WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo

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WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
http://www.wordgumbo.com/ie/cmp/index.htm
Thracian
Sources:
1. Neroznak, V. Paleo-Balkan Languages. Moscow, 1978.
2. Fasmer, M. Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language. Moscow, 1986.
3. Georgiev, V. Ezyk na trakite.
4. Duridanov, I. Ezikyt na trakite, Sofia, 1976.
Notes for Glossary:
H = hydronym;
RN = river name;
VN = village name;
PN = place name
Lith., Lit. - Lithuanian
Latv. - Latvian
Russ. - Russian
Bulg. - Bulgarian
Ind. - Indic
Avest. - Avestan
Pruss. - Prussian
Pelasg. - Pelasgian
Goth. - Gothic
Icel. - Icelandic
Toch. - Tocharian
Alb. - Albanian
Glossary:
achel- ‘water (noun), water (adj.)’ [Lith. H Akele., Phryg. akala ‘water’].
aiz- ‘a goat’ [Armen. aic, Greek aix].
ala ‘current, stream’ [Latv. H Alaja, Lith. ale.ti ‘flooded’].
alonhon 'a spear'
alta(s) ‘current, stream’ [Illyrian RN Altus, Russ. (from Balt.) RN Al'ta].
an(a) ‘at, on’ [Avest. ana ‘along’, Greek aná ‘at, along’, Goth. ana ‘at, towards’].
ang- ‘curved, twisting’ [Old-Ind. ancati ‘a curve’, Greek ankos ‘valley, abyss’].
ant(i) ‘against’ [Old-Ind. ánti ‘against, nearby, the Lith. ant ‘towards, against’, Toch. ánt ‘through’, Greek antí
‘against’, etc.].
apa, aphus ‘water, river; a spring’ [Old-Pruss. ape ‘river’, apus ‘spring’, Old-Ind. ap- ‘water’].
apsa ‘aspen’ [Altin apse ‘aspen’, Old-Pruss. abse, Pol. osa (from Proto-Slavic *apsá), Old-HighGerman aspa
‘aspen’].
argilos - 'a mouse'
arma ‘swamp, bog’ [Lith. arma ‘bog, puddle’, armuo, -ens ‘the same’].
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ars- ‘to flow; current, river’ [Old-Pruss. RN Arsio, Arse, Old-Ind. árs,ati ‘to flow’, Hitt. arљ- ‘the same’].
arta(s), arda(s) ‘current. river’ [Old-Ind. árdati ‘to flow’, Greek ardó ‘to bedew’].
arzas ‘white’ [IE *arg'- (white, clear)].
asa(s) ‘stone’, as(a)m ‘stony’ [Old-Ind. as’man ‘stone; heaven’, Avest. asman- ‘the same’, Pelasg.
asáminthos (stone) bath’, Lith. akmuo, -ens ‘stone’].
asa ‘colt’s foot (Tussilago farfara)’. That was its Bessian name according to Dioskurides. It is related to the
Lit. dial. asys ‘horse-tail, Equisetum’, Latv. aљi, aљas ‘horse-tail, sedge, rush’, which are probably related to
the Latv. aљs, ass ‘sharp’, Old-Bulg. ostrý, Lit. aљtrus ‘sharp’.
asn - 'I, me' , [IE *eg'hom, Lit. aљ 'I, me'].
at ‘at, towards’ [IE *ad-, Latin ad 'to, towards', Latv. ad ‘at, towards’, Old-Icel. at ‘at, opposite to’].
ath- ‘high, steep coast, a hill’ [Greek akté ‘steep coast, peninsula, cape’].
at(u) ‘current, stream’ [Latv. RN Adula, German Attel, Avest. adu- ‘current, stream, channel’].
balios 'white', [IE *bhel-].
bebrus ‘beaver’ [Lith. bebrus ‘beaver’, Old-Pruss. bébrus, Bulg. VN Bebrovo, Old-HighGerman bibar, etc.].
bend- ‘to bind’, marriage [Old-Ind. bándhana- ‘binding’, Avest. bandayaiti ‘to bind’, Goth, Anglo-Saxon
bindan, German binden ‘to bind’].
beras ‘brown, swarthy’ [Lith. be.ras ‘brown’, Latv. bers ‘the same’, Old-HighGerman bero ‘a bear’ (initially
‘brown’)].
berga(s) ‘hill, bank’ [Old-Icel. berg ‘mountain’, Old-HighGerman berg, German Berg ‘mountain’, Old-Bulg.
[email protected], New-Bulg. brjag ‘bank, coast’].
berza(s) ‘birch’ [IE *bherg'- 'a birch', Lith. bérz'as, Latv. berzs, Old-Pruss. berse, Russ. ber'oza, Bulg. breza
‘birch’].
bolinthos ‘wild bull, bison’. The word is attested in Aristotle, according to whom that animal lived in the
Messapian mountain, which separated the country of the Peonians from that of the Maideans (a Thracian
tribe inhabiting the middle course of Struma and upper course of Mesta), and that the Peonians called it
mónapos. Therefore, bolinthos was a Maidean, that is, a Thracian word. It is compared to the German Bulle
‘bull’ and is derived from the IE *bhun-ent.
bonassos 'a bull' [IE *gwou-, Latin bos, bovis 'a bull'].
bredas ‘pasture-ground’ [Russ. bred, bredina ‘pasture’, bresti, bredu ‘to cross by a ford’, Balt. (Zhemait.) RN
Bred-upja].
brentas (brendas) ‘deer’ [Messap. bréndon ‘deer’].
bria ‘town’ (Strab.; Steph. Byz. under the word of Messembria). Both authors state the word was Thracian. It
is often found as a second component of Thracian settlement names, for example: Messembria, Poltymbria,
Sélymbria, Skedabria, etc. The Thracian ‘bria’ is related to the Toch. A ri, B riye ‘town (a refuge on a hill)’ –
from the IE *wrijá.
brilón - 'a barber', [Slavic *briti 'to shave', Old-Ind. bhrinati 'he hurts', Persian burridan 'to cut'].
brink- ‘to swell’ [Lith. brinkti [brinkstu) ‘to swell’, Pol. na-brekac' ‘the same’].
briza ‘spelt, rye’ (Gal. de alim. facult. 1, 13/6 p. 514. Kühn). The author (Galen) saw this plant in Thracia and
in Macedonia and concluded the word was Thracian. It is very probable. There are several etymologies for
this word, that of A. Fick being the most acceptable one. A. Fick relates the Thracian briza to the Old-Ind.
vrihi-h, Pers. birinj, Afg. vriz'e ‘rice’, Greek orinda=óryza ‘rice’, from which the Bulg. oriz. There is an
alternative interpretation: the Thracian bryza is related to the Lith. brizdis ‘ling’, from the stem of the verb
brigzti ‘to be torn, to get unraveled’.
bruzas ‘quick’ [Lith. bruz'as ‘somebody who runs to and fro’, the Slavic *[email protected]@, Bulg. [email protected]].
brynchós ‘guitar for the Thracians’ (Hesych.). The word is related to the Pol. brzek ‘a ringing, a tinkle’, Ukr.
brjak ‘a ringing, a sound’.
brytos (masc.), bryton (neuter) ‘a kind of ale from barley, a beer’ (Archil. Hecat. and others), brutos
(Hesych.), bryttion (Herodian.). The word was used by the Thracians, the Peonians and the Phrygians.
bur, buris (boris) ‘man’ [Alb. burrë ‘man’].
burt- (burd-) ‘a ford’ [Slavic *[email protected], Bulg. brod ‘a ford’].
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búzas ‘a goat’ [Avest. búza- ‘a goat’].
chalas ‘mud’ [Old-Bulg. [email protected], New-Bulg. kal ‘mud’, Czech kal ‘swamp; mud. soft soil’].
dama ‘settlement, place for settling’ [Old-Ind. dháman- ‘place for dwelling’, Greek thaimós ‘house’].
daphas ‘a flood’ [Lith. dapas ‘a flood’, Norw. dial. dave ‘puddle, pool’].
darsas (dersas) ‘brave, courageous’ [Old-Pruss. dyrsos (pl.) ‘able, brave’, Avest. darљyu- ‘brave, strong’].
datan (datas) ‘place, settlement’ [Alb. datë ‘place, settlement].
dava - 'a town'
dentu- ‘clan, tribe’ [Latv. gens ‘clan, tribe’].
dero, dur 'a stockade', [IE *dhwer- 'a door, a gate'].
desa(s), disa(s) ‘deity, god’ [IE *deiwo-, Greek théos ‘a god’].
