teenager`s perception about the beauty visualization of

Comments

Transcription

teenager`s perception about the beauty visualization of
TEENAGER’S PERCEPTION ABOUT THE
BEAUTY VISUALIZATION OF MODEL FROM
REVLON, MAYBELLINE, POND’S AND TJE FUK
ADVERTISEMENTS ON TV
(Case Study of SMAN 1 Juwana and SMP 1 Juwana)
A THESIS
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
Thesis project on American Cultural Studies in English Department
Faculty of Humanities Diponegoro University
Submitted by:
FAHRUDIN AFENDY
NIM: A2B009076
FACULTY OF HUMANITIES
DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY
SEMARANG
2013
i
PRONOUNCEMENT
The writer states thruthfully that this thesis is complicated by him without
any taking from other researchers in S-1, S-2, S-3, and in diploma degree of any
universities. In addition, the writer ascertains that he does not take the material
from other thesis or someone’s work except for the references mentioned in
bibliography.
Semarang, August 2013
Fahrudin Afendy
ii
MOTTO AND DEDICATION
Take time to THINK. It is the source of power.
Take time to READ. It is the foundation of wisdom.
Take time to QUIET. It is the opportunity to seek God.
Take time to DREAM. It is the future made of.
Take time to PRAY. It is the greatest power on earth.
(Anonymous)
This paper is dedicated to:
My beloved family who always support me
“You mean something for me”
And all people who need the information from this research.
.
iii
APPROVAL
Approved by,
Thesis Advisor,
Prof. Dr. Nurdien H. Kistanto, M.A
NIP. 195211031980121001
iv
VALIDATION
Accepted by,
Strata 1 Thesis Examination Committee
Faculty of Humanities Diponegoro University
on 13 September 2013
Chair Person
Arido Laksono, S.S.,M.Hum
NIP. 197507111999031002
First Member
Second Member
Prof. Dr. Nurdien H. Kistanto, M.A
NIP. 195211031980121001
Retno Wulandari, S.S.,M.A.
NIP. 197505252005012002
v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Alhamdulillah. Praise to God, who has given His strength and blessing for
the writer so this thesis on “Teenager’s Perception about Beauty of Model
Visualization from Cosmetic Advertisement Broadcast in American and
Indonesian TV” came to a completion. On this occasion, the writer would like to
give sincere gratitude to all people who have contributed to the completion of this
research report.
The deepest appreciation and gratitude are extended to Prof. Dr. Nurdien
H. Kistanto, M.A, the writer advisor, who has given his continous guidance,
helpful correction, moral support, advice, suggestion, and constructive discussion.
The writer’s deepest thank also goes to the following:
1. Dr. Agus Maladi Irianto, M.A, as the Dean of Faculty of Humanities
Diponegoro University.
2. Sukarni Suryaningsih, S.S, M.Hum, as the Head of English
Department, Faculty of Humanities Diponegoro University.
3. Arido Laksono, S.S, M.Hum, as the Head of American Studies
Section, English Department, Faculty of Humanities Diponegoro
University.
4. Prof. Dr. Nurdien H. Kistanto, M.A as the writer’s thesis advisor.
5. All the writer’s beloved and respectful lectures in English Department,
Faculty of Humanities Diponegoro University.
vi
6. All of the writer’s friends from English Department 2009, especially
the men classmate who have given awkward and unforgetable
moments during the college time, and many more for giving the writer
a true inspiration, an endless support and a memorable lesson of life.
7. The writer beloved family. The writer loves you so much.
8. All people who come into the writer’s life. The writer believes that no
matter how the random things appear, there must be a plan beyond it.
The writer realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect. Therefore,
the writer will be glad to receive suggestion to make this thesis better. Finally, the
writer expects that this thesis will be useful to the reader.
Semarang,
August 2013
Fahrudin Afendy
vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE ……………………………………………………… .................................
i
PRONOUNCEMENT ............................................................................................
ii
………………………………………………...
iii
……................................................................................................
iv
...................................................................................................
v
MOTTO AND DEDICATION
APPROVAL
VALIDATION
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
....................................................................................
vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
....................................................................................
viii
...............................................................................................
x
LIST OF CHARTS
LIST OF DIAGRAMS
.........................................................................................
xi
LIST OF PICTURES ...............................................................................................
xii
LIST OF TABLES
xiv
ABSTRACT
Chapter 1
................................................................................................
…......................................................................................... ………
INTRODUCTION
………………………………………………....
1
…………………………………………...
2
1.3 Scope of Study
………………………………………………
4
1.4 Aims of Study
………………………………………………
4
…………………………………………………..
4
…………………………………………..
4
………………………………………
6
………………………………..
6
2.1 Object of the Research
…………………………………….…
8
2.2 Theoretical Framework
…………………………………….…
8
2.2.1 Theory of Simulacra by Jean Baudillard ………………
8
………
10
1.1 Background
1.2 Problems of Study
1.5 Hypothesis
1.6 Methods of Study
1.7 Significance of Study
1.8 The Organization of Writing
Chapter 2
LITERARY REVIEW
2.2.2 Theory of Pragmatic Semiotic by C.S. Peirce
Chapter 3
xv
RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Type of Research …………………………………………….
13
………………………………………….……
13
3.2 Data Source
viii
……………………………………
14
3.4 Technique of Collecting Data
……………………………
15
3.5 Technique of Analyzing Data
……………………………
16
3.3 Population and Sample
Chapter 4
ANALYSIS
4.1 Identification, Classification, and Interpretation of Sign from Cosmetic
…………………………………………….
18
…………………………….
18
4.1.2 Maybelline Air Foam Foundation …………………….
25
4.1.3 Pond’s White Beauty
………………………………...
32
4.1.4 Tje Fuk Whitening Cream …………………………….
38
Advertisements
4.1.1 Revlon Color Stay Aqua
4.2 Teenager’s Perspective about Beauty
…………………….
43
…….
52
5.1 Conclusion
…………………………………………………
57
5.2 Suggestion
…………………………………………………
58
……………………………………………………………
59
4.3 The Effect of Cosmetic Advertisement to Teenager
Chapter 5
CONCLUSION and SUGGESTION
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX
ix
LIST OF CHARTS
Chart 1. Percentage of total respondents in desiring white skin
………………..
Chart 2. Percentage of respondent’s opinion about white skin is beauty
………..
42
45
Chart 3. Percentage of respondent’s opinion that Indonesian model mostly have white
skin ……………………………………………………………………….. 47
Chart 4. Percentage of respondent’s opinion that white model can be more convincing 52
Chart 5. Percentage of whitening skin affection to the respondent
……………..
53
Chart 6. Percentage of respondents who are influenced by model in using cosmetic
product …………………………………………………………………
53
Chart 7. Percentage of the how important white skin in friendship from respondent
.
x
55
LIST OF DIAGRAMS
Diagram 1. Triadic meaning theory by Charles S. Peirce (1931)
10
xi
……………….
LIST OF PICTURES
1. R 00.00.03
…………………………………………………………….......
18,19
2. R 00.00.10
…………………………………………………………….......
18,19
3. R 00.00.24
.……………………………………………………………....... 18,19
4. R 00.00.21
…………………………………………………………….......
18,21
5. R 00.00.14
…………………………………………………………….......
18,21
6. R 00.00.09
…………………………………………………………….......
18,22
7. R 00.00.29
…………………………………………………………….......
18,22
8. R 00.00.02
…………………………………………………………….......
18,22
9. M 00.00.24
…………………………………………………………….......
24,26
10. M 00.00.06
…………………………………………………………….......
24,26
11. M 00.00.18
…………………………………………………………….......
24,26
12. M 00.00.05
…………………………………………………………….......
24,26
13. M 00.00.12
…………………………………………………………….......
24,26
14. M 00.00.08
…………………………………………………………….......
24,28
15. M 00.00.02
…………………………………………………………….......
25,28
16. M 00.00.05
…………………………………………………………….......
25,28
17. M 00.00.23
…………………………………………………………….......
25,28
18. M 00.00.21
…………………………………………………………….......
25,29
19. M 00.00.04
…………………………………………………………….......
25,29
20. M 00.00.06
…………………………………………………………….......
25,29
21. M 00.00.16
…………………………………………………………….......
25,29
22. M 00.00.04
…………………………………………………………….......
25,29
23. P 00.00.01
…………………………………………………………….......
31,33
24. P 00.00.03
…………………………………………………………….......
31,33
25. P 00.00.11
…………………………………………………………….......
31,33
xii
26. P 00.00.15
…………………………………………………………….......
31,33
27. P 00.00.26
…………………………………………………………….......
31,33
28. P 00.00.05
…………………………………………………………….......
32,35
29. P 00.00.06
…………………………………………………………….......
32,35
30. P 00.00.08
…………………………………………………………….......
32,36
31. P 00.00.03
…………………………………………………………….......
32,36
32. T 00.00.05
…………………………………………………………….......
38,39
33. T 00.00.13
…………………………………………………………….......
38,39
34. T 00.00.01
…………………………………………………………….......
38,39
35. T 00.00.10
…………………………………………………………….......
38,40
36. T 00.00.11
…………………………………………………………….......
38,41
37. T 00.00.03
…………………………………………………………….......
38,41
xiii
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Relationship between three types of sign and their reference source
……
11
Table 2. Identification and classification of Revlon Color Stay Aqua advertisement .. 18
Table 2.1. Meaning interpretation of icon from Revlon Color Stay Aqua
Advertisement
…………………………………………………………. 19
Table 2.2. Meaning interpretation of index from Revlon Color Stay Aqua
Advertisement
…………………………………………………………. 21
Table 2.3. Meaning interpretation of symbol from Revlon Color Stay Aqua
Advertisement
…………………………………………………………. 22
Table 3. Identification and classification of Maybelline Air Foam Foundation
advertisement
…………………………………………………………. 24
Table 3.1. Meaning interpretation of icon from Maybelline Air Foam Foundation
advertisement
…………………………………………………………. 26
Table 3.2. Meaning interpretation of index from Maybelline Air Foam Foundation
advertisement
…………………………………………………………. 28
Table 3.3. Meaning interpretation of symbol from Maybelline Air Foam Foundation
advertisement
…………………………………………………………. 29
Table 4. Identification and classification of Pond’s White Beauty advertisement
…. 31
Table 4.1. Meaning interpretation of icon from Pond’s White Beauty advertisement ... 33
Table 4.2. Meaning interpretation of index from Pond’s White Beauty advertisement .. 35
Table 4.3. Meaning interpretation of symbol from Pond’s White Beauty advertisement 36
Table 5. Identification and classification of Tje Fuk advertisement …………………. 38
Table 5.1. Meaning interpretation of icon from Tje Fuk advertisement
Table 5.2. Meaning interpretation of index from Tje Fuk advertisement
…………… 39
…………. 40
Table 5.3. Meaning interpretation of symbol from Tje Fuk advertisement …………. 41
Table 6. The respondent’s opinion about having white skin …………………………. 43
Table 7. The top beauty women from the respondent’s opinion
…………………. 45
Table 8. The respondent’s judgment of model’s appearance ……………………….. 48
xiv
Table 9. The respondent’s reasons in which model’s appearance is the most attractive to
them
…………………………………………………………………. 49
Table 10. The respondent’s motivation in using cosmetic product ………………..
xv
54
ABSTRAK
Sebagai salah satu perantara penyampaian informasi, media massa seperti
televisi membawa tanda-tanda yang tanpa disadari dapat mengkonstruksi pola
pikir masyarakat tak terkecuali iklan kosmetik melalui modelnya yang disiarkan
dalam televisi. Model dari iklan Pond’s White beauty dan Tje Fuk Whitening
Cream selalu terlihat mempunyai kulit yang putih, sedangkan model dari Revlon
dan Maybelline tidak hanya berkulit putih saja. Hal ini tentunya menarik sebagai
objek kajian guna mengetahui seperti apa bentuk kecantikan itu oleh persepsi para
responden sehingga diketahui apakah tampilan visual dari model-model iklan
kecantikan mempunyai andil dalam membentuk persepsi semacam itu atau tidak.
Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan perbedaan makna
tanda-tanda yang ada didalam iklan kosmetik yang menjadi objek kajian sekaligus
