Note the direction of next steps.
11. Present/demonstrate the solution.
Research-Correlated Study Process
1. Identify a topic, problem or issue that has captured your interest. Talk with others to get opinions on the
value or impact of your idea/issue.
2. Record a series of questions that need to be addressed.
3. Refine the questions, through collaboration, to make sure they get to the core idea.
4. Research all existing background information from text sources, internet sources, and human resources by
making jot notes and diagrams of text sources (highlight key facts in print copies). Keep a bibliography of all
sources.
5. Accumulate as much data as you can find, to quantify the topic. Recognize the dated nature of data.
6. Analyze the data to look for patterns in graphic forms that indicate directions/solutions to the topic.
7. Display the topic in an effective manner using your visual arts skills.
8. Present/demonstrate the topic.
9. Assess the success of the study. Determine the strengths and weaknesses. Note the direction of next steps.
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Water Drops on Pennies Challenge
Name:
Date:
Initial Activity:
•
Use the pipette to put water drops on the top of one penny.
•
Count how many drops it takes before water falls off the top of the penny.
•
______ drops stayed on the top of the penny.
•
We learned that to be a fair test, all students must:
Main Activity:
•
Now test ten pennies, one at a time. Add drops of water in the same way as all other students.
•
Record the total drops before water begins to fall off the penny.
•
Use your calculator to find the mean (average) number of drops that a penny can hold.
Penny #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Number
of drops
•
The mean number of drops a penny can hold is ______.
•
Who can pile the most drops on a penny? You or your teacher?
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Investigation Test A
Name:
Date:
Investigation Steps:
•
Variables, problem, hypothesis, materials, method, observations, interpretations, application,
and evaluation.
•
A student decided to experiment with toy cars travelling down slopes. The following information
was found in the investigation report.
•
On the blank lines, name the step to which each item belongs.
1. Place the toy car at the top of the slope and release it. Measure the distance
it travels.
2. How does the angle of the slope affect the distance the toy car travels?
3. In a soap box derby, a cart starting on a steep starting block should go the
furthest.
4. The toy car travelled further when the slope was at its highest angle.
5. I think that the higher slope will make the toy car go further because it will
gain more speed.
6. Sloping track, toy car, metre stick, and blocks to hold up slope.
7. Size of toy car, shape of toy car, texture of slope surface, mass of car, angle of
slope.
8. My investigation could have been better if I had used a smoother floor surface
and had been more precise in measuring the distance travelled.
9. 135 cm 152 cm 121 cm 123 cm 129 cm 132 cm
The car went right twice and left the other times.
Score:_____/9
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Investigation Test B
Name:
Date:
Investigation Steps:
•
Variables, problem, hypothesis, materials, method, observations, interpretations, application,
and evaluation.
•
A student decided to experiment with golf balls rolling down slopes. The following information
was found in the investigation report.
•
On the blank lines, name the step to which each item belongs.
1. Size of ball, colour of ball, shape of ball, brand of ball, height of slope,
texture of slope, temperature of ball, and temperature of air.
2. Sloping track, golf ball, metre stick, stop watch, blocks to set up slope
and materials to put on surface of slope.
3. How does the texture of the slope affect the speed of the golf ball?
4. My investigation could have been better if I had used real grass slopes.
5. I think the smooth surface will let the ball roll faster because there is
less friction.
6. On a golf course, the ball should roll faster down the slope of a smooth
fairway.
7. Place the ball at the top of the slope and release it. Measure the time
it takes to go 5 metres.
8. 3 seconds
5 seconds
6 seconds
2.5 seconds
4.5 seconds.
9. It curved to the right twice, down the centre twice and to the left the
other times.
10.The ball was fastest on the shiny, plastic grass slope.
Score: _____/10
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Investigation Test C
Name:
Date:
Investigation Steps:
•
Variables, problem, hypothesis, materials, method, observations, interpretations, application,
and evaluation.
•
A student decided to experiment with seeds to find out how quickly they started to grow. The
following information was found in the investigation report.
•
On the blank lines, name the step to which each item belongs.
1. Place 5 of each different seed on the soil and cover with 2 cm of soil.
2. The fastest seed to germinate was the radish seed.
3. Soil type, amount of water, type of seed, depth of soil, temperature of soil,
size of seed, and amount of light.
4. I could have improved my investigation by planting more of each seed.
5. Which type of seed germinates fastest?
6. From my results, I could better plan a garden so that all plants grow when I
need them.
7. I think the bean seed will germinate first because it is the softest.
8. Soil, pots, variety of seeds, water, measuring tape, light source
9. Pea Seeds
12 days
15 days
11 days
11 days
12 days
10. Some seedlings had two leaves, while the others grew many. ____________
Score:_____/10
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Science Quiz: Observations
Name:
Date:
Observe this object:
Record all information you can in an organized way.
Fill in this chart:
Sense
Information Collected
Instruments to Help
Sight
Touch
Hearing
Taste
Smell
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Science Quiz: Sci-Tech Process Unit
Name:
Date:
1. How do we make observations?
2. Name two senses and the things they can observe.
3. Name five instruments used to help our senses get accurate information.
4. What inference can you make if these are the facts? - The leaves on a tree face outward.
5. Name five variables that make your body grow in a healthy way.
6. For question five, what behaviours could be measured to tell that you are growing in a healthy way?
7. What am I? _________________________________
Round like a cylinder, see-through, 12 cm high, 5 cm wide at the bottom, 7 cm wide at the top, can
hold 200 ml of liquid, hard, make a sound if rubbed, mass of 120 g, fragile.
8. The best part of Sci-Tech so far this year is…
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Research-Correlated Study Process
1. Identify a topic, problem or issue that has captured your interest. Talk with others to get opinions
on the value, or impact of your idea/issue
2. Record a series of questions that need to be addressed.
3. Refine the questions, through collaboration, to make sure they get to the core idea.
4. Research all existing background information from text sources, internet sources, and human
resources by making jot notes and diagrams of text sources (highlight key facts in print copies). Keep
a bibliography of all sources.
5. Accumulate as much data as you can find, to quantify the topic. Recognize the dated nature of data.
6. Analyze the data to look for patterns in graphic forms that indicate directions and/or solutions for
the topic.
7. Display the topic in an effective manner using your Visual Arts skills.
8. Present/demonstrate the topic.
10. Assess the success of the study. Determine the strengths and weaknesses. Note the direction of
next steps.
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Teaching Social Justice through
Literacy and the Arts in the
Junior and Intermediate Grades
By Sumona Roy and Valerie Harth
8
Learning Object Abstract
Literate citizens in our global village need to be reflective, ethical, and tolerant. This curriculum learning
resource will focus on a deep understanding of multi-literacies and social justice through the arts. The aim is to
promote global citizens who are able to get along and work together to solve problems for a better world.
Purpose of Learning Object
Teachers review the constructivist theory to engage learners intellectually and emotionally to promote
metacognition and deep understanding. See Teaching for Deep Understanding: Towards the Ontario Curriculum
That We Need, Chapter Three, page 14, for the nine constructivist principles to help teach deep understanding in
the classroom
Teachers use ongoing assessment as feedback to improve and deepen students’ learning. It includes varied
opportunities for learners to demonstrate the full range of what they know and can do, and opportunities for
learners to act on feedback.
Description of Learning Tasks
Students have a choice of selecting one of the following products:
Write a children’s book.
Create a digital presentation.
Perform an arts presentation
The prompt: Students are storybook writers who have been asked to produce a story to help other children
understand a different culture in the world, and to understand why natural resources are so important to all
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Chapter 8 Page 163
of us. Adding to their challenge, a local theatre company would like to make their story into a play to use as a
tool to teach children about how they might help the environment, or make our world a better place to live in
together.
Students will use a self-assessment checklist and teacher/student generated rubric.
Curriculum Connections
Language
Oral Communication 2: Use speaking skills and strategies appropriately to communicate with different
audiences for a variety of purposes.
Writing 2: Draft and revise their Writing, using a variety of informational, literary, and graphic
forms and stylistic elements appropriate for the purpose and audience.
Media 3: Create a variety of Media texts for different purposes and audiences, using appropriate
forms, conventions, and techniques.
The Arts
A1.2
Use Dance as a language to communicate ideas from their own Writing or Media works.
A2.2
Analyze, using Dance vocabulary, their own and others’ Dance pieces to identify the elements of Dance
and the choreographic forms used in them, and explain how they help communicate meaning.
A3.2
Identify ways in which Dance and its depictions in the Media may influence a person’s character
development and sense of identity.
B1.1
Engage actively in Drama exploration and role play, with a focus on examining multiple perspectives
related to current issues, themes, and relationships from a wide variety of sources, and diverse
communities.
B2.1
Construct personal interpretations of Drama works, connecting drama issues and themes to their own
and others’ ideas, feelings, and experiences.
B3.1
Compare and contrast how social values are communicated in several different Drama forms, and/or
styles of live theatre from different times and places.
Required Resources
Exposure to a variety of texts, ideas, websites, Music and Drama experiences such as tableaux, and corridor of
voices, etc.
Skills: Research skills, the Writing process, Technology software programs, presentation skills, principles of
Music, Dance and Drama experience.
Assessment
Assessment for Learning: Teacher/student conferences, exit cards, written response tasks, anecdotal notes,
mind maps, and reader response.
Assessment as Learning: Self-assessment, peer-assessment, and written reflections.
Assessment of Learning: Culminating task.
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Scope and Sequence
Unit: Integration of Social Justice through Literacy and the Arts.
Focus for Learning: Language, Dance, Drama, Music intermediate.
Lesson 1
The teacher introduces the concept of social justice through an ice-breaker activity to get students talking about
how we can have similarities and differences at the same time, and how we can appreciate one another, and
celebrate these differences. Students work in small groups to define key terms (teacher resource with key terms
follows at the end of this document). Then they share with the larger group and teacher facilitation. Students
are introduced to the United Nations’ millennium goals. The teacher explains that the unit will end with a
culminating task choice of an arts presentation, writing a children’s book or a media presentation.
Lesson 2
Read Aloud: We Are All Born Free: The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights in Pictures. Explain that artists
and illustrators from all over the world offer their personal interpretation of the articles, making them easy to
understand for young readers.
Before Reading, Have Students take the Survey: Taking the Human Rights Temperature of your school, found in
teacher resource five of the ABC: Teaching Human Rights from the United Nations.
http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu6/2/abc_text.pdf. It is an excellent guide for teachers.
Using Four Corners: Have students meet in the corner of the number they scored from their Taking the
Human Rights Temperature of Your School hand-out. A short slide show of the book We Are All Born Free: The
Universal Declaration Of Human Rights in Pictures can be viewed at http://www.amnesty.org.uk/books_details.
asp?BookID=95
Watch Human Right Number one video, We are all Born Free and Equal. http://www.youthforhumanrights.org/
campaigns/adcampaign.htm at Shared Reading: Anticipation Guide See Teacher Resource One. Develop the
understanding of what human rights are by reading together on the SMART board the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights: Plain Language Version.
As you model and read the text together, provide learning opportunities that focus on word study, sentence
structure, language conventions, and text features that support reading for meaning. Model making connections
and have students share their connections. Explicitly teach that human rights are founded on respect for
the dignity and worth of each person, and that they are universal. However, the discussion will focus on the
inequalities. Using a think/pair/share strategy, have students reflect and relate examples that demonstrate
human rights are being violated or respected. For more information on think/pair/share, visit the website:
http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/humanrights/resources/plain.asp
Lesson 3
Literature Circles: Throughout this unit, students will be participating in literature circles. After a brief
introduction of the book, students are given time to circulate and browse the books. Each student lists their top
three book choices on a ballot. The teacher creates the groups based on student choice. Suggested book titles.
See Teacher Resources Four.
Lesson 4
Dance and visualization activity, personal space experimentation, and general space exploration.
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Visualization activity warm-up - Dance:
Guide students through a visualization, with or without music. Tell the students to imagine that they have a
paintbrush attached to various parts of their bodies, such as to a finger, a toe, a knee, the forehead, etc. Explain
that they will be painting their name in large letters across a huge wall with the paintbrush as you suggest
different body parts.
Personal Space Experimentation - Dance:
Ask students to determine their personal space (kinesphere) by standing on the spot and identifying with arms
outstretched in all possible directions the invisible bubble that they are in. Call out high, medium, low, thin,
wide, tall, and small to encourage experimentation with levels, sizes, and variation in movement within their
personal space. The use of slow-moving music helps students focus on possibilities. Encourage the students to
bend body parts and reach with hips, shoulders, knees, etc., without travelling outside of their personal space.
General Space Exploration - Dance:
Same as above, except the students can walk around the classroom, and understand barriers such as bumping
into each other, and respecting others.
Lesson 5
Read aloud and non-fiction shared reading: Students begin with an anticipation guide (see Teacher Resource
One, Second Anticipation Guide) before and after the teacher reads aloud the book, The Librarian of Basra. If
possible, view the animated book online through Tumblebooks.
Then conduct a shared reading of the newspaper article about this book at http://www.nytimes.
com/2003/07/27/world/after-the-war-the-librarian-books-spirited-to-safety-before-iraq-library-fire.
html?sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all.
Think/pair/share: Did your answers change? What thoughts, feelings and questions do you have after reading
about the library in Basra? How much influence do you believe Alia had? How can one person have an effect on
so many others? View the public service announcement advertisement: video number fourteen, The Right to
Seek a Safe Place to Live at http://www.youthforhumanrights.org/campaigns/adcampaign.html.
Formative Assessment: Written response task to the question: How can one person make a difference?
Lesson 6
Watch human right number nineteen, Freedom of Expression at http://www.youthforhumanrights.org/
campaigns/adcampaign.html
Taking a look at historical perspective on choices: If Everyone Cared by Nickelback. Pre-reading Activity: Tea
Party from When Kids Can’t Read: What Teachers Can Do by Kylene Beers (2003).
Using the prompts from teacher resource three “Tea Party”, offer students a chance to discuss focus phrases
or words from the text and engage with meaning making before they ever actually read the text. It gives active
students a chance to get up and move around the room. Each student is given a sentence strip from the ten
listed in the resource. As students circulate the room, they predict what the text might be about or predict
general themes. There is no correct answer but rather the goal is for students to form small discussion groups
to infer what the text might be about. Shared reading together of the lyrics before viewing the music video at
http://www.nickelback.com/
Mini-lesson: Teach types of shots, and camera angles, movement and film terms. Ask: What is the effect on the
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viewer? Diagnostic assessment: students will complete an exit card before leaving class. See Teacher Resource
Two.
Lesson 7
Class Timbre and Introduction of Multicultural Music
Class Timbre Chart – Music
Timbre describes the character or quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument, voice, or sound from
another. Experiment with sound sources. Discuss with students the difference between body percussion, found
sounds, and untuned percussion.
•
body percussion: stamp feet, pat legs, clap hands, and snap fingers;
•
found sounds: shake keys, tap pencils, scrape water bottles, and slap floor; and
•
untuned percussion: shake maracas, tap wood blocks, scrape sand blocks, and tap hand drum.
Come up with a list under these headings:
Sounds We Hear
Characteristics
•
Have students then demonstrate and experiment with these sounds.
•
Pick a well-known nursery rhyme and add these sounds as an accompaniment to the poem.
•
Pick a poem from _________________ and add these sounds as an accompaniment to the poem.
Lesson 8
. Discuss poems and come up with statements on how
Poetry and Music,
the poems make the students feel. Sentence starters would include, I feel … I wish … I dream … I hope. Review
various ways of reading poetry in order to bring out the meaning of the poem. Write these points on an anchor
chart under the heading, Steps to Prepare for Choral Reading. Students need to know different ways of reading
poetry (i.e., unison, antiphonal [two groups reading alternate lines], cumulative, solo, and line-around). Students
will present, in small groups, a choral reading of a poem performance. Watch human right video eighteen,
Freedom of Thought at http://www.youthforhumanrights.org/campaigns/adcampaign.html
Lesson 9
Watch the human right video four, No Slavery at http://www.youthforhumanrights.org/campaigns/adcampaign.
html.
Read aloud: The Carpet Boy’s Gift by Pegi Deitz Shea. This book is a fictionalized account of Nadeem, a young
boy who is a carpet worker in Pakistan, based in part on the true story of Iqbal Masih, the famous child laborerturned-organizer and ultimately martyr. A non-fiction account of child labour can be viewed as a shared reading
in the Time for Kids Special Report on Child Labour found at http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/kids/specials/
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 8 Page 167
articles/0,28285,1043346,00.html.
Print off several articles found at http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/kids/specials/articles/0,28285,1043772,00.
html
Divide the class into groups to read the article and then present the main ideas on a chart paper. Students do a
gallery walk to learn about the different articles. Additional lessons could be added. To explore the biography of
Craig Kielburger can be found at http://www.freethechildren.com/aboutus/theteam/craigkielburger.php.
Lesson 10
Strategies for choral dramatization using Hip Hop Speaks to Children: a Celebration of Poetry with a Beat edited
by Nikki Giovanni or Street Rhymes around the World, edited by Jane Yolen. Students must demonstrate the
ability to maintain concentration while in role (i.e., in small groups, create tableaux using different levels, a
specific focus, facial expressions, and symbols to convey meaning). For more information on tableaux see The
Arts: A Support for Reading by Carol King and Emily MacGillivary.
Lesson 11
Watch human rights video 29, Responsibility, at http://www.youthforhumanrights.org/campaigns/adcampaign.
html. Read aloud: The Golden Rule by Ilene Cooper. It is a story about how a grandfather and young boy
discover the meaning of the golden rule. The golden rule can be found in all the world’s religions and in every
culture. Although it is a simple statement, it is not always easy to follow. This universal story reveals that we are
one human race, whatever our national, ethnic, economic, and ideological differences.
Use think-aloud strategy to explain thinking and model synthesis reading strategy, i.e., At first I thought, now I
am thinking. Before reading, students work in small groups to complete the placemat activity (Think Literacy,
2003, p162) with the quote, “Treat others as you want to be treated”. After reading, students discuss the
questions: Did this story change your thinking? What could you do to make a difference using inside-outside
circle (accountable talk).
Lesson 12
Media Literacy: Individual choices can affect global issues. Students read the lyrics to Sarah McLachlan’s song,
World on Fire. Have students predict video ideas, then visit http://www.worldonfire.ca/. Before playing the
video, have students jot their ideas on paper while viewing to the following questions: What is the purpose of
this message and who is the audience; what does this message mean to me?
Shared Reading: Visit http://www.mediathatmattersfest.org/films/world_on_fire to read a message from Sarah
McLachlan regarding her purpose for the video. Watch the human right number 27 video, Copyright. Have
students record their new learning in a three, two, one format:
•
three things I learned;
•
two points to ponder; and
•
one Idea I disagree with or need to learn more about.
Lesson 13
Watch human right number 26, The Right to Education. Read Running Shoes by Frederick Lipp. Sophy, a very
poor Southeast Asian girl living in the jungle, has a secret wish to attend school, but she needs help to make her
wish come true. Her wish comes true when the numbers man counting everyone in the village gives her a pair of
running shoes.
Chapter 8 Page 168 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
In the Time for School Series, wide angle follows seven kids from seven countries from their first day at school to
what will hopefully be their high school graduation, to show the struggles and rewards of getting an education.
This slideshow shows Joab, Shugufa, Raluca, Jefferson, Neeraj, Ken, and Nanavi through the first seven years of
the project, as they’ve grown into teenagers, and some cases, have had to take on very adult responsibilities.
Click on any image to begin. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/episodes/time-for-school-series/slideshowthrough-the-years/4384
The full episode of Back to School can be viewed at http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/episodes/time-forschool-series/video-back-to-school-full-episode/272/
If time permits watch one or two segments from Afghanistan, India or Benin and have students compare the
differences between their own school experiences and those of others.
Lesson 14
Before reading visit http://www.playagainstallodds.com/. Play the game, but select only the middle option,
Border Country: Can I stay here? Click on the number four. This is a simulation of being a new student in class
that does not know the language. Then read aloud the book Four Feet, Two Sandals by Karen Lynn Williams.
This is a story of two young Afghan refugee girls living in Pakistan.
The girls become friends when they both grabbed a sandal from a pair of shoes given by the relief workers. They
share the sandals in their life in the camp but then Lina’s family is selected to resettle in America. After reading,
have students volunteer to participate in a hot seat activity. Students take on the roles of Lina and Feroza and
are asked questions that promote deep thinking into the characters. Sample questions from the author are:
Lina and Feroza, like all refugees, have had to face many losses, loss of home and country and family members.
What losses have you had in your life? How do you learn to live with loss? What can you do to help others who
have lost something or someone important to them? Use a question chart to promote higher level questioning.
Watch human right video number 28, A Fair and Free World from http://www.youthforhumanrights.org/
watchads/index.html
Culminating Task
Students will need several periods to work on their choice of one of the following products:
•
Write a children’s book.
•
Create a digital presentation.
•
Perform an arts presentation.
The prompt: You are a children’s storybook writer. You have been asked to produce a story that would help
children understand the importance of natural resources in our world and also expose them to a different culture
in the world. You also have to keep in mind that a local theatre company would like to make your story into a
play to use as a tool to teach children about how they might help the environment or make our world a better
place to live in together.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 8 Page 169
Teacher Resource: Key Terms
Multiculturalism
Canadian multiculturalism is a fundamental characteristic of Canadian society and is fundamental to our belief
that all citizens are equal. Multiculturalism ensures that all citizens maintain their identities, can take pride
in their ancestry, and have a sense of belonging. Acceptance gives Canadians a feeling of security and selfconfidence, making them more open to, and accepting of, diverse cultures.
Government of Canada, Department of Canadian Heritage.
Stereotypes
Generally speaking, stereotyping refers to mental images, which organize and simplify the world into categories
on the basis of common properties. When used in reference to race, stereotyping means forming an instant or
fixed understanding relating to a group of people. Stereotyping can often lead to discrimination and oppression.
United Nations Association in Canada, Youth Forums Against Racism.
Diversity
Diversity recognizes, respects and values individual differences to enable each person to maximize his or her own
potential. Diversity includes differences such as age, ethnicity, gender, language, parental and marital status,
race, religion, sexual orientation, thinking style and more.
Canadian Race Relations Foundation.
Racism
Racism refers to a set of beliefs that asserts the superiority of one racial group over another (at the individual
as well as the institutional level), as well as individuals or groups of people who exercise power that abuses or
disadvantages others on the basis of skin colour or racial, or ethnic heritage.
United Nations Association in Canada, Youth Forums Against Racism
Human Rights
Human rights are those rights which are essential for us to live as human beings. They are meant to protect
people from unfair rules, and ensure not only access to basic needs such as food and shelter, but also the chance
to grow and develop beyond what is required for survival.
United Nations Association in Canada, What Kind of World.
Xenophobia
Fear of foreigners: an intense fear or dislike of foreign people, their customs and culture, or foreign things.
Encarta® World English Dictionary [North American Edition]
Chapter 8 Page 170 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Teacher Resource: One
Anticipation Guide: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Plain Language Version.
Circle Agree or Disagree beside each statement below before you read.
After reading, consider the statements again based on any new information you may have thought about
during the reading. Circle Agree or Disagree beside each statement and check to see whether your opinion has
changed based on your thoughts.
Before Reading
Statement
After Reading
1. Agree / Disagree
Slavery no longer exists in present day society.
Agree / Disagree
2. Agree / Disagree
The United Nations is an international organization
designed to maintain the peace and security of the
world.
Agree / Disagree
3. Agree / Disagree
Refugees are people who leave their nation to live in
another nation for any reason.
Agree / Disagree
4. Agree / Disagree
If I won millions in the lottery, I could buy property
anywhere in the world.
Agree / Disagree
5. Agree / Disagree
I would pay more money for toys and groceries if it
would guarantee that workers are treated fairly and
received a break for rest.
Agree / Disagree
6. Agree / Disagree
The government should provide education to all
children.
Agree / Disagree
7. Agree / Disagree
One person can make a big difference.
Agree / Disagree
THINK LITERACY: Cross-Curricular Approaches. (2003). Grades 7 -12. p23
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 8 Page 171
Anticipation Guide: The Librarian of Basra
Circle Agree or Disagree beside each statement below before you read the text.
After reading, consider the statements again based on any new information you may have thought about
during the reading. Circle Agree or Disagree beside each statement and check to see whether your opinion has
changed based on your thoughts.
Before Reading
Statement
After Reading
1. Agree / Disagree
Libraries can be a very important part of a community.
Books are filled with ideas and hold important
information about history.
Agree / Disagree
2. Agree / Disagree
If my country is at war with another country, everyone
in that country is my enemy.
Agree / Disagree
3. Agree / Disagree
If my country is at war with another one, it does not
matter to me what gets bombed in the other country.
Agree / Disagree
4. Agree / Disagree
War involves two militaries fighting each other, but
everyday life for regular citizens doesn’t change.
Agree / Disagree
5. Agree / Disagree
You can only accomplish big jobs if the government
helps you.
Agree / Disagree
6. Agree / Disagree
When it comes to war, everything is fair.
Agree / Disagree
7. Agree / Disagree
One person can make a big difference.
Agree / Disagree
THINK LITERACY: Cross-Curricular Approaches. (2003). Grades 7 -12. p23
Chapter 8 Page 172 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Teacher Resource: Two
Sample Exit Card retrieved from http://www.curriculum.org/secretariat/january30TU.shtml
Exit Card
Think about today’s learning...
Today I learned...
I was confused by...
I wonder...
Signed:
Date:
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 8 Page 173
Teacher Resource: Three
Tea Party prompts for If Everyone Cared
(Cut into strips.)
From underneath the trees, we watch the sky
If everyone shared and swallowed their pride
The day when nobody died
We’ll show the world they were wrong
Teach them all to sing along
As we lie beneath the stars, we realize how small we are
You and me
Imagine what the world could be
If nobody lied
If everyone cared
Chapter 8 Page 174 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Teacher Resource: Four
Literature Circles Suggested Booklist
101 Social Justice Themes Suggested Titles from K to 8.
Use a literature circle format from Harvey Daniels: http://www.literaturecircles.com/ or Reading circles from
Think Literacy. See Think Literacy: Cross-Curricular Approaches, Grades 7-12, Language/English, Grades 7-9,
Reading Circles, p64).
