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to view on pdf - Institute For Political and Electoral Reform
A Campaign Finance Field Monitoring in the 2010
Philippine National and Local Elections
Published by:
The Consortium on Electoral Reforms and Institute for Political and Electoral Reform
54C Mapagkawanggawa St., Teacher’s Village, Quezon City, Philippines
Telefax Number: 63.2.433.0764
Email Address: [email protected]
Website: http://www.iper.org.ph
With support from the United States Agency for International Development and
the International Foundation for Electoral Systems
Written by:
Ramon Casiple, Kristina Uy Gadaingan, and Gladstone Cuarteros with inputs from all volunteers.
Book Cover by:
Kris Vergel Estrella
Layout by:
Sigrid P. Montas
Proofread by:
Katherine Uy Gadaingan and Ayn Dagny Flores
Copyright 2010
ISBN xxx-xxxxx-x-x
Printed in Quezon City, Philippines
All rights reserved
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The consortium has long been advocating for reforms in campaign financing through a bill pending in
congress which aims to strengthen the political party system with political platform as its primary basis instead of
personality and money politics. However, the bill remains in congress and has not been passed to present.
In 2010, the consortium endeavored on monitoring the actual campaign finance on the ground. It was a
pioneering activity to monitor in a nationwide level, an enormous task made possible by people and organizations
that committed in the efforts of promoting transparency in campaign financing.
The national secretariat is indebted to all the volunteers who heed the call to advance the cause and we are
specially grateful to the Team Leaders who went an extra mile to realize these goals: Baguio: Liza Gobrin and Jade
Leung; San Fernando City: Lyndo Viernes, Jane Enverga, and Maria Vanessa Molavizar; Lucena: Joboy Reyes and
Hello Jansept Geronimo; Quezon City: Charmie Tianggao and Achilles Montebon; Legaspi City: Aldous Sta. Cruz,
Beverly Dycoco, Prof. Rowena Zoilo, and Joel Calla; Iloilo City: Chanderlyn Igpuara, Eloisa Myla Alterado, and
Alvin Astronomia; Cebu City: Rosemarie Apurado, Albert Cañete, and Pert Auxilio; CDO: Michel Caseros, Rose
Abanil, Dante Labial, and Dyan Aimee Mabunga; Davao City: Patrick Henry Asinero, Erwin Sarmiento, and
Lalaine Apugan; Zamboanga: Amir Mawallil and Prof. Joy Dajuela.
We are also grateful to the Pera’t Pulitika Consortium – the Philippine Center for Invesgative Journalism
(PCIJ), Lawyers League for Liberty (Libertas), and the Association of Schools of Public Administration in the
Philippines (ASPAP) - for the collaboration and teamwork in order to reach a common goal.
We would like to thank the Commission on Elections for its cooperation and support. Our special thanks to
COMELEC’s Legal Department, particularly Director Ferdinand Rafanan and Atty. Nilda Concha, for opening
their doors to allow us to go through the data relevant to this undertaking.
We would also like to express our gratitude to the United States Agency for International Development
(USAID) and the International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) for their support.
Lastly, we are thankful to all IPER staff for the technical and administrative support.
Consortium on Electoral Reforms –
Pera’t Pulitika Field Monitoring Secretariat
Project Director: Ramon Casiple
Project Coordinator: Gladstone Cuarteros
Regional Liaison Officer: Kristina Uy
Gadaingan
Documentation Officer: Ariel Maghirang
Administrative Support: Rosalie Mendoza
Table of Contents
Foreword
Introduction
The Air and the Ground Wars
The Ground War Monitoring
Nature of the 2010 Ground War Campaign
Results of the Monitoring
Conclusion
Annexes
a. The Fair Elections Act
b. COMELEC Resolution No. 8944, Rules and Regulations governing Electoral
Contributions and Expenditures in Connection with the May 10, 2010 National and
Local Elections
c. Photos
PAP Field Monitoring vis-à-vis the candidates’ Statement of Election Contribution and
Expenditures
Foreword
The recently concluded 2010 Philippine National and Local Automated Elections have been generally
perceived as successful, and yet, it has also been the most expensive Philippine elections to date in terms
of campaign spending.
Government regulation of campaign spending has always been a thorny issue in Philippine elections despite existing legal provisions that aim to level the playing field for those who wish to run for office,
political parties and candidates still blatantly go beyond these restrictions with the seemingly rooted
belief that money alone can buy any political office.
These legal restrictions on campaign spending exist for two obvious reasons: the first is to focus the
attention during the campaign on political platforms and genuine debates; and the second, is to prevent
political candidates from using elections as a business investment, with the gaining of the political office
as their profit.
However, due to the efforts of programs such as Pera at Pulitika and its monitoring campaign, and
perhaps also due to the sheer brazenness of the political candidates in their use of money during the
campaign period, voters had been more discriminating and critical of campaign spending during the
2010 elections.
Voters questioned how political candidates, many of which were already serving public office, could
afford to finance election campaigns costing millions (or sometimes, even billions) of pesos, and why they
were willing to spend such large amounts for a job that paid less than the private sector.
Disproving the belief that billions of pesos alone could buy any political office in the country, the 2010
Philippine elections can even be seen as a significant step towards electoral reforms.
Introduction
In November 2009, the Consortium on Electoral Reforms (CER), in partnership with the Philippine
Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ), Libertas, and the Association of Schools of Public
Administration in the Philippines (ASPAP), joined efforts to undertake the Pera at Pulitika campaign
finance monitoring project in relation to the 2010 national elections. The project was supported, in terms
of technical and financial support, by the International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) and the
United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
The CER component of the PAP project seeks to monitor ground-level campaign expenditures of leading
presidential candidates in key cities of the Philippines. The monitoring was done to promote transparency
in the campaign financing of presidential candidates, especially of the top four candidates.
The Pera at Pulitika wants to gather empirical data that will give a sense on the amount of money
candidates spend for their candidacies and to compare these gathered data with campaign expenditure
reports that candidates and their political parties submit to the Commission on Elections (COMELEC).
All candidates and political parties are expected to submit their Electoral Contribution and Expenditure
Reports one month after the May 10, 2010 elections.
The CER component seeks to gather representative data on the campaign expenditures of the top
four candidates in the 2010 presidential elections, specifically on their respective sorties and field
propaganda materials. These form part, together with media expenses, the bulk of the presidential
campaign expenditures. CER-PAP targeted 10 cities for its monitoring, namely, Baguio City, San
Fernando City, Quezon City, Lucena City, Legazpi city, Cebu City, Iloilo City, Cagayan de Oro City,
Davao City, and Zamboanga City.
This PAP Public Report details processes and results of the CER-PAP project implementation from
November 2009 to August 2010. It will present the field data gathered on expenses on the ground and
provide some analyses regarding candidate expenses.
Implementation of CER-PAP Field Monitoring Project was led by is Project Team composed of Mr.
Ramon Casiple, CER Chairperson, as Project Director, Mr. Gladstone A. Cuarteros as Project
Coordinator, Ms. Kristina Gadaingan as Regional Operations Officer, and Mr. Ariel Maghirang as
Documentation Officer. The Project Team secretariat is based in the IPER Office in Quezon City.
The Air and the Ground Wars
The political candidates employed two major strategies during the 90-day campaign period leading up to
the election day: first was via television and radio shows, which was eventually dubbed as the "Air
Wars;" and second, through conventional way of posting and handing out of propaganda materials in the
streets, as well as the conduct of public rallies and sorties, which became known as the "Ground Wars."
Additionally, in an era where the internet provided faster avenue for information dissemination, the
candidates also utilized the use of social networking sites and web ads, to reach out to potential voters.