untuk mengetahui persepsi kecantikan oleh para remaja Indonesia sehingga
didapat apakah persepsi tersebut mempunyai ciri khas yang sama dengan apa
yang konstruksi oleh media.
Dengan menggunakan metode penelitian kuantitatif, penulis menemui
langsung para responden yang merupakan murid-murid dari SMPN 1 Juwana dan
SMAN 1 Juwana yang digunakan sebagai data utama dalam pembuatan data
statistik. Untuk metode pengambilan sample, penulis menggunakan purposive
sampling yang respondennya telah ditentukan dengan jumlah total 30 murid.
Untuk mengalisa data, penulis menggunakan teori Simulacra oleh Jean Baudillard
(1994) dan menggunakan pendekatan semiotic oleh Charles S. Peirce (1931).
Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa dalam iklan kecantikan yang
menjadi objek kajian penelitian ini mempunyai beberapa perbedaan seperti
penggunaan model yang tidak hanya berkulit putih dan manfaat produk yang
menyehatkan kulit tanpa merubah warna kulit aslinya oleh iklan Revlon dan
Maybelline dan salah satu iklan, Revlon, menyiratkan bahwa kecantikan tidak
hanya soal penampilan luar saja. Sedangkan hasil analisa data yang diperoleh dari
responden menginformasikan bahwa persepsi wanita cantik seperti yang bertubuh
langsing, berkulit putih dan mempunyai rambut yang lurus sehingga mereka yang
tidak mempunyai kriteria tersebut biasanya merasa kurang percaya diri, takut
dikucilkan
dalam
pergaulan
dan
tidak
terlihat
cantik
xvi
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1
Background
As human beings, people are heterogeneously created. It can be said that
people from one country to another have specific identity that can be seen directly
by the eyes. As an example, the writer as an Asian is definitely different from the
other Asians such as Korean or Japanese; moreover if the writer is compared to
African or European by appearance. People are significantly different because it is
their heterogeneity as human beings. The writer thinks that it is not a big deal if
people are different from their appearances because people all over the world have
special characteristics that make them so wonderful.
However, there is an action that threatens this gift. It influents the way of
thinking to be homogeny because the assumption of one race as superior to others,
for example in beauty case brought by advertising activity. Advertising is a
profitable industry; instead of making a lot of money it also can make
stereotyping. Nowadays, people are exposed by millions of advertisements; this
phenomenon can be the easiest way to send a lesson especially from television
that people see every day. The advertisements sell a great deal more than the
products. They tell us who people are and who people should be; even sometimes
they do not represent the origin of the people. It is very dangerous if the mindset
is controlled by what advertisements serve such as in the cosmetic advertisement.
Cosmetic advertisements on television with white models are often
broadcasted continually. The message of these advertisements can be transformed
into a stereotype that beauty is white so if a woman wants to be beautiful, she
should have a white skin. It is ironic when this condition arises in a country that
originally does not come from Caucasian race such as European. Therefore, it can
be said that the advertisements such as Pond.s and Tje Fuk can create an ideology
about the standard of beauty. Meanwhile, the other cosmetic advertisements
model such as Revlon and Maybelline not only come from the white women.
This phenomenon above leads the writer to discover further. The research
is focused in Juwana district of Indonesia. As a coastal in tropic area, the people
of Juwana mostly have an non-white color skin but the teenager are considered to
have white color skin. By seeing through teenagers’ perception, the potential
target of cosmetic product, the writer explains what they think and see of this
issue about the beauty visualization of model from those cosmetic advertisements.
1.2
Problems of Study
1. What are the differences in sign and meaning between Revlon ,Maybelline,
Pond’s and The Fuk?
2.
a. What is the perception of Indonesian teenagers about white models
in cosmetic advertisement?
b. How do they think about the the non-white model in cosmetic
advertisement?
3. What are the effects of beauty visualization from the models of those
advertisements to teenagers?
2
1.3
Scope of Study
The scope of this research can be seen from two aspects. The first one is
from its respondents that are the students of SMAN 1 Juwana and SMPN 1
Juwana. The other is its object, because there are so many aspects that can be
analyzed from advertisement so the writer only focuses on the signs that make
beauty perception of cosmetic advertisements from Revlon ,Maybelline, Pond’s
and The Fuk.
1.4
Aims of Study
1. To know the differences of signs and meanings between Revlon
,Maybelline, Pond’s and The Fukin in wrapping beauty perception.
2. To know what the teenagers perception about beauty represented by the
models of those cosmetic advertisements.
3. To find the other effects of those advertisements to teenagers
1.5
Hypothesis
The hypothesis of this research is that there are differences of meaning
brought by these advertisements which affect the teenagers in how they see and
reflect the beauty of a woman.
1.6
Methods of Study
For the method of this research, the writer chooses quantitative method.
Quantitative method is a technique of research based on numeric information.
3
This method uses particular respondents to answer such questionnaire or
structured interview.
“A survey design provides a quantitative or numeric description of some
fraction of the population-the sample-through the data collection process
of asking questions of people” (Creswell, 1994: 117).
The writer uses Jean Baudillard’s theory about Simulacra as the main
theory for this research. In his book, Baudillard states that:
“Simulation is no longer that of a territory, a referential being, or a
substance. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or
reality: a hyperreal” (1994: 3).
The situation nowadays has become so reliant on models that people have lost all
contact with the real world that preceded them. It means that reality begins merely
to imitate the model which precedes and determines the real world.
To support the main theory, the writer uses Pragmatic Semiotic approach
to help in analyzing further about meaning and sign since simulacra relates with
meaning and interpretation. According to Jane Stokes (2003: 76) “Semiotic is one
of the most interpretative methods in analyzing text”. In this research, the writer
chooses semiotic theory by Charles S. Peirce (1931).
“A form of signs is words. The object is something that referenced by
sign. And the interpretan is a sign which is in someone's mind about the
object referenced by sign. If those three elements interact in someone's
mind, then the meaning is created from something represented by sign.
The triangle theory deals with a question of how a meaning is emerged
from a sign when the sign is used by people in communication”.
4
1.7
Significance of Study
The comparison of cosmetic advertisements that have different ways in
presenting women as the beauty model is something rare and new to the writer so
the writer wants to know the Indonesian teenagers’ opinion about having white
skin since they are valuable market to cosmetic industries. Furthermore, this
research uses simulacra theory that explains the changing indication of social sign
because of manipulation from media that creates false consciousness. This
research can also be a reference to further research about related topic.
1.8
Organization of Writing
Chapter 1
: INTRODUCTION
This chapter includes the background that shows the reason why
the writer chose this research, problems that want to be arisen,
limitation of the study, aims of the study, hypothesis, method of
study, significance of study, and organization of writing.
Chapter 2
: LITERARY REVIEW
This chapter consists of the object of research and theoretical
framework.
Chapter 3
: RESEARCH METHOD
This chapter explains about the type of this research, source of
the data, population and sample, technique of collecting data, and
technique of analyzing data.
5
Chapter 4
: ANALYSIS
This chapter discusses about data analyses of the research.
Chapter 5
: CONCLUSION and SUGGESTION
This chapter contains review of the whole analysis.
6
Chapter 2
LITERARY REVIEW
2.1
Object of the Research
The objects of this research are advertisements especially cosmetic
advertisements that use representation of women model as the beauty creature.
The representations of the models from cosmetic advertisements do not base on
the real background where the advertisement broadcasted. Here, the background
means the condition where the people live; geographical location aspect and from
what race they are.
Although Indonesia is one of the largest ethnic countries in the world with
many tribes, many of them are originally from same races and the others are the
minority such as Negroid race in Papua and Mongoloid race from Chinese
descent. Each of those races have their special identity, this should be the pride of
diversity that includes the beauty aspect. On the contrary, the cosmetic
advertisements broadcasted in Indonesia show the opposite of that pride.
Cosmetic advertisements broadcasted in Indonesian show how their product can
change the skin color into white as Caucasians. Meanwhile, the cosmetic
advertisements broadcasted in the modern country like America which has many
ethnics and races too, the different situation arises by the plurality of their color
skin model.
In America, the models of cosmetic advertisement represent their
diversity. The models are plurals; they are not only the white women but also non-
white women. This situation indicates that they appreciate their beauty which has
many forms. Therefore, this different view that shows the beauty form from
model visualization of cosmetic advertisement broadcasted in America can be
considered as a lesson to appreciate the diversity of beauty.
So, the writer takes samples from cosmetic advertisements broadcasted in
American and Indonesian. The samples are taken not from advertisements of the
same product because the writer wants to show the diversity of advertisements
from one product to another in how they present the models. The reason why the
writer chooses those advertisements is based on American Customer’s Brand
Choice Awards for Revlon in 2011 and Maybelline in 2012 and Indonesian
Customer’s Brand Choice Awards for Pond’s in 2012. While the reason for Tje
Fuk, because it clearly states that this product can change skin color into white
with the proven statement by one of the models.
2.2
2.2.1
Theoretical Framework
Theory of Simulacra by Jean Baudillard
The main theory used in this research is a theory from Jean Baudillard
about simulacra in his book Simulacra and Simulation. Baudillrad’s concept about
simulacra is the creation of a reality through conceptual model or something that
cannot be seen the truth in reality. This concept becomes an important factor to
understand about a reality created by media. Everything that attracts human’s
interest can be shown in media with ideal package, here, the boundary between
8
simulation and truth becomes not clear so that it creates simulacra and hyperreality.
“Whereas representation attempts to absorb simulation by interpreting
it as a false representation, simulation envelops the whole edifice of
representation itself as a simulacrum” (Baudillard, 1994: 6).
Hyper-reality creates one condition which is an imitation blending with
the truth. The categories such as truth, lie, origin, issue, and reality do not exist in
such world. This condition makes modern society over in consuming something
whose essentiality is not clear. Most of this society consume not for economical
reason but for pride because they are imitated by influence of model simulation so
that they become more concern in lifestyles and values.
“Beyond meaning, there is the fascination that results from the
neutralization and the implosion of meaning. Beyond the horizon of
the social, there are the masses, which result from the neutralization
and the implosion of the social” (Baudillard, 1994: 50).
The sign of this value becomes priority. Value system is built from