Title and Author
Grades
DRA/
F&P
A Little Peace by Barbara Kerley
1 to 6
A Picture Book of Anne Frank by David A. Adler
K to 3
44 T
A Picture Book of Frederick Douglas by David A. Adler
K to 3
44 S
A Picture Book of Harriet Tubman by David A. Adler
K to 3
40 R
A Picture Book of Helen Keller by David A. Adler
K to 3
38 P
A Picture Book of Jesse Owens by David A. Adler
K to 3
50 U
A Picture Book of Louis Braille by David A. Adler
K to 3
44 T
A Picture Book of Martin Luther King, Jr. by David A. Adler
K to 3
40 Q
A Picture Book of Rosa Parks by David A. Adler
K to 3
50 U
A Picture Book of Sojourner Truth by David A. Adler
K to 3
50 V
Aani and the Tree Huggers by Jeannin Atkins
K to 3
34 O
Afghan Dreams: Young Voices of Afghanistan by Tony O’Brien
4 to 8
44 T
Akira to Zoltan: Twenty-Six Men Who Changed the World by Cynthia Chin-Lee
K to 3
70 Y
Alia’s Mission: Saving the Books of Iraq by Mark Alan Stamaty
K to 8
40 Q
Amelia to Zora: Twenty-Six Women Who Changed the World by Cynthia Chin-Lee
K to 3
Anne Frank by Josephine Poole
4 to 8
50 U
Barack by Jonah Winter
K to 8
50 U
Barack Obama: Son of Promise, Child of Hope by Nikki Grimes
K to 8
34 O
Brothers Of Hope, The Lost Boys of Sudan by Mary Williams
4 to 8
44 S
Bud, Not Buddy by Christopher Paul Curtis
4 to 8
50 U
Children of War by Deborah Ellis
4 to 8
50 V
Coretta Scott by Ntozake Shange
K to 8
50 U
Digging Up Dirt: The Muckrakers by Sean Price
4 to 8
38 P
Elijah of Buxton by Christopher Paul Curtis
4 to 8
50 V
4 to 8
50 V
Four Feet, Two Sandals by Karen Lynn Williams and Khadra Mohammed
K to 8
38 P
From Far Away by Saoussan Askar and Robert Munsch
K to 3
38 P
Courage and Compassion: Ten Canadians Who Made a Difference by Rona Arato
Every Human Has Rights: A Photographic Declaration for Kids by National
Geographic
Factory Girl by Barbara Greenwood
For Every Child: The Rights of the Child in Words and Pictures by Caroline Castle
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 8 Page 175
Title and Author
Grades
DRA/
F&P
Gandhi by Demi
4 to 8
70 Y
Gervelie’s Journey: A Refugee Diary by Anthony Robinson and Annemarie Young
4 to 8
Give a Goat by Jan West Schrock
K to 3
40 Q
Habibi by Naomi Shihab Nye
4 to 8
50 V
Hana’s Suitcase by Karen Levine
4 to 8
50 U
Homeless Bird by Gloria Whelan
4 to 8
50 V
I Am A Taxi by Debora Ellis 4.8
4 to 8
44 T
If the World Were A Village: A Book About the World’s People by David J. Smith
K to 8
50 U
If You Could Wear My Sneakers: Poems by Sheree Fitch
K to 8
It’s Okay to Be Different by Todd Parr
K to 3
Listen to the Wind by Greg Mortenson
K to 3
Making Change: Tips from an Underage Overachiever by Bilaal Rajan
4 to 8
Mandela: From the Life of the South African Statesman by Floyd Cooper
K to 3
50 W
March On!: The Day My Brother Martin Changed the World by Christine King
Farris
K to 8
50 V
Martin’s Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. by Dorreen Rappaport
K to 8
34 O
44 S
Math That Matters by David Stocker
teacher resource
Mrs. Marlowe’s Mice by Frank and Devon Asch
K-8
Mud City by Deborah Ellis
4 to 8
My Name is Bilal by Asma Mobin-Uddin
K-8
38 P
Number the Stars by Lois Lowry
4 to 8
44 S
Off to War: Voices of Soldiers’ Children by Deborah Ellis
4 to 8
50 W
One Hen: How One Small Loan Made a Big Difference by Katie Smith Milway 4.6
K to 8
44 S
One Peace: True Stories of Young Activists by Janet Wilson
4 to 8
One Well: The Story of Water on Earth by Rochelle Strauss
4 to 8
60 X
Parvana’s Journey by Deborah Ellis
4 to 8
44 S
Paths to Peace: People Who Changed the World by Jane Breskin Zalben
4 to 8
80 Z
Peace Begins With You by Katherine Scholes
K to 8
50U
Peace Book by Todd Parr
K to 3
Peace Jam: A Billion Simple Acts of Peace
4 to 8
Peace One Day by Jeremy Gilliey
4 to 8
50 W
Peaceful Protest: The Life of Nelson Mandela by Yona Z. McDonough
K to 8
70 Y
Planting the Trees of Kenya: The Story of Wangari Maathai by Claire A. Nivola
K to 3
60 X
Rosa by Nikki Giovanni
K to 8
50 U
Ruby’s Wish by Shirin Yim Bridges
K to 3
40 R
Running Shoes by Frederick Lipp
K to 8
34 O
Ryan and Jimmy And the Well in Africa That Brought Them Together by Herb
Shoveller
K to 8
50 W
Chapter 8 Page 176 40 R
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Grades
DRA/
F&P
Sacred Leaf: The Cocalero Novels by Deborah Ellis
4 to 8
44 T
Sami and the Time of the Troubles by Florence Parry Heide
K to 8
40 Q
Selavi: A Haitian Story of Hope by Youme
K to 3
38 P
Silent Music: A Story of Baghdad by James Rumford
K to 8
38 P
Snow in Jerusalem by Deborah Da Costa
K to 3
30 N
Somewhere Today: A Book of Peace by Shelley Moore Thomas
K to 3
24 L
Title and Author
Stand Up, Speak Out: A Book About Children’s Rights by Selda Altun (ed.)
Ten Amazing People by Maureen Shaw
4 to 8
Ten Marks and a Train Ticket; Benno’s Escape to Freedom by Susy Goldstein, W.
Hamilton,G. Share
4 to 8
Terry Fox: A Story of Hope by Maxine Trottier
K to 3
The Arrival by Shaun Tan (Wordless Picture Book)
K to 8
The Best Eid Ever by Asma Mobin-Udding
K to 8
38 P
The Birdman by Veronika Charles Martenova
K to 8
44 S
The Boy in the Striped Pajamas by John Boyne
4 to 8
50 W
The Breadwinner by Deborah Ellis
4 to 8
44 S
The Bus Ride That Changed History by Pamela Duncan Edwards
K to 8
50 V
The Color of Home by Mary Hoffman
K to 3
38 P
The Peace Bell by Margi Preus
K to 3
40 Q
The Remarkable Maria by Patti McIntosh
4 to 8
50 U
The Righteous Smuggler by Debbie Spring
4 to 8
40 Q
The Skin You Live In by Michael Tyler
K to 3
The Story of Ruby Bridges by Robert Coles
K to 8
40 R
The Streets are Free by Kurusa
K to 8
38 P
The War by Anais Vaugelade
K to 8
40 Q
Three Cups of Tea: Young Readers Edition by Greg Mortenson
4 to 8
60 X
Through My Eyes by Ruby Bridges
4 to 8
60 X
To Be a Kid by Maya Ajmera and John D. Ivanko
K to 3
Wangari’s Trees of Peace: A True Story from Africa by Jeanette Winter
K to 6
We Are All Born Free: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Pictures
K to 8
What Does Peace Feel Like by Anne Schwartz
K to 3
When Elephants Fight: The Lives of Children in Conflict by Eric Walters and Adrian
Bradbury
4 to 8
80 Z
When the Horses Ride By: Children in the Times of War by Eloise Greenfield
K to 6
34O
Whispering Cloth: A Refugee’s Story by Peggy Shea
K to 8
40 Q
Why War is Never a Good Idea by Alice Walker
K to 8
38 P
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
50 W
40 Q
Chapter 8 Page 177
Teacher Resource: Five
Taking the Human Rights Temperature of Your School
Directions: Read each statement and evaluate how accurately it describes your school community. Keep in mind
all members of your school: students, teachers, administrators, and staff. Add up your score to determine the
overall assessment for your school.
Never/
No/False
1 point
Rarely
2 points
Often
3 points
Always/
Yes/True
4 points
Don’t
Know
0 points
1. Members of the school community are not
discriminated against because of their race,
sex, family background, disability, religion, or
life style. (UDHR articles 2, 16; CRC articles
2, 23)
2. My school is a place where I am safe and
secure. (UDHR articles 3, 5; CRC articles 6,
37)
3. All students receive equal information and
encouragement about academic and career
opportunities. (UDHR articles 2, 26; CRC
articles 2, 29)
4. My school provides equal access, resources,
activities, and accommodation for everyone.
(UDHR articles 2, 7; CRC articles 2)
5. Members of my school community will
oppose discriminatory actions, materials or
words in the school. (UDHR articles 2, 3, 7,
28, 29; CRC articles 2, 3, 6, 30)
6. When someone violates the rights of
another person, the violator is helped to
learn how to change her/his behaviour.
(UDHR article 26; CRC articles 28, 29)
7. Members of my school community care
about my full human as well as academic
development and try to help me when I am
in need. (UDHR articles 3, 22, 26, 29; CRC
articles 3, 6, 27, 28, 29, 31)
8. When conflicts arise, we try to resolve
them in non-violent and collaborative ways.
(UDHR articles 3, 28; CRC articles 3, 13, 19,
29, 37)
9. The school has policies and procedures
regarding discrimination and uses them
when incidents occur. (UDHR articles 3, 7;
CRC articles 3, 29)
Chapter 8 Page 178 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Never/
No/False
1 point
Rarely
2 points
Often
3 points
Always/
Yes/True
4 points
Don’t
Know
0 points
Never/
No/False
1 point
Rarely
2 points
Often
3 points
Always/
Yes/True
4 points
Don’t
Know
0 points
10. In matters related to discipline, everyone is
assured of fair, impartial treatment in the
determination of guilt and assignment of
punishment. (UDHR articles 6, 7, 8, 9, 10;
CRC articles 28, 40)
11. No one in our school is subjected to
degrading treatment or punishment. (UDHR
article 5; CRC articles 13, 16,19, 28)
12. Someone accused of wrong-doing is
presumed innocent until proved guilty.
(UDHR article 11; CRC articles 16, 28, 40)
13. My personal space and possessions are
respected. (UDHR articles 12, 17; CRC article
16)
14. My school community welcomes students,
teachers, administrators and staff from
diverse backgrounds and cultures, including
people not born in this country. (UDHR
articles 2, 6, 13, 14, 15; CRC articles 2, 29,
30, 31)
Sub total
1. I have the liberty to express my beliefs and
ideas without fear of discrimination. (UDHR
article 19; CRC articles 13, 14)
2. Members of my school can produce and
disseminate publications without fear of
censorship or punishment. (UDHR article 19;
CRC article 13)
3. Diverse perspectives (i.e. gender, race/
ethnicity, ideological) are represented in
courses, textbooks, assemblies, libraries,
and classroom instruction. (UDHR articles 2,
19, 27; CRC articles 17, 29, 30)
4. I have the opportunity to participate in
cultural activities at the school and my
cultural identity, language, and values are
respected. (UDHR articles 19, 27, 28; CRC
articles 29, 30, 31)
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 8 Page 179
Never/
No/False
1 point
Rarely
2 points
Often
3 points
Always/
Yes/True
4 points
Don’t
Know
0 points
5. Members of my school have the opportunity
to participate in democratic decision-making
to develop school policies and rules. (UDHR
articles 20, 21, 23; CRC articles 13, 15)
6. Members of my school have the right to
form associations within the school to
advocate for their rights or the rights of
others. (UDHR articles 19, 20, 23; CRC article
15)
7. Members of my school encourage each
other to learn about societal and global
problems related to justice, ecology, poverty
and peace. (UDHR Preamble, articles 26, 29;
CRC article 29)
8. Members of my school encourage each
other to organize and take action to address
problems related to justice, ecology, poverty,
and peace. (UDHR Preamble, articles 20, 29;
CRC article 29)
9. Members of my school community are able
to take adequate rest/recess time during
the school day and work reasonable hours
under fair work conditions. (UDHR articles
23, 24; CRC articles 31, 32)
10. Employees in my school are paid enough to
have a standard of living adequate for the
health and well-being of themselves and
their families. (UDHR articles 22, 25; CRC
article 27)
11. Take responsibility in my school to ensure
that people do not discriminate against
others. (UDHR articles 1, 29; CRC article 29)
Sub total
Add totals
Possible temperature = 100 Human Rights
Degrees
Your school’s temperature = ____ Human Rights
Degrees
ABC: Teaching Human Rights from the United Nations. Taking the Human Rights Temperature of your School. p63.
http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu6/2/abc_text.pdf
Chapter 8 Page 180 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
After completing the survey, students will meet in the corner of the number they scored on their survey.
Discuss results with prompts such as: Were you surprised by your score? How might things be different? What
were some of the factors that influenced your score? For more information on Four Corners visit http://www.
eworkshop.on.ca/edu/pdf/Mod36_coop_four_corners.pdf.
Four corners can be established as follows:
•
0 – 25 Human Rights Degrees
•
26 – 50 Human Rights Degrees
•
50 – 75 Human Rights Degrees
•
76 – 100 Human Rights Degrees
Accommodations or Modifications
Make as necessary i.e. ELL can work in their language of origin.
Co-operative groups used for peer tutoring.
Technology, dance and drama integrated to appeal to various learning styles.
Differentiation
Substitute music if a student is unable to participate in a dance-related movement activity.
Some websites mentioned such as http://cyberschoolbus.un.org/ can be viewed in ELL’s language of origin.
Co-operative groups allow for peer mentoring/tutoring.
Choice given in culminating task product.
Choice of texts for literature circles.
Research Base
Richard, H., Outlaw, I. L., Baldwin, S. V. and Lofton, B. (2006). Creating An Academic Environment For Equity,
Social Justice And Social Change. The International Journal of Learning, Vol.13. Iss.8. pp1-10.
This article gives examples of activities to raise questions that move the students into higher order thinking.
Various activities include visual texts that stimulate students to question their own values to become agents
of social change.
Kose, B. W. (2007). One Principal’s Influence On Sustained, Systemic, And Differentiated Professional
Development For Social Justice. Middle School Journal. pp34-41.
This case study demonstrates the critical role that school administration plays in leading social justice issues
into the curriculum. It recognizes that teachers need to collaborate and participate in ongoing learning to
prepare students as global citizens to work together and solve problems.
Kraft, M. (2007). Toward A School-Wide Model Of Teaching For Social Justice: An Examination Of The Best
Practices Of Two Small Public Schools. Equity and Excellence in Education. Vol.40. pp77-86.
Kraft’s research suggests a model of three components to transform schools into sites of social change. The
article also advocates for deeper learning as students become active learners with such methods as teachers
using culturally relevant materials or activities based on the student population.
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Chapter 8 Page 181
Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice
Teaching practice may be challenged as students voice their point-of-view and the biases may be uncomfortable.
Since conflict is inevitable, the challenge is for teachers and students to use these uncomfortable situations as a
vehicle for change and for building inclusiveness, peaceful resolution, and acceptance.
Other Applications (Extensions)
This unit could be adapted to the junior level, the science curriculum, or the backgrounds of students. For
example, in an Aboriginal student population teaching materials such as read-alouds would be thematic to their
background.
Impact Analysis
This project supports the Ontario Ministry of Education’s Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy launched
in April, 2009. It also supports the Literacy and Numeracy Strategy, Finding a Common Ground Character
Development Goal, and possibly the Ontario Aboriginal Education Strategy if some of the lessons are tailored.
The main goal of the project is help reduce discrimination and embrace diversity in our schools.
http://cal2.edu.gov.on.ca/april2009/EquityEducationStrategy.pdf
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/reports/literacy/booklet2008.pdf
Impact on the Student
This unit enhances a classroom community where learners socially construct their learning from their past and
present experiences. They have opportunities to learn from each other and from exploring their connections to
their own knowledge and values.
Impact on the Teacher
The teacher is determining subject matter from the clientele. Instructional practice includes strategies such as
developing higher order thinking skills, accountable talk, and reflective practice.
Impact on the School
Collaboration and dialogue with colleagues ignites new ideas between different organizations. From
conversations we learn how to find new projects and causes, as well as ways to support each other.
Teaching Strategies
The Anticipation Guide
Usually structured as a series of statements with which students can choose to agree or disagree; and includes
controversial statements related to the big ideas of a unit.
Anticipation guides are used twice within a lesson or unit:
•
before learning a new concept – to activate prior knowledge and promote interest; and
•
after learning the new concept – to reinforce learning and to check for understanding.
Retrieved from http://www.edugains.ca/resourcesDI/D.I. Educators Package 7-8/Strategy Cards/DI card Strategy
1-Anticipation Guide.pdf
Chapter 8 Page 182 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Exit Cards
As a strategy, exit cards:
•
are written student responses to questions posed at the end of a class or learning activity;
•
students put their names on cards and respond to a question(s) given by the teacher; and
•
students give their exit cards to the teacher before they leave the classroom.
Exit cards help teachers determine the readiness of their students for learning a new concept and/or serve as a
check for understanding.
Retrieved from http://www.edugains.ca/resourcesDI/D.I. Educators Package 7-8/Strategy Cards/DI card Strategy
1-Anticipation Guide.pdf
Venn Diagram
The Venn diagram:
•
is a graphic organizer consisting of two or more intersecting circles;
•
is used to compare attributes and characteristics of concepts and items; (i.e., things, people, places,
events, ideas that have similarities and differences: i.e., a chair and a bridge); and
•
can be constructed to appeal to the learning preferences of students, i.e., a diagram on paper, yarn or
string on the floor, and/or hoops in the gym.
Similarities are placed in the space where the two circles intersect. Differences are placed in the circle to which
they relate. Venn diagrams are used to help students learn and to demonstrate their learning.
Retrieved from http://www.edugains.ca/resourcesDI/D.I. Educators Package 7-8/Strategy Cards/DI card Strategy
1-Anticipation Guide.pdf
Think-Pair-Share
Think-pair-share provides students with the opportunity to process their thoughts and to check their ideas with a
partner. Students are then more likely to feel comfortable sharing their ideas with a larger group. Variations can
include: read-pair-share or write-pair-share.
Ask students to:
•
Think - for a moment (or read a piece of text, or write about an idea or concept);
•
Pair - discuss their thinking, reading or writing with a partner and determine what to share with a larger
group; and
•
Share - ideas or responses with a larger group.
Retrieved from http://www.edugains.ca/resourcesDI/D.I. Educators Package 7-8/Strategy Cards/DI card Strategy
1-Anticipation Guide.pdf
Mind Map
The Mind Map is a process used for note taking, brainstorming, making study notes or making connections
between ideas; and is a visual representation of thinking about a topic, problem or subject.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 8 Page 183
A mind map uses images, colour, codes, words, space, and lines. A mind map has:
•
a central image of the mind map topic;
•
themes (lines) that connect to the topic (central image);
•
key words or images that represent each of the themes (lines); and
•
all themes (lines) connect to other themes.
Adapted from: Bennett, B. and Rolheiser, C. (2001).
Beyond Monet: The Artful Science of Instructional Integration. Toronto: Bookation.
Retrieved from http://www.edugains.ca/resourcesDI/D.I. Educators Package 7-8/Strategy Cards/DI card Strategy
1-Anticipation Guide.pdf
Four Corners
The four corners strategy is an approach that asks students to make a decision in relation to a problem posed or
a question asked. Possible responses (strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree) are placed in each of
the four corners of the classroom. Students move to the corner that best aligns with their thinking. They share
their ideas within their corner and then come to consensus. One member of each group shares the result of the
discussions with the whole class.
Steps in Four Corners
Step one:
Present a statement or issue, or pose a question.
Step two:
Provide four alternate responses (strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree), and
place one response in each corner of the classroom.
Step three:
Give students at least ten seconds to think on their own (think time).
Step four:
Ask students to choose the corner with the response that best represents their point-of- view.
Step five: Ask students to pair with a partner in their corner and share with their partner the reasons
behind their decision.
Step six: Ask each group to come to consensus and select one person to share the group’s reasoning and
decision with the whole class.
Agree
Strongly Agree
Students should
wear uniforms.
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Hints and Management Ideas
Step one:
Inform students that they should be prepared to share their own responses or their partner’s
responses if asked.
Step two:
Give “think time” (at least ten seconds) in order to encourage independent thinking and prevent
students from simply going to the corner a friend selects.
Chapter 8 Page 184 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Step three:
Make sure that students get into groups of no more than two or three, which will make them
more accountable for their reasoning and give them time to talk.
Step four:
Monitor the discussions. It is important to listen to some of the discussions so that common
confusions can be addressed and unique ideas shared with the whole group.
Benefits of Four Corners
•
When students have appropriate “think time”, the quality of their responses improves.
•
Students stay on track because they are accountable for sharing with the rest of the class.
•
More of the critical thinking is retained after a lesson in which students have had an opportunity to
discuss and reflect on the topic.
•
Many students find it safer or easier to enter into a discussion with a classmate, rather than with a large
group.
•
It is important for students to learn that by listening to different point-of-views they can build on the
ideas of others.
For more detailed information, refer to Bennett, B. and Rolheiser, C. (2001). Beyond Monet: The Artful Science
of Instructional Integration. Toronto: Bookation.
Retrieved from http://www.eworkshop.on.ca/edu/pdf/Mod21_coop_fourcorners.pdf
Tableaux
Tableau is an excellent strategy to use in all elementary grades. Problem-solving, teamwork, concentration and
focus, character motivation, and reflection are a few of the skills fostered in this exercise. The following is a list
of tableaux that may be a useful everyday checklist. Keep in mind that a checklist is an ongoing assessment tool
and may not be completely filled in until there have been several demonstrations of tableaux.
•
Students need to plan each tableau carefully. If there is a series of tableaux to be performed, they must
evolve along with the key points of a story.
•
Students should remain completely frozen, including keeping their eyes fixed on a spot, and not looking
around.
•
Various levels should be evident within the group (very low on the ground, crouching/sitting in the
middle-range and standing, reaching up high).
•
Body language should be very expressive (i.e., fingers should be stretched if pointing).
•
Facial expression is as important as body position.
•
Setting is as important as characters. Some members of each group should represent the setting in each
tableau.
•
There should be a focus for each picture in the series of tableaux. The audience’s eye will be drawn into
the picture.
•
Transitions between each of the tableau are as important as the tableaux themselves and they need to
be rehearsed as well. A decision has to be made as to how long to hold, and the signal to indicate when
to move.
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Chapter 8 Page 185
Additional Resources for Teacher Learning
The following are resources to learn more about teaching for deep understanding:
Websites
Assessment: http://www.curriculum.org/secretariat/april27.shtml
Critical Literacy: http://www.curriculum.org/secretariat/november29.shtml
The New Literacies: http://www.curriculum.org/secretariat/may31.shtml
Finding Common Ground - Character Development: http://www.curriculum.org/secretariat/december11.shtml
Drama and Dance: http://www.artsalive.ca/
Think Literacy Documents (grades seven to twelve): http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/studentsuccess/
thinkliteracy/
A Guide to Effective Literacy Instruction - grades four to six (volumes one – seven): http://www.eworkshop.
on.ca/edu/core.cfm?p=documentView.cfm&navID=documentView&c=6&type=1&L=1
Copyright/Paper Citation Considerations
Cooper, Damian. (2007). Talk About Assessment. Nelson Thompson Canada Limited.
Chapter 8 Page 186 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Handout - Key Terms
Multiculturalism
Canadian multiculturalism is a fundamental characteristic of Canadian society and is fundamental to our belief
that all citizens are equal. Multiculturalism ensures that all citizens maintain their identities, can take pride
in their ancestry, and have a sense of belonging. Acceptance gives Canadians a feeling of security and selfconfidence, making them more open to, and accepting of, diverse cultures.
Government of Canada, Department of Canadian Heritage
Stereotypes
Generally speaking, stereotyping refers to mental images, which organize and simplify the world into categories
on the basis of common properties. When used in reference to race, stereotyping means forming an instant or
fixed understanding relating to a group of people. Stereotyping can often lead to discrimination and oppression.
United Nations Association in Canada, Youth Forums Against Racism
Diversity
Diversity recognizes, respects and values individual differences to enable each person to maximize his or her own
potential. Diversity includes differences such as age, ethnicity, gender, language, parental and marital status,
race, religion, sexual orientation, thinking style and more.
Canadian Race Relations Foundation
Racism
Racism refers to a set of beliefs that asserts the superiority of one racial group over another (at the individual
as well as the institutional level), as well as individuals or groups of people who exercise power that abuses or
disadvantages others on the basis of skin colour or racial, or ethnic heritage.
United Nations Association in Canada, Youth Forums Against Racism
Human Rights
Human rights are those rights which are essential for us to live as human beings. They are meant to protect
people from unfair rules, and ensure not only access to basic needs such as food and shelter, but also the chance
to grow and develop beyond what is required for survival.
United Nations Association in Canada, What Kind of World.
Xenophobia
Fear of foreigners: an intense fear or dislike of foreign people, their customs and culture, or foreign things.
Encarta® World English Dictionary [North American Edition]
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 8 Page 187
Handout - Taking the Human Rights Temperature of Your School
Never/
No/False
1 point
Rarely
2 points
Often
3 points
Always/
Yes/True
4 points
Don’t
Know
0 points
1. Members of the school community are not
discriminated against because of their race,
sex, family background, disability, religion, or
life style. (UDHR articles 2, 16; CRC articles 2,
23)
2. My school is a place where I am safe and
secure. (UDHR articles 3, 5; CRC articles 6,
37)
3. All students receive equal information and
encouragement about academic and career
opportunities. (UDHR articles 2, 26; CRC
articles 2, 29)
4. My school provides equal access, resources,
activities, and accommodation for everyone.
(UDHR articles 2, 7; CRC articles 2)
5. Members of my school community will
oppose discriminatory actions, materials, or
words in the school. (UDHR articles 2, 3, 7,
28, 29; CRC articles 2, 3, 6, 30)
6. When someone violates the rights of another
person, the violator is helped to learn how to
change her/his behaviour. (UDHR article 26;
CRC articles 28, 29)
7. Members of my school community care
about my full human as well as academic
development and try to help me when I am
in need. (UDHR articles 3, 22, 26, 29; CRC
articles 3, 6, 27, 28, 29, 31)
8. When conflicts arise, we try to resolve them
in non-violent and collaborative ways. (UDHR
articles 3, 28; CRC articles 3, 13, 19, 29, 37)
9. The school has policies and procedures
regarding discrimination and uses them when
incidents occur. (UDHR articles 3, 7; CRC
articles 3, 29)
10. In matters related to discipline, everyone is
assured of fair, impartial treatment in the
determination of guilt and assignment of
punishment. (UDHR articles 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; CRC
articles 28, 40)
Chapter 8 Page 188 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Never/
No/False
1 point
Rarely
2 points
Often
3 points
Always/
Yes/True
4 points
Don’t
Know
0 points
Never/
No/False
1 point
Rarely
2 points
Often
3 points
Always/
Yes/True
4 points
Don’t
Know
0 points
11. No one in our school is subjected to
degrading treatment or punishment. (UDHR
article 5; CRC articles 13, 16,19, 28)
12. Someone accused of wrong-doing is
presumed innocent until proved guilty. (UDHR
article 11; CRC articles 16, 28, 40)
13. My personal space and possessions are
respected. (UDHR articles 12, 17; CRC article
16)
14. My school community welcomes students,
teachers, administrators and staff from
diverse backgrounds and cultures, including
people not born in this country. (UDHR
articles 2, 6, 13, 14, 15; CRC articles 2, 29, 30,
31)
Sub total
1. I have the liberty to express my beliefs and
ideas without fear of discrimination. (UDHR
article 19; CRC articles 13, 14)
2. Members of my school can produce and
disseminate publications without fear of
censorship or punishment. (UDHR article 19;
CRC article 13)
3. Diverse perspectives (i.e. gender, race/
ethnicity, ideological) are represented in
courses, textbooks, assemblies, libraries, and
classroom instruction. (UDHR articles 2, 19,
27; CRC articles 17, 29, 30)
4. I have the opportunity to participate in
cultural activities at the school and my
cultural identity, language and values are
respected. (UDHR articles 19, 27, 28; CRC
articles 29, 30, 31)
5. Members of my school have the opportunity
to participate in democratic decision-making
to develop school policies and rules. (UDHR
articles 20, 21, 23; CRC articles 13, 15)
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 8 Page 189
Never/
No/False
1 point
Rarely
2 points
Often
3 points
Always/
Yes/True
4 points
Don’t
Know
0 points
6. Members of my school have the right to form
associations within the school to advocate
for their rights, or the rights of others. (UDHR
articles 19, 20, 23; CRC article 15)
7. Members of my school encourage each other
to learn about societal and global problems
related to justice, ecology, poverty and peace.