-didzos, -didza 'to create' [Russ. so-zdat 'to create', Lith. z'iedz'iu 'I form, I mould', Goth. deigan 'to puddle',
Old-Ind. déhmi 'I plaster', Old-Pers. didá 'a fort', Greek teikhos 'a wall', Latin fingo, fictus 'I puddle', Oscan
feihúss 'walls'].
dinga ‘fertile ground’ [Latv. dinga ‘fertile place’, Old-Icel. dyngia ‘dunghill’].
diza ‘fortress’ [Avest. uz-daéza ‘a heaping, a fortification’, Old-Pers. didá, New-Pers. diz, déz ‘fortress’].
dón ‘place, country(side)’ [Old-Ir. dú, Gen. don ‘place, country(side)’, Greek chthón ‘soil, land’].
douro- 'strong' [Celt. *duro-].
drenis ‘deer’ [Alb. dre, dreni ‘deer’].
dul 'a house, a family'.
dumas ‘dark’ [Lith. dúmas ‘dark, dark brown (for cattle)’, Latv. dúms ‘dark brown’].
dún- ‘hill, mountain’ [Celtic *dunum 'a hill', Anglo-Saxon dún hill, mountain’, German Düne ‘dune’].
ebros 'a goat' [IE *kapro-, Gaulish gabro- 'a goat', Old Irish gabor 'a goat', Irish gabhar].
e(i)b- ‘to flow, to drip’ [Pelasg. eibó ‘to drip, to flow (out)’].
ermas ‘fierce, mad’ [Alb. jerm ‘furious, mad’].
esko 'to eat' [IE *ed- 'to eat'].
esvas (ezvas), esb ‘a horse’ [IE *ekwo- 'a horse'].
gagila 'a jackdaw' [Slavic *gala 'a jackdaw'].
gaidrus ‘bright, clear’ [Lith. gaidrus ‘bright, clear (cloudless)’, Greek phaidrós ‘shining, bright, cheerful’].
gava(s) ‘county, countryside’ [Goth. gawi ‘county’, pre-Greek gaia, Att. gé ‘land, region’].
genton 'a piece of meat'.
germas ‘warm, hot’ [IE *gherm-, Old-Ind. gharmá- ‘heat’, Armen. j^erm’warm’, Greek thermós ‘the same’].
gesa ‘stork kingfisher’ [Old-Pruss. geeyse ‘kingfisher’, Latv. dzése ‘heron, kingfisher’].
gin- ‘to languish, to spoil, to dry out’ [Old-Kurian Ginulle (a stream), Latv. g'nins ‘to spoil, to languish’].
haimos (-on), *saimas (-an) ‘ridge, mountain chain’ [Old-Ind. simán- ‘ridge, boundary’, Irish sím ‘chain’].
heris 'a hand' [IE *khesro- 'a hand', Greek kheir 'a hand', Hittite keљљar 'a hand'].
ida (ide) ‘tree; forest’ [Old-Ir. fid, Gen. fedo ‘tree, trees, forest’].
iet(e)r (=jeter-) ‘quick, agile’ [Old-HighGerman átar ‘quick’, Latv. atrs ‘quick’].
iltea 'a chosen woman'.
íl(u)- ‘silt, mud’ [Greek ílys, -ýos ‘mud, silt’, Church Slavic [email protected] ‘the same’].
iúras (=júras) ‘water, river’ [Lith. júra ‘a sea’, Old-Nord. úr ‘drizzle’].
kaba(s) ‘bog, swamp’ [Engl. quab].
kalas ‘district, border region’ [Lith. galas ‘end, border of a field, meadow or forest’, Latv. gals
‘neighbourhood’].
kalsas ‘dry, dried up’ [Latv. kálst (-stu, -tu) ‘to dry up, to wither’].
kamoles 'beloved'.
kapas ‘hill, slope’ [Latv. kapa, kape ‘long mountain strip, dune, slope’, Lith. kopa ‘and hill, dune’].
kel(l)a ‘a spring’ [Old-HighGerman quella, German Quelle ‘a spring’].
kenthas ‘a child, descendant’ [Latv. re-cens ‘fresh, young, new’, with another suffix in the New-Bulg chedo ‘a
child’].
kersas ‘black’ [Lith. kérљas ‘on black and white spots’, Bulg. cheren ‘black’, Old-Ind. krsná ‘black, dark’].
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ketri-, ketre- ‘four’ [IE *kwetwores, Greek tetra ‘four’, Cymr. pedry- ‘four-fold’, Lith. keturi, Latv. c'etri, Bulg.
c'etiri ‘four’].
kik- ‘live, agile’ [Anglo-Saxon cwicu, Old-Nord. kvikr, kykr ‘live, agile’, Engl. quick].
kiri- [or kira] ‘mountain’, ‘forest’ [Old-Ind. girí-h ‘mountain’, Avest. gairi- ‘the same’, Lith. giria, gire ‘forest,
wood’. Latv. dzira ‘forest’].
knisa(s) ‘eroded place’ [Lith. knisti ‘to dig’].
kupsela ‘a heap, a hillock’ [Lith. kupse.lis ‘heap, hillock’].
kurp- ‘to burrow’ [Lith. kurpti (-i?) ‘to burrow’, Russ. korpat’ ‘to burrow’].
kurta ‘groove, wood’ [Old-Pruss. korto ‘groove’ from the Baltic *kurtá].
laza (-as) ‘clearing (in forest), glade’ [Serbo-Croat läz ‘clearing’, Russ. laz ‘animal pathway to a river (lake)’,
lazina 'clearing’].
lingas ‘depression, meadow’ [Lith. lénge ‘low land’, PN Linge, Bulg. [email protected] ‘meadow’].
mandakes ‘a binder for sheaves’
marieus 'lime' [IE *mar- 'dirty, unclear'].
mar- ‘water, river, bog’ ["European" *mar- 'sea', Gaulish mor- 'sea', Anglo-Saxon merisc ‘swamp’, Old-Icel.
moerr ‘swampy country’].
marka ‘bog; swampy country’ [Lith. mark? ‘a pit for steeping flax or hemp’, Ukrain. morokva ‘bog’].
melda(s) ‘marshy reed’ [Lith. melda, méldas ‘marsh reed’, Latv. meldi ‘reed’, Old-HighGerman melta].
mér- ‘large, great’ [IE *mér-, Church Slavic personal name [email protected], Old-HighGerman Volk-már, Hlodomár, Old-Icel. már ‘big’].
mezéna ‘a horseman’ [Alb. mes, mezi ‘stallion’, Roman. (substrat) mînz ‘stallion’].
midne 'a settlement'.
muka ‘seed, clan, posterity’ [Iran. muka- in the Osset. mug? ‘family’, muggag ‘seed, clan’].
mukas ‘swampy country, a bog’ [Latv. muka ‘swamp, where one can sink’, mukls ‘swampy’, Lith. RN Múke.].
musas ‘moss, mould’ [Old-HighGerman, Anglo-Saxon mos ‘moss, swamp’, German Moss ‘moss’, ChurchSlav. [email protected]@ ‘moss’, Lith. musai, pl. ‘mould on yoghourt’].
neos 'new' [IE *newo- 'new'].
nest- ‘rumbling, roaring’ [Old-Ind. nádati ‘to rumlble, to roar’, nadi- ‘river, current’].
niva 'snow' [IE *sneigwh- 'snow'].
óstas ‘river mouth’ [Lith. úostas, uosta ‘river mouth; a port’, Latv. uosts-, uosta ‘the same’, Latin óstium ‘river
mouth’, Old-Bulg. uostije ‘the same’].
pa(i)vis ‘child, son’ [Greek Homer pavis, Att. paus, pais].
paisa(s) ‘soot’ [Lith. paiљai ‘soot’].
pala ‘swamp, bog’ [Lith. palios, pl. ‘big swamp. bog’, Latv. pal,as, pal,i ‘swampy banks of a lake’, Latin palus
‘lake’].
palma ‘swamp, bog’ [from pala with the suffix -má].
pan(i) ‘swamp, quagmire, peat-bog’ [Old-Pruss. pannean ‘quagmire’, Goth. fani ‘silt’, etc.].
para, phara ‘settlement, village’, marketplace [from the IE *(s)porá as ‘village’].
paurakis 'small' [Latin paucus 'small'].
pauta(s) ‘foam’ or ‘foaming’ [Old-Pruss. RN Pauta, Lith. puta ‘foam’, putóti ‘to foam’, Latv. putas ‘foam’].
per ‘boy, son’ [Lat. puer ‘child, boy, son’].
per(u)- ‘a rock’ [Hett. peruna- ‘a rock’, Old-Ind. párvata- ‘mountain’].
pés ‘boy, child’ [Greek paus, pais ‘child’, Cypr. pas ‘the same’].
pi - 'beside, more'
pinon 'a drink' [IE *poi-, *pi- 'to drink', Latin pibo 'I drink', Slavic *piti 'to drink'].
pitye 'a treasure'
piza(s) ‘bog, meadow’ [Latv. písa ‘deep swamp’, Greek písea, pl. ‘damp places, meadow’].
poltyn 'a fortress'
pras- (resp. *praus-) ‘to wash, to splash, to bedew’ [Lith. prausti ‘to wash, to sprinkle’, Latv. prauslat ’to
splash, to besprinkle’, Old-Ind. prusnó'ti ‘to splash’].