organized object system. This object system works on ideological integration
which has a meaning that a new subject obtains a meaning as “person” through
“personalization” which is managed by object system and sign system. Nowadays,
mass media and information are not being the true communicational medium but
they are being a meaning representation from signs.
To clarify his point of view, Baudillard (1994) argues that there are three
orders of simulacra. The first he associates with pre-modern period, the image is a
clear counterfeit of the real; the image is recognized as just an illusion, a place
9
marker for the real. For the second he associates with the industrial revolution, the
distinctions begin to break down between the image and the representation
because of mass production and proliferation of copies. In the last order, he
associates with post-modern age, people are confronted with a precession of
simulacra where the representation determines the real.
In short way, the differences between simulation and simulacra are the
following: simulation is an imitation from something which is the object or the
situation can be determined between the real reality and the imaginary reality.
When a simulation blends with common truth, it is represented and made as real
as reality then it is mixed with experiences or emotional side from the society, it
becomes simulacra where the real reality and imaginary reality absolutely blur.
This situation can be called a hyper-reality.
2.2.2
Theory of Semiotic Pragmatic by C.S. Peirce
Advertisement is one of the mediums by media which has many signs.
Simulacra itself relates to sign, so for dealing with it, the using of semiotic
pragmatic approach is needed for helping the analysis of this research since
semiotic is study that explains about meaning of sign. Therefore in this research,
the writer uses semiotic pragmatic by Charles S. Peirce that called triadic meaning
theory. As stated by Peirce (1931: 221):
“A REPRESENTAMEN is a subject of triadic relation TO a second,
called its OBJECT, FOR a third, called its INTERPRETANT, this
triadic relation being such that the REPRESENTAMEN determines its
interpretant to stand in the same triadic relation to the same object for
the same interpretant”.
10
Diagram 1. Triadic meaning theory by Charles S. Peirce (1931)
(Sign) Representamen
Object - - - - - - - - - - - > Interpretant
The explanation about Diagram 1 above is as the following:
representamen is something to represent another thing in specific scope so it
always has correlation to others that is called object. Representamen can have a
meaning if it is interpreted in concept through interpretant. So interpretant is a
concept to understand meaning of something. It is the reason why the relation
between object and interpretant has indirect relation because object needs
representamen to give a meaning concept (interpretant).
According to Winfried Noth (1995), Charles S. Peirce divides sign into
many forms but only three types that is famous, namely icon, index, and symbol.
Danesi (2004) explains that, Icon is a sign that represents a reference source as a
form of replication, simulation, imitation, or equation. Index is sign that
represents a source of reference by pointing or linking it (implicitly or explicitly)
to other sources. Symbol is a sign that represents its object through agreement in
specific context. Those three elements of sign and their relation to the reference
source can be seen in the Table 1.
11
Table 1. Relationship between three types of sign and their reference
source
Types
of sign
Relation between sign and its
reference source
Example
Icon
Sign that is designed to represent a If someone sees smoke
reference source through simulation or (R) around while he is
driving to his office then
equation.
the smoke refers to
(The correlation between object, chimney (O) so he
representament, and interpretant is interprets that he is near
direct).
factory (I).
Index
Sign that is designed to identify or to If someone sees a car
picture so he sees R that
link the reference source.
makes him to relate with
(The correlation between object, O; which is the car, then
representament, and interpretant shows he interprets that the car
identity)
belongs to him (I).
Symbol Sign that is designed to encode the If someone sees red flag
(R) on the beach then he
reference sources through agreements.
thinks that it is a danger
(The correlation between object, area (O) so he interprets
representament, and interpretant is that it is danger to swim
conventional)
over there (I).
Note: R stands for Representament, O stands for Object and I stands for
Interpretant.
12
Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODS
3.1
Type of Research
The writer uses hypothesis-testing research as the type of this research.
According to Newman, “characteristically, the studies begin with statements of
theory from which research hypotheses are derived” (1998: 18). It means that the
writer tests the hypothesis and theory with the data. As stated by Kerlinger (1964),
“Quantitative research is frequently referred to as hypothesis-testing research” so
it can be said that hypothesis-testing research is a form of quantitative research
method. Quantitative method is a kind of method of research that shows statistic
by using scale with various methods such as questionnaire or structured interview.
“A survey design provides a quantitative or numeric description of some
fraction of the population-the sample-through the data collection process
of asking questions of people” (Creswell, 1994: 117).
3.2
Data Source
There are two kinds of data source, namely primary data and secondary
data. Primary data is obtained when the researcher collects the information
directly from the source of data, while secondary data is when the information
gained from second party (Dawson, 2002). For this research, the writer uses
questionnaire and interview to the students of SMAN 1 Juwana and SMPN 1
Juwana as the primary data. As the result, information is directly gained from first
party, and also the writer collects the other supporting information from books as
the secondary data. The reason why the writer chooses two different grade schools
is that the writer wants to know whether such factors as educational level
influences in making perception or not, so the writer chooses them as respondents.
3.3
Population and Sample
Population is the total number of analysis element in which characteristic
is being observed. Meanwhile about sample, as stated by Dawson “researchers
overcome this problem by choosing a smaller, more manageable number of
people to take part in their research, this is called sampling” (2002:58); in other
words, sample is a part of population that can be symbolized as the nature of
population being observed. For this research, the writer uses purposive sampling
technique because the respondents are chosen before.
“On the other hand, purposive samples are used if description rather than
generalization is the goal. This type of sampling technique is not possible
to specify the possibility of one person being included in the sample”
(Dawson, 2002: 49).
The population of this research is the students of SMAN 1 Juwana and
SMPN 1 Juwana from many grades. However, the writer does not observe all the
students from both schools, therefore, the writer uses sampling technique for
collecting the information as close as possible to represent the population. The
sampling technique that is used by the writer is nonrandom sampling technique
especially purposive sampling in which the respondents are chosen according to
the problem of research.
14
In this research, the writer chooses 50 % population of OSIS members
from each school. The total respondent of this research is 30. That result is gained
from calculation as follow: 13 active OSIS member of SMPN 1 Juwana plus 2
students of ninth grade so the total is 15 students and 12 active OSIS member of
SMAN 1 Juwana plus 3 students of twelfth grade so the total is 15 students. The
writer chooses active OSIS members because they are the formal representative of
student organization so they can be said that they represent their schools. While
for the ninth and twelfth grade, the reason is that the opinions from all grades are
considered.
3.4
Technique of Collecting Data
The writer uses two techniques of collecting data for this research that are
questionnaire and interview. The questionnaire is a kind of technique used by the
writer to gain information because it can be spread to many people, furthermore,
if questionnaire is spread to many people, it will make the data valid. According
to Dawson (2002), there are three kinds of questionnaire; closed-ended, openended, and combination of both. For this research, the writer chooses combination
questionnaire. It means that the writer uses a series of closed questions and a
section of open-question for more detailed response.
Since this research deals with teenager’s perception in how they see the
models as the beauty creature constructed by cosmetic advertisement so the writer
divides the questionnaire of this research into three parts. The first part is
respondent identity; the respondents of this research are from many school grades
15
so the answers will be used to classify the respondents in data analysis. Then, part
two consists of teenager’s point of view questions about model visualization from
both countries and to know their perception. At the last part, the questions will
help the writer to find the effect of cosmetic advertisement to teenager’s reaction.
Besides questionnaire, the writer also uses interview technique. Interview
is used to get deeper information about related issue by asking direct question to
specific respondents. Therefore, in interview the writer also makes notes of other
important information that do not state in questionnaire.
3.5
Technique of Analyzing Data
In doing this research, the writer arranges some steps. The following
points are the steps of analyzing data.
1. The writer spreads the questionnaire to the respondents; the selected
students from SMAN 1 Juwana and SMPN 1 Juwana from each grades
and the writer also makes notes of interview from some of those students.
2. The writer collects the answered questionnaire from the respondents and
interview notes to be analyzed.
3. In analyzing, the writer categorizes the object to determine the signs. The
category is divided into three steps which are identification, classification
and interpretation. Then the writer analyzes similarities and differences of
the object and the data collected from the respondent. The writer explains
the result of collecting data to answer the questions in problem of research
through tables and charts by correlating with the theory. In making statistic
16
scale, the writer does not use computer software but counts the responses
and rewrites those responses. Statistical representation will be presented
from data collecting and will be used to explain about related topic.
4. Then the writer writes the result analysis.
17
Chapter 4
ANALYSIS
For analyzing the signs, the writer divides this research into three factors
which are identification, classification, and interpretation. The identification and
classification of sign in this research are analyzed by adopting Charles S. Peirce’s
theory with the relation of three types of sign to their reference source, and for
analyzing the sign interpretation, the writer uses triadic meaning theory also by
Charles S. Peirce. While in the data analysis, the writer divides into two groups
based on the problems of research.
4.1
Identification, Classification, and Interpretation of Sign from
Cosmetic Advertisements
4.1.1
Revlon Color Stay Aqua
As one of the biggest cosmetic brand in the world, Revlon has developed
its products so that the products can mix with many skin types. In this
advertisement, it can be identified and classified that there are many signs in this
30 second duration video.
Table 2. Identification and Classification of Revlon Color Stay Aqua
Advertisement
Types
of Sign
Icon
Index
Explanation
Sign that is designed to
represent a reference
source through
simulation or equation.
Sign that is designed to
identify or to link the
reference source.
Sign that is designed to
encode the reference
Symbol sources through
agreements.
Analysis Scene Unit