The Pera at Pulitika Network, composed of the following partners – the Philippine Center for
Investigative Journalism(PCIJ), Consortium on Electoral Reforms (CER), Libertas, and the Association
of Schools of Public Administration in the Philippines (ASPAP) with support from the International
Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) and the United States Agency for International
Development(USAID) , conducted the monitoring to promote transparency in campaign finance.
The group aimed to establish actual data on the amount of money candidates need for their candidacies
and to compare the gathered data with the campaign expenditure reports that candidates and their
political parties are required to submit to the Commission on Elections (COMELEC).
The PCIJ in partnership with the AC Nielsen has monitored the expenditures incurred on the “air wars”
or political ads in radio, TV, and print; meanwhile, the CER on its part endeavored on field monitoring
or on the “ground war.”
The Ground War Monitoring
The CER has trained and deployed a total of 178 local volunteers across the country to monitor the
expenditure on the ground. Ground expenses pertain to the propaganda materials like posters, stickers,
flyers, and the like as well as on expenses related in the conduct of public meetings, rallies, sorties and
caucuses.
The ground-level monitoring was conducted in (10) key cities namely the following: Baguio City, San
Fernando in Pampanga, Quezon City, Lucena City, Legazpi City, Cebu City, Iloilo City, Cagayan de Oro
City, Davao City, and Zamboanga City.
Two Teams – Team Propaganda and Team Public Meeting – were organized and trained in each
key city. Team Propaganda was tasked to monitor the propaganda materials posted along the
major streets and public places in their respective city. Volunteers have identified the major
streets in their key city and undertook physical counting of posters, streamers, tarpaulins, etc.
regularly every (3) three days during the entire 90-day campaign period.
Team Public Meeting on the other hand monitored the holding of public meetings, rallies,
caucuses, and presidential sorties. Expenditures related to the conduct of Public Meetings were
monitored such as transportation, food, freebies, talent fee of celebrities and artists, propaganda
materials, security, venue, and utilities. Estimated Costs were computed and submitted to the
secretariat office in Manila for the consolidation of data.
A monitoring manual was prepared by the national secretariat and used by the volunteers which
served as their guide during the monitoring and it was supplemented by actual orientationtrainings. A monitoring form was also designed for the volunteers which facilitated easier
counting and data consolidation. The forms were used by the volunteers to record their
observations. Every week the monitoring reports were aggregated by the Team Head and were
subsequently submitted to the National Secretariat in Manila. The items that were monitored are
only those campaign expenses that are considered “receiptable.”
The field monitoring group focused its efforts to monitor four candidates who were deemed to
have the capability to spend at the maximum – Benigno Simeon “Noynoy” Aquino III, Joseph
“Erap” Estrada, Gilbert “Gibo” Teodoro, and Manuel “Manny” Villar.
A total of 130 weekly reports from Team Propaganda in the 10 cities were received and included
in the database while 21 reports from Team Public Meetings were received. In many instances,
candidates pass through the key city, however, actual rallies were held in neighboring
cities/municipalities.
In addition, a pricelist of propaganda materials was developed to facilitate the estimating of
campaign costs. This was done after gathering current market prices from different printing
press. In the course of the monitoring, the national secretariat tried to contact the printing press
indicated on the propaganda materials, however, they were either unwilling to give information
on the prices or have simply ignored telephone calls.
Nature of the 2010 ground war campaign
The 2010 ground war campaign was a war of colors.
The hostilities arguably started even before the official
campaign period, with yellow ribbons commemorating
the death of former President Corazon Aquino.
However, as the campaign period went into full swing,
the color yellow became the “official” color and
symbol of then presidential candidate Aquino. Some of
the other presidential candidates immediately followed
suit – with orange for Villar and green for Teodoro. On
the other hand, having used the color orange during the
1998 elections, Estrada opted not to join the trend,
perhaps to avoid being confused with Villar.
Aside from the use of color association to strengthen their “political
identities” during the campaign period, the candidates also
popularized the use of Baller IDs bearing their “official” colors.
Aquino made use of yellow loop lanterns while Villar came up
with lanterns decorated by Orange Colored Check. Departing
from this practice, Estrada retained his previous strategy of using
orange wristbands, again, perhaps to distinguish his
propaganda materials from those of Villar’s.
PUBs: Vehicles for political propaganda
For a monthly cost ranging from P5000-15000
per bus unit, the candidates had the chance to
hire the services of a practical mobile
campaigner – a new trend observed in the 2010
elections. The placement of political ads on
Public Utility Buses ensured a wider coverage
as these buses cruise along their designated
routes from morning till night. For the four
candidates monitored, a total of nine (9) bus
lines carried political ads of 3 presidential
candidates. As of the moment, there are no
existing COMELEC rules governing ads on
buses; thus, the lack in regulation. Yet for the
bus companies, the political ads were a boon,
giving them an opportunity to earn additional
revenue.
Surrogate sorties:
Rockatropa
Aquino
Sisters
and
The crowd-drawing appeal of celebrities
transcended the silver screen and the music
scene, crossing over to the world of politics.
Main rivals Aquino and Villar’s campaign
strategy included the endorsement of these
personalities.
Aquino had his sisters,
including actress Kris Aquino who succeeded
in capturing the attention of large crowds to the benefit of his campaign. His three other sisters
joined the campaign trail where they either substituted for him in rallies or held their own sorties
to promote the candidacy of their only brother. Not to be outdone, Villar sought the help of
Willie Revillame and his noontime program Wowowee, including popular bands to enhance his
charisma to the masses. Table 1 below shows the names of the actors, actresses, singers, bands
and TV hosts together with their chosen presidential candidates.
Benigno Simeon
Aquino III
Joseph Ejercito
Estrada
Gilbert
Teodoro
Manuel Villar
Aljur Abrenica
Lorna Tolentino
Rivermaya
Andrew E
Boy Abunda
Inday Garutay
Ruffa
Gutierrez
Sarah Geronimo
Ogie Alcasid
Dolphy
Bea Alonzo
Manny Pacquiao
Kris Bernal
Michael V
Noel Cabangon
Parokya ni Edgar
Sharon Cuneta
April Boy Regino
Kim Chiu
Willie Revillame
Anne Curtis
Randy Santiago
Dingdong Dantes
John Estrada
Bianca Gonzales
Jim Paredes
Pooh
Marian Rivera
Mariel Rodriguez
Erik Santos
Sitti
Regine Velasquez
Table 1. Celebrities and Their Candidates Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer with revisions
(PDI March 01, 2010)
Filipino ingenuity: Aprons, Mineral Water, and 3-in-1 coffee
sachets
Veering away from traditional propaganda materials, the 2010
election became a showdown of the candidates and of their
supporters’ innate creativity. Fans, pocket calendars, stickers,
baller IDs, ball pens, and shirts bearing the name of the
presidential aspirants went
into mass production and
were
distributed
were
distributed by the politicians
or their supporters to the
public.
Villar
supplied
bottled waters labeled with
his name and color during his campaign sorties to quench the
summer heat. He also distributed aprons bearing his name
on it during his visits in public markets. Aquino together with
his running mate vice-president candidate Mar Roxas, on the
other hand came up with 3- in-1 coffee sachets with their
caricatures on it.
Streamers and Size Violations
Like in the previous campaigns, streamers
remained a useful propaganda material for the
presidential contenders. As observed, all four
candidates committed some violations particularly
on the correct sizes for streamers. The allowable
dimension for streamers should not exceed 3 feet
by 8 feet yet the four candidates had some
streamers which went beyond the acceptable size a case also noted even in the past election
campaigns.
Operation Baklas
The volunteers also described how the local COMELEC together with the Philippine National
Police (PNP) intensified its campaign to remove propaganda materials outside the designated
postering areas in some cities such as in Baguio, San Fernando in Pampanga, and Legasp.