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puis, pus, pys ‘child, son’ [-pu(i)s = Greek Att. paus ‘child, son’].
pupa ‘beans’ or ‘hill’ (?) [Lith. pupa ‘beans’ or Alb. pupë ‘hill’].
pura- ‘maize, spelt’ [Greek pyrós ‘maize’, Lith. púrai ‘winter maize’, Church Slavic [email protected] ‘spelt’].
purda ‘swampy, damp place’ [Latv. purdul,i ‘a snivel’, Greek pardakos ‘damp, wet’].
puris, poris, por, pyris, pyros, pyr ‘son, boy’ [Latin pure ‘child, boy, son’ in Latin PN Marci-por, Nae-por, ólipor, Etr. nei-pur, naei-purs].
pus, pys ‘child, son’ - see puis.
pusinas ‘spruce forest, pine forest’ [Lith. puљynas ‘spruce forest’ from puљis ‘pine, spruce’].
putras ‘bawler, squaller, babbler’ [Old-Latv. personal name Putre, Latv. putruôt, putrât ‘to cry, to speak fast’].
raimas ‘motley’ [Lith. ráimas ‘motley, particoloured’].
raka(s) ‘eroded place, a gully’ [Lith. rakti ‘to burrow’].
ramus ‘quiet, calm’ [Lith. ramus ‘quiet’, Old-Ind. rámate ‘to stay quiet, to rest’].
raskus ‘quick, agile, live’ [Old-HighGerman rasc ‘quick’, German rasch ‘the same’, Engl. rash].
rera ‘stones, stony ground’ (from an earlier *lera) [Alb. lerë, -a ‘stones, fallen stones’].
rézas (resas) ‘king’ [Latin rex ‘king’, Old-Ind. raj- ‘the same’].
ring- (rink-) ‘quick, skillful’ [Old-HighGerman (ge)-ringi ‘light’, Middle-German ge-ringi ‘light. quick’, Greek
rhimpha ‘quickly, skillfully’].
romfea 'an arrow, a staff'
rudas ‘red, reddish’ [Lith. RN Rud-upe., adj. rudas ‘(red-) brown, reddish’, Latv. ruds ‘reddish’].
rumba(s) ‘edge; rapids’ [Lith. rumbas ‘periphery’, Latv. rumba ‘waterfall, rapids’].
rús-a (-as, -is) ‘a pit’ or rus- ‘slowly flowing’ [Old-Pruss. PN Russe (a village and a swamp), Lith. rúsys (and
rúsas) ‘potatoe’s pit; hut’, Latv. rúsa ‘pit; or the Litv. ruse.ti ‘to flow slowly’].
sabazias ‘free’ [Old-Bulg. svobod' ‘free’].
saldas, saltas (instead of *zaldas) ‘golden’ [Old-Bulg. zlato (from the Proto-Slavic *zalta) ‘gold (noun)’ , NewBulg. zlato ‘gold’, zlaten ‘golden’].
sara ‘current, stream’ [Old-Ind. sará ‘river, stream’].
sartas ‘light-red’ [Lith. sartas ‘light-red (for horses)’, Latv. sarts ‘red’].
satras (satrus) ‘live, quick, agile’ (?) [Lith. љatrus ‘live, quick, agile, row’].
saut-is (-as) ‘lazy’ [Latv. sautis ‘lazy man, who sleeps all the time’].
sei(e)tuva ‘deep place in the river’ [Lith. sietuve. ‘deep place in the river’].
seina(s) ‘village, settlement’ [Armen. љén, Gen. sini ‘village’, Greek Rhod. kroina ‘residence’].
sékas ‘grass, greenery; hay’ [Lith. љe.kas ‘recently mowed down grass’, Old-Ind. s'áka- ‘vegetable’].
sem(e)la (= zeml’a) ‘land, earth’ [Old-Bulg. zemlja, Russ. zemlja, Lith. zeme, Latv. zeme].
serma, sermas ‘current, stream’ [Old-Ind. sárma-h ‘current’, Lith. RN Sérmas].
siltas ‘warm, pleasant’ [Lith. љiltas ‘warm, pleasant’, Latv. silts ‘warm’, Cymr. clyd ‘warm, warming’].
sind(u)- ‘river’ [Old-Ind. sindhu- ‘river’, Old-Pers. hindus ‘the same’].
singas ‘low land, depression’ [Goth. sigqan, Old-HighGerman sinkan, German sinken ‘to sink, to collapse’].
siros 'a granary'
skaivas ‘left’ [Greek skaiós ‘left’, Latin scaevus ‘the same’].
skalme 'a sword'
skalp- ‘to beetle, to hit’ [Lith. skalbti (-biu, -biau) ‘to beetle, to dolly (for laundry)’].
skaplis ‘axe’ [Lith. skaplis ‘axe’].
skapt- ‘to dig’ [Lith. skaptúoti ‘to cut, to carve (in wood)’, Greek skápto ‘to dig’].
skaras (-is) ‘quick’ [Old-Bulg. [email protected], Russ. [email protected] ‘quick’, etc. (Proto-Slavic *[email protected])].
skarké 'a coin'
skarsas ‘transverse, slanting’ [the Greek en-kársios, epi-kársis ‘curved, bent, transverse’, Lith. skersas
‘transverse, oblique].
skilas ‘quick, impetuous’ [Lith. skilti ‘set fire’ and ‘run mad’]
skreta ‘circle, circumference’ [Lith. skrete. ‘a (round) disk’, skrite. ‘circumference’].
skumbr-as (or -is) ‘hill, mountain’ [Lith. kumbrys, kumbris ‘hillock, hill, mountain peak, small mountain’].
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spinda(s) ‘clearing (in the forest)’ [Lith spindis ‘clearing in the forest’].
spinos 'coal'
stra (from an earlier *strava) ‘current, torrent’ [Lith. srava ‘current’, Latv. strava ‘current, torrent’].
strambas ‘stubble-field’ [Old-Pruss. strambo ‘stubble-field’, the Latv. struobs ‘a spray, a stem, a straw’ ].
strumá, strumón ‘current, river’ [Old-HighGerman stroum, German Strom ‘current’ river’, Lith. sraumuo, -ens
‘fast current’, srúti (srúvu, dial. srúnu) ‘to fill with water’ and ‘to flow, to outflow the banks (for a river)’].
strúna ‘current, river’ [Lith. sriti ‘to fill with water, to outflow’].
stur(ia) ‘country, countryside’ [Old-Bulg strana (Proto-Slavic *starná) ‘country’, Bulg. pro-stor ‘expanse,
space’].
suchis, sukis, suku(s) (-os) ‘girl’, resp. ‘boy, juvenile’ [Cymr. hogen ‘girl’, hogyn ‘boy, lad’, Lith. súnus ‘son’,
Old-Bulg. [email protected] ‘son’, etc.].
suka ‘a crack, a gorge, a pass’, [Lith. љuke. ‘a gap, a crack’].
sula ‘groove’ [Greek hýle ‘forest, groove’].
sunka ‘sap, fluid’ [Lith. sunka ‘sap (of a tree); fluid’].
sura (zura) ‘current, stream’ [Old-Ind. sirá ‘current. stream’].
suras ‘strong, brave; a hero’ [Old-Ind. súra-h ‘a hero, a warrior’, Avest. súra- ‘brave, courageous; a hero’].
suras ‘salty, bitter’ [Lith. súras ‘salty’, Latv. surs ‘salty, bitter, sour’].
svit- ‘to shine, to twinkle’ [Lith. љvite.ti ‘to shine, to twinkle’, Old-Bulg. svüteti sia) ‘to shine’].
tarpas, terpas ‘a gap, a crack’ [Lith. tárpas, térpü ‘an interstice, a crack’, Proto-Slavic *[email protected] ‘a pit, a ditch’].