The African-American model
picture, Halle Berry.
R 00.00.03

The beach as product background.
R 00.00.10

Product motto.
R 00.00.24

The Halle Berry expression..
R 00.00.21

The work visualization.
R 00.00.14

The ingredient illustration from
coconut water.
R 00.00.09

The sunset at beach cliff.
R 00.00.29

The dominant color.
R 00.00.02
19
After identification and classification process of this advertisement, the
next step is meaning interpretation. The interpretation explains about meaning of
observation result from the types of sign above. Based on sign identification and
classification of Revlon advertisement, it can be explained that each types of sign
has different meaning to interpret. The meaning interpretations from type of sign
from this advertisement are as follows:
1. Meaning Interpretation of Icon
Table 2.1 Meaning Interpretation of Icon from Revlon Color Stay Aqua
Advertisement
No.
Object
1
The model, Halle
Berry.
R 00.00.03
2
The
beach
product
background.
R 00.00.10
3
Product motto.
R 00.00.24
Representament
Interpretant
Same as the
object
Persuasive urge to convince
customers that this product
is trusted even the
international actress
believes and uses it.
Same as the
object
Giving fresh sensation and
representing many
customers.
Same as the
object
To build an image of “cool”
product.
as
Based on identification and classification result above, the writer finds
three icons. On the first icon is the model. Halle Berry is an International actress
20
from African-American descendant. As an African-American, her skin color is not
white so it is suitable with the product name, color stay aqua mineral. The
interpretation of Halle Berry as Revlon Brand Ambassador is that she can
influence and convince her descendant or even more; the others non-white women
and white women, to use this product so that the women who apply this product
can have beautiful skin as Halle Berry.
On the second icon that is the landscape of this product; it is a beach. The
interpretation is to give fresh sensation because the special ingredient of this
product is taken from beach plantation, the coconut water. Beach is also one of
vacation destination spots to relax and enjoy the sunshine and the sea. As one of
vacation spots, beach always has many tourists. For Revlon, it represents that this
product will have many customers as many as the tourists.
The last icon is the product motto, refreshingly perfect. From this motto, it
can be interpreted that its special ingredient, coconut water, is the secret to have
cool image. Here, the meaning of cool has two meanings; cool means awesome
and cool means freeze sensation so Revlon wants to create both images. Through
this product, Revlon assumes that its product represents something cool that the
customer should try.
21
2. Meaning Interpretation of Index
Table 2.2 Meaning Interpretation of Index from Revlon Color Stay Aqua
Advertisement
No.
1
2
Object
The Halle Berry’s
expression.
R 00.00.21
The work
visualization.
R 00.00.14
Representament
Interpretant
The smiling Halle
Berry.
A welcoming effort to
convince customers that this
product is convenient and
trusted.
The splashing
water absorbed
by the skin.
To give an image since this
product uses coconut water
as the ingredient so this
product will be absorbed
perfectly like the water.
In this type, the relation between object and reprasentament shows
identity. The first index is the expression of Halle Berry. In this advertisement,
she shows her smile every time. This indicates a friendly greeting or even a
flattery. The interpretation of this index is that the effort of Revlon to welcome the
customers so that they open their mind to try this product. Besides, a friendly
smile can be considered as a polite communication attitude so that the customers
who watch this advertisement are pursued to see and to hear the massage in this
advertisement until its end. Furthermore, Halle Berry also gives her happiness
expression through her smile, it is a convincing the customers that this product is
safe and trusted.
22
At the last of index type is the work visualization. The relation with the
representament is perfect product absorption. This is the image that Revlon tries
to build. Revlon believes that the using of coconut water gives special effect as the
water characteristic. This product will be absorbed by the skin perfectly and
refreshingly.
3. Meaning Interpretation of Symbol
Table 2.3 Meaning Interpretation of Symbol from Revlon Color Stay Aqua
Advertisement
No.
1
2
Object
Representament
The
ingredient
from
coconut
water.
Same as the
R 00.00.09
object
The
sunset
beach cliff.
00.00.29
at
R
Coconut water is one fresh
liquid that gives cool
sensation naturally.
Same as the
object
Sunset means the end of a
day, while beach cliff means
the end of a land.
The white color.
White gives impression that
this product is simple.
Besides that, it also stresses
that white color is neutral so
it is not only for white skin
women.
The dominant color
R 00.00.02
3
Interpretant
In this type, there are three symbols that the writer found. The first symbol
is the ingredient from coconut water. The interpretation of this symbol is the
goodness of coconut water for skin. As known, the coconut water has many
23
electrolytes needed by human body so Revlon wants to use the benefit of them for
applying on skin directly. Besides, coconut water gives fresh and cool sensation
when it is consumed; this product also gives those sensations. This is an image of
Revlon for this product.
For the second symbol is the sunset at beach cliff. The using sunset
moment and beach cliff is because there is a similarity between them. The
similarity is an ending; sunset is an end of a day and beach cliff is an end of a
land. The representation is an end of something so the interpretation for this
symbol is that Revlon tries to make this product as the end of customer seeks for.
At the last of symbol is the dominant color of this advertisement. It can be
seen that almost of this advertisement uses white color such as the dress color and
the background properties. For this advertisement, white color is a color that
represents a character which has relation with pureness, clean and goodness.
Based on the selected color concept with the relation of a character, the
interpretation of this symbol is that Revlon wants to show about the product
existence that is clean and hygienic of nature goodness so the product will give
you a good result. Furthermore, the using of white dress by non-white woman
gives a contrariety color. It means that this advertisement tries to give a new
perspective in the beauty case that all women deserve the same treatment. This
advertisement shows that an African-American woman is suitable and looks pretty
in white dress because white is neutral color.
24
4.1.2
Maybelline Air Foam Foundation
Headquartering in United States of America, Maybelline is one of the
biggest cosmetic industries that always develops and produces a new product. As
one of the new products of Maybelline, this product is made to suitable for any
skin color starting from teenager until adult woman. The result analysis of
identification and classification for this product advertisement is as follow.
Table 3.
Type
of Sign
Icon
Index
Identification and Classification
Foundation Advertisement
Explanation
Maybelline
Air
Foam
Analysis Scene Unit

Three different skin color model;
black, white and color.
M 00.00.24

The content that looks like foam.
M 00.00.06
Sign that is designed to
represent a reference
source through simulation

or equation.
Sign that is designed to
identify or to link the
reference source.
of
Applied product scene.
M 00.00.18

The sunny New York landscape.
M 00.00.05 M 00.00.12

The model expression.
M 00.00.08
25
Sign that is designed to
encode the reference
Symbol sources through
agreements.