(UDHR Preamble, articles 26, 29; CRC article
29)
8. Members of my school encourage each
other to organize and take action to address
problems related to justice, ecology, poverty
and peace. (UDHR Preamble, articles 20, 29;
CRC article 29)
9. Members of my school community are able
to take adequate rest/recess time during the
school day and work reasonable hours under
fair work conditions. (UDHR articles 23, 24;
CRC articles 31, 32)
10. Employees in my school are paid enough to
have a standard of living adequate for the
health and well-being of themselves, and
their families. (UDHR articles 22, 25; CRC
article 27)
11. Take responsibility in my school to ensure
that people do not discriminate against
others. (UDHR articles 1, 29; CRC article 29)
Sub total
Add totals
Possible temperature = 100 Human Rights
Degrees
Your school’s temperature = ____ Human Rights
Degrees
ABC: Teaching Human Rights from the United Nations. Taking the Human Rights Temperature of your School. p63.
http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu6/2/abc_text.pdf
After completing the survey, students will meet in the corner of the number they scored on their survey.
Discuss results with prompts such as: Were you surprised by your score? How might things be different? What
were some of the factors that influenced your score? For more information on Four Corners visit http://www.
eworkshop.on.ca/edu/pdf/Mod36_coop_four_corners.pdf
Chapter 8 Page 190 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Handout - Anticipation Guide
Anticipation Guide: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Plain Language Version
Circle Agree or Disagree beside each statement below before you read.
After reading, consider the statements again based on any new information you may have thought about
during the reading. Circle Agree or Disagree beside each statement and check to see whether your opinion has
changed based on your thoughts.
Before Reading
Statement
After Reading
1. Agree / Disagree
Slavery no longer exists in present day society.
Agree / Disagree
2. Agree / Disagree
The United Nations is an international organization
designed to maintain the peace and security of the
world.
Agree / Disagree
3. Agree / Disagree
Refugees are people who leave their nation to live
in another nation for any reason.
Agree / Disagree
4. Agree / Disagree
If I won millions in the lottery, I could buy property
anywhere in the world.
Agree / Disagree
5. Agree / Disagree
I would pay more money for toys and groceries if it
would guarantee that workers are treated fairly and
received a break for rest.
Agree / Disagree
6. Agree / Disagree
The government should provide education to all
children.
Agree / Disagree
7. Agree / Disagree
One person can make a big difference.
Agree / Disagree
Think Literacy: Cross-Curricular Approaches (2003). Grades 7 -12. p23
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 8 Page 191
Handout - 101 Suggested Titles
Reading Response
http://www.literaturecircles.com/ Use a literature circle format from Harvey Daniels at http://www.
literaturecircles.com/ or reading circles from Think Literacy. See Think Literacy: Cross-Curricular Approaches,
Grades 7-12, Language/English, Grades 7-9, Reading Circles, p64).
Title and Author
Grades
DRA/
F&P
A Little Peace by Barbara Kerley
1 to 6
A Picture Book of Anne Frank by David A. Adler
K to 3
44 T
A Picture Book of Frederick Douglas by David A. Adler
K to 3
44 S
A Picture Book of Harriet Tubman by David A. Adler
K to 3
40 R
A Picture Book of Helen Keller by David A. Adler
K to 3
38 P
A Picture Book of Jesse Owens by David A. Adler
K to 3
50 U
A Picture Book of Louis Braille by David A. Adler
K to 3
44 T
A Picture Book of Martin Luther King, Jr. by David A. Adler
K to 3
40 Q
A Picture Book of Rosa Parks by David A. Adler
K to 3
50 U
A Picture Book of Sojourner Truth by David A. Adler
K to 3
50 V
Aani and the Tree Huggers by Jeannin Atkins
K to 3
34 O
Afghan Dreams: Young Voices of Afghanistan by Tony O’Brien
4 to 8
44 T
Akira to Zoltan: Twenty-Six Men Who Changed the World by Cynthia Chin-Lee
K to 3
70 Y
Alia’s Mission: Saving the Books of Iraq by Mark Alan Stamaty
K to 8
40 Q
Amelia to Zora: Twenty-Six Women Who Changed the World by Cynthia Chin-Lee
K to 3
Anne Frank by Josephine Poole
4 to 8
50 U
Barack by Jonah Winter
K to 8
50 U
Barack Obama: Son of Promise, Child of Hope by Nikki Grimes
K to 8
34 O
Brothers Of Hope, The Lost Boys of Sudan by Mary Williams
4 to 8
44 S
Bud, Not Buddy by Christopher Paul Curtis
4 to 8
50 U
Children of War by Deborah Ellis
4 to 8
50 V
Coretta Scott by Ntozake Shange
K to 8
50 U
Digging Up Dirt: The Muckrakers by Sean Price
4 to 8
38 P
Elijah of Buxton by Christopher Paul Curtis
4 to 8
50 V
4 to 8
50 V
Four Feet, Two Sandals by Karen Lynn Williams and Khadra Mohammed
K to 8
38 P
From Far Away by Saoussan Askar and Robert Munsch
K to 3
38 P
Gandhi by Demi
4 to 8
70 Y
Gervelie’s Journey: A Refugee Diary by Anthony Robinson and Annemarie Young
4 to 8
Courage and Compassion: Ten Canadians Who Made a Difference by Rona Arato
Every Human Has Rights: A Photographic Declaration for Kids by National Geographic
Factory Girl by Barbara Greenwood
For Every Child: The Rights of the Child in Words and Pictures by Caroline Castle
Chapter 8 Page 192 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Give a Goat by Jan West Schrock
K to 3
40 Q
Habibi by Naomi Shihab Nye
4 to 8
50 V
Hana’s Suitcase by Karen Levine
4 to 8
50 U
Homeless Bird by Gloria Whelan
4 to 8
50 V
I Am A Taxi by Debora Ellis 4.8
4 to 8
44 T
If the World Were A Village: A Book About the World’s People by David J. Smith
K to 8
50 U
If You Could Wear My Sneakers: Poems by Sheree Fitch
K to 8
It’s Okay to Be Different by Todd Parr
K to 3
Listen to the Wind by Greg Mortenson
K to 3
Making Change: Tips from an Underage Overachiever by Bilaal Rajan
4 to 8
Mandela: From the Life of the South African Statesman by Floyd Cooper
K to 3
50W
March On!: The Day My Brother Martin Changed the World by Christine King Farris
K to 8
50 V
Martin’s Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. by Dorreen Rappaport
K to 8
34 O
Math That Matters by David Stocker
teacher resource
Mrs. Marlowe’s Mice by Frank and Devon Asch
K-8
Mud City by Deborah Ellis
4 to 8
My Name is Bilal by Asma Mobin-Uddin
K-8
38 P
Number the Stars by Lois Lowry
4 to 8
44 S
Off to War: Voices of Soldiers’ Children by Deborah Ellis
4 to 8
50W
One Hen: How One Small Loan Made a Big Difference by Katie Smith Milway 4.6
K to 8
44 S
One Peace: True Stories of Young Activists by Janet Wilson
4 to 8
One Well: The Story of Water on Earth by Rochelle Strauss
4 to 8
60 X
Parvana’s Journey by Deborah Ellis
4 to 8
44 S
Paths to Peace: People Who Changed the World by Jane Breskin Zalben
4 to 8
80 Z
Peace Begins With You by Katherine Scholes
K to 8
50U
Peace Book by Todd Parr
K to 3
Peace Jam: A Billion Simple Acts of Peace
4 to 8
Peace One Day by Jeremy Gilliey
4 to 8
50W
Peaceful Protest: The Life of Nelson Mandela by Yona Z. McDonough
K to 8
70 Y
Planting the Trees of Kenya: The Story of Wangari Maathai by Claire A. Nivola
K to 3
60 X
Rosa by Nikki Giovanni
K to 8
50U
Ruby’s Wish by Shirin Yim Bridges
K to 3
40R
Running Shoes by Frederick Lipp
K to 8
34O
Ryan and Jimmy And the Well in Africa That Brought Them Together by Herb Shoveller
K to 8
50W
Sacred Leaf: The Cocalero Novels by Deborah Ellis
4 to 8
44 T
Sami and the Time of the Troubles by Florence Parry Heide
K to 8
40Q
Selavi: A Haitian Story of Hope by Youme
K to 3
38 P
Silent Music: A Story of Baghdad by James Rumford
K to 8
38 P
Snow in Jerusalem by Deborah Da Costa
K to 3
30N
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
44 S
40 R
Chapter 8 Page 193
Somewhere Today: A Book of Peace by Shelley Moore Thomas
K to 3
24 L
Stand Up, Speak Out: A Book About Children’s Rights by Selda Altun (ed.)
Ten Amazing People by Maureen Shaw
4 to 8
Ten Marks and a Train Ticket; Benno’s Escape to Freedom by Susy Goldstein, W.
Hamilton,G. Share
4 to 8
Terry Fox: A Story of Hope by Maxine Trottier
K to 3
The Arrival by Shaun Tan (Wordless Picture Book)
K to 8
The Best Eid Ever by Asma Mobin-Udding
K to 8
38 P
The Birdman by Veronika Charles Martenova
K to 8
44 S
The Boy in the Striped Pajamas by John Boyne
4 to 8
50W
The Breadwinner by Deborah Ellis
4 to 8
44 S
The Bus Ride That Changed History by Pamela Duncan Edwards
K to 8
50 V
The Color of Home by Mary Hoffman
K to 3
38 P
The Peace Bell by Margi Preus
K to 3
40Q
The Remarkable Maria by Patti McIntosh
4 to 8
50U
The Righteous Smuggler by Debbie Spring
4 to 8
40Q
The Skin You Live In by Michael Tyler
K to 3
The Story of Ruby Bridges by Robert Coles
K to 8
40R
The Streets are Free by Kurusa
K to 8
38 P
The War by Anais Vaugelade
K to 8
40Q
Three Cups of Tea: Young Readers Edition by Greg Mortenson
4 to 8
60 X
Through My Eyes by Ruby Bridges
4 to 8
60 X
To Be a Kid by Maya Ajmera and John D. Ivanko
K to 3
Wangari’s Trees of Peace: A True Story from Africa by Jeanette Winter
K to 6
We Are All Born Free: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Pictures
K to 8
What Does Peace Feel Like by Anne Schwartz
K to 3
When Elephants Fight: The Lives of Children in Conflict by Eric Walters and Adrian
Bradbury
4 to 8
80 Z
When the Horses Ride By: Children in the Times of War by Eloise Greenfield
K to 6
34O
Whispering Cloth: A Refugee’s Story by Peggy Shea
K to 8
40Q
Why War is Never a Good Idea by Alice Walker
K to 8
38 P
Chapter 8 Page 194 50W
40 Q
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Handout - Anticipation Guide
Anticipation Guide: The Librarian of Basra
Circle Agree or Disagree beside each statement below before you read.
After reading, consider the statements again based on any new information you may have thought about
during the reading. Circle Agree or Disagree beside each statement and check to see whether your opinion has
changed based on your thoughts.
Before Reading
Statement
After Reading
1. Agree / Disagree
Libraries can be a very important part of a
community. Books are filled with ideas and hold
important information about history.
Agree / Disagree
2. Agree / Disagree
If my country is at war with another country,
everyone in that country is my enemy.
Agree / Disagree
3. Agree / Disagree
If my country is at war with another one, it does
not matter to me what gets bombed in the other
country.
Agree / Disagree
4. Agree / Disagree
War involves two militaries fighting each other, but
everyday life for regular citizens doesn’t change.
Agree / Disagree
5. Agree / Disagree
You can only accomplish big jobs if the government
helps you.
Agree / Disagree
6. Agree / Disagree
When it comes to war, everything is fair.
Agree / Disagree
7. Agree / Disagree
One person can make a big difference.
Agree / Disagree
THINK LITERACY: Cross -Curricular Approaches (2003). Grades 7 -12. p23
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 8 Page 195
Handout - Exit Card
Sample Exit Card retrieved from: http://www.curriculum.org/secretariat/january30TU.shtml
Think about today’s learning...
Today I learned...
I was confused by...
I wonder...
Signed:
Chapter 8 Page 196 Date:
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Handout - One Sweet World by Dave Matthews
One Sweet World
By Dave Matthews
Nine planets round the sun
Only one does the sun embrace
Upon this watered one
So much we take for granted
So let us sleep outside tonight
Lay down in our mother’s arms
For here we can rest safely
If green should slip to grey
But our hearts still bloody be
And if mountains crumble away
And the river dry
Would it stop the stepping feet
Take all that we can get
When it’s done
Nobody left to bury here
Nobody left to dig the holes
And here we can rest safely
One sweet world
Around a star is spinning
One sweet world
And in her breath I’m swimming
And here we will rest in peace
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 8 Page 197
Handout - Cry Freedom by Dave Matthews
Cry Freedom
By Dave Matthews
How can I turn away
Brother/Sister go dancing
Through my head
Human as to human
The future is no place
To place your better days
In this room stood a little child
And in this room this little child
She would remain
Until someone might decide
To dance this little child
A
cross this hall
Into a cold, dark, space
Where she might never trace her way across this
crooked mile
Across this crooked page
Cry freedom, cry
From deep inside where
We are all confined
Till we wave our hands
Cry freedom cry
From a crowd 10,000 wide
Hope laid upon hope
That this crowd will not subside
Let this flag burn to dust
And a new a fair design be raised
While we wait head in hands
Hands in prayer
And fall into a dreamless sleep again
And we wave our hands
How can I turn away
Brother/Sister go dancing
Through my head
Human as to human
The future is no place
To place your better days
Hands and feet are all alike
But gold between divide us
Hands and feet are all alike
But gold between divide us
Hands and feet are all alike
But fear between divide us
All slip away
There was a window and by it stood
A mirror in which
He could see himself
He thought of something
Something he had never had but hoped would
come along
Cry freedom, cry
From deep inside
Where we are all confined
While we wave hands in fire
Wave our hands
Hands and feet are all alike
But gold between divide us
Hands and feet are all alike
But fear between divide us,
Slip away
Chapter 8 Page 198 Hands and feet are all alike
But fear between divide us
Hands and feet are all alike
Hear what I say
Hear what I say
Oh, so be it
How can I turn away
Brother/Sister go dancing
Through my head
Human as to human
The future is no place
To place your better days
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Handout - The Paradoxical Commandments By Kent M. Keith
The Paradoxical Commandments
By Kent M. Keith
1. People are illogical, unreasonable, and self-centered.
Love them anyway.
2. If you do good, people will accuse you of selfish ulterior motives.
Do good anyway.
3. If you are successful, you will win false friends and true enemies.
Succeed anyway.
4. The good you do today will be forgotten tomorrow.
Do good anyway.
5. Honesty and frankness make you vulnerable.
Be honest and frank anyway.
6. The biggest men and women with the biggest ideas can be shot down by the smallest men and women with
the smallest minds.
Think big anyway.
7. People favour underdogs but follow only top dogs.
Fight for a few underdogs anyway.
8. What you spend years building may be destroyed overnight.
Build anyway.
9. People really need help but may attack you if you do help them.
Help people anyway.
10. Give the world the best you have and you’ll get kicked in the teeth. Give the world the best you have anyway.
Gould, Kathleen. (2008). Teaching Fairly in an Unfair World. Lundy: Pembroke Publishers Ltd.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 8 Page 199
Handout - Websites
Citizenship and Immigration Canada Cultural Profiles: http://www.cp-pc.ca/english/index.html
Educators for Social Responsibility: http://www.esrnational.org/index.php
Epals (global community of connected classrooms): http://www.epals.com/
Every Human Has Rights: http://everyhumanhasrights.org/
Homeless Bird website: http://www.gloriawhelan.com/bird.htm
PBS Wide Angle “Time for School” Series: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/episodes/time-for-schoolseries/video-back-to-school-full-episode/272/
Radical Teacher: http://www.radicalteacher.org/
Social Justice Training Institute (many links to other sites): http://www.sjti.org/resources.html
Teaching for Change: Building Social Justice Starting in the Classroom: http://www.teachingforchange.org/
Teaching Tolerance: http://www.tolerance.org/teach/index.jsp
Teaching Tolerance links to other sites: http://www.tolerance.org/teach/web/great_sites/index.jsp
UNICEF Canada: http://www.unicef.ca/portal/SmartDefault.aspx
United Nations Cyber School Bus: http://www.un.org/Pubs/CyberSchoolBus/
United Nations: http://www.un.org/
Youth for Human Rights International: http://www.youthforhumanrights.org/index.htm
Chapter 8 Page 200 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Enable Students to Blossom:
Prune Curriculum
Overgrowth to the Essential
Deep Understandings
By Edward Schroeter
9
Unit Plan Grade Level
JK-SK integrated science-literacy-math-arts-health and physical education unit plan.
Audience
This three-day workshop course is designed for all teachers, JK-8, although it is based primarily on a sample JK-SK
integrated science-literacy-math-the arts-health and physical education unit. See K T4DU Natural World Unit
Plan May 2012.pdf
A grade 7 language-math-arts (drama, visual arts) unit, as well as a grade 3 writing and early settlers social
students will also be shared. See Grade 7 Bias and Video Gaming Unit.pdf and Integrated Unit Plan_gr 3 SS_
settlers. Links will be provided to and an exemplar unit on westward movement and pioneer life for grade 3
social studies by Grant Wiggins as well as other junior and intermediate units. See Wiggins, Grant, 2005, pp3-4
at http://www.grantwiggins.org/documents/UbDQuikvue1005.pdf and also downloadable examples of his unit
plans, A Free Resource - Content Rotated Daily, posted on his website at http://www.authenticeducation.org/
bigideas/resource_carousel_list.lasso.
Module Description
In the workshop, participants practice strategies to independently plan and teach for deep understanding. See
K T4DU Looks Like Sounds Like E Schroeter.pdf. See also Ontario Ministry of Education, September 2010, Getting
Started With Student Inquiry, Capacity Building Series, Secretariat Special Edition #24, Literacy and Numeracy
Secretariat at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/CBS_StudentInquiry.pdf.
Educators develop an integrated, cross-curricular, inquiry unit plan using the cross-curricular backward design
method. Participants deconstruct a T4DU JK-SK science unit plan into its key components, in a recursive manner.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 9 Page 201
The workshop also addresses the following related topics: assessment, how the brain learns, differentiation of
learning activities, and reporting to parents.
Workshop Outcomes
In this workshop, participants will learn to:
1. Design an integrated, cross-curricular learning plan for a unit of study by synthesizing Ontario curriculum
expectations into a few deep questions and deep understandings. See Overview of T4DU in K.pdf.
2. Think like an assessor and backward plan a culminating, authentic, performance unit assessment task
(write-say-do) to determine how to accurately and fairly assess whether the students have achieved the
learning goals of the unit.
3. Identify the curriculum expectations or standards which will be evaluated and reported to parents on the
Ontario report card.
4. Develop learning goals and student success criteria from the big ideas to help students develop goal
setting and self-evaluation skills. (Ontario Ministry of Education,2010, Growing Success, pp32-33, 35)
5. Work recursively to identify the “Big Ideas” of the unit. This language comes from Ontario Curriculum
Grades 1-8 and Science and Technology, 2007, see http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/
elementary/scientec18currb.pdf as well as http://www.authenticeducation.org/ae_bigideas/article.
lasso?artid=99 by Grant Wiggins.
6. Create and sequence scaffolded learning activities to teach the skills which will help the students
succeed on the final performance assessment. Scaffolding, in this case, is defined as the process of
providing support for students in order to reduce their “cognitive load.” (Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E., Golan
Duncan, Ravit, and Chinn, Clark, 2007, Scaffolding and Achievement in Problem-Based and Inquiry
Learning: A Response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006), Educational Psychologist, Vol.42, Iss.2.)
Scaffolding for learning may be further defined as supports, prompts, or processes to “help students
understand the relevance of particular concepts and/or activities in the world and to support inquiry
processes, deep understanding, the reflection on one’s idea in relation to others’.” (Barron, et. al., 1998,
Doing With Understanding, The Journal of Learning Sciences, Vol.7, No.3&4, p276. See http://www.
scribd.com/doc/37739460/Barron-B-J-S-D-L-Schwartz-Et-Al-1998-Doing-With-Understanding-LessonsFrom-Research-on-Problem-And-Project-Based-Learning-the-Journal and Shepard, Lorrie A., November
2005, Linking Formative Assessment to Scaffolding, Educational Leadership, Vol.63, No.3, pp66-70 at
http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/nov05/vol63/num03/abstract.aspx.
7. Differentiate the learning activies for students who need program accommodations and modifications.
When differentiating learning activities, consider designing them using established criteria such as
those promoted by Carol Ann Tomlinson. The activities should be based on student readiness, interest,
learning profile and learning preferences as determined through pre-assessment. (Tomlinson, C. A.,
2010, Four Non-Negotiables of Defensible Differentiation, pp20, 32. See http://www.caroltomlinson.
com/Presentations/Amherst_Elementary.pdf).
The three-day workshop leaves teachers with:
•
a finished T4DU unit plan;
•
a deep understanding of how to plan, implement, adjust, and assess the learning of students in future
T4DU unit plans;
Chapter 9 Page 202 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
•
a variety of helpful resources and avenues for assistance and support;
•
an understanding of the T4DU’s powerful ability to improve student learning;
•
the importance of curriculum integration;
•
an understanding of the social and moral obligation of the members of our profession to implement
teaching for T4DU in our classrooms;
•
an awareness of the challenges of T4DU; and
•
an ability to justify their instructional decisions with current research and with text from Ontario Ministry
of Education documents.
Purpose of Learning Module
The hands-on three-day workshop equips JK-8 teachers with a practical, easy-to-use planning tool based on
the psychology of learning. See Overview of T4DU in K.pdf. The planning tool enables teachers to prune
the curriculum overgrowth and determine the most powerful and essential deep understandings (a.k.a.
learning goals) by synthesizing the myriad curriculum expectations into fundamental (essential) concepts
and principles, strategies and skills, and knowledge necessary for prospering in life. See McAdie, P., and
Leithwood, K., 2005, Less Is More: Teaching for Deep Understanding, ETFO Voice, pp17-20 at http://www.etfo.
ca/SiteCollectionDocuments/Publication%20Documents/Voice%20-%20School%20Year%202004-5/Winter%20
2005/Less_Is_More.pdf.
The workshop and planning tool provides teachers and their students with focus on what is important to “Know,
Understand, and be able to Do.” (Tomlinson, C. A., 2008, What is Differentiation? (Making Sure We’re on the
Same Page…), pp14-19. See http://caroltomlinson.com/Presentations/Amherst_Secondary.pdf).
In summary, teachers will be able to plan in the following manner:
1. Design the T4DU “curriculum” or deep understandings (learning goals) of a unit of study.
2. Design the summative authentic unit performance assessment task, student performance standard
(student success criteria) and teacher (as in teacher evaluation rubric) evaluation rubric.
3. Determine the crucial pyramid or ladder of big ideas, a.k.a. essential facts, concepts, skills, strategies
and metacognitive approaches (learning goals) needed to accomplish the performance assessment and
successfully complete the student performance assessment task.
4. Differentiate learning content, learning tasks, and assessment.
5. Create and sequence the learning tasks in a scaffold that will allow students to achieve successful
mastery of the big ideas and deep understandings of the unit.
6. Develop accommodations and modifications for individual students as needed.
This backward curriculum design unit planning process is based on current research on how the brain learns, the
principles of constructivist learning theory, the importance of grounding instruction in the interests of the child
learner, and inquiry learning (IL) based on constructivism. See McTighe, Jay, Seif, Elliot, and Wiggins, Grant, You
Can Teach for Meaning, September 2004, Educational Leadership, Vol.62, Iss.1, pp26-31 at http://jaymctighe.
com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/You-Can-Teach-for-Meaning.pdf, and Helm, Judy Harris,
September 2004, Projects That Power Young Minds, Educational Leadership, pp58-62 at http://www.aea267.k12.
ia.us/literacyexcellence/files/2009-2010/Webinar3/K-3article.pdf.
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Chapter 9 Page 203
The critical deep understanding for teacher workshop participants is that the quality of curriculum affects the
quality of learning and deep understanding. Therefore, to improve the quality of learning among students
and create deep understanding, teachers must start by developing a high-quality curriculum from provincial
standards. (Elmore, R., City, E., Teitel, L., and Fiarman, S., 2009, Instructional Rounds in Education: A Network
Approach To Improving Teaching And Learning. The Harvard Education Press.) By law this must, and can, be
done by synthesizing from the Ontario curriculum documents. See and download the article [DOC]¸ Making
Standards Work: Castles, Kings... and Standards, 2001, Educational Leadership at http://michigan.gov/
documents/6-1CastlesKingsarticle_107402_7.doc; Ontario Ministry of Education, September 2010, Integrated
Learning in the Classroom, Capacity Building Series, Secretariat Special Edition #14, Literacy and Numeracy
Secretariat at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/CBS_integrated_learning.pdf;
and Ontario Ministry of Education, September 2010, Getting Started With Student Inquiry, Capacity Building
Series, Secretariat Special Edition #24, Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/
literacynumeracy/inspire/research/CBS_StudentInquiry.pdf.
Another vital deep understanding for teachers is that, as Carol Ann Tomlinson points out, for a curriculum to
succeed at producing deep understanding, “every lesson plan should be, at its heart, a motivational plan” that
is based on the interests and background of the learners. She notes that young learners are motivated and
engaged by:
•
cultural significance;
•
personal relevance or passion;
•
emotional connection;
•
product focus;
•
choice; and
•
potential to make a contribution or link with something greater than self. (Tomlinson, C. A., 2010,
Four Non-Negotiables of Defensible Differentation, pp32-37, see http://www.caroltomlinson.com/
Presentations/Amherst_Elementary.pdf).