Meanwhile, in Quezon City, City Ordinance No. NC 153 of 1990” prohibits the placements of
propaganda materials on major thoroughfares.
Nonetheless, all four candidates violated regulations on common poster areas. More noteworthy
is the increase of propaganda materials after the local campaign kicked off in March 26, an
indication on how local machinery works.
Results of the Monitoring
The 90-day monitoring of the PAP volunteers reveal that Villar ranks first in both the use of
Propaganda Materials and in the conduct of Public Meetings with an estimated total expenditure
of PhP 14,784,705.35. He is closely followed by Aquino who has an estimated total expenditure
of PhP 12,582,991.90. Far next are Estrada and Teodoro with an estimated total spending of
PhP
4,992,168.70 and 4,424,562.80, respectively.
The amount of spending in the ground is seemingly small compared to the total expenditures on
political advertisements; however, these are just for the ten (10) cities covered in the actual
ground monitoring. Nonetheless, it provides a picture on the level of expenditures in major
urban
areas
of the
Month 1
Aquino
country.
7,106,133.10
Month 2
1,485,156.80
Month 3
3,991,702.00
Total
12,582,991.90
Estrada
729,845.00
91,725.40
4,170,598.30
4,992,168.70
Teodoro
1,474,284.10
660,616.00
2,289,662.70
4,424,562.80
Villar
1,501,341.00
3,742,672.10
9,540,692.25
14,784,705.35
Table 2. Estimated Total ‘Ground War’ Expenditure for the duration of the Campaign
(February 9, 2010 – May 8, 2010)
Looking at the monthly level of expenditures, it has been observed that the candidates, with the
exception of Aquino, increased their expenses on the last month of the campaign (see Graph 1).
This is a glimpse on how candidates try to strategize in order to push a final knock in their
presidential bid.
The spending trend of the candidates on the use of propaganda materials are observably high for
the first month, decreased on the second month until the start of the local campaign, and soared
in the third and last month.
It was noted, however, that during the second month of the campaign, the spending level for
Aquino, Estrada, and Teodoro was lower. Villar is the only candidate who steadily increased his
spending over the three month campaign period.
Graph 1. Monthly ‘Ground War’ Expenditure
The Ground War: Propaganda Materials and Public Meetings
The total expenditure spent in the ground war is comprised mainly of two strategies – the use of
Propaganda materials and the conduct of Public Meetings. The character of the ground war can
be better understood by looking at the spending costs in each category per city.
A. Propaganda Materials
Table 3. Candidates’ Campaign Expenditure on
Propaganda Materials per City
The Table shows the estimated total expenditure for the
use of propaganda materials of each candidate. Villar s
pent an estimated amount of PhP 2,074,512.40 and
followed in second place by Aquino with Php
1,638,648.60. Teodoro is close third with PhP
1,402,304.85 while Estrada has the least spending
amounting only to PhP 417,378.70.
The table also shows the estimated expenses of each
candidate per city. A closer look at these data would
illustrate that except for Estrada, all candidates spent
much money in Quezon City, Iloilo City, and Davao
City. Estrada, on the other hand, spent more in Lucena City.
However, it should be noted that the case of Quezon City being always on the top was due to the
new innovation on political campaigning where national candidates used buses as ‘moving
propaganda materials.’
List of Bus lines with Propaganda Materials
Bus
JFT Liner
Aquino
23 units
Villar
22 units
Lippad
2 units
3 units
Precious Grace
N/A
15 units
Rainbow Express
N/A
25 units
Mayamy
15 units
N/A
Taguig Metro Link
20 units
N/A
Mersan
5 units
N/A
Royal Couple
Joyselle
Express
Inc
EPJ Transport
Northstar
Transport
Jayross
Lucky
Seven Tours
JAM Liner
N/A
10 units
N/A
15 units
N/A
9 units
N/A
6 units
20 units
N/A
N/A
100 units
85 units
205 its
Based on the volunteers’
research, bus companies offer
their services to political
candidates for PhP 5,000.00 per
unit per month (except for
Jayross Lucky Seven Tours: PhP
15,000.00 per unit per month
and Precious Grace: PhP
4,000.00 per unit per month).
Taking these into account, it will
show that Manny Villar spent an
estimated amount of PhP
1,010,000.00 for the use of buses
while Noynoy Aquino spent an
estimated amount of PhP
B. Public Meetings
Table 4. Candidates’ Campaign Expenditure on Public Meetings per City
The Field Monitoring in the (10) Ten key cities
show recorded the following number of public
meetings per candidate: Aquino with (21) twentyone, Villar with (19) nineteen, Teodoro with (10)
Ten, and Estrada with (7) seven. However, as
shown in Table 4, when these number public
meetings are translated into actual cost, it would
reveal that it is still Villar who has spent the most
with an estimated total amount of PhP
12,710,194.00 for his 19 public meetings. He is
followed by Aquino with PhP 10,944,143.30,
Estrada with PhP 4,574,790.00, and Teodoro with
PhP 3,022,258.00.
Moreover, Table 4 shows the data
on the level of sp ending per city.
It reflects the importance of Cebu
City for all candidates due to the
fact that the city and even the
entire province of Cebu itself has
the largest voting in the country.
The campaign efforts in Cebu City
were seen to have a huge impact
on the whole province. Cebu City
was always on the top three cities
where each candidate spent the
most.
Aside from Cebu City, there are also three outstanding cases where a presidential candidate
spent more than 3 million pesos for the conduct of public meetings. Villar spent an estimated
amount of PhP 6,054,620.00 and PhP 3,098,000.00 in Zamboanga City and Lucena City,
respectively. These are areas where volunteers have monitored the conduct of Rockatropa, a big
production for the campaign of Villar.
Meanwhile, Aquino spent an estimated amount of PhP 5,745,000.00 in Quezon City which
included big productions such as the People Power Anniversary celebration at the Araneta
Coliseum and the ‘Rock the Vote’ concert monitored in Legaspi City.
On Weekly Spending
The graphs below show the weekly spending pattern
of each candidate during the 90-day campaign
period. For the use of propaganda materials (Graph
2), it is Aquino who spent the most during the first
week. This is a result of the political ads that he
placed in the buses within Metro Manila which may
be considered as a reaction to the political ads
earlier placed by Teodoro in January 2010 on
buses. But the bus ads of Teodoro were not included
in the count in this monitoring as it cropped up
before the official campaign period started.
Nevertheless. Villar followed the same strategy.
700000.00
600000.00
500000.00
Aquino
400000.00
Estrada
300000.00
Teodoro
200000.00
Villar
100000.00
0.00
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Graph 2. Weekly Propaganda by Candidate
Machinery does matter
On week 8 and 9, a tremendous increase on the number of posters, tarpaulins, ribbons, ballers,
etc. of presidential candidates were observed. This is when the local campaign period
commenced; hence, it can be deemed that their allied local candidates helped in putting-up and
distributing their propaganda materials. In previous elections, it has become a tradition that
local candidates assist in ‘postering’ for national candidates.
Meanwhile, for the conduct of Public Meetings, Villar and Aquino ranked first and second in
their expenditures, respectively. Aquino spent the most in week 3 while Villar spent the most in
weeks 6 and 12. Estrada and Teodoro had modest level of expenses.
A part of their spending was allotted in the big productions where celebrities/entertainers
contributed their talents and time during the campaign. These items, whether they were attained
for free or not, are counted to be part of the candidates’ total campaign expenditures.