The dress.
M 00.00.02 M 00.00.05

The final statement.
M 00.00.23

The visualization of lightness.
M 00.00.21
M 00.00.04

The color domination.
M 00.00.06 M 00.00.16 M 00.00.04
After identifying and classifying the sign of Maybelline Air Foam
Foundation advertisement, the next step is meaning interpretation. Based on sign
identification and classification of the advertisement above, it can be explained
that each types of sign has different meaning to interpret. The meaning
interpretations of sign from this advertisement are as follows:
26
1. Meaning Interpretation of Icon
Table 3.1 Meaning Interpretation of Icon from Maybelline Air Foam
Foundation Advertisement
No.
1
2
3
Object
Three different skin
color model; black,
white and color.
Same as the
M 00.00.24
object
The content that
looks like foam.
M 00.00.06
Same as the
object
Face massage scene.
M 00.00.18
Same as the
object
The sunny New
York landscape.
4
Representament
M00.00.05M 00.00.12
Same as the
object
Interpretant
Universal using.
Light product.
Persuasive approach for the
customer to use the product.
Real American product.
From Table 3.1 above, there are four kinds of icon type. The first icon is
the visual of three different skin color model. The interpretation of this icon is that
Maybelline product is suitable for universal using represented by the models that
have different skin color. Each models represents their races lived in America;
white model represents the white women, black model represents AfricanAmerican descendant and color model represents Latin-America descendant, this
27
indicates that Maybelline instead tries to get customers from all races, also
Maybelline appreciates the beauty of every woman by beautifying who they are.
For the second icon is the content that looks like foam. This product brings
a new view about cosmetic using by denying heavy make-up. The interpretation
of this icon is that Maybelline with its light content wants to give a new
experience than the conventional make-up. By presenting its content, Maybelline
creates something special; the allegory of this is that because this product is
special so the customers who use it will be special women.
For the third icon is the face massage scene. In this scene, the model wants
to show her skin by gently touching her face as if using the product. The
interpretation from this icon is to pursue the customer to use this product. By
enjoying gently touching the face skin, this advertisement shows the result that
smooth skin will be gained after using the product.
At the last icon type is sunny New York landscape. The interpretation by
choosing New York as the landscape is that this advertisement gives statement if
this product is a real American product. As the modern country, America is
always a destination place to chase the dream by people who desire about gaining
the American dream. Furthermore, the weather in this advertisement is bright
sunny, it means a light of hope if it is related with emotion representation of sun
light. Therefore, Maybelline through this advertisement wants to give a dream
dreamed by women for a better skin by modern technology processing.
28
2. Meaning Interpretation of Index
Table 3.2
No.
1
Meaning Interpretation of Index from Maybelline Air Foam
Foundation Advertisement
Object
The model
expression.
M 00.00.08
The dress color.
M 00.00.02M 00.00.05
2
The final statement.
M 00.00.23
3
Representament
The comfort
expression from
the model.
White, cream and
dark brown dress
of the models.
100% nude
perfect statement.
Interpretant
The product implicitly states
that this product gives an
enjoyment and happiness
when it applies on.
Giving understanding that
this product is suitable for
every kind of skin color
Convincing that this product
perfectly protects the
uncovered skin.
The first index is the model expression. The model shows her conformity
and enjoyment when using the product. By giving such expression, it can be
interpreted that Maybelline will give result wanted by the customers. This
expression is also a persuasion step to the customers so that they are interested to
try this new product of Maybelline and finally use it.
The second index is the dress color. Here, all the models use the dress that
represents their skin. The interpretation for these dresses is that Maybelline shows
the beauty of diversity from America where the people come from many races so
it represents the liberty of America. Through this step, instead Maybelline wants
29
to get many customers from many women by not considering their skin color also
Maybelline gives an understanding to appreciate human as human without seeing
the skin color that they have.
At the last index is the final statement of Maybelline. The statement is
“100% nude perfect”. For this statement, the interpretation is that Maybelline
clearly states if this product is suitable for uncovered skin such as face skin. This
is the advantages that Maybelline has. Through its step, Maybelline understands
the need of nude skin and tries to fulfill the need by giving special ingredient that
protects the nude skin with its light ingredient.
3. Meaning Interpretation of Symbol
Table 3.3
No.
Meaning Interpretation of Symbol from Maybelline Air Foam
Foundation Advertisement
Object
Representament
The visualization
of lightness.
1
M 00.00.21M 00.00.04
Interpretant
The bubbles.
As an image and a
persuasion step.
White and blue
background.
Giving a new perspective
about beauty and a new
special product.
The color
domination.
M 00.00.06 M00.00.16
2
M 00.00.04
30
For the symbol type of this advertisement, there are two kinds that the
writer found as showed by Table 3.3 above. The first symbol is the lightness
visualization represented by the bubbles. The interpretation of the bubbles in this
advertisement is a supporting image. This product brings a new view about
cosmetic that is a light cosmetic. For the visualization of special aerated pigment
ingredient, it needs something light to represent its lightness. By showing the
bubbles, the viewer of this advertisement can imagine how light it is; even on the
bubble, the ingredient is still on and the bubble does not crack.
For the second symbol is the color domination. In this advertisement, there
are two colors background which are white and blue color. The white color relates
with clean, pureness and goodness, while the blue color represents simplicity and
freshness. The interpretation of white color is that Maybelline through this product
advertisement assures the customer if this product is clean and safe. By presenting
white color, Maybelline also gives a new perspective about beauty of diversity
since white also related with pureness. For the blue color, the interpretation is that
Maybelline knows its product denies the heavy make-up, it means that this
product is simple easy to use. By bringing simplicity, this product gives an image
of a modern cosmetic product since simplicity related with modernity.
Furthermore, to give another image in this product, Maybelline relates it with
freshness that means a special and different product has created.
31
4.1.3
Pond’s White Beauty
Pond’s is one the products from Unilever company. Through the
advertisement, Pond’s offers a result to women who admire their skin brighter.
Headquartering in Philippines, the products of Pond’s spread to many countries in
Southeast Asia including Indonesia. The result analysis of identification and
classification from Pond’s White Beauty advertisement broadcasted in Indonesia
is as follow:
Table 4. Identification and Classification of Pond’s White Beauty
Advertisement
Type
of Sign
Icon
Explanation
Analysis Scene Unit

The product that is taken and used
by model.
P 00.00.01 P 00.00.03

Changing the weather; cloudy
into sunny.
P 00.00.11
Sign that is designed to
represent a reference source
through simulation or
equation.


32
Easy to find a boyfriend.
P 00.00.15
Kissing scene.
P 00.00.26
Sign that is designed to
identify or to link the
reference source.
Index
Sign that is designed to
encode the reference
Symbol sources through
agreements.

The changing color skin.
P 00.00.05

The model expression.
P 00.00.06

The final statement.