Another key understanding for teachers is that generally this type of curriculum is most successfully delivered
by a learning by design problem-based learning (PBL), project learning (PL), or inquiry learning (IL) instructional
system. (Barron, B. and Darling-Hammond, L., Teaching for Meaningful Learning: A Review of Research on
Inquiry-Based and Cooperative Learning, pp3-8. The George Lucas Educational Foundation. http://www.
edutopia.org/pdfs/edutopia-teaching-for-meaningful-learning.pdf)
These similar systems are based on nine essential principles of constructivist learning theory (Beck and Kosnick,
T4DU, 2004, p14), and the backward curriculum design process (which includes assessment for learning and
assessment as learning).
Workshop participants will also acquire a deep understanding that this curriculum design process and
instructional system can be enhanced by using pre-assessment data (assessment for learning) to differentiate
unit plans for student readiness, interest, and learning profile.
Furthermore, workshop participants will also gain in-depth understanding of feedback and assessment as
learning. Key learning points about assessment include the following:
•
Successful teaching for deep understanding (instruction) is carefully based on the culture, interests,
learning preferences, background knowledge, current skills, and abilities of students.
Chapter 9 Page 204 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
•
The primary purpose of assessment is to improve student learning.
•
Accurate pre-assessment (i.e., assessment for learning, diagnostic assessment) of students’ interests,
learning styles, skills, and abilities helps teachers design learning which is more engaging and motivating
for students. As well, it helps teachers design learning which improves student achievement because it
is based on their curriculum achievement level; what students know, can do, and need to be able to do.
•
The majority of assessment during the school year should consist of continuing formative assessment
(feedback, coaching, and teaching how to use goal-setting and self-reflection strategies to improve
work) and assessment as learning (students monitor and adjust their own learning using meta-cognitive
strategies such as self-reflection and goal-setting). See Ontario Ministry of Education, 2010, Growing
Success, Chapter 4, pp28-23 at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/growSuccess.pdf.
•
Continuous, critical, focused, timely feedback (through formative assessment) and also assessment
as learning are critical components of teaching for deep understanding, and indeed for promoting all
student learning. See Wiggins and McTighe, May 2008, Put Understanding First, Educational Leadership,
Vol.65, No.8 at http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may08/vol65/num08/PutUnderstanding-First.aspx and also Wiggins, May 22, 2010, Feedback: How Learning Occurs, at http://
www.authenticeducation.org/ae_bigideas/article.lasso?artId=61.
•
Culminating authentic performance assessment tasks anchor curricular units because they function
as a target or a learning goal which, in turn, guides instruction and illuminates student needs, such as
targeted instruction and feedback. (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2010, Growing Success, pp32, 39)
•
Culminating authentic performance assessment tasks prevent teachers from falling into the habit of
thinking like activity designers, and instead encourage teachers to think like assessors and instruction
designers.
•
The purpose of evaluation tasks is to rank students, assign grades and marks, and report student
achievement. These activities do nothing to improve student achievement.
•
Evaluation tasks, compared to formative assessment tasks, should be used sparingly throughout the year.
•
Evaluation tasks should be based on the concept of the triangulation of data (write, say, do) to ensure
that they are accurate, balanced, and fair. See Ontario Ministry of Education, 2010, Growing Success,
pp6, 34, 39 at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/growSuccess.pdf.
•
Evaluation should be reported with care and sensitivity, should confirm the trend in achievement that a
student has demonstrated over time, and should contain no surprises for students or parents. (Damian
Cooper, 2007, Talk About Assessment; Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, 2005, Understanding by Design;
Earl, L. M., 2004, Classroom Assessment for Deep Understanding; Leithwood, K., et. al., 2004, Teaching
for Deep Understanding: Towards the Ontario Curriculum That We Need).
Workshop Activities
Participants divide into grade-alike groups of about four educators.
Each participant receives enlarged copies of the Ontario Kindergarten Program document (Revised 2006) or the
Ontario Ministry of Education, Full-Day Early Learning-Kindergarten Program (draft 2010-11), as well as enlarged
versions of a complete set of curriculum documents for grades 3 (according to the interests of the participants).
See http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/kindercurrb.pdf and see also http://www.edu.gov.
on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/kindergarten_english_june3.pdf. See Grade 3 Curriculum Enlarged Version
with Sorting Organizers.pdf.
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Chapter 9 Page 205
Starting with either science or social studies, participants cut up the curriculum (the curriculum may be pre-cut
into expectations), and sort curriculum expectations (standards) into similar related topics. N.B. they will with
start science or social studies and add language. See http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/
scientec18currb.pdf
The workshop participants will:
•
understand why it is easier to begin by synthesizing science or social studies expectations before adding
language expectations;
•
synthesize overarching, essential “deep understandings” from curriculum documents. See Overview of
T4DU in K.pdf.
•
develop a cluster of big ideas; and
•
use a backward design unit planning tool to synthesize one or two overarching, essential questions about
a unit topic, as well as one or two overarching, deep understandings from the Ontario curriculum related
to the topic of the unit. See Digital Literacy Backward Design Planning Template at http://digitalliteracy.
mwg.org/documents/template.pdf; The Unit Planning Template, pp4-9 at http://www.hammondschool.
org/uploaded/pdf/UbDPages.pdf, instructions at Wiggins, Overview of UbD & the Design Template, 2005
at http://www.grantwiggins.org/documents/UbDQuikvue1005.pdf; download [DOC] Backwards Design
Template for Unit Planning from Patty Blorne, Making learning essential for struggling students. Inside
Patty’s High School Grade Classroom - click on [DOC] Backwards Design Template for Unit Planning at the
bottom of her blog at http://blogs.scholastic.com/9_12/2009/04/essential-questions-anchor-learningfor-struggling-students.html and/or http://www.jaymctighe.com/resources/ (http://jaymctighe.com/
wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/UbD-Template-1.0.docx).
In their groups, participants read one or more of the following articles:
•
McTighe, J., Seif, E., and Wiggins, G. (September 2004). You Can Teach for Meaning. Educational
Leadership, Vol.62, Iss.1, pp26-31. See http://jaymctighe.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/
You-Can-Teach-for-Meaning.pdf.
•
Wiggins, G. (May 2010). What Is A Big Idea? See http://www.authenticeducation.org/ae_bigideas/
article.lasso?artid=99.
•
Bransford, J., Brown, A., and Cocking, R. (Eds.). (2001). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience,
and school. Washington, DC: National Research Council. See http://www.nap.edu/openbook.
php?isbn=0309070368.
•
Drake, Susan M. (September 2001). Making Standards Work: Castles, Kings… and Standards.
Educational Leadership. Vol.59. Iss.1. Download a copy [DOC] of the article Making Standards
Work: Castles, Kings... and Standards, Educational Leadership at http://michigan.gov/documents/61CastlesKingsarticle_107402_7.doc.
•
Wiggins, Grant and McTighe, Jay. (2005). Crafting Understandings. Chapter 6. pp126-145.
•
Cooper, Damian. (2007). Performance Standards. Chapter 6. pp68-81.
Using a placemat activity, each group member records individual thinking on the most important ideas in the
articles. Then, the group decides on the most important ideas. See Mini Placemat.pdf. The groups present their
thinking. The groups revise their enduring understandings.
The groups use a UbD planning template to brainstorm and create a cluster of big ideas. See T4DU Unit Planner
Chapter 9 Page 206 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Landscape Aug 2009.pdf, Understanding By Design™ Overview at http://www.hammondschool.org/uploaded/
pdf/UbDPages.pdf, pp1-4, and the Digital Literacy Backward Design Template at http://digitalliteracy.mwg.org/
curriculum/template.html.
Participants think-pair-share to respond to the following statement: “…there is considerable evidence that
classroom assessment - the assessment that teachers do in the classroom every day – has an immense impact
on student learning and can be the lever for deep understanding. Black and William (1998) synthesized over 250
studies linking assessment and learning and found that the intentional use of assessment in the classroom to
promote learning raised student achievement.”
Next, participants respond to the statement: “They (Black and William, 1998) also reported, however, that the
characteristics of high quality formative assessment are not well understood by most teachers, and that this kind
of assessment is weak in practice.” (Earl, L. M., 2004, Classroom Assessment for Deep Understanding: Shifting
from Assessment Of Learning to Assessment For Learning and Assessment As Learning, p95).
Participants imagine that they are the Premier of Ontario, the Ontario Minister of Education and the Deputy
Minister of Education rolled into one. Working individually or in partners, they rethink assessment, and craft
an effective, comprehensive provincial assessment policy to improve student learning in general, and deep
understanding in particular. They set out their policy and explain their thinking:
•
The main purpose(s) for assessment.
•
The implications for classroom teaching (what your assessment will look and sound like in the
classroom).
•
What would have worked for you as an elementary student?
Collectively, the group fills out the RAN Chart: What I Think I Know, Confirmed (or: Yes, You Were Right),
Misconceptions, New Information, and Wonderings. (Reality Checks: Tony Stead. (2006). Teaching
Reading Comprehension with Non-fiction K-5. Stenhouse. ISBN 1551381958). See and download a
Reading and Analyzing Non-Fiction Chart [DOC] from http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/sssm/html/
readingandanalyzingnonfiction_sm.html.
Read Lorna M. Earl’s article, Classroom Assessment for Deep Understanding (Earl, L. M., 2004, Teaching for
Deep Understanding, pp94-99). See also Assessment As Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize
Student Learning (Earl, L. M., 2003). See also Earl’s paper excerpted and adapted from her aforementioned
book, Classroom Assessment for Deep Understanding: Shifting from Assessment Of Learning to Assessment For
Learning and Assessment As Learning. See http://edel567-assessment-and-standardized-testing.wikispaces.
com/file/view/Classroom+Assessment+for+Deep+Understanding.pdf
Using a graphic organizer and working in small groups, discuss the following: The article says…. I say…. So what?
See Article Says - I Say.pdf
As a large group, finish the RAN chart.
Fill out (retell) a Maintain-Modify-Change Practice (MMCP) self-evaluation form on assessment and relate it to
own practice. Next, share thinking with elbow partner.
Finally, each workshop participant reflects on their learning using one of the three learning consolidation
templates below. Consider the following questions:
1. Do my assessment practices promote student understanding?
2. Are my assessment practices responsive to individual student needs?
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 9 Page 207
3. Do I use my assessment data to adjust instruction for individual students and for the whole
class?
4. Do the elements of my assessment that I use for reporting include a sufficient sample of
learning?
5. Are all of my assessments valid and reliable measures of what I intended to assess?
6. Are my assessment practices for this class manageable for me in terms of workload? (Cooper,
2007, pp288-289). See The Top 3 List.pdf, Reflect Retell Relate.pdf, and 321 Card.pdf. See also
http://www.realclassroomideas.com/resources/graphic+organizers-giveonegetone.pdf.
Required Resources
As workshop participants, teachers may need a copy of:
•
Leithwood, McAdie, Bascia, and Rodrigue. (2004). Teaching for Deep Understanding. OISEUT/ETFO.
•
Wiggins and McTighe. (2005). Understanding by Design. ASCD.
•
Cooper. (2007). Talk About Assessment. Nelson.
•
Ontario Ministry of Education. (2010-11). Full-Day Early Learning-Kindergarten Program (draft).
•
Ontario Ministry of Education. (2010). Growing Success.
•
Barron and Darling-Hammond. (2008). Teaching for Meaningful Learning: A Review of Research on
Inquiry-Based and Cooperative Learning.
Teachers As Learners and Leaders: Knowledge To Be Developed
What Is Deep Understanding?
As the physicist Albert Einstein once said, “You do not truly understand something unless you can explain it to
your grandmother.”
Students deeply understand a concept, principle, truth, expertise, and/or insight when they are able to:
•
state it in their own words;
•
give examples of it [and also give non-examples of it];
•
recognize it in various guises and circumstances;
•
see connections between it and other facts or ideas;
•
make use of it in various ways;
•
foresee some of its consequences; and
•
state its opposite or converse. (Holt’s seven-point list, Holt, 1964, pp36-37; Leithwood, K., et. al., 2004,
Teaching for Deep Understanding: Towards the Ontario Curriculum That We Need, p23).
When students make use of deeply understood concepts, principles, truths, expertise, and insights, they are able
to accomplish the following:
•
bring this understanding “to bear on new problems and situations,” (Gardner, 1993, p21, in Leithwood,
Chapter 9 Page 208 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
K., et. al., 2004, Teaching for Deep Understanding: Towards the Ontario Curriculum That We Need, p23);
and
•
use their store of “knowledge, concepts, and skills to illuminate new problems or unanticipated issues.”
(Gardner and Boix-Mansilla, 1994, p200, in Leithwood, K., et. al., 2004, Teaching for Deep Understanding:
Towards the Ontario Curriculum That We Need, p23).
Another way of looking teaching for deep understanding is through what Wiggins and McTighe describe as the
“six facets” of understanding.
•
Facet 1: Explanation
•
Facet 2: Interpretation
•
Facet 3: Application
•
Facet 4: Perspective
•
Facet 5: Empathy
•
Facet 6: Self-Knowledge. (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005, pp161-167). For their entire chapter on their Six
Facets of Understanding from their first edition of Understanding by Design, 1998, Chapter 4, see http://
webbrain.com/attach?brain=6C83C43B-40E7-F5F6-C72B-3B5A768E122C&attach=692&type=1.
According to Wiggins and McTighe, a student who truly deeply understands a concept, principle, truth, expertise,
and/or insight is able to accomplish the following:
•
Explain, substantiate, and justify big understandings in their own words with sophisticated insight and
complex, credible reasons.
•
Effectively make sense of (interpret) stories, art work, data, situations, or claims, as well as provide
powerful, illuminating, and meaningful translations from one medium to another.
•
Use his or her knowledge and skill in diverse, new, “realistically messy” situations and authentic contexts
with a real or simulated audience, purpose, setting, constraints, and background noise, as well as use the
information in a novel way, i.e., invent, innovate, and self-adjust performance.
•
See things from different points-of-view, articulate the other side of the cause, see the big picture,
recognize underlying assumptions, take a critical stance, critique and justify a position, see through an
argument that is partisan, biased, or ideological, and know the limits as well as the power of an idea.
•
Use “intellectual imagination,” appreciate people who think and act differently from him or herself (walk
in someone else’s shoes), project him or herself into another situation, appreciate another’s experience,
and point-of-view. As well, students should be able to avoid stereotyping, be open to new ideas, operate
on the assumption that even a seemingly odd or obscure comment, text, person, or set of ideas may
contain plausible insights.
•
Self-assess his or her past and present work, recognize his or her own prejudices, style, biases, strengths,
and weaknesses, question his or her own convictions, be intellectually honest, admit ignorance, and
accept feedback and criticism without defensiveness. (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005, Understanding
by Design, pp161-167). See Chapter 4, Understanding by Design, 1998, at http://webbrain.com/
attach?brain=6C83C43B-40E7-F5F6-C72B-3B5A768E122C&attach=692&type=1.
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Chapter 9 Page 209
Planning
Teachers will acquire the know-how to achieve the following.
•
Synthesize from curriculum documents (provincial standards) an overarching enduring understanding,
deep essential understandings, and important big ideas, also referred to as essential strategies and skills
or learning goals. (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005, Understanding by Design, second edition). See Overview
of T4DU in K.pdf.
•
Use a backward design or backward mapping planning tool to create an integrated, cross-curricular,
inquiry unit plan. (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005, Understanding by Design, second edition). See T4DU
Unit Planner Landscape Aug 2009.pdf. See and download a planning template [DOC] at http://
digitalliteracy.mwg.org/documents/template.pdf and/or at http://www.jaymctighe.com/resources/
(http://jaymctighe.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/UbD-Template-1.0.docx). For a
succinct summary of the main principles of backward design unit planning, see http://pixel.fhda.edu/
id/six_facets.html and/or for a concise flow chart of this process see http://digitalliteracy.mwg.org/
curriculum/process.html.
•
Use pre-assessment data from learning preference surveys, interest and ability inventories, and language
assessments (reading, writing, speaking) as a starting point for the planning of a backward design unit.
For a framework to help address the variety of ways in which students learn by ensuring classroom
teachers plan multiple means of engagement, expression, and representation, known as Universal
Design for Learning (UDL), see http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/. For planning templates, see
http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/tools/classprofiletemplate.cfm.
•
Make practical use of the theories of multiple intelligences and learning styles in unit planning, given
that there is a debate about the efficacy of pre-assessment for multiple intelligences and learning
styles in terms of improving student achievement. For this debate, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Theory_of_multiple_intelligences#Lack_of_empirical_evidence, http://www.journeytoexcellence.
org.uk/resourcesandcpd/research/summaries/rsmultipleintelligences.asp, http://www.ascd.org/
publications/books/109007/chapters/MI-Theory-and-Its-Critics.aspx, http://lynnwaterhouse.intrasun.
tcnj.edu/Inadequate%20evidence%20for%20Multiple%20Intelligences,%20Mozart%20%20Effect,%20
and%20Emotional%20Intelligence%20Theories.pdf, http://www.innovativelearning.com/teaching/
learning_styles.html, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_styles#cite_note-stahl-28, and http://home.
centurytel.net/msv/Documents/Learning-Styles-Different%20Strokes.pdf.
•
Use pre-assessment data to plan differentiated processes, products, and content understandings for
students who are English language learners (ELL) or who have special needs.
Instruction
Teachers acquire the understanding to achieve the following.
•
Believe deeply that all JK-SK students, including those with special needs (exceptionalities), can succeed
in mastering this unit’s essential learning. (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2005, Education For All, pp45).
•
Believe deeply that all JK-SK students are incredibly intelligent and capable, and are able to achieve high
expectations, such as truly reading simple texts by the end of SK. (PM Benchmark Level 4).
•
Carve large blocks of learning time out of their schedule and the school day and use them for instruction
(i.e., 100-minute learning blocks). (Ontario Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat, 2007, Learning Blocks,
p1, p4).
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•
Build time into every school day for conducting small guided groups or individual conferences/
conversations for the purpose of coaching students, (as in the real world apprenticeship model, the
feedback-performance-feedback-performance cycle).
•
Conduct small guided groups for the purpose of providing coaching to (struggling) students in any area,
(i.e., oral language development, concepts of print, book knowledge, letter name recognition, lettersound recognition, phonological awareness, frequent word recognition, how to write using phonetic
spelling, accurate tripod pencil grasp, etc.). (Fullin, Hill, Crevola, 2005, Breakthrough, pp18, pp37-38,
64-65)
•
Differentiate instruction in process, product, and content understandings for students who are English
language learners (ELL) or who have special needs. (Tomlinson, C. A., Fulfilling the Promise of the
Differentiated Classroom, 2003, , pp2-7, pp68-69). See Tomlinson, C. A., 2010, Four Non-Negotiables of
Defensible Differentiation at http://www.caroltomlinson.com/Presentations/Amherst_Elementary.pdf.
•
Recognize that all children, including JK-SK students, learn and understand more deeply through
concentrated, hands-on, real world inquiry learning. (Barron, B. J. S., D. L. Schwartz, et. al., 1998, Doing
With Understanding: Lessons From Research on Problem-And Project-Based Learning, The Journal of
Learning Sciences, Vol.7, Iss.3-4, pp271-311.) See http://www.scribd.com/doc/37739460/Barron-B-J-SD-L-Schwartz-Et-Al-1998-Doing-With-Understanding-Lessons-From-Research-on-Problem-And-ProjectBased-Learning-the-Journal. (McTighe, J., Seif, E., and Wiggins, G., September 2004, You Can Teach
for Meaning, Educational Leadership, Vol.62, Iss.1, pp26-31 at http://jaymctighe.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2011/04/You-Can-Teach-for-Meaning.pdf.)
Assessment
Teachers acquire understanding to accomplish the following.
•
Pre-assess prior student understandings using a RAN chart. Download a Reading and
Analyzing Non-Fiction chart [DOC] from http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/sssm/html/
readingandanalyzingnonfiction_sm.html.
•
Use existing assessment tools to pre-assess student literacy skills.
•
Begin planning with the students in mind, (i.e., incorporate student pre-assessment of interests, learning
preferences, abilities, and skills into unit planning to create engaging, motivating learning plans relevant
to students and realistic in terms of their skills). See K T4DU Literacy Assessment For/As Learning
Tracking Template.pdf.
•
Assess developing student factual, conceptual, and procedural understandings using a variety of
methods, including the following:
1. Index Card Summaries/Questions (colour cards, four corners, stand on one side or the other)
2. Hand Signals (thumbs up, thumbs down)
3. One-Minute Essay
4. Question Box (wonder box) or Question Board (parking lot)
5. Analogy Prompt (e.g., fractions are to decimals as _____ are to _____ )
6. Visual Representation (Web or Concept Map)
7. Oral Questioning (see Kathy Nunley’s Oral Defense at http://help4teachers.com/oral.htm)
8. Follow-Up Probes
9. Misconception Check (Wiggins and McTighe, Understanding by Design, pp248-249).
•
Develop an engaging, real-world authentic culminating, multi-faceted summative performance task
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 9 Page 211
(plan-write-say-do-self-evaluate) and accompanying student success criteria and teacher evaluation
rubric. See http://www.pgcps.pg.k12.md.us/~elc/developingtasks.html and see Jay McTighe’s
presentation, Designing Authentic and Engaging Performance Tasks, Nov. 3, 2010, pp25-35, Jay
McTighe and Grant Wiggins at http://contemporaryissuesatrutgers.wikispaces.com/file/view/
Develop+Performance+Tasks.pdf. See also Wiggins and McTighe, Understanding by Design, 1998, The
Six Facets of Understanding, Chapter 4, pp6-8 at http://webbrain.com/attach?brain=6C83C43B-40E7F5F6-C72B-3B5A768E122C&attach=692&type=1.
•
Use a variety of formative assessment tools (assessment as learning) to provide students with sufficient
feedback, coaching, and opportunities to practice the skills and strategies necessary to succeed on the
summative formative task. See above Wiggins and McTighe, 2005, Understanding by Design, pp248-249.
See Earl, 2003, Assessment As Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student Learning.
See Earl’s paper excerpted and adapted from her aforementioned book, Classroom Assessment for Deep
Understanding: Shifting from Assessment Of Learning to Assessment For Learning and Assessment As
Learning at http://edel567-assessment-and-standardized-testing.wikispaces.com/file/view/Classroom+A
ssessment+for+Deep+Understanding.pdf.
•
Understand what effective assessment looks like.
Students as Learners (JK-SK)
Developing a Unit Plan
Teachers who teach a class of JK-SK students using the related learning object (a JK-SK integrated scienceliteracy-math- arts-health and physical education backward design project-based learning unit plan) strive to
engender in their students the following overarching enduring understanding:
•
Our choices and actions affect the world. Our actions may have consequences which impact us
(humans).
Consequently, the students will:
•
understand that they have a responsibility to take care of the environment by caring for and nurturing
their own “space,” (the plant and animal habitat in their playground); and
•
be able to make their playground friendlier to other living things.
How to Craft a Deep Understanding
Many teachers today feel they must reign in their creativity in order to follow the curriculum.
This ‘tyranny of outcomes’ can seriously compromise the quality of what students learn.
Nanci Wakeman-Jones, 2005
Starting with either science and technology, social studies, or history/geography, deconstruct JK-SK curriculum
expectations from the The Full-Day Early Learning Program (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2010-11) into
outcomes, standards and learning goals. It is often easiest to begin with science or social studies. Next, sort the
expectations into similar topic groups, as well as into a generic group of standards which don’t seem to refer to a
specific topic.
Pick a topic focus and add the generic strategies and skills. Sort these into knowledge, strategies and skills, and
concepts. Then, integrate related and generic skills and strategies from the language curriculum document,
as well as other subjects. Finally, using the backward design planning tool, synthesize one or two overarching,
essential questions about a unit topic, and one or two overarching enduring understandings from the sorted and
Chapter 9 Page 212 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
regrouped Ontario curriculum. (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005, Understanding by Design, pp130-140).
Synthesizing Deep or Enduring Understandings from the Curriculum Documents
Some educators use the term big ideas interchangeably with enduring understandings (Wiggins and McTighe,
2005, p71), essential understandings (Tomlinson, 2003, p60), learning goals (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2010,
Growing Success, p33), and deep understandings (Leithwood, McAdie, Bascia, Rodrigue, 2004, pp1-4), while
others draw distinctions. In essence, big ideas are defined as the most important facts, strategies, skills, and
deep concepts which students need to know, understand, and do in order to accomplish the performance unit
assessment task, and to develop deep understandings. See Wiggins, 2010, What is a Big Idea? at http://www.
authenticeducation.org/ae_bigideas/article.lasso?artid=99.
A Deep Understanding is:
•
an important inference, drawn from the experience of experts, stated as a specific and useful
generalization;
•
composed of transferable big ideas that have enduring value beyond a specific topic;
•
composed of abstract, counter-intuitive, and easily misunderstood ideas;
•
best acquired by “uncovering,” (i.e., it must be developed inductively, co-constructed by learners) and
“doing” the subject (i.e., using the ideas in realistic settings and with real-world problems); and
•
a theory, law, principle, truth, concept, idea, maxim, truth, or observation which summarizes important
strategic principles in skill areas. (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005, pp127-130). See How to Synthesize Deep
Understands on Paper.pdf by Ed Schroeter.
In short, a deep understanding is a generalization or a concept which is:
•
universal in application;
•
generally timeless; and
•
represented by different examples.
Generalizations are the enduring understandings, the big ideas, and the answer to the “so what?” of study. (Lynn
Erikson, pp33-35, 2001). See Overview of T4DU in K.pdf.
Connecting Deep Understandings to Curriculum Expectations (Content Standards)
Susan M. Drake, an associate professor of education at Brock University, illustrates the process of connecting
deep understandings to curriculum expectations (content standards) in an excellent case study. See and
download the article [DOC]¸ Making Standards Work: Castles, Kings...and Standards, Educational Leadership
at http://michigan.gov/documents/6-1CastlesKingsarticle_107402_7.doc; Ontario Ministry of Education,
September 2010, Integrated Learning in the Classroom, Capacity Building Series, Secretariat Special Edition
#14, Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/
CBS_integrated_learning.pdf, and Ontario Ministry of Education, September 2010, Getting Started With Student
Inquiry, Capacity Building Series, Secretariat Special Edition #24, Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat at http://
www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/CBS_StudentInquiry.pdf.
For example, in the Kindergarten Program (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2006, p50) Overall Expectations, and
in the Full-Day Early Learning Kindergarten Program (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2010-11, p114) students are
called on to “demonstrate an understanding of and care for the natural world,” as well as “an awareness of the
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 9 Page 213
natural and human-made environment.” A possible deep understanding is the importance of our stewardship of
the world.
Sometimes, a few of the Specific Expectations inform the deep understandings and the type of performance
task assessment. For example, Ontario kindergarten students are to participate in environmentally-friendly
activities in the classroom and the school yard” and “solve problems while designing and constructing things,
using a range of tools, materials, and techniques.” (Kindergarten Program, 2006, p51, p52). Furthermore, Overall
Expectation A of the Ontario Kindergarten Program (2006, p50) states that children should do this “through
hands-on investigations, observation, questioning, and sharing of findings.” This is remarkably similar to the
active inquiry process described by Overall Expectation B on page 50 of the Ontario Kindergarten program
(2006), (i.e., conduct simple investigations through free exploration, focused exploration, and guided activity,
using inquiry skills). See Curriculum Sort.pdf.