7000000.00
6000000.00
5000000.00
4000000.00
Aquino
3000000.00
Estrada
2000000.00
Teodoro
Villar
1000000.00
W
W
ee
k1
ee
k
W 2
ee
k
W 3
ee
k
W 4
ee
k
W 5
ee
k
W 6
ee
k
W 7
ee
k
W 8
ee
W k9
ee
k
W 10
ee
k
W 11
ee
k
W 12
ee
k1
3
0.00
Graph 3. Weekly Public Meetings by Candidate
Nonetheless, public meetings are observed to be no longer as big compared to election
campaigns in the past. Based on the monitoring reports from volunteers, crowds are bigger when
there are celebrities and entertainers who perform in the rallies. Table 5 shows the audience
range in the different public meetings while Table 6 shows the expenses per week of the
candidates.
Caucus Meetings
100 – 300 Participants
Small Rallies
500 – 7000 Participants
Big Productions*
10000-100,000 Participants
Table 5. Audience Size in Public Meetings
Public Meetings
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
Week 6
Week 7
Week 8
Week 9
Week 10
Week 11
Week 12
Week 13
Aquino
Estrada
Teodoro
Villar
594350.00
0.00
100000.00
73250.00
72000.00
692000.00
0.00
353040.00
5942983.30
0.00
881100.00
249864.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
115390.00
410015.00
495395.00
280000.00
0.00
453800.00
153000.00
2092800.00
0.00
230000.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
261000.00
292290.00
2612000.00
717500.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
280000.00
0.00
377000.00
411058.00
936600.00
0.00
0.00
29800.00
3157820.00
288000.00
0.00
684780.00
694650.00
653100.00
6119000.00
291500.00
Table 6. Public Meeting Expenses of Candidates Per week
Candidates Statement of Election Contributions and Expenditures
The Rules and Regulations governing Electoral Contributions and Expenditures in Connection
with the May 10,2010 National and Local Elections are enshrined in Resolution No. 8944. It
states that presidential candidates should submit their Statement of Election Contributions and
Expenditures (SECEs) one month after the Election Day. However, the COMELEC has extended
the deadline up to June 23, 2010. As part of the monitoring project, the CER secretariat secured
copies of what the four presidential candidates had submitted including that of their political
parties.
Among the candidates it is Aquino who submitted the most detailed report, complete with
certification from each and every contributor listed in the report. Aquino’s Statement of
Expenditures also abided on the COMELEC’s requirements of indicating the following details
for every expenditure: date, receipt number, name of the payee, address, TIN, nature of
expenditures, and amount.
Meanwhile, Teodoro claimed that his political party LAKAS-CMD shouldered much of his
campaign expenditures, yet the party itself also lacked to submit sufficient data as required by
the COMELEC. Similarly, Villar and Estrada Villar and Estrada did not indicate the specific
date and nature of their expenditure but only reported the aggregate expenditures they have
incurred on various dates.
The absence of details in the SECEs of candidates limits the analysis that can be done in the
monitoring data. A few remarks can be drawn nonetheless. Among the four candidates, only
Villar claims that he did not receive any campaign contribution as compared to the other three
candidates. However, as stated in the Omnibus Election Code, contributions “a gift or donation
of money or anything of value,” hence, contributions in kind should have been included in the
report.
Moreover, most contributors listed in the candidates’ statements are only the ‘big contributors.’
The lowest that Aquino received, based on his report, is P10,000 while Estrada received, to be
the lowest is 3 million. Meanwhile, Teodoro in his SECE indicated a contribution of two hundred
pesos to be the lowest contribution that he received. The same with Lakas-CMD which reported
exactly the same amount of expenses as against the contributions received.
Table 9. Total Contributions and Expenditures of Candidates
Candidate
Total Contributions Received
Total Expenditures
Aquino
440,050,000.00
403,119,981.81
Estrada
227,500,000.00
235,500,000.00
Teodoro
(plus
Lakas-CMD)
130749,414.19
134,148,032.52
0
431,557,816
Villar
Source: Statement of Election Contribution and Expenditures
Comparing the PAP Field data from the SECEs submitted to the COMELEC is difficult.
The lack of specific details only allowed the comparison of data at the aggregate level. A
per city analysis is almost impossible because the SECEs do not indicate in which city the
expenses were incurred. Nevertheless, the propaganda materials most were printed in
Manila and so the expenses in their respective SECEs can be considered.
Conclusions and Recommendations
The CER-PAP Field Monitoring Project successfully accomplished its objective of
gathering data on presidential campaign expenditures at the ground-level. Twenty (20) teams
had been organized in ten major cities of the country with a total of 178 volunteer monitors were
involved in the Project. These teams especially Team Propaganda regularly submitted their
weekly monitoring reports throughout the 90-day campaign period for presidential candidates.
Their reports including that of Team Public Meetings were compiled by the National Secretariat
in data base.
As far as the ten cities are concerned, the data gathered can give a rough estimate on the
level of expenses presidential candidates incurred in the course of their campaign. A number of
conclusions can be made.
First, the level of ground-level expenditure validates the argument that, for presidential
candidates, more resources will be allocated to political advertisements on television, radio and
newspapers. In particular, TV and radio will have most of the campaign budgets of presidential
candidates.
Second, the data on ground-level expenses, just like in the media “air war,’ show that
Villar and Aquino spent the most among the presidential candidates. They also have the most
expenditure on the ‘ground war’. For the 10 cities candidate Manny Villar had a total of P
14,784,705.35 while Noynoy Aquino had a total of P 12, 582,991.90. These two were the
frontrunners in the campaign.
Third, focusing on ground-level expenses, holding public meetings, sorties and rallies
incurred the greater expense compared to written propaganda. The ratio is almost 85:15 for the
two leading candidates. While the holding of rallies/sorties would naturally require a big budget,
this became ever more expensive because of the increased use of celebrities (actors, singers,
bands and popular athletes) to mobilize people in such events and also attract the national
media. Aquino has the Rock the Vote concerts while Villar held various Rockatropa concerts
nationwide.
Fourth, there were more innovations in the ground-level campaigning. There was
effective color identification of candidates which were reflected in all their propaganda
materials. Also in addition to the usual posters, there was the use of ID ballers, ribbons and even
lanterns. Furthermore, buses became ‘mobile posters’ especially in Metro Manila and nearby
provinces where candidates placed political advertisements on buses.
Fifth, in terms of compliance regarding election campaign regulations, by and large
there was compliance on sizes except for streamers (or tarpaulins) where all the four candidates
that were monitored violated the limit set by law. The size of their streamers went beyond the
allowable 3 feet by 8 feet. In addition they also violated on streamer location and length of time
that these are being hoisted.
However, the most blatant violation is with regard to common poster areas. Simply put,
candidates and their supporters placed their propaganda materials in every space or trees that
are available especially in major thoroughfares and public areas. The Comelec should review its
rule on common poster areas since it is not being followed anyway.
Sixth, the Statement on Election Contribution and Expenditures (SECE) submitted by
each presidential candidate--in comparison to the field data gathered by CER-PAP for this
project—is very much limited. Of course most of the indicated expenses are on TV and radio
political ads. Further analysis of the SECEs should be made in order to deepen the
understanding on the correlation of the data in these documents and the data from the field.
The following are some observations and recommendations related to project
management. One is the need for longer preparation so that volunteer-monitors will be
adequately trained, teams to develop cohesion and coordination and so that monitoring manual
can be field tested.
This brings us to next point which is to develop a simpler and easy monitoring form. The
‘rush’ in coming up with the forms and organizing the Teams in the different cities did not allow
a more rigorous piloting of monitoring forms. The third aspect is on budget in which
participants in the National Assessment pointed out that more operational budget as well as
volunteer honorarium should be allocated. Such suggestion should be balance with the principle
of volunteerism however.
The data gathered and the experiences in this PAP Field Monitoring are useful building
blocks for future similar projects. Perhaps the 10 cities covered in this past election can be
broadened so that PAP can have more robust data that enables more conclusive observations as
regards presidential campaigns on the ground.