Pink and white dress.
P 00.00.08

Pro-nutrient text.
00.00.03
After doing the identification and classification analysis, the next step is
interpretation. By adopting the theory from Charles S. Peirce about triadic
meaning, the writer tries to explain about meaning of observation result from the
types of sign above. Based on sign identification and classification of Pond’s
advertisement, it can be explained that each type of sign has different meaning to
interpret. The meaning interpretations of sign from this advertisement are as
follows:
33
1.
Meaning Interpretation of Icon
Table 4.1 Meaning Interpretation of Icon from Pond’s White Beauty
Advertisement
No.
Object
Representament
The product that is
taken and used by
model.
1
2
3
4
Interpretant
Same as the
object
First step in attracting the
attention from customers.
Changing
the
weather;
cloudy
Same as the
into sunny.
object
P 00.00.11
Gaining a new hope and a
new spirit.
Easy to find
boyfriend.
P 00.00.15
Same as the
object
To flatter the customer in
love side.
Same as the
object
Having a happy ending.
P 00.00.01P 00.00.03
Kissing scene.
P 00.00.26
a
From the Table 4.1 above, there are four icons. The first icon is the taken
product and the using product scenes. In these scenes, the model takes and applies
the product to her skin face. The interpretation of these scenes is that Pond’s tries
to flatter the customer through the model to use the product. As the Pond’s model,
the model has beauty face, therefore she is considered to have ability for
34
representing the beauty that will be gained after using Pond’s product. By seeing
her face, the customers are expected to attract in using this product.
For the second icon is the changing weather. In this scene, the weather is
changed from cloudy into sunny by the movement of model’s hand. The
interpretation from this acting is that Pond’s has power to change your day; the
meaning of this is that Pond’s will change your life into luck since the sunshine
brings an image of a new hope. After using Pond’s product, the opportunities will
come closer to you and you are ready to grab them. Besides that, the sunny
weather also means new spirit. Here, Pond’s gives a positive energy that makes
your daily activities brighter.
The next icon is easy to find your mate scene. This scene shows the model
is easy to get a boyfriend as easy in controlling her finger. The interpretation is
almost same as the sign number two. The different is just from the representation,
if the number two sunshine means hope, while in the number three a boyfriend
means your love. Here, Pond’s tries to re-flatter the customer by showing the
scene that implies you will get a mate as handsome as you want because your
beauty-face after using this product.
At the last icon is the kissing scene. After getting a new boyfriend, the
model acts to kiss him. The interpretation of this scene is that you will have a
happy ending story. Through this scene, Pond’s assures that your ending story
will change into happy; you will have something that you always desire to. It is an
effort that Pond’s tries to do in attracting the customer’s attention.
35
2. Meaning Interpretation of Index
Table 4.2 Meaning Interpretation of Index from Pond’s White Beauty
Advertisement
No.
1
2
3
Object
Representament
Interpretant
The changing color The changing step
skin.
from dark to
Emphasizing in changing
P 00.00.05
bright white
the skin color into white.
scene.
The model
expression.
P 00.00.06
The smiling
model after using
the product.
The final statement
from the naration.
The statement is
Tunjukan pada
dunia dirimu
yang baru.
Persuasive approach in
getting attention from
customer.
To pursue the customers to
show their new skin so that
they are appreciated by the
world.
There are three indexes of this advertisement. The first one is the changing
color skin. The advertisement simulates skin color changing from before and after
using Pond’s product. It can be interpreted that Pond’s product emphasizes in
changing skin color into more white. By this simulation, Pond’s tries to persuade
customers who want to have white skin. From this point, Pond’s gives a hope for
better opportunities that will be gained by having white skin.
The second one is the model expression. In this scene, the model gives her
satisfied smile after her skin becomes white. The interpretation of this scene is
that Pond’s through the model expression tries to get attention from the customer
36
because the model’s smile gives unspoken statement about satisfy feeling from a
product which is waited for and the best result is only gained from this Pond’s
product.
At the last one is the final statement from this advertisement. The
statement is a smooth advice statement to show the new you to the world. The
interpretation from this statement is that Pond’s assures the customers to show
their new skin by using Pond’s product. This indicates that Pond’s pursues the
customers to have big confident since the skin color has changed into white so
that they will be appreciated by the world.
3. Meaning Interpretation of Symbol
Table 4.3
No.
Meaning Interpretation of Symbol from Pond’s White Beauty
Advertisement
Object
The dress color.
P 00.00.08
1
Pro-nutrient text.
P 00.00.03
2
Representament
Interpretant
White and pink
dress.
The representation of
women characteristic;
haveing white skin and
feministic.
Skin whitening
active 200%.
To build an image of ral
whitening cream.
For the symbol, there are two kinds from this advertisement. The first
symbol is the dress color. At the beginning, the model gets out her dress
collections then she chooses the white and pink dress to be used on. The
37
interpretation from this sign is that the reason why the model chooses that dress is
because correlation with the point that Pond’s brings. White color represents
white skin and pink color represents feminism. Here, the combination of those
colors creates the characteristic of women that should have white skin and be
feministic.
The last symbol is the pro-nutrient text. In this advertisement, it is stated
that the product has skin whitening active that makes skin brighter until
200%.This text strives for the prove about the special ingredient that Pond’s has
in this product. So the interpretation of this sign is that Pond’s wants to be an
image of the real whitening cosmetic by giving not just 100% of result but until
200% of result. Through this strategy, Pond’s seriously concerns in whitening
skin and tries to lead the other competitors in skin care especially in whitening
skin by giving 200% of result.
4.1.4
Tje Fuk Whitening Cream
Tje Fuk is new player is cosmetic brand in Indonesian market. This
Chinese product spreads in Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia.
Concerning in whitening skin color, Tje Fuk gives a real proof through its
advertisement than the others. The result analysis from its advertisement
broadcasted in Indonesia is as follow:
38
Table 5. Identification and Classification of Tje Fuk Advertisement
Type
of Sign
Explanation
Analysis Unit

Icon
Index
Sign that is designed to
represent a reference source
through simulation or