Here is how the inquiry process connects to curriculum expectations:
•
Once teachers notice that an inquiry process is at work, they become aware that students may need
to record numerical data from their field work. Therefore, teachers look to the expectations for
mathematics (counting and data management), and include these in their deep understanding(s).
•
As teachers continue to think along the lines of the inquiry process, they realize students may want to
record details about the information gathered during their field work in other ways, such as pictorially.
Thus, teachers may include expectations for visual arts and/or drama.
•
Teachers continue to ask questions about the inquiry process. They discover students may want to
record details about the information in other ways, such as in words. Thus, teachers may look to the
expectations for writing to further develop the deep understandings of the unit.
•
Teachers recognize that students want to find out more about animals, plants, and their habits by
reading books. Consequently, teachers may include the expectations for reading.
•
At this point, teachers understand that drama and music can be used as effective learning-teaching tools,
as a means of demonstration, practice, and communication.
•
Teachers may then want to connect their unit to other related curriculum expectations such as
investigating the benefits of nutritious foods…and exploring ways of enduring healthy eating. This
connects to the science curriculum, (i.e., humans depend on plants, animals and natural resources such
as clean water, clean chemical-free soil). See How to Synthesize Deep Understands on Paper.pdf by Ed
Schroeter. See also Wiggins, Grant, Understanding by Design - The “Big Ideas” of UbD at micdsstrategic.
wikispaces.com/file/view/UBD+ppt.ppt, and Wiggins, Understanding By Design -- The Backwards
Approach to Curriculum Design at www.duvalschools.org/teachers/unit0/Understanding%20By%20
Design%20training.ppt.
Determining the Big Ideas in the Curriculum
The big ideas as defined in this learning module are the skills and strategies which students need to develop
enduring understandings and to succeed on the final authentic performance task. Some districts, such as the
District of Columbia, refer to them as the “power” expectations or the “power standards,” although in this usage
these expectations are linked to the curriculum. See http://dcps.dc.gov/downloads/TEACHING & LEARNING/
Learning Standards 2009/DCPS-SCIENCE-KIND-COMPLETE-ACTIVITIES.pdf.
These big ideas often emerge during the process of developing the enduring understandings as this process is
not linear, but recursive.
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The big ideas can often be found in the specific expectations of the Ontario curriculum. For example, in this JKSK unit some of the big ideas are:
•
sort and classify groups of living and non-living things in their own way;
•
demonstrate an awareness of local natural habitats through exploration and observation;
•
pose questions and make predictions and observations before and during investigations; and
•
communicate the results and findings from individuals and groups. (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005,
Understanding by Design, pp133-135; Cooper, 2007, Talk About Assessment, pp68-81, 68-70).
However, big ideas can also be determined via other models. These models prioritize curriculum expectations,
determine the most important for instruction, and help cluster expectations to create deep understandings.
Some of these models are the following:
1. Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (2005, p70):
Worth Being Familiar With –- assess with traditional tests and quizzes;
Important to Know and Do – assess with constructed or selected responses; and
Enduring Understanding – assess with authentic performance tasks and projects.
2. Carol Ann Tomlinson (KUD): the “Know”, the “Understand”, and the “Do” i.e., the essential learning goals
are divided into what students should Know, Understand, and be able to Do. (2003, p70)
3. Damian Cooper: Write, Say, and Do: Triangulation of Data Assessment should be authentic, challenging,
real world performance assessment tasks that call on students to demonstrate a variety of skills. (2007,
p20)
4. Susan M. Drake (2001, Castles, Kings ... and Standards, Educational Leadership, Vol 59, No 1): The
Learning Bridge – a bridge which connects the subject areas expressed as the “know, do, be” framework
(Drake, 1998).
The “know” includes facts, knowledge, big ideas such as concepts and generalizations not
apparent in curriculum standards documents.
The “do” includes broad interdisciplinary skills such as communication, collaboration, information
management, and problem-solving.
The “be” includes how we want students to act (i.e., respectful, responsible, collaborative).
5. The Achievement Charts, Ontario Ministry of Education:
Knowledge and Understanding
Thinking (planning, processing, critical/creative thinking)
Communication (expression, organization of ideas, audiences, conventions)
Application (including transfer of knowledge and skills to new contexts)
These achievement charts are found in the current curriculum documents, such as the revised Ontario
Ministry of Education, 2009, The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1 – 8, The Arts at http://www.edu.gov.
on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/arts18b09curr.pdf and Ontario Ministry of Education, 2010, Growing
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 9 Page 215
Success, pp19-25 at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/growSuccess.pdf.
6. Ed Schroeter: Factual Understanding, Procedural Understanding, Conceptual Understanding, and
Empathetic Understanding. (Unpublished, 2009)
See Wiggins, 2010, What is a Big Idea? at http://www.authenticeducation.org/ae_bigideas/article.
lasso?artid=99 and Grade 7 T4DU Bias and Video Gaming Unit Plan.pdf.
Assessing Deep Understandings Requires Articulating Learning Goals based on Curriculum Expectations
Student learning is assessed with an authentic performance assessment task, student self-assessment
success criteria, and a criterion-based teacher assessment rubric. The basis for the design of this culminating
performance task and rubric are the enduring understandings, all of which must be assessed in a multi-faceted
manner (write-say-do) to ensure fair, reliable, and valid assessment of deep learning.
However, in designing the performance assessment task and rubric, teachers must ask themselves: “What
overarching enduring (or deep) understanding(s) will the culminating task assess for deep understanding?”
In this unit, the deep understandings are the following.
•
Our choices and actions affect the world. Our actions may have consequences which impact us
(humans).
•
Students will know that they have a responsibility to take care of the environment and will take care of
and nurture their “space” (the plant and animal habitat in their playground).
•
Students will be able to make their playground friendlier to other living things.
The teacher also seeks to engender three additional essential deep understandings among their students:
1. Conceptual understanding of the importance of the character traits (values, virtues, morality) of
responsibility (to the environment), respect, empathy, initiative, and perseverance.
2. Conceptual understanding that words, numbers, diagrams, and photographs are symbols which
represent our thoughts and our oral speech (talk, written down) and communicate meaning. This is
demonstrated by the ability to communicate using symbols, especially phonetic spelling (as temporary
spelling) of words.
3. Conceptual understanding of cause and effect reasoning and probability, as in ‘if’ I do this, ‘then’ this will
probably happen. This is demonstrated by the ability to produce a plan and explain it to justify or defend
it.
These key understandings above can be summarized in another way. At the end of the unit, students will:
•
distinguish between living and non-living things;
•
recognize characteristics that all living things must have; and
•
know that organisms that have died are considered living things. See K T4DU Natural World Unit Plan
May 2012.
Assessment of Deep Understanding uses Authentic Performance Task(s)
To truly measure the degree of deep understanding of student learners, the assessment task should be an
engaging real world problem (authentic assessment) which requires performance (doing) and demands higherorder thinking.
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Therefore, it should require students to:
•
explain and justify in own words;
•
interpret and infer;
•
apply;
•
see perspective (recognize bias, the power and limits of ideas);
•
demonstrate empathy; and
•
demonstrate self-knowledge (self-assessment). See Wiggins and McTighe, 1998, Understanding by
Design, First Edition, Chapter 4 at http://webbrain.com/attach?brain=6C83C43B-40E7-F5F6-C72B3B5A768E122C&attach=692&type=1, Ontario Ministry of Education, 2010, Growing Success, pp3335 at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/growSuccess.pdf, Bloom’s revised Taxonomy at
http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm, and/or http://www4.uwsp.edu/
education/lwilson/curric/newtaxonomy.htm.
Teachers need to ask themselves another critical question: “Through what authentic performance task(s) will
students demonstrate understanding/proficiency?” (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005, pp163-164). See http://www.
pgcps.pg.k12.md.us/~elc/developingtasks.html. See McTighe’s presentation, Designing Authentic and Engaging
Performance Tasks (McTighe, Jay, 2010, pp25-35) at http://contemporaryissuesatrutgers.wikispaces.com/file/
view/Develop+Performance+Tasks.pdf).
In order to achieve accuracy and ensure fair assessment, the task should consist of the following components:
planning, writing, saying, doing, and self-assessing. Damian Cooper calls this “triangulation” of data or “WriteSay-Do” (Cooper, D., 2007, Talk About Assessment, pp20, 41, 96-98, 136, 224-225)). See also Ontario Ministry of
Education, 2010, Growing Success, pp6, 34, 39 at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/growSuccess.pdf.
The performance assessment task should also require the student to “teach” others which, according to William
Glasser’s learning retention pyramid theory, promotes the highest learning retention rate. In this context,
“teaching” will require the student to orally present, explain and justify his or her thinking.
Therefore, in this unit the students are learning to:
•
write a plan to help take care of the plants and animals which live on their playground;
•
explain how the plan will work and defend the efficacy of it;
•
implement the plan;
•
present a brief analysis of the efficacy of the plan, and the results of implementation; and
•
state a suggestion for improving their plan for another time, as a next step.
Developing the Engaging Scenario for the Culminating Performance Task using the GRASPS Model
G
(Goal): Your goal is to create a plan on paper to help our plant and animal friends on the playground.
R
(Role): Imagine that you are Captain Climate’s junior assistant. He can’t be everywhere. Your job is to
help him protect plant and animal life in your own backward and the spaces that you use most often.
A
(Audience): Your plan should convince the principal to ….
S
(Situation): Your challenge is to put in place the Playground Wildlife Protection Plan (PWPP).
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P
(Product): You will present (act out in mime) your Playground Wildlife Protection Plan (PWPP) for your
principal and teacher.
S
(Standards for Success): You will be judged by yourself, your peers (by class vote), your teacher and the
principal (using the student rubric). (McTighe, Jay and Wiggins, Grant, 2005, Understanding by Design,
pp157-159)
See http://www.pgcps.pg.k12.md.us/~elc/developingtasks.html and See McTighe’s presentation, Designing
Authentic and Engaging Performance Tasks (McTighe, 2010, pp25-35) at http://contemporaryissuesatrutgers.
wikispaces.com/file/view/Develop+Performance+Tasks.pdf.) See Performance Assessment: GRASPS at http://
www.opi.mt.gov/pdf/CurriculumGuides/Curriculum-Development-Guide/GRASP.pdf. This is a succinct, twopage summary adapted by the Montana Office of Public Instruction from Wiggins and Jay McTighe, 2004,
Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook.
Assessment of Learning Products/Authentic Performances (Summative Assessment)
The motivating summative authentic performance task needs to be specific and aligned with what is being
assessed. Thus, the next question should be: “What student products/ performances will provide evidence of
desired understanding/proficiency?”
In this case, the products are:
•
An illustrated, labelled plan (a solution) for helping our plant and animal friends to survive and thrive
better on the playground. The plan uses phonetically spelled words, phrases, sentences, and diagrams.
PLAN/WRITE
•
An oral opinion and reasoned explanation/justification of how the plan will help, why it will work, and
why it is important. SAY
•
A created/built/made object to be used in the planned solution or an implemented plan/solution. DO
•
Oral reflection on a next step. This may be one action which the student may choose to do differently, or
a new action which the student would take next time to improve the work. REFLECT
Assessing with Criteria
Important deep conceptual understandings are assessed by criteria. For example, in the case of this unit, the
student products/performances will be evaluated by primary criteria. Thus, the question is, “By which primary
criteria will student products/performances be evaluated?”
In this unit, the criteria to be assessed are:
•
planning and processing (ideas, thinking);
•
application of understanding;
•
performance and problem-solving;
•
communication; and
•
self-assessment. (See the Skill Continua and the Achievement Charts in the Revised Ontario Ministry of
Education, Science and Technology Curriculum, Grades 1-8, 2007, pp13-20, pp26-27 at http://www.edu.
gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/scientec18currb.pdf). See also Ontario Ministry of Education,
2010, Growing Success, pp19-25 at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/growSuccess.pdf.
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The big ideas, and the cluster of key skills and strategies necessary for student success on the culminating
performance task, must also be articulated and assessed. They are the following:
•
The conceptual understanding of what is living, and what is not, as demonstrated by the ability to
classify objects into two categories (similarities and differences) and into plants, animals, and humans.
•
The conceptual understanding of the main (most obvious) needs of living things: food, clean water, air,
living space, shelter (suitable habitat), and clean air.
•
The conceptual understanding of the main characteristics of living things: they need sufficient food,
clean water, and air. They grow and reproduce young.
•
The conceptual understanding of the main characteristics of fiction and non-fiction, as demonstrated by
the ability to classify books, magazines, and a few media texts into the two categories of similarities and
differences.
(Fiction is made up, created from imagination, readers can infer a message, and has characters, setting, story
problem, plot, story solution, ending, unity. Non-fiction is factual, real, true, not made up, and contains facts
and accurate information. Information is organized by topic. To find information, readers can look at a table of
contents at the front, an index at the back, or sections throughout. To help readers understand better, there are
text features, such as titles, sub-titles, captions, labels, diagrams, cut-away diagrams, and photographs. )
•
The conceptual understanding of how non-fiction text features can increase understanding of non-fiction
texts, as demonstrated by the creation of a written/pictorial plan.
•
Oral language vocabulary development.
•
Knowledge of upper and lower case letter names (in English).
•
Knowledge of initial and final letter sounds, i.e., letter-sound correspondence.
•
Locating words using word walls, familiar texts, class-teacher created charts of class thinking.
A level 4 performance standard, when expressed as student success criteria, serves as a reference point for
students. (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2010, Growing Success, pp33-35). It is created when such modifiers,
created when such modifiers as “thoroughly”, “fully”, “independently”, “completely”, “superbly”, and “expertly”
are added to the performance task above, and the list of tasks is written in child-friendly language (I completely
describe…). See the section on Descriptors in the Ontario Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
Curriculum Grades 1-8, Revised 2007, pp24-25 at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/
scientec18currb.pdf. See also Ontario Ministry of Education, 2010, Growing Success, pp19-25 at http://www.
edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/growSuccess.pdf.
However, another aspect of this assessment needs to be considered. The question is, “By which secondary
criteria will student products/ performances be evaluated?”
Secondary criteria include:
•
accurate, justified explanations;
•
meaningful interpretation;
•
effective and adaptive application;
•
credible and insightful perspective
•
perceptive and tactful empathy; and
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•
reflective and meta-cognitive self-knowledge.
Now the student products look like the following:
•
A thoroughly illustrated and labelled plan (a solution) for helping our plant and animal friends to survive
and thrive better on the playground which uses a wide variety of phonetically spelled words, phrases,
sentences, and diagrams. PLAN/ WRITE
•
A clear oral opinion and thoroughly reasoned explanation/justification of how the plan will help, why it
will work and why it is important. SAY
•
An innovative (for JK) developed/created/ built/made object to be used in the planned solution or an
expertly implemented plan/solution. DO
•
Oral reflection on a next step. This may be one action which the student may choose to do differently,
or a new action which the student would do in future to improve the work. (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005,
p177) REFLECT. See Teacher Scoring Rubric for K Natural World Unit Performance Assessment.pdf.
The student performance assessment task in this learning module thus becomes to design in “writing and orally
explain” a detailed, thought-out, sensible, accurate, yet simple, plan to solve the problem of helping our animal
and plant friends in our playground to better survive and thrive.
Next put the Level Four performance standard of the rubric in to child-friendly language and create Student
Success Criteria. Negotiate these criteria and the language of them with the students of the class. (Greenan,
Melanie, The Secret of Success Criteria, Principal Connections, Spring, Vol.14, Iss.3 at http://www.cpco.on.ca/
News/PrincipalConnections/PastIssues/Vol14/Issue3/SuccessCriteria.pdf; Ontario Ministry of Education, 2008,
Growing Success Symposium document, pp1-i to 1iv; 2-I to 2iiii at http://www.ocup.org/resources/documents/
EDU_GS_binder_010708_BMv2.pdf; and Ontario Ministry of Education, 2010, Growing Success: assessment,
evaluation, and reporting student learning, pp28-33 at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/
growSuccess.pdf.)
Basis of Teacher Assessment Rubric, Performance Standard, and Student Success Criteria
To create a complete four-level rubric for teachers to use to evaluate student work, start by creating a Level 4
Performance Standard, for students to use as a target to help them produce their best work. Sort the desired
post-unit learning outcomes into groups of enduring understandings. This may look like the following:
1. Factual understanding - implicit in procedural understanding.
2. Conceptual understanding - implicit in procedural understanding.
3. Procedural understanding – how to write words phonetically and label a diagram.
4. Empathetic understanding – taking care of the world is respectful to other species and future
generations of humans.
Next, determine how these enduring understandings fit into four to six curriculum-based achievement charts
or continua. (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2007, The Achievement Charts Revised, Science and Technology
Curriculum Grades 1-8, pp26-27 or pp13-20 at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/
scientec18currb.pdf)
Planning and Processing: Investigating, Analyzing, Interpreting, Concluding, Proposing, Creating, Evaluating
•
I thoughtfully apply to my project my essential knowledge (facts, vocabulary) and understandings
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(concepts, principles, theories, procedures) of the importance of taking care of the world, and cause and
effect.
•
I thoroughly outline a detailed, accurate, sensible, written plan that uses simple steps to solve the
problem. I can put this plan into action with ease, and I can orally justify my choice of plan and
conceptual design.
Application: Performance and Problem-Solving
•
I thoughtfully design, build, test, and carry out my plan/ device to solve the problem.
•
I safely and thoughtfully select and use tools, equipment, and materials while I create my solution.
Communication
•
I use words, phrases, and sentences using phonetic spelling (temporary spelling) to effectively explain
and justify my solution to the problem.
•
I create a “technical drawing” with a title, sub-titles and/or captions, labels, and diagrams to effectively
explain and justify my solution to the problem.
•
I can orally explain and justify (defend) my solution to the problem with ease, confidence, independence,
and accuracy.
Self-Evaluation
•
I outline in detail what I have learned, two things I have done well, and one thing that I would change
or do differently if I were to do this again. (The Ontario Ministry of Education, 2007, Skill Continua and
Achievement Charts Revised, Science and Technology Curriculum Grades 1-8, pp13-20, 26-27). See
Teacher Scoring Rubric for K Natural World Unit Performance Assessment.pdf. (Nunley, K., 2009, Rubrics
at http://help4teachers.com/rubrics.htm; Arter, J., 2011, What Do We Want Rubrics To Do For Us and
Our Students?, CBCA Education: Orbit, Vol.36, Iss.2, p39; Arter, J., and Chappuis, J., 2006, Creating &
Recognizing Quality Rubrics, Assessment Training Institute Inc.; Stiggins, R., Arter, J., Chappuis, J., and
Chappuis, S., 2012, Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing It Right-Using It Well, Assessment
Training Institute Inc.)
Curriculum Expectations
Make sure that your rubric and student success criteria are aligned with the curriculum. Not all curriculum
expectations are created equal. Some skills are more complex, as well as more useful. Therefore, some
expectations receive greater attention in the unit than others. The following curriculum expectations have been
selected as the most important among a group of approximately 60 related overall and specific expectations in
the Ontario Ministry of Education, 2006, The Kindergarten Program or the Ontario Ministry of Education, 201011, The Full-Day Early Learning Kindergarten Program. These expectations are available online at http://www.
edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/kindercurrb.pdf and at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/
elementary/kindergarten_english_june3.pdf.
1. Science and Technology
•
Make a choice about how to make the world a better place and justify the choice.
2. Language
•
Express an oral opinion and justify it.
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•
Use a few non-fiction text features to better understand informational writing.
•
Use illustrations to better understand informational writing.
•
Explain their own idea in print (using pictures, symbols, letters, words, and sentences (i.e. JK-SK-FI SK
range).
3. Math
•
Make use of one-to-one correspondence in counting objects and matching groups of objects.
•
Collect objects or data, and make representations of their observations.
4. Visual Arts
•
Communicate their understanding of something by representing their ideas and feelings through
visual art.
5. Drama
•
Communicate their understanding of something through drama and dance.
6. Health and Physical Activity
•
Identify basic safety rules outdoors.
•
Identify outdoor substances that are harmful to the body.
Student
At the end of the unit, students will be able to:
•
distinguish between living and non-living things;
•
recognize characteristics that all living things must have; and
•
know that organisms that have died are considered living things.
A. Oral Language
Most students should be able to:
•
speak in complete sentences;
•
speak in three-sentence paragraphs;
•
speak clearly so that they are understood 75 percent of the time or more by adults who know them,
and
•
use three-syllable words. (The Toronto Preschool Speech and Language Services’ Communication
Checklist for speech and language for students aged 3 and 4, 2012). See also Trehearne, M., 2000,
Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book, p223.
B. Reading/Pre-Reading
Most students should:
•
have an interest in books;
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•
know how to hold, open, close books;
•
understand that someone writes and illustrates (or take photographs for) books;
•
understand that print, illustrations and photographs carry a message;
•
enjoy looking at books;
•
enjoy listening to stories and non-fiction read-alouds;
•
mostly be at the role play reading stage;
•
be able to point to the front cover, back cover, and title;
•
be able to point to words and illustrations, hold the book the right way up most of the time, and turn
the pages; and
•
understand that print runs left to right, top to bottom. (Trehearne, M., 2000, Kindergarten Teacher’s
Resource Book, pp79-80, 100, 335, 337)
C. Writing
Most students should:
•
have a developing to developed tripod pencil grasp, (pinch with index finger and thumb and rest
pencil on middle finger);
•
enjoy drawing, colouring, and experimenting (i.e., with white boards, chalk boards, magna-doodles,
etch-a-sketches, letter stickers, clipboards, etc.);
•
be able to draw their thinking and orally explain it; and
•
be able to print their name or an understanding chunk of it (i.e., initials). (Trehearne, M., 2000,
Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book, pp221-223)
Print and Audio-Visual Resources
Teachers should be able to locate and use the following resources or similar ones.
Fiction
Allinson, Beverly and Reid, Beverly. (1994). Effie. Scholastic Canada. ISBN 10: 0590729896. ISBN 13: 9780590729895. Available as a Big Book.
Effie’s loud voice causes her to be shunned by the rest of the ants and also by other small creatures. When
an elephant threatens, however, her voice saves them all. Although this plot is familiar, the humour and
verve with which it is told and illustrated make it stand out. Reid’s plasticine scenes are filled with bold
colours and fanciful touches, the texture of which seems almost touchable. Reading level: Ages 4-8
Mazer, Anne. (March 1, 1994). The Salamander Room. Random House Children’s Books. ISBN 10:0679861874.
ISBN 13:9780679861874.
“Where will he sleep?” asks Brian’s mother when the boy arrives home from the woods with an orange
salamander. As Brian describes how he will transform his room into a perfect salamander’s paradise, lush,
shadowy paintings depict each addition to the cumulative scenario. Together, Anne Mazer and Steve
Johnson have created a woodland paradise that any salamander would love to share with a child.
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Dr. Seuss (Theodore Seuss Geisel). (1971). The Lorax. Random House Books for Young Readers. Hardcover.
ISBN 10: 0394823370. ISBN 13: 978-394823379.
The Lorax is a children’s book, written by Dr. Seuss and first published in 1971. It chronicles the plight of
the environment and the Lorax (a mossy, bossy man-like creature), who speaks for the trees against the
greedy Once-ler. The book is commonly recognized as a fable concerning industrialized society. The Onceler, whose face is never shown, personifies industry while Lorax personifies the environment. The story has
become a popular metaphor for those concerned about the human impact on the environment.
Schimmel, Schim. (March 25, 1994). Dear Children of the Earth. NorthWord Books for Young Readers. ISBN
10:1559712252. ISBN 13:9781559712255.
The book is written as a letter from Mother Earth asking for help from children everywhere. She expresses
her love for each and every child, and asks for their love and appreciation in return. Mother Earth enfolds
children with love and entrusts them with her protection.
Non-fiction
Graves, Kimberlee. (1994). Is It Alive?. Illustrator: Robin Koontz. Creative Teaching Press. Cypress, CA. ISBN
0-916119-25-4. UPC 030554035012.
This is a simple, repetitive, eight page text for K-1 ELL learners. Pictures help children identify living and
non-living objects. How to tell the difference between living and non-living things is an essential first skill in
scientific sorting. The book explores classifying with hands-on activities and colourful diagrams.
Weidner Zoehfeld, Kathleen. (September 30, 1995). What’s Alive? HarperTrophy. Paperback. ISBN 13:
9780064451321. ISBN 10: 0064451321.
Best Children’s Science Book List. (1995) (S). This 32-page book for Grades K-2 looks at the qualities people have
in common with other living things, including cats, trees, and birds.
For Text Feature Instruction
Guiberson, Brenda Z. (2005). Cactus Hotel. Illustrated by Megan Lloyd. Holt and Company. October 16, 2007.
(First published January 1, 1993 by Henry Holt & Company. ISBN - 10:080508228X; ISBN 13:9780805082289.
Lasevoli, Brenda and Time for Kids Magazine. Ants! Time for Kids Science Scoops. HarperTrophy. Paperback.
ISBN 13:9780060576400; ISBN 0060576405.
Lasevoli, Brenda and Time for Kids Magazine. Ants! Time for Kids Science Scoops. HarperTrophy. (2005).
Hardcover. ISBN 13:9780060576400; ISBN 0060576405.
Children’s Television International (MGR). (1977). It’s Alive. (Dragons, Wagons and Wax Series-Living Things
Module). Available for duplication, order Iss. V00172. Teacher’s guide for series (Part I) available. (BB)
Is It Alive? QuickTime Video. Online: www.teachersdomain.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.colt.alive. A 15-minute
video that enables students to cite some characteristics of life when they observe evidence of it in specified
plants and animals. This is an older series, but the concepts are still relevant.
Examples of Best Practices in Teaching for Deep Understanding
Pre-Assessment (alternate terms: diagnostic assessment, assessment for learning)
A. Interests, Multiple Intelligences, and Learning Styles
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•
Interest Inventory (KPR DSB 2005; found in Trehearne, M., 2000, Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book,
Nelson Thomson Learning, pp323-327). See K Abilities and Interests Profile.pdf, Parent-Primary Interest
Surveys.pdf, and also Learning Styles Quiz at http://www.schoolfamily.com/school-family-articles/
article/836-learning-styles-quiz and Multiple Intelligences: What Are Your Child`s Special Gifts at http://
school.familyeducation.com/multiple-intelligences/learning-styles/childs-special-gifts/66373.html)
B. Oral Language
•
The Toronto Preschool Speech and Language Services’ Communication Checklist for speech and language
for students aged 3 and 4 (available in Chinese, English, French, Farsi, Korean, Polish, Portuguese,
Punjabi, Somali, and Spanish). See http://www.tpsls.on.ca/psl/checklist.htm.
•
Trehearne, M. (2000). Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book. Nelson Thomson Learning. pp221-232,
157-167.