taru- ‘spear’ [Greek dóry ‘tree’ and ‘spear’, Hett. taru- ‘tree, trees’, Old-Ind. dáru- ‘tree’].
therm 'a tribe'
thin- ‘to hold, to carry’ [Latin teneó, -ere ‘to hold’].
thurd- ‘to crash, to collapse’ [Old-HighGerman sturzen, German stürzen ‘to overthrow, to fall’].
tirsas ‘thicket’ [Lith. tirљtis ‘density, thickness’ and ‘thicket, brush-wood’, tirљti (tirљtu) ‘to thicken’].
titha ‘light, radiance’ [Greek titó' ‘morning glow; morning, day’, Alb. ditë ‘day’].
tón 'a present' [IE *dó- 'to give'].
tranas ‘rotting’ [Lith. RN Tranys, trene.ti ‘to rot, to decompose’].
traus- ‘to break, to crumble’ [Lith. trauљti ‘to break, to crumble’, trauљus ‘brittle’, the Latv. trauss, trausls
‘brittle, fragile’, Old-Russ. [email protected] ‘lazy; sad’].
tri 'three' [IE *treyes, *trí 'three'].
tund- 1. ‘to push, to knock’; 2. ‘river’ [1. Latin tundó, -ere ‘to push, to knock’, Old-Ind. tundaté ‘to push’. 2.
Old-Icel. ?und ‘river’].
tuntas ‘a flock, a flight; a heap’ [Lith. tuntas ‘a flock, a flight; a heap, a pile’].
turm- ‘a run, a flight’ [Old-Ind. drámati ‘to run’, Greek drómos ‘a run’].
udra(s) ‘otter’ [IE *wed-, *wod-, Old-Ind. udráh ‘water animal’, Avest. udra- ‘otter’, Greek hydros, OldHighGerman ottar, Lith. údra, Bulg. vidra ‘otter’].
udrénas ‘water, aquatic’ [IE *wed-, *wod- 'water'].
úkas ‘mist; misty, turbid’ [Lith. úkas ‘a mist; clouding; fume, vapour’, úkanas ‘cloudy, turbid’].
upa ‘river’ [Lith. úpe. ‘river’, Latv. upe ‘river, stream’].
-upula 'apple?' [IE *amlu-, *samlu- 'apple'].
urda(s) ‘stream’ [Lith. urdulys ‘(mountain) stream, pool’, Latv. urdavin,a ‘stream’].
usku- ‘water; aquatic, marshy’ [Old-Ir. u(i)sce ‘water’, Old-Cymr uisc, Irish esc ‘water, bog, swamp’].
utos ‘water, river’ [IE *wed-, *wod-, Old-Ind. ud-án- ‘water’, Greek hydos ‘the same’].
vair-as (-us) ‘spinning’ [Lith. vairus, vairas ‘spinning’, Swed. vírr ‘a spiral’].
varpasas ‘whirlpool’ [Latv. várpats ‘whirlpool’, the Lith. varpyti (-pau, -piau) ‘to dig, to burrow’].
veger- (resp. *veker-) ‘damp; to bedew’ or ‘haymowing’ [Dutch wak ‘damp’, Latv. vedzere etc.].
veleka(s) ‘place for washing’ [Lith. vele.kles ‘a place, used for washing’, vele.ti ‘to wash (with a paddle)’].
ver- ‘to spring, to issue’ [Lith. vírti (vérdu, viriau) ‘to boil, to bubble’, the Old-Bulg. v'reti v'rion ‘to spring, to
boil’].
verza(s) ‘a barrier used for fishing; dam’ [Latv. varza ‘dam’].
6
zalmos 'a skin'
zan 'a clan, a family' [IE *g'en- 'to give birth, a kin'].
zbel- (from an initial *zibel-) ‘shining; a thunderbolt, a lightning’ [Latv. zibele ‘shining’, zibelêt ‘to flash, to
twinkle, to shine’].
zburul- ‘light (noun); shining’ [Lith. z'iburys ‘light’ (noun)’].
zeira 'a kind of chiton'.
zelas - 'wine'.
zelmis ‘an offspring, descendant’ [Lith. z'elmuo, -ens ‘plant’ and ‘an offspring’].
zenis, zenés ‘born, born in’ [=genes in the Greek personal name of Dio=génes, from the IE *g'en- ‘to give
birth’ in the Old-Latin geno ‘to produce, to give birth’].
zéri- (from an earlier *zvéri-) ‘an animal, a beast’ [Lith. z've.ris ‘a beast’, Old-Bulg. [email protected] ‘the same’, Greek
thér].
zetraia 'a pot'.
zi- ‘god’ [shortened from ziu-, zia- and similar, IE *deiwo- 'sky god', Greek Zeus].
zilas ‘grey, turned grey’ or ‘blue’ [Lith. z'ilas ‘grey-haired’, Latv. zils, zilљ ‘blue’].
zilma(s) ‘greenery’ [Latv. zelme ‘green grass or wheat’].
zombros 'a bison?' [Slavic *zo.brü, Latv. subrs 'a bison', Old Prus. wissambris 'a bison', Old Icel. visundr 'a
bison'].
zum-, zuml- ‘dragon’ [Old-Bulg zm'i ‘dragon’, zm'ia ‘snake’].
zvaka(s) ‘bright, white’ [Lith. z'vake. ‘light (noun)’].
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Phrygian
Sources:
1. Neroznak, V. Paleo-Balkan Languages. Moscow, 1978.
2. Fasmer, M. Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language. Moscow, 1986.
Glossary:
Phrygian Indo-European
ab- (near, nearby) (in abberet - he will bring) *ad- (to, near, by, towards)
adamna (a friend)
addaket, addaketor (he has made) *dhé-k- (to set, to put)
adio- (unviolable)
agorani (they are buying) < Greek agora (market)
akala (water) Thracian achel- (water), Lithuanian Akele. (the name of the river)
alu- (a priest) Hittite alwu- (magic), Lydian alus' (priest)
arg- (silver) *arg'- (to shine, white)
arg- (to direct) Greek arkhó 'I rule'
attagos (a goat)
azena (a beard) (acc. pl.)