equation.
White color background.
T 00.00.01

Product motto.
T 00.00.10

Non mercury and Hydroquinon.
T 00.00.11

Japanese formula.
T 00.00.03
Sign that is designed to
identify or to link the
reference source.
Sign that is designed to
encode the reference
Symbol sources through
agreements.
White skin women and a man
models.
T 00.00.05 T 00.00.13
After identification and classification process of this advertisement, the
next step is meaning interpretation. The interpretation explains about meaning of
observation result from the kinds of sign above. Based on sign identification and
classification of The Fuk advertisement, it can be explained that each kinds of
sign has different meaning to interpret. The meaning interpretations of sign from
this advertisement are as follows:
39
1. Meaning Interpretation of Icon
Table 5.1
No.
Meaning Interpretation of Icon from Tje Fuk Advertisement
Object
Representament
Interpretant
White skin women
and a man models.
T 00.00.05 T 00.00.13
1
2
Same as the
object
To show the real result of
product work.
White
color
background.
Same as the
T 00.00.01
object
Emphasizing an image of
whitening cream and
Creating the customer’s
mindset of working
whitening cream.
From the Table 5.1, there are two icons that can be interpreted from this
advertisement. The first icon is the models. This advertisement shows three white
women and a white man. By showing the models, Tje Fuk tries to give a proof if
this product works well. The interpretation from this icon is that Tje Fuk offers a
real result because the models have tried this product before. This is a strategy
from Tje Fuk to sell the product with different advertisement by presenting model
from outside entertainment world. It is a convincing approach by Tje Fuk so that
the customers believe about the truth of the product work. Furthermore, by using a
man model who gives statement that he has tried this product, it means that this
product is not only suitable for women skin but also for men skin too. From this
point, it can be considered that men also want to have white skin too.
40
The last icon is the background of this advertisement. The background is
all white; there are no other colors so it is an absolute white. The interpretation of
this icon is that Tje Fuk emphasizes if this product really gives a white result to
the customers who use it. By showing white background in all duration, it means
that Tje Fuk tries to manage the people who see this advertisement to have a
mindset if you wonder a healthy white skin so you should use this product to your
skin.
2. Meaning Interpretation of Index
Table 5.2
No.
Meaning Interpretation of Index from Tje Fuk Advertisement
Object
Product motto.
T 00.00.10
1
Representament
“cantik sempurna
cantik Tje Fuk”
text
Interpretant
An image in getting a real
beauty.
There is only one index from Tje Fuk advertisement. The index is the
product motto. It states cantik sempurna cantik Tje Fuk. This motto is an effort by
Tje Fuk to build an image of a real whitening skin cosmetic. From this index, it
can be interpreted that the perfect beauty is only can be gotten from Tje Fuk
product. Through this motto, Tje Fuk convinces the customers if a perfect beauty
is by having healthy white skin since this product changes skin color into white.
41
3. Meaning Interpretation of Symbol
Table 5.3 Meaning Interpretation of Symbol from Tje Fuk Advertisement
No.
1
2
Object
Representament
Non mercury and
Each words
Hydroquinon.
meaning bases on
T 00.00.11
dictionary
The ingredient of
Tje Fuk product.
T 00.00.03
Japanese formula.
Interpretant
Trying to educate the
customer in using safe
cosmetic product.
A strategy in convincing
customer of a special
formula used in this
product.
The Table 5.3 shows that there are two symbols. The first symbol is “nonmercury and hydroquinone “ text. Mercury and hydroquinone are chemical
elements which are characteristically toxic. Usually those elements are used in
cosmetic product but under controlling by specialist cosmetic expert for some
special cosmetics only. The interpretation by giving that statement is that Tje Fuk
tries to educate the customer for using a safe cosmetic product. The reason why
Tje Fuk uses this statement is to show that Tje Fuk is a Chinese product which is
different from the other Chinese products that have been sold in Indonesian
market illegally. It is a commitment for Tje Fuk in getting beauty white skin by
not using dangerous chemical elements. It is an important move to have loyal
customers for surviving in cosmetic industry in Indonesia.
The last symbol is the ingredient of Tje Fuk. Tje Fuk uses a special
ingredient made from Japanese formula. The interpretation is that Tje Fuk wants
42
to convince the customers if this product can whiten the skin. Historically,
Japanese people are not from Caucasian race like the European but from
Mongoloid race. Their white skin is an adaptation to their geographic and
environment condition. Japanese women are drawn with having white skin like
Geisha that is one of the Japanese icons. This is why Tje Fuk states clearly in
using Japanese formula so that the customers believe in the superiority of this
product.
4.2
Teenager’s Perspective about Beauty
The research that has been done by the writer gives information that the
majority of teenager respondents from SMP N 1 Juwana and SMA N 1 Juwana
has tendency for having white skin (Chart 1).
Chart 1. Percentage of total respondents in desiring white skin
Percentage of total respondents in desiring
white skin.
6.67%
6.67%
want badly
want
30%
want-less
not want
really not want
56.66%
According to the research, there are various reasons for this circumstance but
almost the respondents have same common that they tend to positive perception
about white skin. The respondents’ answer informs that white skin can be
43
considered as the first standard of beauty since white skin can support the outlook
because it is brighter and cleaner than the others (Table 6).
Table 6.
The respondent’s opinion about having white skin
The respondent’s opinion about having white skin
Percentage
White skin is identical with beauty
20%
White skin people are easy to sick
16.67%
White skin will give more positive attention from the
others
13.33%
Raising the confidence
13.33%
White skin looks cleaner and brighter than the others
10%
More comfortable if having white skin
10%
Supporting the outlook
6.67%
White skin is pampered
3.33%
Too harsh in caring white skin
3.33%
From the Chart 1 and Table 6 above, we can see that the respondents who
want to have white skin reach 86.66% and the respondents’ positive response in
having white skin ups to 73.33%. So why does the majority of respondents think
in such way?
According the assumption of Baudillard (1994), media, simulation and
cyber world have constructed and constituted a new experience, cultural stages
and new type of society. By using this assumption, it can be said that it is an
explanation about a phenomenon in Indonesian cosmetic advertisement world
44
where there is homogeneity in serving beauty package from the model’s outlook
to support the idea of the ideal beauty. Through the appearance of model, the
cosmetic advertisement agent makes a simulation about a beauty standard that
will create a condition where the society should think so.
Baudillard stated that a condition that happens right now is impossible for
the society to get out from capitalism because the world has fully loaded with
consumptions and symbols, this is a power brought by sign, symbol and
technology (1994). Right now, consumption is not only for fulfill the needs and
the production is not only for producing the needs but, further, it creates a
symbolic prestige so there is a transformation mode from production to
consumption. This transformation is a changing form into domination of signs and
symbols. For the example, some women will spend a lot of money to buy some
skin care stuffs. If it is thought, what they did is not to fulfill human basic need
but for their pleasure in their prestige.
Nowadays, mass media and information in the society, called by
Baudillard as consumer society, are no longer as communication medium but as
the facility for presenting signs and symbols from capitalist product with the aim
is to lead the society into hyper-reality in simulacra As stated by Baudillard
(1994:53) “We live in a world where there is more and more information, and less
and less meaning”. This is why the majority of respondents want to have white
skin. Because the communicational medium, in this case is advertisement on TV,
serve the ideal package of beauty that should have by the women. By always
presenting white women as the model of beauty product, the Indonesian
45
advertisement gives a beauty simulation which is presented all of time so that in
the viewer’s mind will create an perception that white skin is more beauty (Chart
2).
Chart 2. Percentage of respondent’s opinion about white skin is beauty
Percentage of respondent's opinion about
white skin is beauty
6.67%
10%
absolutely agree
13.33%
agree
not sure
10%
not agree
absolutely not agree
60%
From the explanation above, it can be said that the perception is white =
clean, clean = beauty, so white = beauty. And it is supported from the result of
Chart 2 that gives information if 70% of respondent agrees with that perception
so the implication of this view is the other skin colors are not beauty. To know
further about this implication, the writer asks the respondents to give the example
of a woman whom they think the most beauty from inside and outside Indonesia
(Table 7). This question leads to the visualization description from the respondent
to draw their beauty perception in real world.
46
Table 7.
The top beauty women from the respondent’s opinion
The top beauty women from the respondent’s opinion
Inside Indonesia
Name
Percentage
Mother
26.67%
Respondent herself
6.67%
Cherrybelle member
6.67%
JKT48 member
6.67%
Dinda Kirana
6.67%
Dian Sastrowardoyo
6.67%
Citra Kirana
6.67%
Nabila Syakieb
6.67%
Mika Tambayong
3.33%
Donita
3.33%
Yuanita Christiani
3.33%
Chelsea Olivia
3.33%
Gita Gutawa
3.33%
Kimberly Ryder
3.33%
Nasya Marcela
3.33%
Revalina S. Temat
3.33%
Outside Indonesia
Name
Percentage
SNSD member
30%
Song Hye Kyo
13.33%
Selena Gomez
6.67%
Preity Zinta
6.67%
Taylor Swift
6.67%
Megan Fox
3.33%
Kim Kadarshian
3.33%
Adele
3.33%
Oprah Winfrey
3.33%
Angelina Jolie
3.33%
Miyabi
3.33%
Not Answer
16.67%
The Table 7 shows two lists that describes how the respondents visualize
their perception to represent beauty. The first list is the chosen women from inside
Indonesia. There is 33.34% of respondent’s response cannot be classified which is
mother and respondent herself, and 6.66% of respondent chooses celebrities who
has an Indonesian skin color, the celebrities are Dian Sastrowadoyo and Mika
Tambayong. While for the rest, up to 56.67% of respondent mentions the
Indonesian celebrities who have white skin.
The same condition also happens in the second list that is from outside
Indonesia. It is just 9.99% of respondent who said their beauty visualization from
non-white celebrities; Kim Kadarshian, Adele and Oprah Winfrey. The majority
47
of respondent is still chooses white skin celebrities to represent their view of
beauty, the number is 73.33%. The top celebrities who are selected by the
respondent are from Korea, it is up to 43.33% of respondent. Even Korean people
are not from Caucasian but they have white skin, instead it is because their
adaptation to the environment, also they come from Mongoloid race like Chinese
and Japan. The other 6.67% of respondent tends not to choose anyone from
outside Indonesia to represent their view.
From the information of Table 7, it can be said that the perception of
beauty from the majority of respondent, since there is same outlook between
women from inside and outside Indonesia, is slim women who have white skin
and straight hair. This result relates with from where the respondent get the
information. So to know about it, the writer asks three questions. The first one is
about the model of Indonesian cosmetic advertisements (Chart 3), second one is
to know how the respondent’s judgment about pictures that the writer served and
its answers are selected by the writer (Table 8) and the last one is the most
attractive picture to the respondent (Table 9). So the results are as the following.
48
Chart 3.
Percentage of respondent’s opinion that Indonesian model mostly
have white skin
Percentage of respondent's opinion that
Indonesian models mostly have white skin.
3.33%
3.33%
absolutely agree
33.33%
agree
not sure
not agree
absolutely not agree
60%
Table 8.
The respondent’s judgment of model’s appearance
The respondent’s judgment of model’s appearance
Pond’s
The model is beauty
Some of the models are
beautiful
The model is ordinary
The models are not beautiful
Not answer or not know
Tje Fuk
Maybelline
The models are beauty
Percentage
80.00%
6.67%
13.33%
-
Some of the models are
beautiful
20%
The models are ordinary
30%
The models are not beautiful
33.33%
Not answer or not know
16.67%
The models are beauty
13.33%
Some of the models are
beautiful
The models are ordinary
The models are not beautiful
49
50%
16.67%
3.33%
Revlon
Not answer or not know
16.67%
The model is beauty
23.33%
Some of the models are
beautiful
3.33%
The model is ordinary
56.67%
The models are not beautiful
Not answer or not know
Table 9.
3.33%
13.33%
The respondent’s reasons in which model’s appearance is the
most attractive to them
The respondent’s reasons in which model’s
appearance is the most attractive to them
The model is beautiful than the
others
Pond’s
Using the product
Percentage
33.33%
6.67%
The model is more convincing
3.33%
The models are not young
Tje Fuk
Maybelline
10%
The models are beauty
3.33%
Weird advertisement
33.33%
The models are plural
13.33%
The models are interesting
50%
Appreciate individual’s beauty
16.67%
The model’s beauty is natural
23.33%
Revlon
Branded product
3.33%
The Chart 3 shows that 93.99% of respondent agrees with Indonesian