Ground level data gathered complements the political ads data of the PAP Network
through PCIJ and AGB Nielsen. Armed field data, the CER contributed in making campaign
expenditures an issue in the presidential election, at least increasing the public awareness on it.
Hopefully it ushers a more serious discussions on campaign finance reforms pending in
Congress.
The CER-PAP campaign finance monitoring has a promising future in refining its
methodologies, raising consciousness on the issue of campaign finance, and in bolstering future
advocacy on electoral reforms.
a. The Fair Elections Act
b. COMELEC Resolution No. 8944, Rules and Regulations governing Electoral
Contributions and Expenditures in Connection with the May 10, 2010 National and
Local Elections
c. Photos
REPUBLIC ACT No. 9006
AN ACT TO ENHANCE THE HOLDING OF FREE, ORDERLY, HONEST,
PEACEFUL AND CREDIBLE ELECTIONS THROUGH FAIR ELECTION PRACTICES
Section 1. Short Title. - This Act shall be known as the "Fair Elections Act".
Sec. 2. Declaration of Principles. - The State shall, during the election period, supervise or
regulate the enjoyment or utilization of all franchises or permits for the operation of media of
communication or information to guarantee or ensure equal opportunity for public service, including
access to media time and space, and the equitable right to reply, for public information campaigns
and fora among candidates and assure free, orderly, honest. peaceful and credible elections.
The State shall ensure that bona fide candidates for any public office shall be free from any form of
harassment and discrimination.
Sec. 3. Lawful Election Propaganda. - Election propaganda whether on television, cable
television, radio, newspapers or any other medium is hereby allowed for all registered political
parties, national, regional, sectoral parties or organizations participating under the party-list
elections and for all bona fide candidates seeking national and local elective positions subject to the
limitation on authorized expenses of candidates and political parties, observance of truth in
advertising and to the supervision and regulation by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC).
For the purpose of this Act, lawful election propaganda shall include:
3.1 Pamphlets, leaflets, cards, decals, stickers or other written or printed materials the size of
which does not exceed eight and one-half inches in width and fourteen inches in length;
3.2 Handwritten or printed letters urging voters to vote for or against any particular political party
or candidate for public office;
3.3 Cloth, paper or cardboard posters whether framed, or posted, with an area not exceeding two
(2) feet by three (3) feet, except that, at the site and on the occasion of a public meeting or
rally, or in announcing the holding of said meeting or rally, streamers not exceeding three (3)
feet by eight (8) feet in size, shall be allowed: Provided, That said streamers may be displayed
five (5) days before the date of the meeting or rally and shall e removed within twenty-four (24)
hours after said meeting or rally;
3.4 Paid advertisements in print or broadcast media: Provided, That the advertisements shall follow
the requirements set forth in Section 4 of this Act; and
3.5 All other forms of election propaganda not prohibited by the Omnibus Election Code or this Act.
Sec. 4. Requirements for Published or Printed and Broadcast Election
Propaganda. 4.1 Any newspaper, newsletter, newsweekly, gazette or magazine advertising, posters, pamphlets,
comic books, circulars, handbills, bumper stickers, is, simple list of candidates or any published
or printed political matter and any broadcast of election propaganda by television or radio for or
against a candidate or group of candidates to any public office shall bear and be identified by the
reasonably legible or audible words "political advertisement paid for," followed by the true and
correct name and address of the candidate or party for whose benefit the election propaganda
was printed or aired.
4.2 If the broadcast is given free of charge by the radio or television station, it shall be identified by
the words "airtime for this broadcast was provided free of charge by" followed by the true and
correct name and address of the broadcast entity.
4.3 Print, broadcast or outdoor advertisements donated to the candidate or political party shall not
be printed, published, broadcast or exhibited without the written acceptance by the said
candidate or political party. Such written acceptance shall be attached to the advertising
contract and shall be submitted to the COMELEC as provided in Subsection 6.3 hereof.
Sec. 5. Election Surveys. 5.1 Election surveys refer to the measurement of opinions and perceptions of the voters as regards a
candidate's popularity, qualifications, platforms or a matter of public discussion in relation to
the election, including voters' preference for candidates or publicly discussed issues during the
campaign period (hereafter referred to as "Survey").
5.2 During the election period, any person, natural as well as juridical, candidate or organization
who publishes a survey must likewise publish the following information:
The name of the person, candidate, party or organization who commissioned or paid for the
survey;
The name of the person, polling firm or survey organization who conducted the survey;
The period during which the survey was conducted, the methodology used, including the number
of individual respondents and the areas from which they were selected, and the specific
questions asked;
The margin of error of the survey;
For each question for which the margin of error is greater than that reported under paragraph
(d), the margin of error for that question; and
A mailing address and telephone number, indicating it as an address or telephone number at
which the sponsor can be contacted to obtain a written report regarding the survey in accordance
with Subsection 5.3.
5.3 The survey together with raw data gathered to support its conclusions shall be available for
inspection, copying and verification by the COMELEC or by a registered political party or a bona
fide candidate, or by any COMELEC-accredited citizen's arm. A reasonable fee sufficient to cover
the costs of inspection, copying and verification may be charged.
5.4 Surveys affecting national candidates shall not be published fifteen (15) days before an election
and surveys affecting local candidates shall not be published seven (7) days before an election.
(This provision has been ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in SOCIAL WEATHER
STATIONS, INCORPORATED and KAMAHALAN PUBLISHING CORPORATION vs. COMMISSION ON
ELECTIONS, GR No. 147571, 5 May 2001)
5.5 Exit polls may only be taken subject to the following requirements:
Pollsters shall not conduct their surveys within fifty (50) meters from the poling place, whether
said survey is taken in a home, dwelling place and other places;
Pollsters shall wear distinctive clothing;
Pollsters shall inform the voters that they may refuse to answer; and
The result of the exit polls may be announced after the closing of the polls on election day, and
must dearly identify the total number of respondents, and the places where they were taken.
Said announcement shall state that the same is unofficial and does not represent a trend.
Sec. 6. Equal Access to Media Time and Space. - All registered parties and bona fide
candidates shall have equal access to media time and space. The following guidelines may be
amplified on by the COMELEC:
6.1 Print advertisements shall not exceed one-fourth (1/4) page in broadsheet and one-half (1/2)
page in tabloids thrice a week per newspaper, magazine or other publications, during the
campaign period.
6.2
Each bona fide candidate or registered political party for a nationally elective office shall be
entitled to not more than one hundred twenty (120) minutes of television advertisement and one
hundred eighty (180) minutes of radio advertisement whether by purchase or donation.
Each bona fide candidate or registered political party for a locally elective office shall be
entitled to not more than sixty (60) minutes of television advertisement and ninety (90) minutes
of radio advertisement whether by purchase or donation.
For this purpose, the COMELEC shall require any broadcast station or entity to submit to the
COMELEC a copy of its broadcast logs and certificates of performance for the review and
verification of the frequency, date, time and duration of advertisements broadcast for any
candidate or political party.
6.3 All mass media entities shall furnish the COMELEC with a copy of all contracts for advertising,
promoting or opposing any political party or the candidacy of any person for public office within
five (5) days after its signing. In every case, it shall be signed by the donor, the candidate
concerned or by the duly authorized representative of the political party.
6.4 No franchise or permit to operate a radio or television station shall be granted or issued,
suspended or cancelled during the election period. In all instances, the COMELEC shall supervise
the use and employment of press, radio and television facilities insofar as the placement of
political advertisements is concerned to ensure that candidates are given equal opportunities
under equal circumstances to make known their qualifications and their stand on public issues
within the limits set forth in the Omnibus Election Code and Republic Act No. 7l66 on election
spending.