bago- (the good)
balaios (large, fast) *belo- (power, strength)
balén (a king) *belo- (power, strength)
bambalon (a penis)
7
bedu (water, a river) *wed-, *wod- (wet, water)
bekos (bread)
belté (a bog) *bhel- (white)
ber- (to bear) (in eber - he has brought, abberet - he will bring) *bher- (to carry, to bring)
bonekos (a wife) *gwen- (a wife, a woman)
cin (a sort, a kind) *g'en- (to be born, a knee, a kin)
dadón (they gave) *dó- (to give)
dahet (he sets) *dhé-k- (to set, to put)
daos, davos (a wolf: "who kills") *dhaw- (to press, to kill)
dareios (a keeper)
dúmos (an assembly) *domu- (a house, a building)
edaes (he put, he has set up) *dhé- (to put, to set)
eistani (they are setting) *stá- (to stand)
eksis (a hedgehog) Slavic *ezji, Greek ekhinos, Armenian ozni, Lithuanian ez'ys (a hedgehog)
en-park (to raise) *bhergh- (high)
es' (a donkey) *ekwo- (a horse)
eti (and) Latin et (and), Greek eti (also, more), Gothic iþ (and, but)
ev- (kind, good) *wes- (ggod)
gelaros, gallaros (sister-in-law) *g'al- (brother's wife)
germe (warm) *gwher-, *gwher-m- (hot, heat)
glanos (a hyena)
glunea, glúros (gold) Avestan zaranya-, Slavic *zlato, Gothic gulþ (gold)
glúron (a lawn)
gordum, zordum (a city) *gher- (to fence), *ghro-dh- (a stockade)
garman (a battle)
iman (a cult image) Hittite himmaios (which, that; relative pronoun) *yos (relative pronoun - dialectal in Proto-IE: Sanskrit yas, Old Persian ya-,
Greek hos)
kan (to pronounce) *ghan- (to open mouth)
kavar- (a sacred place) Lydian kave (priest) < IE *k'eu- (to foresee)
kimeros (a mind, a desire)
knuman (a tomb)
kunes (dogs; nom. pl.) *kwon- (a dog)
matar (a mother) *mátér- (mother)
meka- (great) *megh- (large, great)
memevais (an advisor) < Hittite mema- (to speak)
mosuna (a tower)
orú (upwards) *or- (to stand, to rise up) - only for inanimate
pikerion (an ointment)
satine (a chariot)
semou(n) (this; dat. sg.) *so- (this), Celtic *sindos
sideto (let him be a success) *seidhtiama, teama (a stele) *dhé- (to put)
tios (gods) *deiwo- (sky god)
thri (three) *treyes, neut. *trí (three)
tiveia (a goddess, a divine she) < Luwian tiwat- (god of daylight)
tov- (to sacrifice) *dheu- (to sacrifice)
vaso (good, kind) < Hittite wesu- (good)
ve, oe (self) *swe- (self)
wit- (to know) *weid-, *wid- (to know, to see)
8
witeto (he looked) *weid-, *wid- (to know, to see)
zelkia (vegetables) *g'hel- (green, grass)
zemeló- (a slave, a person, man on ground) *dhghom- (ground), Slavic *zemja, Lithuanian zeme. (ground)
zetna (a gate)
zeuman (a jet, a stream; acc.sg.) *gheu-, *gheu-d- (liquid, to pour)
Фригийски речник: http://www.palaeolexicon.com/#
Meaning
ΑFΤΥΝ
ΑΒΑΒΑΣ
ΑΒΒΕΡΕΤ
ΑΓΑΡΙΤΟΙ
ΑΓΔΙΣΤΙΣ
ΑΓΙΠΕΙΑ
ΑΓΚΥΡΑ
ΑΓΛΑFΟJ
ΑΓΟΡΑΝΙ
ΑΓΤΑΕΙ
ΑΔΑΔΑΜΝΑ
ΑΔΔΑΚΕΤ
ΑΔΔΑΚΕΤΟΡ
ΑΔΕΙΤΟΥ
ΑΔΙΘΡΕΡΑΚ
ΑΔΙΚΕΣΕΙ
ΑΔΟΙΚΑFΟΙ
ΑΕJ
ΑΖΕΝΑ
ΑΙ
ΑΙΝΙ
ΑΙΠΟΣ
ΑΚΑΛΑ
ΑΚΑΡΑΓΑJΥΝ
ΑΚΕΝΑΝΟΓΑFΟΣ
ΑΚΚΕ
ΑΚΜΟΝΙΑ
ΑΚΡΑJΟ
ΑΚΡΙΣΙΑΣ
ΑΚΡΙΣΤΙΝ
ΑΚΡΟΔΜΑ
ΑΝ
ΑΝΑΝΚΑΙ
ΑΝΑΡ
ΑΝΕΓΕΡΤΟJ
ΑΝΠΕΛΕΙΤΗΣ
ΑΠΕΛΑΝ
PIE root
self
near
personal name
will bring
ungracious
she from mount Agdos, epithet of Cybele
personal name
city of Phrygia, anchor
shining
they are buying
leader
to, by, at
friend
causes, does, make, afflicts
he makes for/causes himself
to become
personal name
unjustice
a title, probably religious one
to be
beard
if
and, or
steep hill
water
sarcophagus, stair-way, part of the monument
epithet
and to
personal name
high, elevated
Cronus / Saturn
plogh
a part of the grave
modal particle
ill fate, mischief
man, husband
reconstruct, rebuild
epithet of Zeus
god Apollo, personal name, assembly
Symbol Sequence
ad, bherad-, bher-
addhe-k-, dhe-
akw-A
ak-
9
ΑΠΝΕΚΡΟΙΥΝ
ΑΠΟΑΠΟΛΑ
ΑΡΓΜΕΝΑ
ΑΡΓΟΥ
ΑΡΕJΑΣΤΙΝ
ΑΡΚΙΕFΑΙΣ
ΑΡΤ
ΑΣ
ΑΣΚΑΝΙΗ
ΑΤΑΝΙJΕΝ
ΑΤΑΣ
ΑΤΕΣ
ΑΤΤΑΒΟΚΑΟΙ
ΑΤΤΑΓΟΣ
ΑΥΤΟ
ΑΩΡΩ
ΒΑΒΑ
ΒΑΒΑΣ
ΒΑΒΕΙΣ
ΒΑΓΑΙΟΣ
ΒΑΓΟ
ΒΑΛΑΙΟΝ
ΒΑΛΗΝ
ΒΑΜΒΑΛΟΝ
ΒΑΣ
ΒΕFΔΟΣ
ΒΕΔΥ
ΒΕΚΟΣ
ΒΕΝΑΓΟΝΟΣ
ΒΕΝΝΟΣ
ΒΕΡΒΕΡΕΚΥΝΤΑΙ
ΒΕΥΔΟΣ
ΒΛΑΣΚΟΝ
ΒΟΔΩΡΙΣ
ΒΟΝΟΚΒΡΑΤΕΡΑΙΣ
ΒΡΑΤΕΡΕ
ΒΡΕΙΤ
ΓΑΛΛΑΡΟΣ
ΓΑΛΛΟΙ
ΓΑΝΟΣ
ΓΔΑΝ ΜΑ
ΓΕΓΑΡΙΤΜΕΝΟΣ
ΓΕΓΡΕΙΜΕΝΟ
ΓΕΛΑΡΟΣ
ΓΕΡΜΕ
to die, be killed
away (preverb)
personal name
first pieces of a sacrifice to be given
because of, for the sake of
epithet of the great mother
patronym, son of Arkias
around, near, nearly / just, about now
to, by
placename
personal name, Athenian, from Ataniya (Adana)
personal name
Common name in Anatolia
Priests of Cybele at Pessinus
goat
Self
prematurely
personal name
personal name
personal name
epithet of Zeus, great, fast
name of a deity
big, fast
King
coat, vagina
name of a deity
personal name
water
bread
personal name
society of the faithful
to bear, carry
tribe name
statue
?
personal name
woman, wife
brother
brother
breaks
personal name
priests of the mother of gods
hyena
earth mother
devoted to, at the mercy of
written
sister in law
warm
h1ens
auto
bhaggwal
bhel-, bhlē(a)ku̯edu
gene
bher-
gwena
bhrā́terbhrehter
bhreyH-
ghrH-i-tĝ(e)lōu̯ gwher10
ΓΙΣΑ
ΓΛΟΥΡΟΣ
ΓΟΡΔΔΑ
ΔΑΔΙΤΙ
ΔΑΚΕΡ
ΔΑΚΕΡΗΣ
ΔΑΟΣ
ΔΕFΟΣ
ΔΕΚΜΟΥΤΑΙΣ
ΔΕΩΣ
ΔΙΚΕ
ΔΙΝΔΥΜ
ΔΙΟΥΝΣΙΝ
ΔΟΥΜΕ
ΕFΑΙΣ
ΕFΕΜΕΜΕΣΜΕ
ΝΕJΑ
ΕFΕΤΕΚΣΕΤΕJ
ΕFΚΟΒΕJΑΝ
ΕΓΕΓΕΔΟΥ
ΕΓΕΣΕΤΙ
ΕΓΚΕΡΑΥΛΗΣ
ΕΔΑΕΣ
ΕΔΕΣΣΑ
ΕΖΙΣ
ΕΙΡΟΙ
ΕΙΤΟΥ
ΕΚΑΤΑΙΑ
ΕΚΕJ
ΕΚΕΙ
ΕΛΕΓΟΣ
ΕΝ
ΕΝΕΠΑΡΚΕΣ
ΕΝΣΤΑΡΝΑ
ΕΡΑ
ΕΡΜΟΛΑΟΣ
ΕΡΟΚΑ
ΕΣΤΑΕΣ
ΕΤΙ
ΕΥΚΙΝ
ΖΕΙΡΑ
ΖΕΛΚΙΑ
ΖΕΜΕΛΩΣ
stone
gold
town, city, yard
to put, to place
he gave for
part of a monument
parts
wolf
gods
tenth
god
justice
the mother of gods, mountains of Phrygia
God Dionysos
religious community, assembly
patronymic suffix
epithet
ΖΕΤΝΑ
ΖΕΥΜΑΝ
gate
spring
good birth, beneficent
victorious
to hold, to experience
he shall injure (?) / Let him bear (?) / let him suffer
(he) will do
Phrygian flute
set (up), he has made, has placed
placename
hedgehog
untimely or children
to go, to become
personal name
there
there
poem or song of lament, dirge
in
wrote this
to stand in, to place inside
then
personal name
progeny, family
stand, establish
out, further
vow
hand / children / living
cabbage
man, human being
ĝeisĝheldodhaudekmt
segh-
dhēeĝhihey-
eti
dhghemelo, ĝhðem-,
ĝhðomghedĝheu11
ΖΩΣ
FΑΝΑ
FΑΝΑΚΤ
FΕΝΑFΤΥΝ
FΕΤΕΙ
FΙΤΑΡΟΝ
FΟΙΝΕΣ
FΡΕΚΥΝ
ΦΑΓΛΥΝ
ΦΕΛΙΞ
ΘΑΛΑΜΕΙΔΗ
ΘΙΜΒΙΣ
ΙΑΝΑΤΕΡΑ
ΙΒΕJΑ
ΙΚΤΕΣ
ΙΛΗ
ΙΜΑΝ
ΙΝΝΟΥ
ΙΟΙ
ΙΟΣ
ΙΟΣΑΙΣ
ΙΡΤΕΡ
ΙΣ
ΙΣΓΕΙΚΕΤ
ΙΤΥF
ΚΑΚΟΝ
ΚΑΛΙJΑ
ΚΑΛΛΥΡΙΑΤΙΣ
ΚΑΝΤΥΙΞ
ΚΑΡΑΤΥ
ΚΕ
ΚΕΛΑΙΝΑΙ
ΚΕΛΜΙΣ
ΚΕΝΕΜΑΝ
ΚΕΝΟΣ
ΚΙΚΛΗΝ
ΚΙΜΕΡΟΣ
ΚΙΝΝΑ
ΚΝΑΙΚΑ
ΚΝΟΥΜΑΝ
ΚΟFΙΣ
ΚΟΡΟ
ΚΤΕ
ΚΤΕFΟ
ΚΤΟΝ
ΚΥΒΙΛΕJΑ
ΚΥΛΙJΑ
ΚΥΝΕΣ
living
king
Overlord, King of Kings
himself
year
second
personal name
Phrygian tribe name
personal name
personal name
sepulchral chamber
personal name
husband’s brother’s wife
epithet of the great mother
personal name
personal name
sanctuary, sacred area, stele, monument
are
her
he, whoever
personal name ?