cosmetic models mostly have white skin. It indicates that the model has big
contribution in affecting the beauty perception. While from Table 8 and Table 9,
the writer combines them and divides into four categories as follows:
50
1. The most beautiful model. Most of respondent answers that the model of
Pond’s is the most beautiful than other models, it ups to 80%. The model has
white skin and straight hair with proportional body. It is strengthen by the
respondent’s response that 33.33% of them are agree with the model who is
the most beautiful among the others.
2. The uncommon model of cosmetic. For this category, it is hold by the models
of Maybelline. The respondent seems unfamiliar by seeing black skin as the
model of cosmetic. It is proven from 50% of respondent chooses that some of
the models are beautiful. The reason is because the models are interesting
(50%).
3. The ordinary beautiful model. The model of Revlon holds this category with
56.67% of respondent who chooses this option. The respondents say that this
model has natural beautiful face (23.33%).
4. The last category is the not too beautiful model. The respondent chooses the
models from Tje Fuk. The percentage is 33.33%. But the reason for this is not
related to the models directly. Most of the respondent’s reasons are because
weird narration of the advertisement (33.33%).
This condition leads to the thought that the teenagers from Juwana district
have been influenced by what the media serve. Most of them choose the
celebrities who have white skin to represent their perception of beauty. In this
point, the media is success in wrapping the beauty concept they brought to the
viewer. This is what Baudillard called as hyper-reality where the simulation of
model becomes common truth that lies in consumer society’s mind so that it is
51
very difficult to determine which one is the real reality from real consciousness
and which one is from the false consciousness.
“Thus the media are producers not of socialization, but of exactly the
opposite, of the implosion of the social in the masses. And this only the
macroscopic extension of the implosion of meaning in the microscopic
level of the sign” (Baudillard, 1994: 54).
4.3
The Effect of Cosmetic Advertisement to Teenager
While people are watching the advertisement, unconsciously they are also
exposed by the signs that the advertisement brought. This unconsciousness roots
in their mind, and someday it will affect in how they see and judge something. So
what they are experiencing today is the absorption of virtual modes of expression
from mass media including advertisement. In this condition, it is no longer about
what people should believe in or what they should accept as routine but it all
about fascination that once lay in its power to simplify the sign and the meaning
so that can affect its viewer.
“And, today, true advertising lies therein: in the design of social, in the
exaltation of the social in all its forms, in the fierce, obstinate remainder of
a social, the need for which makes itself rudely felt” (Baudillard, 1994:
61).
By this circumstance, the writer tries to find out how far the respondents
absorb the sign that the advertisement brought. The first question that the write
asked to them is if the white skin model can be more convincing. The result is on
below (Chart 4).
52
Chart 4.
Percentage of respondent’s opinion that white model can be more
convincing
Percentage of respondent's opinion that white model can be
more convincing than the others.
3.33% 3.33%
26.67%
16.67%
absolutely agree
agree
not sure
not agree
absolutely not agree
50%
This chart informs that 76.67% of respondent is more convenient in white
skin as the model of advertisement. This condition shows the majority of
respondent has positive judgment to the advertisement that uses white women. So
having white skin is important to get positive judgment from the society. It also
can be a motive to the respondent to get same judgment of their outlook from the
society. By having this motive, the respondents will try hard to have white skin,
and usually it can stop until their prestige is fulfilled as what their desire.
“With simulacra rooted in the mind, the society cannot get out from its
shadow till they feel satisfied” (Baudillard, 1994: 15).
To know further about the effect of the Indonesian cosmetic
advertisement, the writer then asks about the affection of the advertisements
serves like whitening the skin (Chart 5).
53
Chart 5.
Percentage of whitening skin affection to the respondent
Percentage of whitening skin affection to the
respondnet
6.67%
3.33%
13.33%
absolutely believe
believe
not sure
40%
not believe
36.67%
absolutely not believe
The chart above tells that more than half respondent believe in what the cosmetic
advertisement serves that is whitening the skin. This result is reasonable since the
majority of respondent has a positive perception about white skin so it is easy for
the cosmetic advertisement to serve an ideal package, through model, that can be
assured to be accepted by the society. So it leads to the next question of how far
does that model influence the respondent to use the cosmetic product especially
the whitening product?
Chart 6.
Percentage of respondents who are influenced by model in using
cosmetic product
Percentage of respondents who are influenced by model in
using cosmetic product.
16.67%
30%
really influenced
influenced
not sure
really not influenced
6.66%
46.67%
54
Based on the result from Chart 6, up to 63.34% of respondent is
influenced by the model’s outlook from cosmetic advertisement in using the
product. But, if asked about what is the motivation in using the whitening product,
none of the respondent answer from the model’s outlook (Table 10). The
respondent’s answers are categorized by the writer into three categories.
1. Positive result from white skin affection (White skin is more beauty,
cleaner, brighter and raising confident) = 60 %
2. To have healthy skin without considering the color = 20%
3. Not using and not answering = 20%
Table 10. The respondent’s motivation in using cosmetic product
The respondent’s motivation in using cosmetic
product
To be prettier
Percentage
33.33%
To look cleaner
10%
So that more white and brighter
6.67%
Raising confidence
10%
To keep skin healthy
10%
Using trusted cosmetic brand
10%
Not using the cosmetic
16.67%
Not answer
3.33%
The last question that the writer asked relates with the outside relation
from the respondent in how important the white skin in making friend for them
(Chart 7).
55
Chart 7.
Percentage of the how important white skin in friendship from
respondent
Percentage of the how important white skin in frienship from
respondent.
3.33%
26.67%
26.67%
very important
important
not sure
not important
6.67%
not important at all
36.66%
From the chart above, the majority of respondent, up to 63.33%, is not
considering the white skin in friendship. But there is 30 % of respondent thinks
that in making friendship should consider the skin color. This indicates that the
white skin perception has huge impact; it is no longer about beauty problem, but
further, it is a society’s acceptance that relates with social issues such as socioeconomic classes in society because having white skin needs special treatment
that is not cheap. It needs more effort such as changing the genes by marrying the
white skin people, expensive skin care treatment or even surgery. By seeing this
circumstance, the perception can change into stereotyping that white skin identic
with upper-class. So in this condition, white skin can represent upper economic
class.
56
Chapter 5
CONCLUSION and SUGGESTION
5.1
Conclusion
Based on the result of analysis by using semiotic approach for the model
visualization from Revlon Aqua Mineral, Maybelline Air Foam Foundation,
Pond’s White Beauty and Tje Fuk Whitening Cream, there are some conclusions
as follows:
1.
The conception about beauty from model of Revlon Aqua Mineral and
Maybelline Air Foam Foundation is plurality by diversity without
considering the skin color, while the conception about beauty from Pond’s
White Beauty and Tje Fuk Whitening Cream is by having white skin.
2.
The point that brings from Revlon and Maybelline is to cover and protect
the skin without changing the original skin color. The different point
brought by Pond’s and Tje Fuk is to whiten the skin.
3.
From four cosmetic advertisements, only Revlon gives an implicit
understanding from its ambassador that the beauty is by having
combination between healthy skin with good personality and achievement.
According to the result of research analysis, the majority of respondent
agrees that having white skin will give a better impact from the society therefore
they want to have it. From this circumstance, it can be concluded that the media;
cosmetic advertisement broadcast in Indonesia (Pond’s White Beauty and Tje Fuk
Whitening Cream), contributes in constructing about beauty perception that
dictates the beauty of Indonesian woman and the beauty of white skin as
something normal and ideal. Many of respondents think that without having white
skin they will lack of confident, excommunicated and not beauty. It leads to
degradation of appreciation of the real beauty of Indonesia. From this point, the
writer agrees with Baudillard’s theory about simulacra. The nowadays condition
is a hyper-reality created by the media. The society unconsciously consumes the
signs brought by the media continually so that it changes the mindset of
something. This theory is proven by many of respondents that the models in
advertisement, whether Indonesian or not, are the representation of beauty
creature.
5.2
Suggestion
As the suggestion, the writer recommends about further research of this
issue. The writer’s mean is by doing broad research that includes many
respondents. It will be more interesting if it is taken from many ethnics in
Indonesia because the result will give a real condition of what really happen in
Indonesian people in seeing this issue, furthermore if the research is not only
about beauty perception but also socio-economy.
58
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Baudillard, Jean. 1994. Simulacra and Simulation. Trans. Sheila Faria Glaser.
English: University of Michigan.
Creswell, John W. 1994. Research Design Qualitative and Quantitative
Approaches. California: Sage Publication.
Crisp, Richard. 2010. The Psychology of Sosial and Cultural Diversity. New
Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.
Danesi, Marcel. 2004. Massages, signs, and Meanings: A Basic Textbook in
Semiotics and Communication Theory. 3rd edn. Canadian Scholars’ Pess Inc.
Dawson, Chaterine. 2002. Practical Research Methods. United Kingdom: How
To Books Ltd.
Doughlas L. Medin, Brian H. Ross, and Arthur B. Markman. 2002. Cognitive
psychology. 3rd edn. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
Hornby, A.S. 1995. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. 5th edn. New York:
Oxford University Press.
Kellner, Douglas. 1994. Baudrillard Reader. Cambridge: Blackwell.
Kerlinger, F. 1964. Foundation of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt,
Rinehart & Winston.
Newman, Isadore, and Carolyn R. Benz. 1998. Qualitative-Quantitative Research
Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum. United States of
America: Southern Illinois University.
Noth, Winfried. 1995. Handbook of Semiotics. United State of America: Indiana
University Press.
Peirce, Charles S. 1931. Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. Ed. by
Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Harvard University
press.
Stokes, Jane. 2003. How to Do Media and Cultural Studies. California: Sage
Publication.
Storey, John. 1997. An Introduction to Cultural Theory and Popular Culture. 2nd
edn. Hertfordshire: Prentice Hall/Harvester Wheatsheaf.
59
APPENDIX
ANGKET
Nama :
Umur :
Kelas :
Sekolah:
Tata cara pengisian:
 Berilah tanda silang (X) pada huruf di bagian jawaban yang sesuai dengan
pendapat anda.
 Jika merupakan isian, maka isilah secara singkat.
 Khusus untuk nomor 6, isilah tiap gambar dengan huruf yang telah dikategorikan.
1. Ingin mempunyai kulit yang lebih putih
a. Sangat ingin
b. Ingin
c. Kurang ingin
d. Tidak ingin
e. Sangat tidak ingin
2. Alasannya :
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………
3. Kulit putih identik dengan cantik
a. Sangat setuju
b. Setuju
c. Ragu-ragu
d. Tidak setuju
e. Sangat tidak setuju
4. Berilah masing-masing 1 (satu) nama tokoh/artis dari kategori dibawah ini yang
menurut anda paling cantik
Dari dalam negeri :……………………………………………………
Dari luar negeri :……………………………………………………
5. Hampir semua model iklan kosmetik di Indonesia berkulit putih/lebih cerah
a. Sangat setuju
b. Setuju
c. Ragu-ragu
d. Tidak setuju
e. Sangat tidak setuju
6. Bagaimana menurut anda model-model iklan yang ada dibawah ini?
a. (jika cantik)
b. (jika ada sebagian yang cantik)
c. (jika biasa saja)
d. (jika tidak cantik) e. (tidak tahu)
……………………………
……………………………
………………………………
………………………………
……………………………
……………………………
………………………………
………………………………
7. Dari keempat gambar diatas, manakah yang paling menarik perhatian anda? mengapa?
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………
8. Model dengan kulit putih lebih bisa meyakinkan daripada yang lain
a. Sangat setuju
b. Setuju
c. Kurang setuju
d. Tidak setuju
e. Sangat tidak setuju
9. Seberapa jauh anda mempercai kesan iklan kosmetik yang ada di TV?
a. Sangat percaya
b. Percaya
c. Kurang percaya
d. Tidak percaya
e. Sangat tidak percaya
10. Seberapa besar pengaruh model yang ditampilkan oleh iklan dalam penentuan
keputusan penggunaan produk kosmetik anda?
a. Sangat berpengaruh
b. Berpengaruh
c. Ragu-ragu
d. Berpengaruh
e.Tidak berpengaruh sama sekali
11. Apakah motivasi anda dalam menggunakan produk kosmetik?
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………
12. Seberapa penting kulit putih/cerah dalam mencari teman bagi anda?
a. Sangat penting
b. Penting
c. Ragu-ragu
d. Tidak penting
e. Tidak penting sama sekali

Similar documents