C. Pre-reading and Reading. See K T4DU Literacy Assessment For and Of Learning, p2.
•
Concepts of print. See K Josee Concept of Print 2.pdf and also Trehearne, M., 2000, Kindergarten
Teacher’s Resource Book, pp36-62.
•
Book knowledge. See K Josee Concept of Print1.pdf and also assessments and recording charts in
Trehearne, M., 2000, Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book, pp36-62.
•
Letter name knowledge. (Trehearne, M., 2000, Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book, pp46-62)
•
Phonological awareness. See Assessments and Recording Charts in Trehearne, M., 2000, Kindergarten
Teacher’s Resource Book, pp115-154.
•
Letter-sound correspondence (initial, medial, final). See Assessments and Recording Charts in Trehearne,
M., (2000), Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book, pp68-70.
•
High frequency sight words. (See Trehearne, M., 2000, Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book, pp79-113,
157-167).
•
Role-play reading. See Education Department of Western Australia, 1994, First Steps Reading
Developmental Continuum, pp50-51 at http://www.rigby.com.au/firststeps/pdf/RMapDev_p50-51.pdf.
•
PM Benchmark Reading Record. (Patricia Ciuffetelli, 2010, PM Benchmark Reading Assessment Resource
or Nelson Education, PM Benchmark Kit 2, 2003). See Assessments and Recording Charts in The Ontario
Ministry of Education, 2003, A Guide To Effective Instruction In Reading: Kindergarten to Grade 3, p6.1,
pp12.1-12.42.
•
Informal Running Record “decoding checklist” and comprehension observation rubric (Kawartha
Pine Ridge DSB, 2004, Kindergarten-Primary Literacy Assessment; Trehearne, M., 2000, Kindergarten
Teacher’s Resource Book, pp335-338; Clay, Marie, 1994, First Steps Reading Developmental Continuum.
See K Guided Reading Assessment.pdf. See also http://eworkshop.on.ca/edu/core.cfm?p=modView.
cfm&L=1&modID=2&c=2&navID=modView and click on [Printable Documents] to [download] running
reading record templates and instructions.
D. Prior Factual, Procedural, and Conceptual Understandings
RAN charts (dated, with student names noted beside their contributions). This graphic organizer helps
students record and build on prior knowledge as they work through inquiries and the research process. The
research process is as follows:
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•
record existing understandings (What I Think I Know);
•
confirm existing knowledge based on evidence from research (Confirmed or Yes, You Were Right);
•
identify and address misconceptions based on research (Misconceptions);
•
record new information gathered (New Information); and
•
propose new questions or wonderings that arise during the inquiry (Wonderings).
The chart may be completed as a whole group in JK and SK. The use of sticky notes to record ideas facilitates
the movement of recorded ideas across the categories in the chart. (Stead, T., 2004, Reality Checks: Teaching
Reading Comprehension with Non-fiction K-5.) See and download a Reading and Analyzing Non-Fiction Chart
[DOC] from http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/sssm/html/readingandanalyzingnonfiction_sm.html.
Teachers could also use a K-W-L-M Chart, such as the one found in Miriam Trehearne, Kindergarten Teacher’s
Resource Book. (Trehearne, M., 2000, Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book, p229).
Formative Assessment
Formative assessment may include assessment AS learning, where students perform self-assessment, with or
without support.
Alternate and related terms include coaching, mid-unit assessment, and apprenticeship.
A template for formative assessment is included. See Earl, L., 2003, Assessment As Learning: Using Classroom
Assessment to Maximize Student Learning; Earl’s paper excerpted and adapted from her aforementioned
book, Classroom Assessment for Deep Understanding: Shifting from Assessment Of Learning to Assessment
For Learning and Assessment As Learning at http://edel567-assessment-and-standardized-testing.wikispaces.
com/file/view/Classroom+Assessment+for+Deep+Understanding.pdf; Shepard, Lorrie A., Linking Formative
Assessment to Scaffolding at http://datause.cse.ucla.edu/docs/las_lin_2005.pdf, and Popham, W. James,
Assessment for Learning: An Endangered Species? at http://course1.winona.edu/lgray/el626/Articlesonline/
Popham-AssessLng.htm.
Formative Assessment/Performances
Wiggins and McTighe have an excellent, innovative, balanced and research-based two-page list of nine basic
formative assessment strategies in their book. (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005, Understanding by Design, pp248249)
The products recommended below are provided in the form of a menu from which to choose.
A. Observation records of students’ abilities to do the following:
•
sort a wide variety of living and non-living concrete objects and photographs using hula-hoops;
•
sort a wide variety of fiction and non-fiction books (concrete objects) using hula-hoops; and
•
use understanding of probability and cause and effect to accurately predict the results of simple actions.
(I.e., what will happen when snow is brought inside? What will happen when the thermometer is put
into the refrigerator? What will happen to the paper tube when many pencils are put on top? What will
happen when a book is put on top of the tube? What will happen when the ball is dropped from a low
height? What will happen when it is dropped from a high height (i.e., a ladder)? How many times out
of 30 will the die roll a six?) The students can make predictions orally and pictorially, or by writing their
name in teacher created guided choice columns, that include Yes and No columns. Miriam Trehearne
Chapter 9 Page 226 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
has a good blank template for observation records, found in Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book.
(Trehearne, M., 2000, Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book, p330).
B. Drama/Physical Activity Observation Record
•
A mime sequence showing how changes in the environment from drought, flooding, natural wind
storms, erosion, pollution, deforestation, urban development and construction will effect plants by
causing a shortage of food, clean water, air, living space (shelter).
•
Miriam Trehearne has a good template for observation records, found in Kindergarten Teacher’s
Resource Book. (Trehearne, M., 2000, Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book, p330).
C. Pencil-Paper Products
•
Use a simple graphic organizer to pictorially represent the main characteristics of living things. See K
T4DU Informational Text Reading Assessment Main Idea Details.pdf.
•
Use a simple graphic organizer (Venn diagram) to classify several living and non-living things, (by cutting
out and gluing examples of them). See http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/
•
Use two simple graphic organizers to pictorially represent the main needs of plants, animals, and
humans in order to survive and thrive. See K T4DU Informational Text Reading Assessment Main Idea
Details.pdf.
•
Use a simple graphic organizer to pictorially represent (by cutting out and gluing examples of) the main
characteristics of fiction and non-fiction texts. See K T4DU Recording Main Idea and Details Graphic
Organizer.pdf.
•
Use a simple graphic organizer (Venn diagram) to classify fiction and non-fiction texts (by cutting out
and gluing examples of their covers with the concrete object available to examine). See http://www.
eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/.
•
Portfolio of student work (Miriam Trehearne has a good blank template for observation records found
in Trehearne, M., 2000, Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book, pp331-334). See Teacher Scoring Rubric
for SK Writing.pdf and also the Ontario Ministry of Education, 1999, Grade 1 Ontario Curriculum Writing
Exemplars, pp9-24 at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/writing18ex.pdf.
D. Art Product
•
A labelled butterfly made from clothes pin, pipe cleaner, coffee filter, and dampened erasable markers
(title and labels: head, wing, body, antennae).
E. Oral Response/Conference/Coaching
•
Oral defence and sign-in (with first name). Response to T-chart question, (i.e., Do you agree that … ?
Write your name under the Yes or No column).
•
High-five oral exit card. Before recess, in line, students explain one thing they learned today, and how
they see it working in the world around them. See 111 Card.pdf.
•
Conversation/ conference (1 praise point, 1 practice point) (Miriam Trehearne has a good blank template
for observation records, found in Trehearne, M., 2000, Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book, pp335337).
F. Self-Assessment Understanding
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•
Observation record of oral response: cheer, fear, unclear.
•
Observation record of oral response: two stars and a wish. (Two things I did well and why; one thing I
would like to change and why.)
•
Pictorial exit card. (Circle the picture and words that best describe your understanding of what was just
presented in class.) Windshield Check: CLEAR – “I get it!”, BUGS – “I get it for the most part, but I still
have a few questions.”, MUD – “I still don’t get it.” Or Weather Report: Sunny Skies, A Few High Clouds,
Fog and Smog. See Carol Ann Tomlinson presentation, April 1, 2010, Four Non-Negotiables of Defensible
Differentiation, pp27-29 at http://www.caroltomlinson.com/Presentations/Amherst_Elementary.pdf.
•
Interview/conference. Conversation for self-assessment: compare own work to class developed student
success criteria. (Did I ... ?). See Greenan, M., 2011, The Secret of Success Criteria, Principal Connections,
Spring. Vol.14, Iss.3 at http://www.cpco.on.ca/News/PrincipalConnections/PastIssues/Vol14/Issue3/
SuccessCriteria.pdf; Ontario Ministry of Education, 2008, Growing Success Symposium document, pp1-i
to 1iv; 2-I to 2iiii; at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/growSuccess.pdf.
•
Interview: student explains what he/she has learned and how he/she will use the learning. (Trehearne,
M., 2000, Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book, pp321-329). See Wiggins and McTighe, Understanding
by Design, pp248-249. See 111 Card.pdf and the student success criteria embedded in K T4DU Natural
World Unit Performance Assessment Task Rubric.pdf and in Teacher Scoring Rubric for SK Writing.pdf.
G. Guided Group Pre-reading and Reading
•
Informal observation of phonological awareness using class portable data wall.
•
Informal observation of letter name recognition and recall (upper and lower case) using class portable
data wall.
•
Informal observation of letter-sound recognition and recall (initial and final consonants and blends,
medial vowels and digraphs), using class portable data wall.
•
Informal observation of sight word recognition and recall using class portable data wall.
•
Guided reading praise point/practice point checklist for informal running records.
•
Seven-category comprehension rubric for running records. (Trehearne, M., 2000, Kindergarten Teacher’s
Resource Book). See T4DU Literacy Assessment For/As Learning.pdf, p3.
Post-Assessment and Evaluation
Summative assessment and assessment of learning are alternative terms for post-assessment. Post assessment
provides useful data to teachers about their instruction and how to adjust it for their students. Rating, ranking,
judging, and grading are alternative terms for evaluation. Evaluation is required for reporting to parents about a
student’s level of achievement. Here are some examples of daily or unit post assessment:
• Exit interview/ conference conversation for self-assessment: Compare own work to L4 standard (Did I ...
? What do I want to do next time to improve?)
• Culminating authentic assessment performance task(s) that allows students to demonstrate their
learning. See K T4DU Natural World Unit Performance Assessment of Learning.pdf and Teacher Scoring
Rubric for SK Writing.pdf.
Scope and Sequence
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This unit takes six to eight weeks to teach for a full-day, alternate day kindergarten class on an A/B schedule.
It is designed to be taught in the spring of the junior kindergarten year, beginning no earlier than mid-March.
It would be taught at the same time during a junior kindergarten-senior kindergarten combined class, but the
expectations for writing and oral response would need to be increased for the senior kindergarten students.
Alternatively, the unit could be taught in the fall of a Full-Day Early Learning - Kindergarten Program (Ontario
Ministry of Education, 2010-11), once routines were established.
Sequence of Instruction of the Unit
Learning Tasks (Instructional Design)
Use the acronym “WHERETO” created by Wiggins and McTighe (2005, Understanding by Design, pp196-224) to
develop instructional design and progressive learning experiences:
W stands for students knowing Where they are heading, Why they are heading there, What they know, Where
they might go wrong in the process, and What is required of them (use learning goals and student success
criteria, and assessment for learning, diagnostic assessment, pre-assessment, interest inventory, and learning
profiles).
H stands for Hooking the students on the topic of study (motivate students with a culminating activity and an
authentic assessment task that includes hands-on activities).
E stands for students Exploring and Experiencing ideas and being Equipped with the necessary understanding
to master the standard being taught (use “scaffolded” learning activities and hands-on learning activities).
R stands for providing opportunities for students to Rehearse, Revise, and Refine their work, (formative
assessment, assessment as learning, mid-unit assessment, coaching, conferences, conversations, selfassessment, use guided groups, descriptive feedback, rubrics and student success criteria for selfassessment)
E stands for student Evaluation, (summative assessment, assessment of learning, post-assessment).
T stands for Tailoring instruction to accommodate each student’s strengths, needs and learning experiences
(differentiate activities and make program accommodations and modifications for students as required).
O stands for Organizing the students’ learning experiences to maximize their understanding of what they
are doing to help them move along a true developmental continuum, from novice to apprentice to master
(Wiggins, G. and McTighe, J., 2005) (activate their prior knowledge, develop a community of learners, teach
important vocabulary, use a hands-on inquiry pedagogy to develop deep conceptual understandings)
Progressive Learning Experiences in Sequence
1. Read-Alouds
Dear Children of the Earth and The Lorax. These books are examples of springboards to the concepts of
world pollution and what that means for humans. As well, the books introduce students to the letter
format and fiction vs. non-fiction, (is this a real letter from the Earth? Why or why not?).
2. Shared Reading
The Morning Message is an example of a “letter” from the teacher. It may launch a month-long class
environmental protection club which could end with certificates and a celebration for a job well done.
The teacher could encourage the class to come up with strategies of how to help protect planet Earth,
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which is our home and that of our animal friends. Also, the teacher could promote the idea that we
have to read to learn more so we can help.
3. Living vs. Non-living Things
a. Lessons on living vs. non-living things (oral language vocabulary; concepts). The book It’s Alive is an
example of a non-fiction read aloud. Before reading, the teacher could chart the children’s schema
on living and non-living things. After reading, the class could compare characteristics of living versus
non-living things on the T-chart.
b. Start a THEME Word Wall. Begin guided groups as needed.
4. Guided Discovery
a. Hands-on sorting and classifying of living and non-living things. On carpet, in partners, students
choose pictures, photos, words, objects, artifacts (i.e., fruit, plants) and sort them into the two
categories (hula hoops).
b. As a class, students explain and justify their choices.
c. As a class, using a Venn diagram, students make first attempt to deduce characteristics of living and
non-living things for later verification. (RAN chart)
5. Field Work
Locate, record and label animal homes, (bird nests, ant hill, burrows). Introduce mini lessons on field
work safety rules, and ways to record information, such as pictures, word wall, phonetic spelling (write
the letters which spell the sounds of your words). Use clipboards.
6. Chart and Post Class Discoveries
Arrive at definition for living things. Practice sorting and classifying living and non-living items. Record
children’s discoveries, create anchor charts, and post them around the classroom.
7. Read-Aloud
Using the books, Effie and Ants! students compare and contrast fiction and non-fiction texts.
8. Read-Aloud
Using the book, Cactus Hotel, introduce non-fiction text features and concept of animal homes.
a. Practice sorting and classifying non-fiction and fiction books and media.
b. Dramatic response to problems faced by plants: drought, wind, erosion, storms, winter, food, air, etc.
9. Mini-Lesson
Use text features to enhance understanding of text, (i.e., titles, sub-titles, pictures, diagrams, cutaways).
10. Butterfly art display for class open house or school event, (i.e., Arts Café in gymnasium). Use title and
labels (text feature) to label own art work.
11. Read-Aloud
The Salamander Room for making inferences and higher order thinking (evaluation). Did the boy’s room
really turn into a forest? Should the boy (Brian) bring the salamander to his house or leave it in the
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forest? Explain your answer (oral response). Using A.P.E. - answer, prove, expand - work in partners,
then as a whole group.
12. Salamander Room Sign-In
Take a stand by signing name and orally justifying stand to teacher.
a. Mini-lesson on “writing” and recording information.
b. “Write” independently in journals.
13. Discussion
All living things need or have a home, shelter, and/or space. Compare characteristics of animal and
human homes.
14. Schoolyard and neighborhood park walks
a. Explore and observe animal habitat and the changes humans have made to the natural environment,
(i.e., fences, roads, sidewalks, tarmac, compost area, cut down trees, mow grass, build climbers,
divert water, gravel).
b. Communicate findings orally in a large group, and independently.
c. Mini-lesson on expressing and justifying an opinion, defending a choice making a decision. (Show
And Tell: I like/I don’t like sign-in charts, book recommending charts.)
15. Guided Practice
Used guided practice to instruct on expressing and justifying an opinion. (Show And Tell; I like/I don’t
like Sign-In charts; classmate book recommending charts.)
16. Pose a Challenge Problem
How can we make our playground more friendly to living things?
17. Non-Fiction Text Features
Review non-fiction text feature use.
Mini-lesson on using graphic organizers to capture pictorial information. For example, topic (central
circle) + 3 facts (smaller circles) or linear topic + 3 facts I learned.
18. Students “Write”
Students present, explain and justify their idea using oral language, pictures, names, and labels for how
to make playground more friendly to living things.
19. Students Implement Build Solutions
For example, build bird house[s] or pine cone bird feeders.
20. Newspaper article
Study (overhead) and shared writing of news release.
21. Celebration of Learning
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Upon brief “exit interview,” student receives certificate.
Accommodations or Modifications
Philosophy
My philosophy on accommodations to instruction, assessment, and curriculum modifications is expressed in the
following four essential tenets.
•
All students are welcomed and included with a curriculum that is accessible to all, regardless of age,
culture, skill, or challenges.
•
All students can progress, but the rate of progress varies.
•
Accommodations which are necessary for some students are, in fact, beneficial for all students.
•
The central operating principle in my classroom is equity, not equality. Even my JK students were able to
understand that every student in my classroom received “what they needed,” but the measure of what
they received was not equal.
These tenets were developed based on my experience and personal philosophy of teaching. I believe they echo
the recommendations of two key texts:
•
Education for All (Bernard, Wade-Wooly, et. al., 2005, pp4-5); and
•
Fulfilling The Promise of The Differentiated Classroom (Tomlinson, C. A., 2003).
Making Accommodations and Curriculum Modifications
Accommodations can be made in this unit for a range of learners in terms of assessment practices, teaching
strategies, and the classroom environment.
Furthermore, the curriculum content of this unit can be modified for a range of learners who have special needs
and may be functioning above or below grade level.
When I have taught this unit in the past, I have successfully made accommodations and/or modified the learning
expectations to those of a different grade level for students who have:
•
needs as English Language Learners (ELL, ESL);
•
a Learning Disability (LD);
•
a Mild Intellectual Disability (MID);
•
a Behavioral Exceptionality (i.e., self-regulation); and
•
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Pervasive Development Disorder (PDD).
Based on my experience teaching this unit, accommodations and curriculum modifications could also easily be
made for students who self-regulation giftedness. Some students with exceptionalities may need equipment and
the support of special education resource teachers. They might also require instruction from specialists in other
professions, such as speech pathologists and child and youth workers.
Examples of Accommodations
If teachers have conducted assessment for learning (i.e., diagnostic assessment, pre-assessment), and have
baseline data on the students’ language knowledge, skills, and concepts, then making accommodations to
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instruction, the learning environment, and assessment is a relatively straightforward task.
Instructional Accommodations
The following are examples of accommodations, all of which can be made in the classroom setting, and many of
which would be appropriate for most students. They are necessary for some, but beneficial for all!
•
Chunking or reducing information
•
Extra time for processing
•
Increased opportunities to practice skills (i.e., small group explicit instruction)
•
Organizational skills explicitly taught: daily schedules, lists, advance organizers, personal planners, colour
coding
•
High structure
•
Concrete/hands-on materials and manipulative models
•
Sequential, step-by-step instruction with prompts
•
Non-verbal signals
•
Visual cues
•
Teacher repeats and rephrases or simplifies instructions
•
Student repeats instructions
•
Reinforcement programs (If … Then …)
•
Adaptive/augmentative communication devices (text readers, books on CD, co-writing computer
software programs (e.g., WordQ), speech-to-text software)
Environmental Accommodations
•
Proximity to instructor
•
Strategic seating
•
Preferential seating
•
Visual cues posted
•
Opportunities for physical movement
•
Use of headsets
•
Home-school communication books
Assessment Accommodations
•
Directions are clear, simplified, and repeated
•
Non-verbal signals
•
Visual cues
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•
Check for understanding
•
Alternate setting
•
Prompts for students with severe attention problems who are off-task for significant periods of time,
solely to draw their attention back to the assessment
•
Preferential/strategic seating
•
Different response format
•
Verbatim scribing of responses (for reading and mathematics only)
•
Oral responses
•
Other accommodations
•
Reduction in the number of tasks used to assess a concept or skill
•
Extended time limits
•
Extra time for processing
•
Teach test-taking skills. (Ministry of Education, 2002,The Ontario Curriculum Unit Planner, Special
Education Companion; Kawartha Pine Ridge District School Board, 2003, A Guide to Assessed Needs).
Potential Program Modification(s)
In general, the teacher determines a “baseline level of achievement” for a modified program to identify at what
grade level the student is working.
Next, an Annual Program Learning Goal Statement is created. This goal statement describes what a student can
reasonably be expected to accomplish by the end of the school year in a modified subject, course or alternative
program.
Modified learning expectations are developed for each term. They are often phrased in the following terms: “In
term 1, the student will increase his/her ability to ___ from ____ and do this accurately ____ out of ___ times.”
Unit Curriculum Modification(s)
These types of curriculum modifications are often made naturally in junior and senior kindergarten. As stated
earlier, I have made them in this unit for students who have:
•
needs as English Language Learners (ELL, ESL);
•
a Learning Disability (LD);
•
a Mild Intellectual Disability (MID);
•
a Behavioral Exceptionality (i.e., self-regulatory); and
•
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) or Pervasive Development Disorders (PDD).
They would also have to be made for students who have:
•
giftedness
•
a Developmental Disability (DD); and
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•
multiple exceptionalities (A Guide to Assessed Needs, Kawartha Pine Ridge District School Board, 2003).
Differentiation
Carol Ann Tomlinson defines differentiation as strategies and tools for “responsive instruction” or “responsive
teaching.” She adds a fourth need, which she calls a learner’s “affect”, or how he or she feels about him or
herself. She also believes that the “learning environment itself can be differentiated: the rules, the organization
of the furniture, and mood or tone, (i.e., seriousness balanced with celebration).” (Tomlinson, C. A., 2003,
Fulfilling The Promise of The Differentiated Classroom, pp2-6).
The tasks in this science unit may be easily differentiated for students. It might be useful to look at the section
in Tomlinson’s book on task-specific rubrics on pp145-147 as well as the primary science rubric on page 112.
(Tomlinson, C. A., 2003, Fulfilling The Promise of The Differentiated Classroom, pp145-147, 112).
Differentiation of the Unit’s Content, Process, and Products
I tend to follow Tomlinson’s method of unit planning for differentiation. She begins her planning for
differentiation by organization the curriculum content of a unit into three categories: the KUD, or Know,
Understand, and Do. I refer to these as Essential Learning outcomes:
•
Essential Learning Outcomes: Know, Understand (Say), Do
Teachers may wish to further subdivide the “Know” into Essential Knowledge:
•
Essential Knowledge: definitions, facts, vocabulary, dates, rules, names of people and places, and/or
other data considered important for students to memorize.
Then, I use another of Tomlinson’s methods to “tier” the content for students.
TIER 1
Almost all students, i.e., students with I.E.P.s (98% - 100% of class)
KNOW…
•
The meaning of what is living and what is not (non-living), as demonstrated by the ability to classify
objects into the two categories (similarities and differences), including plants, animals, and humans.
•
The main (most obvious) needs of living things: food, clean water, air, living space, shelter (suitable
habitat), and clean air.
•
The main (most obvious) characteristics of living things: they need sufficient food, clean water, and
[clean] air; they grow and reproduce young.
•
The meaning of fiction text (made up; created from imagination) and non-fiction text (factual, real,
true, not made up; contains many facts), as demonstrated by the ability to concretely classify books,
magazines, and a few media texts into the two categories (similarities and differences).
Almost all students, i.e. students with I.E.P.s (98% - 100% of class):
UNDERSTAND/SAY...
Essential understandings: principles, truth, insights, “big ideas” or enduring understandings which are central to
grasping the topic.
The conceptual understandings of students are the following:
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•
It is their responsibility to take care of the environment and the world, which is respectful and virtuous.
•
Words, numbers, diagrams, and photographs are symbols which represent our thoughts and oral speech
(our talk written down) which communicate meaning, as demonstrated by the ability to communicate
using these symbols, especially phonetic spelling (temporary spelling) of words.
•
Cause and effect reasoning, as well as probability (IF I do this THEN this will probably happen … ), as
demonstrated by the ability to produce a paper plan opinion and orally explain their thinking to justify/
defend it.
•
The main (most obvious) characteristics of fiction and non-fiction.
Almost all students, i.e., students with I.E.P.s (98% - 100% of class):
BE ABLE TO...
Strategies and skills: basic literacy and numeracy skills, thinking skills (ordering, categorizing, comparing,
justifying), skills of a discipline (i.e., graphing, showing perspective, map reading), planning skills (i.e., goal
setting, locating resources, self-assessment), social skills (listening, showing empathy, working collaboratively).
JK students have the ability to do the following:
•
Identify and recognize their own first name.
•
Recognize and recall a few of the upper and lower case letter names, and at minimum those in their first
name (in English).
•
Role play read a patterned levelled book (Level 1 or A), including approximately five to ten high
frequency sight words.
•
Reading Recovery: patterned text, level 2.
•
Fountas and Pinnell: patterned text, level B.
•
PM Benchmark: patterned text, level 2.
•
DRA: patterned text, level 2.
•
Alphakids: patterned text, level 2.
•
Hold, navigate through, and use a book by turning pages, etc..
•
Track print from left to right, top to bottom, return sweep, etc..
•
Use text features (i.e., diagrams, photographs, titles, labels, captions, subtitles, cut-away diagrams) to
“read” and discover new information.
•
Use very simple graphic organizers to pictorially record factual information on a simple main idea, and
three details from field observations and from non-fiction texts.
•
Use a thick pencil, crayon, or marker with an effective tripod grasp.
•
Draw pictures to record information and ideas and communicate thinking and information.
•
Print own name.
•
Use field research and non-fiction text features in written and electronic texts to gather information to
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create and communicate a schoolyard “environment (habitat) protection plan.” Orally explain and justify
this plan (see above).
•
Orally express an opinion about why and how we should protect the environment (habitat), and justify
the answer showing cause and effect.
•
Create and orally evaluate plans to help the environment using detailed pictures, own name, labels,
symbols.
•
Make their playground friendlier to other living things.
•
In a brief exit interview, explain two things they did well, and one thing they want improve upon or
would do differently another time.
TIER 2
Level 2 students will need additional feedback and opportunities to practice via direct, explicit, small group
instruction
Most students (75% - 97%) KNOW the meaning of the words title, diagram, and caption, are able to use the
words correctly in a sentence, and can use the diagrams to find information.
Most students UNDERSTAND/SAY that what they say can be written down in printed words and letters.
Most students will BE ABLE TO...
•
Recognize and recall more than 15 of the upper and lower case letter names (in English).
•
Recognize and recall about 10 of the sounds of initial and final letters in words, i.e., letter-sound
correspondence (in English).
•
Read some familiar high frequency words.
•
Use the table of contents, page numbers, etc., to find specific locations in books.
•
Read a levelled book (Level 2 or B), including approximately 20 high frequency sight words:
•
Reading Recovery: patterned text, levels 2, 3.
•
Fountas and Pinnell: patterned text, levels B, C.
•
PM Benchmark: patterned text, levels 2, 3.