The COMELEC shall ensure that radio or television or cable television broadcasting entities shall
not allow the scheduling of any program or permit any sponsor to manifestly favor or oppose any
candidate or political party by unduly or repeatedly referring to or including said candidate
and/or political party in such program respecting, however, in all instances the right of said
broadcast entities to air accounts of significant news or news worthy events and views on matters
of public interest.
6.5 All members of media, television, radio or print, shall scrupulously report and interpret the
news, taking care not to suppress essential facts nor to distort the truth by omission or improper
emphasis. They shall recognize the duty to air the other side and the duty to correct substantive
errors promptly.
6.6 Any mass media columnist, commentator, announcer, reporter, on-air correspondent or
personality who is a candidate for any elective public office or is a campaign volunteer for or
employed or retained in any capacity by any candidate or political party shall be deemed
resigned, if so required by their employer, or shall take a leave of absence from his/her work as
such during the campaign period: Provided, That any media practitioner who is an official of a
political party or a member of the campaign staff of a candidate or political party shall not use
his/her time or space to favor any candidate or political party.
6.7 No movie, cinematograph or documentary portraying the life or biography of a candidate shall be
publicly exhibited in a theater, television station or any public forum during the campaign
period.
6.8 No movie, cinematograph or documentary portrayed by an actor or media personality who is
himself a candidate shall likewise be publicly exhibited in a theater or any public forum during
the campaign period.
Sec. 7. Affirmative Action by the COMELEC. 7.1 Pursuant to Sections 90 and 92 of the Omnibus Election Code (Batas Pambansa Blg. 881), the
COMELEC shall procure the print space upon payment of just compensation from at least three
(3) national newspapers of general circulation wherein candidates for national office can
announce their candidacies. Such space shall be allocated free of charge equally and impartially
among all the candidates for national office on three (3) different calendar days: the first day
within the first week of the campaign period; the second day within the fifth week of the
campaign period; and the third day within the tenth week of the campaign period.
7.2 The COMELEC shall also procure free airtime from at least three (3) national television networks
and three (3) national radio networks, which shall also be allocated free of charge equally and
impartially among all candidates for national office. Such free time shall be allocated on three
(3) different calendar days: the first day within the first week of the campaign period; the
second day within the fifth week of the campaign period; and the third day within the tenth
week of the campaign period.
7.3 The COMELEC may require national television and radio networks to sponsor at least three (3)
national debates among presidential candidates and at least one (1) national debate among vice
presidential candidates. The debates among presidential candidates shall be scheduled on three
(3) different calendar days: the first debate shall be scheduled within the first and second week
of the campaign period; the second debate within the fifth and six week of the campaign period;
and the third debate shall be scheduled within the tenth and eleventh week of the campaign
period.
The sponsoring television or radio network may sell airtime for commercials and advertisements
to interested advertisers and sponsors. The COMELEC shall promulgate rules and regulations for
the holding of such debates.
Sec. 8. COMELEC Space and Time. - The COMELEC shall procure space in at least one (1)
newspaper of general circulation and air time in at least one (1) major broadcasting station or entity
in every province or city: Provided, however, That in the absence of said newspaper, publication shall
be done in any other magazine or periodical in said province or city, which shall be known as
"COMELEC Space": Provided, further, That in the absence of said broadcasting station or entity,
broadcasting shall be done in any radio or television station in said province or city, which shall be
known as "COMELEC Time". Said time shall be allocated to the COMELEC free of charge, while said
space shall be allocated to the COMELEC upon payment of just compensation. The COMELEC time and
space shall be utilized exclusively by the COMELEC for public information dissemination on electionrelated concerns.
Sec. 9. Posting of Campaign Materials. - The COMELEC may authorize political parties and
party-list groups to erect common poster areas for their candidates in not more than ten (10) public
places such as plazas, markets, barangay centers and the like, wherein candidates can post. display or
exhibit election propaganda: Provided, That the size of the poster areas shall not exceed twelve (12)
by sixteen (16) feet or its equivalent.
Independent candidates with no political parties may likewise be authorized to erect common poster
areas in not more than ten (10) public places, the size of which shall not exceed four (4) by six (6)
feet or its equivalent.
Candidates may post any lawful propaganda material in private places with the consent of the owner
thereof, and in public places or property which shall be allocated equitably and impartially among the
candidates.
Sec. 10. Right to Reply. - All registered parties and bona fide candidates shall have the right to
reply to charges published against them. The reply shall be given publicity by the newspaper,
television and/or radio station which first printed or aired the charges with the same prominence or
in the same page or section or in the same time slot as the first statement.
Sec. 11. Rates for Political Propaganda. - During the election period, media outlets shall
charge registered political parties and bona fide candidates a discounted rate of thirty percent (30%)
for television, twenty percent (20%) for radio and ten percent (10%) for print over the average rates
charged during the first three quarters of the calendar year preceding the elections.
Section 12. Substitution of Candidates. – In case of valid substitutions after the official
ballots have been printed, the votes cast for the substituted candidates shall be considered as stray
votes but shall not invalidate the whole ballot. For this purpose, the official ballots shall provide
spaces where the voters may write the name of the substitute candidates if they are voting for the
latter: Provided, however, That if the substitute candidate of the same family name, this provision
shall not apply.
Section 13. Authority of the COMELEC to Promulgate Rules; Election
Offenses. – The COMELEC shall promulgate and furnish all political parties and candidates and the
mass media entities the rules and regulations for the implementation of this Act, consistent with the
criteria established in Article IX-C, Section 4 of the Constitution and Section 86 of the Omnibus
Election Code (Batas Pambansa Bldg. 881).
Rules and regulations promulgated by the COMELEC under and by authority of this Section shall take
effect on the seventh day after their publication in at least two (2) daily newspapers of general
circulation. Prior to effectivity of said rules and regulations, no political advertisement or propaganda
for or against any candidate or political party shall be published or broadcast through mass media.
Violation of this Act and the rules and regulations of the COMELEC issued to implement this Act shall
be an election offense punishable under the first and second paragraphs of Section 264 of the Omnibus
Election Code (Batas Pambansa Bldg. 881).
Section 14. Repealing Clause. – Section 67 and 85 of the Omnibus Election Code (Batas
Pambansa Bldg. 881) and Sections 10 and 11 of Republic Act No. 6646 are hereby repealed. As a
consequence, the first proviso in the third paragraph of Section 11 of Republic Act No. 8436 is
rendered ineffective. All laws, presidential decrees, executive orders, rules and regulations, or any
part thereof inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified or amended
accordingly.
Section 15. Separability Clause. – If any provision or part hereof is held invalid or
unconstitutional, the remainder of this Act not otherwise affected shall remain in full force and
effect.
Section 16. Effectivity. – This Act shall take effect immediately upon its approval.
Approved, 12 February 2001.
RESOLUTION No. 8944
RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING ELECTORAL
CONTRIBUTIONS AND EXPENDITURES
IN CONNECTION WITH THE MAY 10, 2010 NATIONAL AND
LOCAL ELECTIONS.
Promulgation: 25 May 2010
Pursuant to powers vested in it by the Constitution, the Omnibus Election Code, and other election
laws, the Commission on Elections RESOLVED to promulgate, as it hereby promulgates, the
following rules and regulations governing electoral contributions and expenditures in connection with
the May 10, 2010 national and local elections.
Section 1. Definition of terms. - The following terms are hereby defined as follows:
a. "Contribution" includes a gift, donation, subscription, loan, advance or deposit of money or
anything of value, or a contract, promise or agreement to contribute, whether or not legally
enforceable, made for the purpose of influencing the result of the elections but shall not
include services rendered without compensation by individuals volunteering a portion or all of
their time in behalf of a candidate or political party. It shall also include the use of facilities
voluntarily donated by other persons, the money value of which can be assessed based on the
rate prevailing in the area.
b. "Expenditure" includes the payment or delivery of money or anything of value, or a contract,
promise or agreement to make expenditure, for the purpose of influencing the results of the
election. It shall also include the use of facilities personally owned by the candidate, the
money value of the use of which can be assessed based on the rates prevailing in the area.
c. "Person" includes an individual, partnership, committee, association, corporation, and any
other organization or group of persons.