to sacrifice
for
to have, hold
may he become
bad, evil, harm
personal name
personal name
personal name
let him sacrifice
and
placename
one of the Idaean Daktyls
tomb, hole or inscription (scratching)
generation
giant bear, wagon
mind
personal name, town name
woman
grave, tomb
being aware of, cognizant of, perceiving
place, space, ground
to possess
property
earth, ground
the great mother
personal name
dogs
i̯énǝter-
ei-, i-
kaw
kwe
kenh1-mn
kʷel-
12
ΚΥΡJΑΝΕJΟΝ
ΚΥΡΥΝΙΣ
ΛΑFΑΓΤ
ΛΑΚΕΔΟΚΕΥ
ΛΑΤΟΜΕΙΟΝ
ΛΙΚΕC
ΛΟΙΔΙΜΟΝ
ΜΑ
ΜΑΖΕΥΣ
ΜΑΙΜΑΡΗΑΝ
ΜΑΪΣ
ΜΑΚΡΑΝ
ΜΑΜΥΤΑΣ
ΜΑΝΚΑ
ΜΑΝΤΑΛΟΣ
ΜΑΣ
ΜΑΤΑΡ
ΜΑΤΙΝ
ΜΕ
ΜΕJΟΝ
ΜΕΒΕΡΕΤ
ΜΕΚΑ
ΜΕΜΕFΑΙΣ
ΜΗΝ
ΜΗΝΟΓΑΣ
ΜΗΝΟΥΔΟΥΤΟΣ
ΜΗΤΕΡΕ
ΜΙΔΑΣ
ΜΙΣΤΡΑΒΟΥΤΑΣ
ΜΙΤΡΑΦΑΤΑ
ΜΟΔΡΟFΑΝΑΚ
ΜΟΝΤΑΝΟΣ
ΜΟΥΡΟΥΝ
ΜΡΟΣ
ΜΥΚΣΟΣ
(Ν)ΑΔΡΟΤΟΣ
ΝΑΝΑ
ΝΕΚΟΙΝΟΥΝ
ΝΙ
ΝΙJΕΝ
ΝΙΝΑ
ΝΙΟΙΣΙΟΣ
ΞΕΝΩΝΕΣ
ΞΕΥΝΟFΕΝΙΝ
ΟYENAYIA
ΟΙ
ΟΙΝΙΣ
commander, ruler, ethnic name
personal name
leader of the people
may he be cursed
Quarry
personal name, it is permitted
made of beams / lastly
sheeps
Ζeus
marble
personal name
long, tall, high
personal name
stele
personal name
name of a deity
the great mother
?
among, away
smaller, less
carry away, transfer
great
patronym, son of Memes
good
personal name
personal name
Mother [the great mother]
King Midas of Phrygia
personal name
name of a deity
the smith / King of Modros
early christian spiritual leader
stupidity
funerary monument
personal name
rich, powerful
personal name
?
if, may
?
personal name
fateless, unlucky
mens room
host, stranger, personal name
own
personal name
to him
(the) wine
menmātér-
megmāmater
ani
ghosti-s, ghos
13
ΟΙΟΥΘΒΑΝ
ΟΜΟΥΣΑΣ
ΟΝΟΜΑΝ
ΟΝΟΜΑΝΙΑΙΣ
ΟΠΕΣΤΑΜΕΝΟ
ΟΠΟΡΟΚΙΤΙ
ΟΡΟΥΑΝ
ΟΡΟΥΕΝΑΝ
ΟΤΥFΟΙ
ΟΥΑΝΑΚΤΑΝ
ΟΥΕΒΑΟΥΕΒΡΑ
ΟΥΕΛΑΟΥΡΑΝΙΟΝ
ΠΑΝΤΑ
ΠΑΝΤΑΚΕΝΑΝΝΟΥ
ΠΑΡΤΗΣ
ΠΑΡΤΥΣ
ΠΑΤΗΡ
ΠΑΤΡΙΖΙ
ΠΕΙΣ
ΠΕΝΘΕΡΩ
ΠΕΡΒΕΔΑΝ
ΠΙΝΚΕ
ΠΟΔΑΣ
ΠΟΔΑΣΚΑ
ΠΟΚΡΑΙΟΥ
ΠΟΛΟΔΡΑΤΕΣ
ΠΟΡ / ΠΟΥΡ
ΠΟΡΚΟΡΟ
ΠΟΡΜΑΤΕΠΟΥΚΡΟΣ
ΠΟΥΝΤΑΣ
ΠΡΟΙΤΑFΟΣ
ΠΥΡΠΑΤΟJ
ΡΟΔΑΝ
ΣΑΓΓΑΡΙΟΣ
ΣΑΥΝΑΜΑΝ
ΣΕΙΛΗΝ
ΣΕΜΟΥΝ
ΣΙ↑ΙΔΟΣ
ΣΙΠΥΛΟΝ
ΣΚΕΛΕΔΡΙΑΣ
ΣΚΡΠΟΥ
ΣΟΡΟΣΠΕΡΕΤΑ
ΣΥΚΧΟΙ
salvation
personal name
name
mentioned
errected
to lay with, add
guardian, warden, father
father
eight
Overload, King of Kings
tombstone, monument
memory
family, relatives
celestrial
all, everything
let everything be empty / may they be altogether
devoted
for the sake of
for the sake of
father
to the fathers
dead
father in law
surrounding (of the tomb)
five
feet
small fetter
personal name
personal name
for
for the place
personal name
personal name
pontic
son of Proitos, honourific title
be impure, defile
personal name
a river of Phrygia and Lydia
foundation of the grave
stele
this
personal name
mountain of Phrygian and Lydia
ossuary, skeleton
personal name
corpse, tomb, coffin
seeds
shoes
h3nh3mn
ok̂tō(u)
leudhpanta
k̂o-, k̂e-
14
ΤYBETI
ΤΑΔΟΣ
ΤΑΠΗΣ
ΤΑΣ
ΤΑΤΑΣ
ΤΑΤΕΣ
ΤΕΑΜΑΣ
ΤΕΔΑΤΟJ
ΤΕΚΜΟΡ
ΤΕΝΤΟΥΜΕΝΟΣ
ΤΕΤΙΚΜΕΝΟΣ
ΤΕΥΤΟΥΣ
ΤΗΜΝΟΝ
ΤΙ
ΤΙFΕΙΑ
ΤΙFΟ
ΤΙΔΡΕΓΡΟ
ΤΙΗΙΟΝ
ΤΙΟΣ
ΤΟ
ΤΟΤΟΣ
ΤΟΥΝΒΟΝ
ΥΑΤΤΑΣ
ΥΔΩΡ
ΥΚΕ
ΥΡΓΙΤΟΣ
ΥΨΟΔΑΝ
ΦΑΓΛΥΝ
ΦΕΛΙΞ
ΧΡΕΙΣΤΙΑΝΟΙ
ΨΥFΑΨΑΡΟΣ
chop down
personal name
carpet
those
personal name
personal name
part of the monument
set up, dedicated
sign or omen
punished
cursed, stigmatized
people
mountain name
an emphatic particle used after demonstrative pronouns
goddess
steal
unenjoyable, innutribile
belonging to the gods
god, Zeus
self
personal name or alas
tomb
personal name
water
nor
personal name
above, on top
personal name
personal name
christians
personal name
dheH
etitem-
dis-dhregwh-ro-
au(e)-, aued-, auer-
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Old Macedonian
Sources:
1. Neroznak, V. Paleo-Balkan languages. Moscow, 1978.
2. Katicic, R. Ancient Languages of the Balkans. The Hague, 1976.
3. Fasmer, M. The Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language. Moscow, 1986.
Glossary:
Macedonian Indo-European
abagna (a rose)
abroutes (eyebrows) *bhrú- (an eyebrow)
15
agéma (avant guarde, guards; nom.pl.)