•
DRA: patterned text, levels 2, 3.
•
Alphakids: patterned text, levels 2, 3.
•
Write phrases using phonetic spelling (temporary spelling).
•
Write words as labels phonetically (temporary spelling).
•
Locate familiar words using various word walls, familiar texts, class-teacher created charts of collective
class community thinking.
•
In a brief exit interview, explain what they learned, two things they did well, and one thing they want
improve upon or would do differently another time.
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•
Create and orally evaluate plans to help the environment using detailed pictures, own name, labels,
symbols, letters.
TIER 3
Some students (30% - 74%)
KNOW...
The meaning of the words title, subtitle, diagram, cut-away (diagram), caption, label, and background, and be
able to use the words correctly in a sentence in their own words, and be able to use the diagrams.
UNDERSTAND/SAY...
Some of the children understand that:
•
Printed letters and words represent the sounds and words of oral language, and will be able to explain
how to write down their talk in letters and words, and how they can use this information in reading.
BE ABLE TO...
Some of the children understand that:
•
Recognize and recall all 26 of the upper and lower case letter names (in English).
•
Recognize and recall all of the sounds of initial and final letters in words, i.e., letter-sound
correspondence (in English), as well as the medial vowel sounds.
•
Read a levelled book (level 3 or C), including approximately 20 high frequency sight words.
•
Reading Recovery: patterned text, levels 2, 3; simple text, levels 3.
•
Fountas and Pinnell: patterned text, levels B, C; simple text, levels C.
•
PM Benchmark: patterned text, levels 2, 3; simple text, levels 3.
•
DRA: patterned text, levels 2, 3; simple text, level 4.
•
Alphakids: patterned text, levels 2, 3; simple text, level 4.
•
Write phrases using phonetic spelling (temporary spelling) and high frequency words.
•
Locate familiar words using various word walls, familiar texts, class-teacher created charts of collective
class community thinking.
•
In a brief exit interview, explain what they enjoyed about the learning task, what they learned, two
things they did well, and one thing they want improve upon or would do differently another time.
•
Create and orally evaluate plans to help the environment using detailed pictures, own name, labels,
symbols, letters, words.
TIER 4
A few students (5% - 29%) i.e., gifted, other motivated and independent workers
KNOW...
•
The meaning of the words title, subtitle, diagram, cut-away (diagram), caption, label, foreground,
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background, horizon, and are able to use the words correctly in a sentence in their own words and be
able to use the diagrams to enhance their understanding.
A few students:
UNDERSTAND/SAY...
•
Printed letters and words represent the sounds and words of oral language, which represents our
thoughts.
•
How to write down their thinking in written symbols and how they can use this information in reading.
A few students:
BE ABLE TO...
•
Recognize and recall all of the sounds of initial and final letters in words, i.e., letter-sound
correspondence (in English), the medial vowel sounds, as well as initial and final blends and digraphs.
•
Read a levelled book (level 4-5 or D), including approximately 40 high frequency sight words.
•
Reading Recovery: patterned text, levels 2, 3; simple text, levels 3, 4, 5, 6.
•
Fountas and Pinnell: patterned text, levels B, C; simple text, levels C, D.
•
PM Benchmark: patterned text, levels 2, 3; simple text, levels 3, 4, 5, 6.
•
DRA: patterned text, levels 2, 3; simple text, level 4.
•
Alphakids: patterned text, levels 2, 3; simple text, levels 3, 4, 5, 6.
•
Write sentences using phonetic spelling (temporary spelling) and high frequency words.
•
Locate familiar words using various word walls, familiar texts, class-teacher created charts of collective
class community thinking.
•
In a brief exit interview, explain what they enjoyed about the learning task, the main challenges of the
work, what they learned, how they might use the learning in real life, two things they did well, and one
thing they want improve upon or would do differently another time.
•
Create and orally evaluate plans to help the environment using detailed pictures, own name, labels,
symbols, letters, words, sentences. (Tomlinson, C. A., 2003)
Further Differentiation of Process
Together, in whole group, students practice when, where, and how to apply the above strategies, as well as
word-solving strategies, inferring key concepts, and summarizing key concepts.
Provide homogenous small group support in guided groups, (plus additional practice via guided reading) to those
students who require it. (Tomlinson, C. A., 2003, pp84-85)
Further Differentiation of Product
The final authentic performance assessment task will look different for some students. The written component
of the culminating task plan, or built object, to help the environment will include a range of basic to detailed
representational pictures, own name, labels, symbols, letters, words, and even sentences.
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The reasoning, amount and accuracy of information contained in the oral explanation of the plan, or object, to
help the environment will also vary in terms of logical reasoning, planning, and accurate, detailed information.
(Tomlinson, C. A., 2003, Task-specific Rubrics, pp112, 145-147).
Research Base
Definition of an Effective Pedagogy Based on T4DU
An effective pedagogy based on T4DU can best be described as integrated, cross-curricular, guided inquiry
learning (IL) with authentic performance assessment tasks (doing and explaining) at the conclusion of the unit.
There is a definite emphasis on hands-on learning by doing, performance tasks with multiple, cross-curricular
components, increased teacher feedback and coaching, and on learning a smaller amount of very important
content very deeply. See Kathie F. Nunley, Why Hands-on Tasks are Good at http://help4teachers.com/hands.
htm. (Layered Curriculum is a trademark created and owned by Dr. Kathie F. Nunley. On her website, www.
help4teachers.com, she writes: “Feel free to use any of these articles for your campus, school, district or PTA
newsletter. Please use them in their entirety including the closing informational statement.”). See also Nunley, K.
F., Rational [sic: Rationale] for Interdisciplinary Assignments at http://help4teachers.com/interdisciplinary.htm.
Although this pedagogy tends to be referred to generally as Inquiry Learning (IL), it comes in many guises with
many names. The names of some of these instructional systems including the following: anchored instruction
(http://tip.psychology.org/anchor.html), inquiry learning (http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/
inspire/research/CBS_StudentInquiry.pdf), constructionism, Cognitively Guided Instruction (Fennema, Carpenter,
& Franke, 1996, and Carpenter, Fennema, Franke, Levi, and Empson at http://mathematics.ocde.us/Assets/
Math/Cognitively+Guided+Instruction-+A+Research-Based+Teacher+Professional+Development+Program.pdf),
cross-curricular instruction, integrated instruction, integrated learning, integrated curriculum (http://www.edu.
gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/CBS_integrated_learning.pdf), Know Understand and Do/The
Learning Bridge (Drake) (http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/WW_Integrated_
Curriculum.pdf), project learning, problem-based learning, learning by design.
Inquiry learning can be characterized as follows: a collection of carefully constructed “problems” [for novices]
is presented to small groups of students. These problems usually consist of a description of observable
phenomena, or events that are to be understood in terms of their underlying theoretical explanation. They are
sometimes derived from professional practice, (as is the case with problem-based medical education); more
often they comprise the phenomena to-be-explained central to a particular domain of study. (Schmidt, H. G.,
Loyens, S. M. M., van Gog, T., and Paas, F., 2007).
It is important to note that many in the education field contend that for instruction to be effective at enhancing
student learning, the pedagogy must include scaffolded support and direct instruction for students as needed.
(Hmelo-Silver, et. al., 2006; Barron, et. al., 1998). The same is true for T4DU.
Another critical component of the T4DU pedagogy is well designed formative assessment, as well as “assessment
as learning,” (i.e., assessment which students undertake to help them “develop, practice, and become
comfortable with reflection and with critical analysis of their own learning”). (Earl, L. M., T4DU, p97).
Another important feature of T4DU is the importance of large and small group discussions at the start, which
appear to activate prior knowledge, and argumentation. The result is the improvement of student learning and
memory retention. (Schmidt, De Grave, De Volder, Moust, and Patel, 1989, cited in Schmidt, H. G., Loyens, S. M.
M., van Gog, T., and Paas, F., 2007)
What the New Pedagogy Would Look Like
A T4DU pedagogy might have the appearance of an inquiry learning or project-based model. Inquiry [learning]
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practices vary widely but are generally agreed to entail identifying a question, generating and analyzing evidence,
interpreting the evidence vis-a-vis the question, and drawing conclusions. (Kuhn, D., 2007). These instructional
approaches tend to comprise the following elements:
•
students are assembled in small groups;
•
these groups receive training in group collaboration skills prior to the instruction;
•
the curiosity of students is aroused and they are engaged in learning by a stimulus such as a problem to
solve, rich literature, an experiment, an observation, a story, a fact, or an artifact;
•
their learning task is to explain, explore, and/or solve a problem in terms of its underlying principles or
mechanism;
•
they do this by initially discussing the problem at hand, activating whatever prior knowledge is available
to each of them;
•
a tutor (teacher-facilitator) is present to facilitate the learning;
•
the teacher/tutor does this by instruction consisting of relevant information, questions, etc., provided by
the problem designer; and
•
books, articles, media and other resources are used for self-directed study by the students. (Schmidt, H.
G., Loyens, S. M. M., van Gog, T., and Paas, F., 2007).
The T4DU assessment of learning, or summative assessment, could be a problem- or design-project-based
learning task that resembles the authentic culminating unit performance tasks proposed by Wiggins and
McTighe and Damian Cooper. The task would not only include the planning, problem-solving, and doing
(application of knowledge), but also explaining the underlying purpose and importance of the project, as well as
key learning and a self-assessment. (Barron, B., et al., 1998)
If one were to walk into a T4DU classroom, one would see a clear focus of inquiry on solving a problem and
finding a solution through a multi-sensory and multi-component performance task. Learning is applied, but
within a higher-order thinking context (i.e., a problem to be analyzed and solved, solutions to be created,
evaluated, and implemented).
One would also see students working collaboratively, investigating, challenging authentic (real world) issues, and
solving authentic (real world) problems which are relevant to their lives, and based on their interests and skill
levels. Students would be working together as a community to build and share knowledge, ideas, strategies, and
skills. (Wenger, E., 1998, 2007, Communities of Practice.) The work would very often be active. The students
would be busy, engaged, motivated, and reluctant to stop what they are doing to take time to talk to visitors.
The Pertinent T4DU Research Base in Science (The Specific Discipline/Subject Area)
Teaching through inquiry methods has been shown to improve the understanding of science among students
who:
•
live in communities with high rates of poverty (Lynch, et al., 2005);
•
qualify for special education (Scruggs and Mastropieri, 1993); and
•
are English language learners (Amaral, Garrison, and Klentschy, 2002; Lee, et al., 2005).
This research has also illustrated that the longer students are exposed to a high-quality, inquiry-based
science program, the higher their achievement, especially in writing. As well, research generally supports the
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Chapter 9 Page 241
counterintuitive result that students who spend more time learning a smaller, coherent amount of important
content will perform as well, or better, on a comprehensive test than students who have been exposed to all of
the content available to be put on the test.
The research also indicates that guided inquiry with scaffolding and direct instruction will generally result in the
following:
•
improved student motivation, engagement, and attitudes toward learning;
•
higher student achievement, even on standardized tests;
•
improved higher-order thinking skills;
•
improved understandings among students of poverty;
•
improved understandings among students who are English language learners;
•
higher writing proficiency achievement results than among students who are not being taught with
inquiry pedagogy;
•
higher mathematics proficiency achievement results than students in non inquiry classrooms; and
•
the longer students are exposed to a high-quality, inquiry-based program, the higher their achievement.
When inquiry is structured well, it takes time, professional development, and administrative support. The
rewards include higher achievement, improved attitudes in science, and improved higher-order thinking skills.
While inquiry is not the only way to teach, it is an important foundation for learning.
How the Research is Applicable
Research has demonstrated the positive effects on student achievement and deeper student understanding of
instructional systems that provide hands-on opportunities to transfer understanding of fundamental concepts,
such as cause and effect. These systems teach students how to apply real world strategies and skills to authentic
problems and research, rather than exposing students to a large number of discrete facts. These systems focus
on teaching students for deep understanding.
Despite the number and variety of inquiry instructional systems, all of them share the characteristics cited above
with T4DU, and all of them are beneficial to the learner, putting the student first. All of them promote deep
understanding among students.
Inquiry Learning is also being revealed as particularly inclusive and equitable instructional systems, having been
shown to be effective for students who come from backgrounds of poverty, who have special education needs,
and who are English Language Learners.
Teaching for Deep Understanding: Towards the Ontario Curriculum We Need (Leithwood, McAdie, Bascia,
Rodrigue, 2004) provides an excellent overview of a number of these instructional systems.
Impact Analysis
How Does this T4DU Project Make a Difference?
If this project continues for an extended period (years), it will ultimately benefit students, especially those in
elementary schools. As Rick Stiggins pointed out several years ago, students are “crucial instructional decision
makers whose information needs must be met.” Their decisions often have long-term implications. (Stiggins,
New Assessment Beliefs for a New School Mission, 2004, p25).
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The most immediate impact of the T4DU project, however, is to provide teachers with a way to enable
themselves to teach for deep understanding. It does this by allowing the participating classroom teachers,
such as myself, to overcome at least two of the barriers to T4DU participants -- expanding our content and
pedagogical knowledge. (Folk, T4DU, 2004, p116).
More specifically, this project will take into account learning theory and evidence on how elementary school
students actually learn and retain their learning.
When I went to elementary and secondary school (1963-1975), it was quite clear early on that one would be
funnelled into a five-year high-school program, succeed, and go to university if one could:
•
read and answer questions in writing,
•
comprehend and apply basic mathematics on pencil-paper tests,
•
become engaged in learning enough to get involved and delve deeper,
•
know enough to seek feedback on your work.
This type of school-ready student, along with naturally talented A students, succeed in any academic
environment, regardless of the teacher.
However, my elementary and secondary peers of that era who were bright, friendly, modest workers who
pursued passions other than school were considered average or B students, and were sorted into a four-year
secondary program. They could expect to become department managers of stores, businesses, manufacturing
companies, governments, or perhaps even teachers! Peers who were gifted in different ways, perhaps they
had physical prowess or were skilled at hands-on work, were destined for the two-year trade or commerce
program (or perhaps would scrape through the four-year program), and might become tradesmen, hairstylists,
secretaries, and/or artists and musicians.
Many of these peers were extremely smart. In Grade 10, for example, one friend assembled a working car,
an MGB, using a body, parts, and a manual. Another, whose grades didn’t reflect her intelligence, eventually
worked her way from a daycare worker to a special education resource teacher. Now, with her own sons who
have special education needs, my long-time friend is clear about her experience in school: “The system failed
me.”
The goals of Ontario’s education system are very different today. Now they are universality, equity, flexibility, and
inclusion. In other words, fairness “is not sameness.” (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2005, Education For All,
pp4-5, 11; Tomlinson, C. A., 2003, Fulfilling The Promise of The Differentiated Classroom).
Finally, it seems likely that the project will spawn a small vanguard of informed, inspired, and committed change
agents – teacher leaders who will continue to work to advance the cause of T4DU. Political, military, and
espionage analogies seem appropriate and, to a great extent, irresistible. The members of the T4DU are poised
to become educational reformers if not radicals and rebels, members of a “fifth column”, the advance guard,
and/or the landing party. We are establishing an outpost on the beachhead. Let us scout the landscape and do
the reconnaissance, rally the troops with a call to arms, train them for battle, wrap ourselves in the armour of
our learning, move out, and conquer the curriculum and the other systemic obstacles in our path. Charge!
How Does it Change Student Learning Engagement and Motivation
Simply put, the most profound impact on students of a T4DU approach is deeper and longer lasting learning. It is
more effective for a greater range of students. Furthermore, the children have greater motivation and the ability
to focus on learning, as well as improved behavior.
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Stamina (focus, attention span)
In my experience with teaching for deep understanding, students are able to work on the same unit of study for
extended periods of time. I witnessed how students were easily able to maintain their focus and attention span
for increased periods of time. For example, in my 2006-07 junior kindergarten class, after winter holidays, we
almost always worked on solving the problem of how to help our plant and animal friends on the playground
in two consecutive 100-minute blocks of time - a total of 200 minutes per day. (Our actions affect the natural
world.)
Engagement and Motivation (behavior management challenges)
In my experience, the majority of the students are more engaged in learning and much more motivated to work
and to persist. There is greatly increased “on task” activity. The classroom buzzes with an air of purposeful
activity. The class seems to go along with the teacher without resistance, because the reason for their work is
clear and known to every student, important and of interest to them all, and successful completion is within
their reach (and abilities).
Consequently, there is a drastic decrease in behavior management challenges for the teacher. For example, in
my 2006-07 JK class of 20, and also in my 2007-08 French immersion SK class of 25, I rarely, if ever, dealt with any
so-called behaviour problems. In the JK class I had:
•
one student identified by the school district as a behaviour challenge;
•
one student who had been twice diagnosed by an outside agency as borderline autistic;
•
a four-year-old student with the speech and language abilities of a two-year-old child; and
•
a very “bossy” English Language Learner (ELL) student who often issued commands to the other
students.
This decrease in behaviour management challenges for the teacher is also partly the result of the fact that
the learning activities are based not only on student interests, but also on their abilities. Furthermore, when
teaching with T4DU, teachers are more easily able to provide scaffolding for struggling students, and to
differentiate the learning activities for students with special needs who require accommodations and/or program
modifications.
Relationships among students become positive and continue to improve throughout the year. They work well
together in small and large groups. They begin to function as a team, developing into a community of learners,
researchers, and problem-solvers, supporting one another.
Another positive feature is that attendance improves or remains solid. There are few unavoidable absences
because students want to be at school (Lave, 1993; Wenger, 1998, 2002, 2004).
Learning
The students become more capable and independent problem-solvers. Their depth of knowledge in specific
areas is vast, and they are able to transfer this to real life, and to other subject areas. For example, the Grade
1 French immersion teacher who received my former JK and SKFI students has told me on many occasions how
impressed she is with their ability to speak, read, write, and to apply their knowledge, learn and integrate new
information. She continues to tell me what “a great job” I did in preparing them. In effect, I organized learning
to meet their interests and abilities, set high goals, told them what the end of the units would be, and helped
them master the sub-tasks so they would achieve success.
I find the same results this year in teaching mathematics using the three-part mathematics lesson and the fourChapter 9 Page 244 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
part problem solving model, a form of T4DU. Students learn how to think through a problem, select and use
appropriate tools, and create improved solutions.
What is the Teacher Impact on Instructional Practice, Designing for Learning and Decision Making?
The T4DU project has a significant impact on teachers and their practices. It impacts the way I, and other
teachers, will use instructional practices, design learning, and make decisions.
Instructional Practices
Teachers use an equitable and inclusive, cross-disciplinary pedagogy that could also best be described as inquiry
learning.
This instruction requires students to:
•
think about and apply their knowledge beyond the classroom (authentic assessment);
•
debate, discuss, and justify their ideas;
•
compare and contrast new material with their prior knowledge; and
•
discuss ideas from multiple perspectives in terms of their own and other peoples’ cultures and values.
Furthermore, teachers provide scaffolding, as defined by Barron et al., (Doing With Understanding, 1998) for
T4DU, as well as explicit (direct) and guided instruction, as needed. There is also much more collaborative,
cooperative, and peer learning. The class functions as a research team and community of learners.
Curriculum and Learning Design
The impact of the T4DU project on my learning design and the curriculum I use is significant. Undoubtedly, it will
have the same impact on others. First of all, T4DU is more selective about the essential content to be learned.
For example, T4DU would address considerably less subject matter than the present Ontario curriculum’s 500
expectations (standards) per year. However, it addresses these fewer subjects in greater depth. In other words,
less is more when it comes to T4DU curriculum.
Decision Making
This T4DU project will impact my decision-making in a variety of ways. It has already changed my career
interests and aspirations. I wish to become more involved in provincial ETFO initiatives and T4DU initiatives
launched by other organizations. It is changing the way I determine what professional development I most
need, and the best way to obtain it. I hope to join, or create, communities of practice, as well as collaborative
projects investigating problems of practice. I also need to do more research, so I will spend more time reading
professional journals.
This project is also impacting which resources I buy for my classroom. The resources I seek are those which best
suit T4DU instruction –- more non-fiction books, technology, and manipulative models.
The project impacts the instructional approaches I am using and the way in which I will evaluate and implement
new directives and initiatives, including planning methods.
On the provincial scene, T4DU should have a great impact on both the content and size of the Ontario
curriculum. Furthermore, it should also impact the formal way in which progress is reported to parents, as well
as the type of training received by teacher candidates and the involvement of parents and academics in Ontario’s
elementary education system.
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Chapter 9 Page 245
School
In my first three years of teaching from a T4DU perspective, this instructional approach had a profound positive
effect on staff morale and the tone of the school.
There is increased joy in teaching, which results in greater enthusiasm, motivation, and energy. There is more
focus on how well, and how much, the students are learning which fosters increased teacher inquiry and
problem-solving (thoughtful use of time, resources, and methodology). This engagement results in reduced staff
absenteeism, increased collaboration, and more positive working relationships, including increased support for
one another.
Most of the problems cited by teachers in the survey results of the ETFO/OISE book, Teaching for Deep
Understanding, are addressed when teaching from the T4DU perspective. Students are more engaged,
motivated, and successful, and consequently, feel positive and happier. This, in turn, results in a feeling of
success among staff that increases their own happiness quotient, according to my observations over a three-year
period.
During the Ontario Ministry of Education Turnaround Schools program, Prince of Wales Public School in
Peterborough, Ontario, adopted the curriculum backward design process with a focus on deep understanding in
2007 as an entire staff.
A single day of training took place in February 2007. Staff implemented the first units in the early spring of 2007.
I continued to implement this process in the 2007-08 school year, with much joy. Based on my informal survey,
staff who received the original training in aspects of T4DU were continuing to use it by the end of the 2008-09
school year. They are enamoured with the process and speak of it with much enthusiasm. They have hosted
communities of practice for teachers from other schools. They report to me that every new challenge and every
new initiative can fit into the T4DU vehicle.
However, my experience, and that of my grade-alike partner, with a grade change from early primary to Grade
2-3 at the school in 2008-09 was less happy. It became a struggle to continue to teach for deep understanding
while trying to master a curriculum that is new to us for our new grade levels.
The process of teaching for deep understanding also became even more difficult in the face of increasing
expectations from our school district. For example, elementary teachers were at the time to:
•
administer the system Kindergarten-Primary Literacy Assessment and PM Benchmark reading record to
primary students JK – Gr. 3 or CASI Assessment in Grades 4-8 assessment;
•
enter reading benchmark/CASI levels into a data portal;
•
administer and analyze system math assessments;
•
create a divisional math SMART goal and language SMART goal each term with their accompanying
requisite pre-assessment, intense instruction, post-assessment, and professional collaboration, analysis,
evaluation and reflection from start to finish; and
•
teach students meta-cognitive strategies so that they can monitor and adjust their own learning.
Furthermore, some schools began to implement an increased focus on teaching thinking and communication
skills, as well as test-taking formats, across the divisions in preparation for the E.Q.A.O. standardized testing in
May. My students were much less motivated on these tasks than when I break away from these approaches in
favour of hands-on, experiential, problem-solving work on such topics as the impact of global warming on plants
and humans.
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Additional Resources for Teacher Learning
Books
Deep Understanding
Darling-Hammond, L., Barron, B., Pearson, D., Schoenfeld, A. H., Stage, E. K., Zimmerman, T. D., Cervetti, G.
N., and Tilson, J. L. (2008). Powerful Learning: What We Know About Teaching For Understanding. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., and Cocking, R. L. (Eds.). (2003). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experiences, and
School, 2nd edition. Washington, D.C., The National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences.
National Academy Press. 1st edition. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record id=9853&page=1.
Cooper, D. (2006). Talk About Assessment: Strategies and Tools to Improve Learning. DVD clips. Nelson
Education Ltd.
Dean, Ceri B., Stone, B. J., Hubbell, E., and Pitler, H. (2012). Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based
Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement. 2nd Edition. Association for Curriculum Development. (See a
report on which the book is based at http://www.mcrel.org/research-and-evaluation/instruction) and click
on the actual document at http://www.mcrel.org/products-and-services/products/product-listing/01_99/
product-21 and then click on [Get This Product] to download this report. You can also browse sample
chapters of the book and look at some of the ASCD study guide for the book either by going to http://www.
ascd.org/publications/books/browse-by-author.aspx and browsing by the main author’s last name, “Dean”,
or by going to http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/111001.aspx and clicking on a chapter or study guide
(not all chapters are available).
Jacobs, H. H. (2004). Mapping the Big Picture: Integrating Curriculum and Assessment, K-12. Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development. Hawker Brownlow Education.
Leithwood, K., McAdie, P., Bascia, N., and Rodrigue, A. (Eds.). (2004). Teaching for Deep Understanding:
Towards the Ontario Curriculum That We Need. Toronto: Elementary Teachers Federation of Ontario (ETFO)
and the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto (OISE/UT).
Marzano, R., Pickering, D. J., and Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom Instruction That Works. Association for
Curriculum Development. See an excerpt from chapter one of the book at http://www.ascd.org/
publications/books/111001/chapters/Setting-Objectives-and-Providing-Feedback.aspx or choose another
chapter at http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/111001.aspx. (Note: All chapters may not be available
for viewing at all times.)
McTighe, J., and Wiggins, G. (2006). Understanding by Design, 2nd Edition. Alexandria, VA: Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development. In Canada 2006 by Pearson Education.
McTighe, J., and Wiggins, G. (2004). Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook. Alexandria,
VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Wiggins, G., and McTighe, J. (2007). Schooling by Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development.
Training Models
To help implement guided groups and/or conferencing
Boushey, G. and Moser, J. (2006). The Daily Five. Stenhouse.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 9 Page 247
Diller, D. (2003). Literacy Work Stations. Stenhouse.
Calkins, L. and Mermelstein, L. (2005). Launching the Writing Workshop & The Conferring Handbook.
Heinemann.
Articles
Gardner, H. and Boix-Mansilla, V. (February 1994). Teaching for Understanding. Educational Leadership.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
McAdie, P. and Leithwood, Dr. K. (Winter 2005). Less Is More: Teaching for deep understanding. ETFO Voice.
pp18-20. http://www.etfo.ca/SiteCollectionDocuments/Publication%20Documents/Voice%20-%20
School%20Year%202004-5/Winter%202005/Less_Is_More.pdf.
McTighe, J., Seif, E., and Wiggins, G. (September 2004). You Can Teach for Meaning. Educational Leadership.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Vol.62. Iss.1. http://www.ascd.
org/ASCD/pdf/journals/ed_lead/el200409_mctighe.pdf.
Miller, L. (June 2004). Backward into the Future. Professionally Speaking, Ontario College of Teachers. http://
professionallyspeaking.oct.ca/june_2004/backward.asp.
Nunley, K. Benefits of interdisciplinary instruction. http://help4teachers.com/interdisciplinary.htm.
Nunley, K. Brain Biology: it’s basic gardening. http://help4teachers.com/gardening.htm.
Nunley, K. Choice - The forgotten basic human right. http://help4teachers.com/choice.htm.
Nunley, K. How the adolescent brain challenges the adult brain. http://www.help4teachers.com/
prefrontalcortex.htm.