Sec. 2. True name of contributor required. - No person shall make any contribution in any
name except his own. No candidate or treasurer of any political party shall receive a contribution or
enter or record the same in any name other than that of the person by whom it was actually made.
Sec. 3. Report of contributions. - After the conduct of election but not later than 09 June
2010, every person giving contribution to any candidate, treasurer of the party or to the authorized
representative of such candidate or treasurer shall file with the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) a
report, under oath, stating his residential and business address, the amount of each contribution, the
name of the candidate, agent of the candidate or political party receiving the contributions and the
date of the contribution. (See Annex "A" for sample form)
Any contribution in cash or in kind to any candidate or political party or coalition of parties for
campaign purposes, duly reported to the Commission, shall not be subject to the payment of donors
and donees tax.
Sec. 4. Prohibited contributions. - No contribution for purposes of partisan political activity
shall be made, directly or indirectly by any of the folowing:
a. Public or private financial institutions. However, nothing herein shall prevent the making of
any loan to a candidate or political party by any such public or private financial institutions
legally in the business of lending money, and that the loan is made in accordance with laws
and regulations and in the ordinary course of business;
b. Natural and juridical persons operating a public utility or in possession of or exploiting any
natural resources of the nation;
c. Natural and juridical persons who hold contracts or subcontracts to supply the government or
any of its divisions, subdivisions or instrurmentalities, with goods or services or to perform
construction or other works;
d. Natural and juridical persons who have been granted franchises, incentives, exemptions,
allocations, or similar privileges or concessions by the government or qny of its divisions,
subdivisions, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations;
e. Natural and juridical persons who, within one year prior to the date of the elections, have
been granted loans or other accommodations in excess of P100,000.00 by the government or
any of its divisions, subdivisions, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or
controlled corporations;
f. Educational institutions which have received grants of public funds amounting to no less than
P100,000.00;
g. Official and employees in the Civil Service or members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines;
and
h. Foreigners and foreign corporations.
Sec. 5. Prohibited solicitations or receiving of contributions. - No person or entity,
public or private, shall solicit, or receive, directly or indirectcly. a. Any contribution for purposes of partisan political activity, from any of the persons or entities
enumerated in the immediately preceding section;
b. Any aid or contribution of whatever form or nature from any foreign national, government or
entity for the purpose of influencing the results of the elections; or
c. Any gift, food, transportation, contribution or donation in cash or in kind from any candidate
or from his campaign manager, agent or representative, or any person acting in their behalf
within the second degree, of consanguinity or affinity in case of candidates for President,
Vice-President, Senators and Party-List nominees, Member, House of Representatives and local
positions, except normal and customary religious stipends, tithes or collections on Sundays
and/or other designated collection days.
Sec. 6. Prohibited raising of funds. - It is unlawful for any person to hold dances, lotteries,
cockfights, games, boxing bouts, bingo, beauty contests, entertainments or cinematographic,
theatrical or other, performances for the purpose of raising funds for an election campaign or for the
support of any candidate from January 10, 2010 up to 12:00 o'clock midnight of May
10, 2010.
Sec. 7. Authorized expenses of candidates and political parties. - The aggregate
amount that a candidate or registered political party may spend for election campaign shall be as
follow:
I.
CANDIDATES WITH POLITICAL PARTIES
a.
President and Vice-President ---Ten Pesos (P10.00);
b.
For other candidates --- Three Pesos (P3.00) for every voter currently registered in the
constituency where the candidate filed his certificate of candidacy.
II.
CANIDIDATES WITHOUT ANY POLITICAL PARTY OR WITHOUT
SUPPORT FROM ANY POLITICAL PARTY
Candidate without any political party and without support from any political party ---Five
Pesos (P5.00) for every such voter; and
III.
POLITICAL PARTY/PARTY LIST
Political parties and party-list groups --- Five Pesos (P5.00) for every voter currently registered in the
constituency or constituencies where it has official candidates.
The expenses herein referred to shall include those incurred or caused to be incurred by the
candidate, whether in cash or in kind, including the use, rental or hire of land, water or aircraft,
equipment, facilities, apparatus and paraphernalia used in the campaign.
If the land, water or aircraft, equipment, facilities, apparatus and paraphernalia used is owned by the
candidate, his contributor or supporter, the Commission shall assess the amount commensurate with
the expenses for the use thereof, based on the prevailing rate in the locality and shall be included in
the total expenses incurred by the candidate.
Sec. 8. Lawful expenditures. - No candidate or treasurer of a political party shall, directly or
indirectly, make any expenditure except for the following purposes:
a. For traveling expenses of the candidates and campaign personnel in the course of the
campaign and for personal expenses incident thereto;
b. For compensation of campaigners, clerks, stenographers, messengers, and other persons
actually employed in the campaign;
c. For telegraph and telephone tolls, postages, freight and express delivery charges;
d. For stationery, printing and distribution of printed materials relative to the candidacy;
e. For employment of watchers at the polls;
f. For rent, maintenance and furnishing of campaign headquarters, office or place of meetings;
g. For political meetings and rallies and the use of sound systems, lights and decorations during
said meetings and rallies;
h. For newspaper, radio, television and other public advertisements;
i. For employment of counsel;
j. For copying and classifying lists of voters, investigating and challenging the right to vote of
persons registered in the lists; and
k. For prinlting sample ballots in such color, size and maximum number as may be authorized by
the Commission.
The expenditures for items (i), (j), and (k) above, shall not be taken into account in determining the
amount of expenses which a candidate of political party may have incurred under Section 7 hereof.
Sec. 9. Persons authorized to incur election expenditures. - No persons, except the
candidate, the treasurer of political party, organization, or coalition, or any person authorized by
such candidate or treasurer, shall make any expenditure in support of or in opposition to any
candidate or political party, organization, or coalition. Expenditures duly authorized by the candidate
or treasurer of the party shall be considered as expenditures of such candidate or political party.
The authority to incur expenditures shall be in writing, copy of which shall be furnished the
Commission. It shall be signed by the candidate or the treasurer of the party and shall state the
expenditures so authorized and the full name and exact address of the person so designated (see
Annex "B" for sample form).
Sec. 10. Prohibited donations by candidates. - From February 9, 2010 to May
10, 2010, in case of candidates for President, Vice-President, Senators and party-list and from
March 26, 2010 to May 10, 2010 in case of candidates for Member, House of
Representatives and local positions, no candidate, his or her spouse, or any relative within the second
civil degree of consanguinity (up to grandparents, grandchildren, brothers and sisters) or affinity (up
to grandparents-in-Iaw, or grandchildren-in-Iaw, brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law) or his campaign
manager, agent or representative shall make any donation, contribution or gift, in cash or in kind, or
undertake or contribute to the construction or repair of roads, bridges, schoolhouses, puericulture
centers, medical clinics and hospitals, churches or chapels, cement pavements or any structures for
public use of for the use of any religious or civic organizations.
Excluded from this prohibition are normal and customary religious dues or contributions, such as
religious stipends, tithes or collections on Sundays or other designated collection days, as well as
periodic payments for legitimate scholarships established and school contributions habitually made
before the prohibited period.
This prohibition shall apply to treasurers, agents or representatives of any political party.
Sec. 11. Accounting, for agents of candidates or treasurers. - Every person receiving
contributions or incurring expenditure by authority of the candidate or treasurer of the party shall,
on demand by the candidate or treasurer of the party and in any event within five (5) days after
receiving such contribution or incurring such expenditures, render to the candidate or treasurer of the
party concerned, a detailed account thereof with proper vouchers or official receipts.