Nunley, K. In Defense of the Oral Defense - Featured in ASCD’s Classroom Leadership. http://help4teachers.com/
oral.htm.
Nunley, K. Keeping Pace with Today’s Quick Brains. http://help4teachers.com/ras.htm.
Nunley, K. Rubrics - Be clear on expectations. http://help4teachers.com/rubrics.htm.
Nunley, K. Stress and Memory. http://help4teachers.com/stress.htm.
Nunley, K. Uniquely Gifted - by design. http://help4teachers.com/Gifted.htm.
Nunley, K. Working with learning styles. http://help4teachers.com/learningstyles.htm.
Nunley, K. Why hands-on learning is good. http://help4teachers.com/hands.htm.
Ontario Ministry of Education. (May 2008). Content Literacy. What Works? Research into Practice. Secretariat
Special Edition #13. pp1-4.
Ontario Ministry of Education. (May 2007). Learning Blocks for Literacy and Numeracy. What Works? Research
into Practice. Secretariat Special Edition #1. pp1-8.
Ontario Ministry of Education. (2007). The Ontario Curriculum. Grades 1-8: Science and Technology.
Hutchison, Dr. D. (December 2007). Drawing on Children’s ‘Sense of Place’ – The Starting Point for Teaching
Social Studies and Geography. What Works? Research into Practice. The Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat.
Chapter 9 Page 248 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Wiggins, G. (2010). Feedback: How Learning Occurs. http://www.authenticeducation.org/ae_bigideas/article.
lasso?artId=61.
Wiggins, G. and McTighe, J. (May 2008). Put Understanding First. Educational Leadership. Vol.65. Iss.8. pp3641. http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may08/vol65/num08/Put-UnderstandingFirst.aspx.
Wiggins, G. (2010). What is a big idea? http://www.authenticeducation.org/ae_bigideas/article.lasso?artid=99.
DVD Video
Cooper, D. (2006). Talk About Assessment: Strategies and Tools to Improve Learning. DVD clips. Nelson
Education Ltd.
PowerPoint Presentations
Kestell, M. L. and Kubota-Zarivnij, K. (2008). “ONTARIO” BANSHO. Developing a Collective Math Thinkpad (for
beginners). OAME 2008 Conference. The Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat.
Websites and Wikis
http://www.authenticeducation.org/bigideas/
http://www.grantwiggins.org/
http://www.help4teachers.com/
http://www.jaymctighe.com/ and http://www.jaymctighe.com/resources
http://ubdeducators.wikispaces.com/
http://kprunitplanning.wetpaint.com/
http://www.ubdexchange.org/ (some fee-for-service areas)
http://www.huffenglish.com/?p=367
http://pubs.cde.ca.gov/tcsii/ch1/bkwrdmapng.aspx. This part of the California Department of Education’s site
describes the planning process known as “Backward Mapping.”
http://www.damiancooperassessment.com/index.html­
http://jaymctighe.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/UbD-Websites-5.2.12.pdf. This is a 25-page list
of a vast arsenal of websites which provide:
•
deep understandings in a variety of disciplines;
•
performance assessments and exemplars;
•
assessment rubrics; and
•
lesson plans, instructional resources including technology and websites, and problem-based learning
resources.
The list also includes the following web page links: http://www.ctcurriculum.org/viewtask.asp?id=100, the state
of Connecticut’s searchable data base of student performance assessment tasks, and downloadable language
rubrics by the Greece N.Y. school district at http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/academics.cfm?subpage=1369.
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Chapter 9 Page 249
http://xnet.rrc.mb.ca/glenh/. This site, Multiple Methods of Assessment, has a wealth of information on
backward curriculum design and assessment, including the following web pages:
• Understanding by Design at http://xnet.rrc.mb.ca/glenh/understanding_by_design.htm
• Teaching for Understanding Checklist at http://xnet.rrc.mb.ca/glenh/webs.htm
• You Know You Are Teaching for Understanding When at http://xnet.rrc.mb.ca/glenh/checklis.htm
• Facets of Understanding at http://xnet.rrc.mb.ca/glenh/new_page_11.htm
• Useful Rubrics at http://xnet.rrc.mb.ca/glenh/new_page_35.htm
Website PowerPoint Presentations on Planning for T4DU Using Backward Design Procedures
http://www.duvalschools.org/teachers/unit0/Understanding By Design training.ppt
Research-based Professional Journal Articles
Abd-El-Khalick, F., Boujaoude, S., Duschl, R., Lederman, N. G., Mamlok-Naaman, R., and Hofstein, A., et al.
(2004). Inquiry in science education International perspectives. Science Education. Vol.88. Iss.3. pp397419.
Amaral, O. M., Garrison, L., and PKlentschy, M. (2002). Helping English learners increase achievement through
inquiry-based instruction. Bilingual Research Journal. Vol.26. Iss.2. pp213-239.
Anderson, R. D. (2002). Reforming science teaching: what research says about inquiry. Journal of Science
Teacher Education. Vol.13. Iss.1. pp1-12.
Anderson, J., Greeno, J., Reder, L., and Simon, H. (2000). Perspectives on learning, thinking, and activity.
Educational Researcher. Vol.29. Iss.4. pp11-13.
Barron, B., et al. (1998). Doing With Understanding: Lessons From Research on Problem and Project-Based
Learning. Journal of the Learning Sciences. 7, 3-4, pp271-311. http://www.scribd.com/doc/37739460/
Barron-B-J-S-D-L-Schwartz-Et-Al-1998-Doing-With-Understanding-Lessons-From-Research-on-Problem-AndProject-Based-Learning-the-Journal.
Bricker, P. (2005). Inquiry is essential to science learning. Connect. Vol.18. Iss.4. pp14-16.
Capon, N., and Kuhn, D. (2004). What’s so good about problem-based learning? Cognition and Instruction.
Vol.22. pp61-79.
Dean, D., and Kuhn, D. (May 2007). Direct instruction vs. discovery: The long view. Science Education. Vol.91.
Iss.3. pp384-397.
Fischer, K. W., and Rose, S. P. (1998). How the brain learns: Growth cycles of brain and mind. Educational
Leadership. Vol.56. Iss.3. pp56-60.
Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Duncan, R. G., and Chinn, C. A. (2006). Scaffolding and Achievement in Problem-Based and
Inquiry Learning: A Response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist. Vol.42. Iss.2.
pp99-107. http://www.cogtech.usc.edu/publications/hmelo_ep07.pdf.
Johnston, A. (2008). Demythologizing or Dehumanizing? A Response to Settlage and the Ideals of Open Inquiry.
J Sci Teacher Education, November 8, 2007. Vol.19. pp11-13.
Kaartinen, S. and Kumpulainen, K. (2002). Collaborative inquiry and the construction of explanations in the
Chapter 9 Page 250 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
learning of science. Learning and Instruction. Vol.12. Iss.2. pp189-212.
Keys, C. W. and Bryan, L. A. (2001). Co-constructing inquiry-based science with teachers: Essential research for
lasting reform. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Vol.38. Iss.6. pp631-645.
Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., and Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: an
analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching.
Educational Psychologist. Vol.41. Iss.3. pp75-86. http://www.cogtech.usc.edu/publications/kirschner_
Sweller_Clark.pdf.
Klahr, D., and Nigam, M. (2004). The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction: effects of direct
instruction and discovery learning. Psychological Science. Vol.15. pp661-667.
Kuhn, D., Cheney, R., and Weinstock, M. (2000). The development of epistemological understanding. Cognitive
Development. Vol.15. pp309-328.
Kuhn, D., and Dean, D. (2005). Is developing scientific thinking all about learning to control variables?
Psychological Science. Vol.16. pp866-870.
Kuhn, D. and Park, S. (2005). Epistemological understanding and intellectual values. International Journal of
Educational Research. Vol.43. pp111-124.
Kuhn, D. (2007). Is direct instruction the answer to the right question? Educational Psychologist. Vol.42. pp109113.
Lee, O., Deaktor, R., Hart, J., Cuevas, P., and Enders, C. (2005). An instructional intervention’s impact on the
science and literacy achievement of culturally and linguistically diverse elementary students. Journal of
Research in Science Teaching. Vol.42. Iss.8. pp857-887.
Lynch, S., Kuipers, J., Pyke, C., and Szesze, M. (2005). Examining the effects of a highly rated science curriculum
unit on diverse students: Results from a planning grant. Journal on Research on Science Teaching. Vol.42.
Iss.8. pp912-946.
Mayer, R. E. (2004). Should there be a three-strike rule against pure discovery learning? The call for guided
methods of instruction. American Psychologist. Vol.59. Iss.1.
Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development. Vol.50.
pp43-59.
Paas, F. and van Gog, T. (2006). Optimizing worked example instruction: Different ways to increase germane
cognitive load. Learning and Instruction. Vol.16. pp87-91.
Palincsar, A. S., Collins, K. M., Marano, N. L., and Magnusson, S. J. (2000). Investigating the engagement and
learning of students with learning disabilities in guided inquiry science teaching. Language, Speech, and
Hearing Services in Schools. Vol.31. Iss.3. pp240-251.
Salomon, G., and Perkins, D. (1989). Rocky roads to transfer: Rethinking mechanisms of a neglected
phenomenon. Educational Psychologist. Vol.24. Iss.2. pp113-2.
Sandoval, W. A. (2005). Understanding students’ practical epistemologies and their influence on learning
through inquiry. Science Education. Vol.89. pp634- 656.
Sandoval, W. A. and Reiser, B. J. (2004). Explanation-driven inquiry: Integrating conceptual and epistemic
scaffolds for scientific inquiry. Science Education. Vol.88. Iss.3. pp345-372.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 9 Page 251
Savery, J. R. (2006). Overview of problem-based learning: definitions and distinctions. Interdisciplinary Journal
of Problem-based Learning. Vol.1. Iss.1. pp9-20.
Schmidt, H., De Grave, W., De Volder, M., Moust, J., and Patel, V. (1989). Explanatory models in the processing of
science text: The role of prior knowledge activation through small group discussion. Journal of Educational
Psychology. Vol.81. pp610-619.
Schmidt, H. (1993). Foundations of problem-based learning: Some explanatory notes. Medical Education.
Vol.27. pp422-433.
Schmidt, H. G., Loyens, S. M. M., van Gog, T., and Paas, F. (2007). Problem-based learning is compatible
with human cognitive architecture: Commentary on Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006). Educational
Psychologist. Vol.42. 2007. pp91-97. http://www.cogtech.usc.edu/publications/schmidt_etal_ep07.pdf.
Schwartz, D. and Bransford, J. (1998). A time for telling. Cognition and Instruction. Vol.16. pp475-522.
Schwartz, D. and Martin, T. (2004). Inventing to prepare for future learning: The hidden efficiency of
encouraging original student production in statistics instruction. Cognition and Instruction. Vol.22. pp129184.
Scruggs, T. E. and Mastropieri, M. A. (1993). Reading vs. doing: The relative effects of textbook-based and
inquiry-oriented approaches to science learning in special education classrooms. The Journal of Special
Education. Vol.27. Iss.1. pp1-15.
Settlage, J. and Southerland, S. A. (2007). Teaching science to every child: Using culture as a starting point. New
York: Taylor & Francis.
Settlage, J. (2007). Demythologizing science teacher education: Conquering the false ideal of open inquiry.
Journal of Science Teacher Education. Vol.18. pp461-467.
Sweller, J., Kirschner, P. A., and Clark, R. E. (2007). Why Minimally Guided Teaching Techniques Do Not Work: A
Reply to Commentaries. Educational Psychologist. Vol.42. Iss.2. pp115-121. http://www.cogtech.usc.edu/
publications/sweller_kirschner_clark_reply_ep07.pdf.
Shymansky, J. A., Hedges, L. V., and Woodworth, G. (1990). A reassessment of the effects of inquiry-based
science curricula of the 60s on student performance. Journal of Research on Science Teaching. Vol.27. Iss.2.
pp127-144.
Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., and Deci, E. (2006). Intrinsic versus extrinsic goal contents in self-determination
theory: Another look at the quality of academic motivation. Educational Psychologist. Vol.41. pp19-31.
Learning Context
Places to publish student work:
http://virtual-architecture.wm.edu/Telecollaboration/interpersonalexchange.html
http://www.kidpub.org/kidpub/http://www.kidpub.org/kidpub/
http://www.gigglepoetry.com/ (poetry to read or submit)
Product Focus
Learn step by step how to create and assess a performance assessment task at http://www.pgcps.pg.k12.
md.us/~elc/developingtasks.html.
Chapter 9 Page 252 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Create your own teacher assessment of learning rubric based on a template: http://rubistar.4teachers.org/
Problem-Based Learning checklists: http://www.4teachers.org/projectbased/checklist.shtml
Assessment OF Learning Rubric Creator: http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/rubrics/
Assessment OF Learning Rubric Creator #2: http://www.xmarks.com/site/www.landmark-project.com/classweb/
tools/rubric_builder.php3
Ongoing Assessment and Evaluation
Rubrics
Create your own rubric based on a template: http://rubistar.4teachers.org/
Problem-Based Learning checklists: http://www.4teachers.org/projectbased/checklist.shtml
Rubric Creator: http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/rubrics/
Scaffolding
Theory: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructional_scaffolding#Theory_of_Scaffolding
Definition and examples of: http://k6educators.about.com/od/helpfornewteachers/a/scaffoldingtech.htm
Process guides: http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/staffdev/tpss99/processguides/index.htm.
For artifacts, cartoons, maps, movies, photographs, posters, recordings, written documents: http://www.edteck.
com/dbq/basic/worksheet.htm
Graphic Organizers
Printables: http://www.teachervision.com/lesson-plans/lesson-6293.html?s2
http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/ or http://www.teachervision.fen.com/tv/tvsearch/site=TV&lowest_
grade=99&highest_grade=102&type=graphic-organizer
http://www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/graphic//
http://edhelper.com/teachers/graphic_organizers.htm
http://www.realclassroomideas.com/65.html
http://wvde.state.wv.us/strategybank/GraphicOrganizersforSummarization.html
http://www.readwritethink.org/search/index.html?page=1&resource_type=16&type=24
http://www.google.ca/search?q=graphic+organizers&hl=en&prmd=imvns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X
&ei=d7HLT6bMO8GFgwe1zai4Bg&ved=0CGcQsAQ&biw=1280&bih=620
Teacher Reflection
ERIC Digest article on reflective practice: http://www.ericdigests.org/2001-3/reflective.htm
Article with exercises: http://www.ukcle.ac.uk/resources/reflection/you.html
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 9 Page 253
Differentiated Instruction and Technology
Differentiated Instruction (DI) – ASCD tutorial: http://ascd.org/research-a-topic/differentiated-instructionresources.aspx
Differentiated Instruction (DI) with technology: http://members.shaw.ca/priscillatheroux/integratingtechnology.
html; http://web20guru.wikispaces.com/Strategies
Differentiated Instruction (DI) and Effective Instructional Technology Integration: http://www.lausd.k12.ca.us/
lausd/offices/di/Burleson/workshops/differentiate/index.htm
Marzano, R., Instructional Strategies that Work: Dean, Stone, Hubbell, and Pitler, Howard (2012). Classroom
Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement. 2nd Edition: http://
www.ascd.org/publications/books/111001.aspx
Lack of Evidence for Multiple Intelligence Theory and Learning Styles
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_multiple_intelligences#Lack_of_empirical_evidence
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_styles#Criticism
http://www.journeytoexcellence.org.uk/resourcesandcpd/research/summaries/rsmultipleintelligences.asp
http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/109007/chapters/MI-Theory-and-Its-Critics.aspx
http://lynnwaterhouse.intrasun.tcnj.edu/Inadequate%20evidence%20for%20Multiple%20Intelligences,%20
Mozart%20%20Effect,%20and%20Emotional%20Intelligence%20Theories.pdf
http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept97/vol55/num01/-Quantifying-MI’s-Gains.aspx
http://neurosphere.wordpress.com/2011/07/31/brain-based-evidence-for-multiple-intelligences/
http://www.igs.net/~cmorris/critiques.html
Teaching Using Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles
Kagan, S. Cooperative learning and Multiple Intelligences: What are the Connections? http://members.shaw.ca/
priscillatheroux/integratingtechnology.html; http://www.kaganonline.com/free_articles/dr_spencer_kagan/260/
Cooperative-Learning-and-Multiple-Intelligences-What-are-the-Connections?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lv_zUe69H94
http://www.nrsi.com/mariecarbo.php
Technology to Support Multiple Intelligences
http://www.lakelandschools.org/EDTECH/Differentiation/home.htm
http://members.shaw.ca/priscillatheroux/integratingtechnology.html
http://eduscapes.com/tap/topic68.htm
http://www.towson.edu/~wizer/501/milp.html
http://www.casacanada.com/multech.html
http://www.america-tomorrow.com/ati/nhl80402.htm
Chapter 9 Page 254 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
http://www.multiple-intelligence.net/
Multimedia Projects
Simkins, M. (2002). Increasing Student Learning through Multimedia Projects. ASCD.
ASCD Study Guide for Increasing Student Learning Through Multimedia Projects: http://www.ascd.org/
publications/books/102112/chapters/An-ASCD-Study-Guide-for-Increasing-Student-Learning-ThroughMultimedia-Projects.aspx
References
Armstrong, T. (2000). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Alexandria: ASCD.
Barron, Dr. Brigid and Darling-Hammond, Dr. Linda. (2008). Teaching for Meaningful Learning: A Review of
Research on Inquiry-Based and Cooperative Learning.
Bransford, J., Brown, A., and Cocking, R. (Eds.). (2001). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school.
Washington, DC: National Research Council. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record id=6160.
Chapman, C. and Gayle H. (2002). Gregory. Differentiated Instructional Strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
P.
Cole, K., et. al. (2002). Increasing Student Learning through Multimedia Projects. Alexandria: ASCD.
Danielson, C. (1996). Enhancing Professional Practice. Alexandria: ASCD. pp106-107.
Darling-Hammond, L., Barron, B., Pearson, D., Schoenfeld, A. H., Stage, E. K., Zimmerman, T. D., Cervetti, G.
N., and Tilson, J. L. (2008). Powerful Learning: What We Know About Teaching For Understanding. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Erickson, H. L.. (2001). Stirring the Head, Heart & Soul. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin P.
Graham, S., Ludington, J., and Rogers, S. (1997). Motivation & Learning. Evergreen CO: Peak Learning Systems.
Jacobs, H. H. (1997). Mapping the Big Picture. Alexandria: ASCD. pp30-33.
Leithwood, K., McAdie, P., Bascia, N.and Rodrigue, A. (Eds.). (2004). Teaching for Deep Understanding. Ontario
Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto and the Elementary Teachers’ Federation of
Ontario. Toronto, ON.
Marzano, R., Pickering, D. J., and Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom Instruction That Works. Association for
Curriculum Development.
McTighe, J. and Wiggins, G. (1998). Understanding by Design. Alexandria: ASCD.
Nunley, K. (2003). A Student’s Brain: The Parent/Teacher Manual. Brains.org. ISBN 1-929358-11-3.
Ontario Ministry of Education. (2010-11). Full-Day Early Learning-Kindergarten Program (draft).
Ontario Ministry of Education. (2010). Growing Success: Assessment, Evaluation, and Reporting In Ontario
Schools.
Perini, M. J., Silver, H. F., and Strong, R. W. (2000). So Each May Learn. Alexandria: ASCD.
Robb, L. (2000). Redefining Staff Development. Portsmouth NH: Heinemann.
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 9 Page 255
Schmoker, M. (1996). Results. Alexandria: ASCD.
Tomlinson, C. A. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria:
ASCD.
Wong, H. K., and Wong, R. T. (2001). How to be an Effective Teacher The First Day of School. Mountview CA:
Harry K Wong Publications, N.D. pp197-245.
For Further Investigation
Research on the learning process: Silver, Strong and Perini, 1997
Research on learning: Parry and Gregory, 1998
Research on teaching for understanding: Perkins, 1993; Wilson, 1992; Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2003
Brain-based instructional tools and methodologies: Wolfe and Brandt, 1998
Use of Multi-media technology in the classroom: Penuel, Means and Simkins, 2000; Glennan and Melmed, 1996
Unit Planning
Unit Planning templates NLPLTAA 298-301. (2006). Included in Damian Cooper, Talk About Assessment:
Strategies and Tools to Improve Learning, Nelson Education Ltd.
Unit Planning templates, (2005). Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Understanding by Design, 2nd edition. ASCD.
Tompkins, J. (2009). Kawartha Pine Ridge District School Board. Lead Principal, School Effectiveness Framework.
Understanding by Design: How to Create a Unit Plan. Kawartha Pine Ridge District School Board. Forwarded
by the author. Used with permission. See UbD How To Create A Unit Plan Joe Tompkins.ppt
Unit Sub-task Planning
Performance assessment task design using GRASP “worksheets”, possibly from Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe,
Understanding by Design, 2nd edition, ASCD, 2005.
WHERETO learning tasks design and sequence template, Wiggins, G. and McTighe, J., (2005). Understanding by
Design. 2nd edition.
Differentiation
Tomlinson, C. A. (2010). Four Non-Negotiables of Defensible Differentiation. pp32-37. http://www.
caroltomlinson.com/Presentations/Amherst_Elementary.pdf.
Assessment Tools and Measures
Each of the following sources provides a variety of diagnostic and pre-unit literacy or mathematics assessment
measures, many of which are aimed specifically at kindergarten students (JK and SK). The KPR DSB documents
are also available in French.
Kindergarten-Primary Literacy Assessment (K-P LA). (2004). Kawartha Pine Ridge District School Board.
Peterborough, ON.
Math System Assessment Tasks, Assessing for Learning: Kindergarten - Grade 8. (November 2008). Kawartha
Pine Ridge District School Board. Peterborough, ON.
Trehearne, M. (2000). Kindergarten Teacher’s Resource Book. Nelson Thomson Learning.
Chapter 9 Page 256 Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
First Steps Reading Developmental Continuum. (1994). Education Department of Western Australia.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2003). Fulfilling The Promise of The Differentiated Classroom. ASCD.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2010). Four Non-Negotiables of Defensible Differentiation. pp32-37. http://www.
caroltomlinson.com/Presentations/Amherst_Elementary.pdf.
Journal Articles
Teaching for Deep Understanding (General Information)
Gardner, H. and Boix-Mansilla, V. (February 1994). Teaching for Understanding. Educational Leadership.
McAdie, P. and Leithwood, K. (Winter 2005). Less Is More: Teaching for deep understanding. ETFO Voice. pp1820.
McTighe, J., Seif, E., and Wiggins, G. (September 2004). You Can Teach for Meaning. Educational Leadership.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Vol.62. Iss.1. http://www.ascd.
org/ASCD/pdf/journals/ed_lead/el200409_mctighe.pdf.
Curriculum Design and Planning (General Information)
Drake, S. M. (September 2001). Making Standards Work: Castles, Kings...and Standards. Educational
Leadership. Vol.59. Iss.1. http://michigan.gov/documents/6-1CastlesKingsarticle_107402_7.doc.
Inquiry Learning (General Information)
Barron, B. and Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Teaching for Meaningful Learning: A Review of Research on InquiryBased and Cooperative Learning. The George Lucas Educational Foundation. http://www.edutopia.org/
pdfs/edutopia-teaching-for-meaningful-learning.pdf.
Bransfield, P., Holt, P., and Nastasi, P. (January 2007). Coaching to Build Support for Inquiry-Based Teaching.
Science Scope. pp47-51.
Gooding, J. and Metz, B. (September 2008). Teacher’s Toolkit: A blueprint for cultivating Inquiry.
Science Scope. pp12-14. http://hub.mspnet.org/media/data/A_Blueprint_for_Cultivating_Inquiry.
pdf?media_000000005633.pdf.
Ohana, C. (September 2006). Research and tips to support science education: Defending Inquiry. Science and
Children. pp64-65.
Ontario Ministry of Education. (September 2010). Integrated Learning in the Classroom. Capacity Building
Series. Secretariat Special Edition #14. Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat. http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/
literacynumeracy/inspire/research/CBS_integrated_learning.pdf.
Ontario Ministry of Education. (September 2010). Getting Started With Student Inquiry. Capacity Building
Series. Secretariat Special Edition #24. Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat. http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/
literacynumeracy/inspire/research/CBS_StudentInquiry.pdf
Sumrall, W. J., and Curry, K. (April/May 2006). Teacher’s Toolbox: Teaching for Transferal. Science Scope. pp1417.
Online Articles
Wiggins, G. and McTighe, J. (2008). Put Understanding First. Educational Leadership. Alexandria, VA:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Vol.65. No.8. http://www.ascd.org/publications/
Teaching For Deep Understanding - An ETFO Curriculum Learning Resource Compilation
Chapter 9 Page 257
educational-leadership/may08/vol65/num08/Put-Understanding-First.aspx
Wiggins, G. (2008). What Is A Big Idea? http://www.authenticeducation.org/ae_bigideas/article.lasso?artid=99.
Video Clips
Talk About Assessment: Strategies and Tools to Improve Learning. (2006). VTS 01 -- VTS 10. Video clips, included
with purchase of Damian Cooper. Nelson Education Ltd.
Citation Considerations
PowerPoint Presentations
Tompkins, J. (2009). Kawartha Pine Ridge District School Board. Lead Principal, School Effectiveness Framework.
Understanding by Design: How to Create a Unit Plan. Kawartha Pine Ridge District School Board. Forwarded
by the author. Used with permission. See UbD How To Create A Unit Plan Joe Tompkins.ppt.
Understanding by Design Training. http://www.slideserve.com/lev/understanding-by-design or download [DOC]
at http://www.slideserve.com/lev/understanding-by-design or http://www.docstoc.com/docs/88493635/
Understanding-By-Design or at http://beta.hec.gov.pk/InsideHEC/Divisions/LearningInnovation/Documents/
Learning%20Portal/Master%20Trainer%20(MT)/FPDP/Assesment%20and%20Evaluation/Understanding%20
By%20Design%20training.pdf or at http://www.google.com/search?__VIEWSTATE=dDw2NTAzODg1MT
s7Pt2njFhfzNmBqIE5HOnIm74dTVU6&q=understanding+by+design+training&sitesearch=duvalschools.
org&selH1=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.duvalschools.org&selH1=http%3A%2. Contact information: DeNelle
Knowles at [email protected]
http://www.slideshare.net/joeharvey/ubd-powerpoint
http://ppt.downloadzite.com/read-file-at-downloadzite/http:/web.me.com/jimiricci/PRSD_Snow_Day_PD_Page/
Home_files/UBD%20wiggins%20et%20al%20ppt.ppt/
Tomlinson, C. A. (2010). Four Non-Negotiables of Defensible Differentiation. pp32-37. http://www.
caroltomlinson.com/Presentations/Amherst_Elementary.pdf.
Kubota-Zarivnij, K. (May 2, 2007). Using Ontario Bansho: A Collective Thinkpad. Ontario Association for
Mathematics Education. Barrie, Ontario. See http://www.lkdsb.net/program/elementary/junior/
OAME2007%20JapaneseBanshoHdt.pdf.
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