Sec. 12. Records of Contributions and expenditures a. It shall be the duty of every candidate, treasurer of the political party and person acting
under authority of such candidate or treasurer to issue a receipt for every contribution
received, and to obtain and keep a receipt stating the particulars of every expenditure made.
b. Every candidate and treasurer of the party shall keep detailed, full and accurate records of all
contributions received and expenditures incurred by him and by those acting under his
authority, setting forth therein all information required to be reported.
c. Every candidate and treasurer of the party shall be responsible for the preservation of the
records of contributions and expenditures, together with all pertinent documents, for at least
three (3) years after the holding of the election to which they pertain and for their
production for inspection by the COMELEC or its duly authorized representative, or upon
presentation of a subpoena duces tecum duly issued by the COMELEC.
Failure of the candidate or treasurer to preserve such records or documents
shall be deemed prima facie evidence of violation of Sec. 106 of the Omnibus
Election Code, which constitutes an election offense.
Sec. 13. Reminders to candidates to file Statement of Contributions and
Expenditures. - Not later than May 20, 2010, the Law Department of the Commission, the
Regional Election Director of the National Capital Region, the Provincial Election Supervisors and
Election Officers shall advise in writing by personal delivery or registered mail all candidates who
filed their certificates of candidacy with them to comply with their obligation to ffle their statements
of contributions and expenditures in connection with the elections. Every election officer shall also
advise all candidates residing in his jurisdiction to comply with said obligation.
Sec. 14. When and where to file statements. - Not later than 09 June 2010, every
candidate shall file in triplicate with the office of the Commission where he filed his certificate of
candidacy a full, true and itemized statement of all contributions and expenditures in connection with
the elections. Within the same period, every treasurer of the political party or party list group that
participated in the elections shall file with the Law Department of the COMELEC its statement of
election contributions and expenditures. If the statement is sent by mail, it shall be by registered
mail, and the date on which it was registered with the post office may be considered as the filing date
thereof if confirmed on the same date by telegram or radiogram addressed to the office or official
with whom the statement shourd be filed, which telegram or radiogram shall indicate the registry
receipt number of such registered mail.
The Regional Election Director of the National Capital Region, Provincial Election Supervisors and
Election Officers concerned shall, not later than July 14, 2010, send to the Commission on
Elections, Manila, triplicate copies of all statements filed with them.
Sec. 15. Form and contents of statements. - The statement required in next preceding
section shall be in writing, subscribed and sworn to by the candidate or by the treasurer of the Party.
It shall set forth in detail the following:
a. The amount of contribution, the date of receipt, and the full name and exact address of the
person from whom the contribution was received;
b. The amount of every expenditure, the date thereof, the full name and exact address of the
person from whom payment was made and the purpose of the expenditure;
c. Any unpaid obligation, its nature and amount, and to whom said obligation is owing; and
d. If the, candidate or treasurer ofl the party has received no contribution, made no
expenditure, or has no pending obligation, the statement shall reflect such fact.
Particulars contained in the attached sample forms, Annexes "C", "C-1", "C-2", "C-3" and "C-4".
Sec. 16. Preservation and inspection of statements. - All statement of contributions
and expenditures shall be kept and preserved at the office where they are filed and shall constitute
part of public records thereat for three (3) years after May 10, 2010. They shall not be removed
therefrom except upon order of the COMELEC or of a competent court and shall, during regular office
hours, be subject and open to inspection by the public. The officer-in-charge thereof, shall, on
written demand, furnish certified copies of any statement upon payment of the fee of Two Pesos
(P2.00) for every page.
He shall examine all statements receive from candidates and political parties to determine
compliance with the provisions of this resolution.
Sec. 17. Effect of Failure to file statement. - (a) No person elected to any public office
shall enter upon the duties of his office until he has filed the statement of contributions and
expenditures herein required.
The same prohibition shall apply if the political party which nominated the winning candidates, or
winning party-list group, fails to file the statement required herein on or before June 9, 2010.
(b) Failure to file statements or reports in connection with the electoral contributions and
expenditures as required herein shall constitute an administrative offense for which the offenders
shall be liable to pay an administrative fine ranging from One Thousand Pesos (P1,000.00) to Thirty
Thousand Pesos (P30,000.00), at the discretion of the Commission.
The fine shall be paid within thirty (30) days from receipt of notice of such failure; otherwise, it shall
be enforceable by a writ of execution issued by the COMELEC against the properties of the offender.
For the Commission of a second or subsequent offense under this section, the administrative fine shall
be from Two Thousand Pesos (P2,000.00) to Sixty Thousand Pesos (P60,000.00), at the discretion of
the Commission. In addition, the offender shall be subject to perpetual disqualification to hold public
office.
Sec. 18. Report of contractor and business firms. - Not later than June 9, 2010,
every person or firm to whom any 'electoral expenditure has been made shall file with the Law
Department of the COMELEC, in triplicate, a written report setting forth the full names and exact
addresses of the candidates, treasurers of the political parties, and other persons incurring such
expenditures, the nature or purpose or each expenditure, the date and amount thereof, and such
other particulars contained in the attached sample form (Annex "D").
The report shall be signed and sworn to by the supplier or contractor, or in case of a business firm or
association, by its president or general manager.
It shall be the duty of such person or firm to whom an electoral expenditure is made to require every
agent of a political party to present written authority to incur electoral expenditures in behalf of
such candidate or treasurer.
The same person or firm shall keep and preserve at its place of business, subject to inspection by the
Commission or its authorized representatives, copies of such written authority, contracts, vouchers,
invoices and other records and documents relative to said expenditures for a period of three (3) years
from May 10, 2010.
It is unlawful for any supplier, contractor or business firm to enter into contracts involving electoral
expenditures with representative of candidates or political parties, organizations, or coalitions who
do not have such written authority.
Sec. 19. Statement of expenses on public rally. - Within seven (7) working days after
holding any public rally, the candidate concerned shall submit to the election officer a statement of
expenses incurred in connection therewith, aftet previously securing the necessary permit from the
municipal/city official concerned and notifying the election officer thereof (See Annexes "E" and "F"
hereof for sample forms).
Failure to comply with this Section constitutes an election offense under Section 68 in relation to
Section 262 of the Omnibus Election Code.
Sec. 20. Effectivity. - This resolution shall take effect immediately upon publication in two (2)
newspapers of general circulation in the Philippines.
Sec. 21. Dissemination. - The Education and Information Department shall cause the
publication of this resolution in two (2) daily newspapers of general circulation. It shall furnish copies
thereof to all field offices of the Commission and registered political parties, organizations, or
coalitions.
SO ORDERED.
(Sgd.) JOSE A.R. MELO
Chairman
(Sgd.) RENE V. SARMIENTO
Commissioner
(Sgd.) NICODEMO T. FERRER
Commissioner
(Sgd.) LUCENITO N. TAGLE
Commissioner
(Sgd.) ARMANDO C. VELASCO
Commissioner
(Sgd.) ELIAS R. YUSOPH
Commissioner
(Sgd.) GREGORIO Y. LARRAZABAL
Commissioner
Field Monitoring Trainings were conducted in all key cities. Every volunteer committed in the
campaign finance monitoring in their localities and each of them also helped in mapping out
major routes for monitoring.
PAP National Assessment
PAP invited team leaders from various key cities for a National Assessment from August 19-20 at the
Imperial palace Hotel, Quezon City. It gathered stories from the volunteers on their actual experiences
from monitoring campaign expenditures in the ground and identified lessons learned from its
implementation. It also drafted recommendations for similar ground-level campaign monitoring
projects in the future and policies related to campaign financing.

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