agkalis (a sickle)
ahrounoi (boundary stones; nom. pl.)
alié (manure)
alixa, aliza (an alder) *ol-, *el-, Slavic *jelïxa (alder), Lithuanian alksnis (alder), Old High German elira, Old
Icelandic alr, Latin alnus
amalé (gentle; fem.) *am- (to love), Latin amare, Lydian amas (loving)
argipous (an eagle)
arkon (leisure, idleness)
axos (wood)
bedu (water) *wed-, *wod- (wet, water)
danón (a murderer) Greek thanatos (death)
danos (death) Greek thanatos (death)
hetairoi (comrades; nom. pl.)
grabion (a sort of oak) *grabh-, Slavic *grabü (a hornbeam), Old Prussian wosigrabis (euonymus), Umbrian
Grabovius (a god of oak)
ilas (a little oak)
kanadoi (jaws; nom. pl.)
klinotrokhon (a maple?) Bulgarian klen (a maple), Old Icelandic hlynr, Welsh kelyn, Lithuanian klevas (a
maple)
kombous (molars; acc. pl.) *gombh- (a ledge), Russian zub (a tooth), Lithuanian z'ambas (a sharp thing),
Sanskrit jambhas (a tooth), Albanian dhamp (a tooth), Tocharian kam (A), keme (B) (a tooth)
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Illyrian
Sources:
1. Neroznak, V. Paleo-Balkan languages. Moscow, 1978.
2. Katicic, R. Ancient Languages of the Balkans. The Hague, 1976.
3. Fasmer, M. The Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language. Moscow, 1986.
Glossary: Illyrian Indo-European
alt- (a stream) (in Altus - a hydronym)
barba- (a swamp) (in Metubarbis - a toponym) Albanian berrak (swampy soil), Sanskrit barburam (water),
Greek borboros (slime)
bra' (brother! (vocative)) *bhra'te'r 'a brother'
brisa (husks of grapes)
cleves- (famous) (in Vesclevesis - a personal name) *kleu- (to hear, to listen), Latin clarus (famous), Greek
kleos (fame)
lugo- (a pool)
mag- (great) *meg- (great)
metu- (between) (in Metubarbis - a toponym) *medyo- (medium, between)
oseriates (lakes) Slavic *ozero (a lake), Lithuanian ez'eras (a lake)
plo- (strong, powerful) *plu- (numerous)?
rinos (clouds)
16
sybina (a spear)
tertigio (a merchant) Slavic *türgü (a market), Lithuanian tirgus, Albanian trege" (a market)
teuta- (people, a tribe) "European" *teutá- (people, a tribe), Oscan touta (a tribe), Gaulish teuto- (people)
ves- (kind, good) (in Vesclevesis - a personal name) *wesu- (good, kind)
Anatolian
Sources:
1. Ivanov, V. The Hittite Language. Moscow, 1963.
2. Ivanov V. Common Indo-European, Proto-Slavic and Anatolian Language Systems. Moscow.
3. Gamkrelidze T., Ivanov V. The Indo-European Language and Indo-Europeans. Moscow, 1984.
4. Bajun, L. The Experience of the Comparative Studies of Hitto-Luwian Languages. Moscow, 1990.
5. Bajun, L. The Language of Hittite Hieroglyphs. Moscow, 1986.
Glossary:
Common Anatolian
*da - to give
Indo-European
*do'- (to give, to take,
exchange)
*daru - tree
*deru- (firm, solid, a tree),
*dhew - to install, to set
*dhe'- (to put, to set up)
*diu - god of daylight
*deiwo-, *dyeu- (god of sky)
*ed - to eat
*e'd- (to eat)
*ekw - to drink
*eshar - blood
*genu - a knee
*gwana - a woman
*gwes - to put the light off
*hanta - before
*hap - a treasure,
*hapar - a bargain
*hap - a river, a stream
*hasta - a bone
Anatolian
Hittite taru- (a tree), Luwian
tarweja- (wooden)
Hittite tiw- (god of sun), Palaic
tijaz, tiuna-, Luwian tiwat(supreme god)
Hittite ekw-, akw- (to drink),
*ekw-, *akw- (water, to drink) Palaic aku-, Luwian ahw- (to
drink)
Hittite es'har- (blood), Luwian
*eso'r-, *esr- (blood)
as'harHittite gienu-, kinu- (a knee),
*g'enu- (a knee, a clan)
Palaic ginu*gwen- (a wife, a woman)
Hittite & Palaic kis't- (to
*gwes- (to extinguish fire)
extinguish fire)
*Hant- (before)
Hittite hantezzija (fore, first)
Hittite hap- (wealthy), Palaic
*Hap-, *op- (wealth)
hapari (to bargain), Luwian
happina- (wealth)
Hittite hapa- (a river), Luwian
*Hap- (water)
hapi-, Palaic hapna*kost-, *ost- (a bone)
Hittite hastijas (bones)
17
*hawa - a sheep
*owi- (sheep)
*hnosa - a descendant
*kes, ke,s - to scratch
*kes- (to scratch)
*khesro - a hand
*g'hesro- (a hand)
*khwen - to beat, to hit
*gwhen- (to kill)
*krodi - a heart
*kerd- (a heart)
*lohai - to pour
*lei- (to pour)
*luk - to shine
*leuk- (to shine, light)
*melit - honey
*meli-, *meli-t- (honey)
*ntephes - sky
*nebho- (sky)
*phargui - pure, clean
*phrokhu - high
*bherg'- (high)
*ploha - wide
*pl-t- (wide, full)
*roh - external
*ser - top, above
*srei - to flow
*sta - to stand
*suwa - to fill
*thei - to feed
*sreu- (to flow, to swim)
*sta'- (to stand)
*thekkan - ground
*dhg'hom- (ground)
Luwian hawi- (a sheep)
Hittite hams- (a grandson),
Luwian hams'aHittite kiљa- (to scratch)
Hittite kes's'ar- (a hand),
Luwian is's'ariHittite kinu- (to break)
Hittite kir-, Palaic kart- (a
heart)
Hittite lila'iHittite lukk- (to light), Luwian
luhaHittite melit-, Palaic malit(honey)
Hittite nepis' (sky), Luwian
tappas'
Hittite parkui- (clear)
Hittite parku-, Luwian parrai(high)
Hittite palhi- (wide), Luwian
palhaLuwian љarri- (big)
Hittite sarlata- (libation)
Hittite љuwái- (to fill)
*tro - to speak
*wawa - a bull
*wer - to speak
*wer- (to cry, to speak)
*weth - to bring
*weth - to build
*wedh- (to bring)
*widhu- (wood, tree)
Hittite tekan- (ground),
Hyeroglyphic takamaHittite tar- (to speak), Luwian
tatar- (to damn)
Hittite wawa- (a bull)
Hittite werija- (to speak),
Palaic wer- (to call)
Palaic wete- (to build)
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
Hittite
Sources:
1. Ivanov, V. The Hittite Language. Moscow, 1963.
2. Ivanov V. Common Indo-European, Proto-Slavic and Anatolian Language Systems. Moscow.
18
3. Gamkrelidze T., Ivanov V. The Indo-European Language and Indo-Europeans. Moscow, 1984.
4. Bajun, L. The Experience of the Comparative Studies of Hitto-Luwian Languages. Moscow, 1990.
5. Bajun, L. The Language of Hittite Hieroglyphs. Moscow, 1986.
Dictionary:
agniљ - fire
aia, ai - to do, to make
aiљ - a mouth
ak - to die
alkistan - a branch
alpa - white
anda - in, inside
annijazi - he does, makes
aráí - to pray
arawa - free
arija - to ask
arkamijala - a musician
arma - moon
arnumi - I bring
arsina, Nesian harsi - bread
arљ- - the same
aruni - a meal
aruwa- - to respect
as, Nesian es- - to sit
asa, asana - a chair
asa, sa, Nesian es-, Palaic aљ- - to be
así - to love
aљљu - good, kind
asu, aswa - horse
at, Nesian et-, ud-, Palaic ata- - to eat
atiman - a name
da - to give
dalugaeљ - long
dankui - dark
daљљuљ - strong
ekw, akw, Palaic aku- - to drink
epp - to take, to seize
erha - a boundary
eљha - an owner
eљhar - blood
etri (Nesian) - a meal
gank - to hang
genzuwala - friendly
gienu, kinuwaaљ (dat.-loc.sg.), Palaic ginu - a knee
gima- - a winter
gurta - an enclosed place
halki - grain, bread
halugan - a message
19
hantezzija - first, front, fore
hap-, Palaic hapari - wealth, to make a bargain
hapa, Palaic hapna - a river
happár - a price
happaraizzi - sells
hara - to destroy, to pound
haraљ - an eagle
harawa - a road
hark - to have
harkiљ - white
harmahi - a head
harљ - to loosen
hartagga - a bear, a wild animal
harti - to call
haruna - a barn
has - to derivate, to generate
hasmi - a kin, kinship
haљљa, hams - a grandson
hastijas, haљtái - bones
hatuas, hatuars - a letter
hatura - to write
hilan - a yard
hiљљa - a beam
huha - a grandfather
huiљ - to live
hulana - wool
humati - a base, a foundation
hurnái - to splash
hurta - to damn
igái - to grow numb
ilalija - to wish
irhai - to limit
irmalant - sick, ill
iљha - an owner, a master
iљhamai - a song
iљkallái- - to break, to divide
iљnija - to link, to tear
istanza - a soul
istark - an illness
iúkán - a yoke
kardi-, kir, Palaic kart- - a heart
keљљar - a hand
keta - he lay
kikla - grass
kikkula - a vessel
kinu - to break open, to burst
kinun - now
kiљ - to become (medium voice)
kiљa - to scratch
kiљt, kastas - famine,
20
kiљt- (Palaic) - to extinguish
kula - an army
kurant - a cripple
kusatara - to build, a wall
kwen - to kill
lala - a language
lamen - to name, to call
lami - to strengthen, to fortify
lapani - to graze
lila- - expiation
lilái - to release
lukkái - to light, to shine
luttais - window
mald - to ask
malla- - to grind
maninkuwant - shortened (participle)
mehur - time, a month
meikki -, much, many
mekiљ - large
melit, Palaic malit - honey
mema - to speak
mina, mini - a city
miti - a servant
mugái- - to complain, to oppose
muri - a berry
murijan - a bunch of grapes
nahhan - respect
nameљha - spring
namuwaí - a son
narљam - a head
nasusara - a queen
natta - no
nega - a sister
neku - to get dark
nekumanza - naked
nepiљ - sky
newa- - new
ninikzi - he lifts, raises
pahљi, pahhaљ - to protect, to graze
pahwár - fire
pai, pija - to give
pai - to go
palhi - wide
paltanaљ - a shoulder
pangarija- to spread
pankur - a conference, a meeting
papparљ- - to splash
papratar - desecration
parái - to blow
parjanaza (Hieroglyphic) - to know
21
parku - high
parkui - pure, clean
parkunu - to clear
parn, pir - a house
paљ - to swallow
pata - a foot
pattar - a wing
pedan, pieti, pídi - a place
pera - a bird
peruna- - a rock
piddái - to run
piddái - to pay
sái - to press
љakhar - dirt
љakuwa - eyes
љaligai- - to spit
љalli - large
salp - sewage
љamana - a base, foundation
sanawaí - kind
sarlata - a libation
љarnink - to reimburse
љarpa - a sickle
sasa - printing
љaљta - a bed
љehur - urine
љipantahhi - I sacrifice
љittar - a star
љiu, љiun - a god
љiwat - a day, daylight
љumanza - a cord
љupparija - to sleep
uppi - pure, sacred
surna - a horn
љuwái - to fill
suwana - dog
ta- - to take
ta- - to come
tahukappi - a vessel
taiљtai - to load
tájezzi - he steals
takљ - to make
takљan - a half
tamaљ - to torment
tanata - a wall
tapariála - to rule
tar- - to speak
tarh- - to win
tarkasni - a donkey
taru - a tree
22
tati - a father
tawana - exact, correct
te- - to put
tekan, Hieroglyphic takama - ground
tepu - small, low
teљha - a dream, a revelation
tethima - thunder
tija - to come, to approach, to become
tijaz, tiuna (Palaic) - a god
tupi - to beat
turp - bread
tuwarsa - a rod, a vine
tuzzi- - an army
uija - to send
uitti - a year (dat.-loc. sg.)
uraí - large
usamuwami -, esteemed,
usanuwa - esteemed (participle)
usiti - to purchase, to buy
uwate - to bring, to lead
walá - to lift
wali - great
wappija - to bark
warsa - dew
wasa - to esteem
wasu - the good
waљa- - to put on
waљtai - a sin
watar (gen.sg.), wetenaљ - water
wawa - a bull
werija, Palaic wer- - to speak, to call
wete- (Palaic) - to build
wiána - wine
zamankur - a beard
zena - summer, autumn
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
Luwian
Sources:
1. Ivanov V. Common Indo-European, Proto-Slavic and Anatolian Language Systems. Moscow.
2. Ivanov V. The Hittite Language. Moscow, 1963.
3. Gamkrelidze T., Ivanov V. The Indo-European Language and Indo-Europeans. Moscow, 1984.
4. Bajun, L. The Experience of the Comparative Studies of Hitto-Luwian Languages. Moscow, 1990.
5. Korolev, A. Hitto-Luwian Languages. Languages of Asia and Africa, vol. 1. Moscow, 1976.
6. Fasmer, M. Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language. Moscow, 1986.
23
Glossary:
a- (he) [Hittite a-, e-]
adduwali- (angry) [Hittite idalu-]
ahha (how, when)
ahw- (to drink) [IE *ekw- (water, to drink), Common Anatolian (CA) *ekw- (to drink)]
aja- (to make) [Hittite aia-]
anarummi- (strong) [IE *ner-, *aner-t- (man's strength)]
anda (in, inside) [IE *en- (in, inside), Hittite anta (in, inside)]
annan (under)
anni- (to lead out) [Hittite anija-]
anni- (mother) [Hittite, Palaic anna- (mother)]
apa- (this, that) [IE *ebho- (that), Hittite, Palaic apa-]
appa- (back, backwards) [Hittite appa]
arai- (long) [Hittite ara-]
as- (to be) [IE *es- (to be)]
asi'- (to love) [Hittite assija- (to love)]
aљhanuwant- (bloody) [IE *esor- (blood), Hittite eљhanuwant-]
aљhar- (blood) [IE *esor- (blood), CA *eshar- (blood)]
at-, az- (to eat) [IE *ed- (to eat), CA *ed- (to eat)]
-au- (here!) [Hittite -u- (here!)]
da- (to take) [IE *dó- (to give, to take, to exchange), CA *da- (to give)]
dakam- (ground) [IE *dhghom- (ground), CA *thekkan- (ground)]
daruљ- (a statue)
elhai- (to pour) [IE *lei- (to pour), CA *lhai- (to pour)]
erhuwa- (to limit) [Hittite erha- (a border)]
gaљi- (a visit) [IE *gasti- (a guest)]
haiani (a temple) [Latin omen, Hittite ha'- (to believe)]
halali- (pure, clean)
halta- (to call, to shout) [Hittite halzai-]
hamљa- (a grandson) [CA *hnosa- (a descendant)]
hapi- (a river) [IE *Hap- (water), CA *hap- (a river)]
happina- (a wealth) [IE *op-, *Hap- (wealth), CA *hap- (wealth)]
happiљa- (a part of body) [Hittite happeљљar]
harmahi- (a head) [Hittite harmahi-]
hasami- (a clan, people)
haљљanitti- (an oven)
hattulahit (health) [Hittite haddulatar]
hawi- (a sheep) [IE *owi- (a sheep), CA *hawa- (a sheep)]
hiљhija- (to bind) [Hittite iљhija-]
huitwalahit (life)
*hulani (wool) [IE *wl-n- (wool), Hittite hulana-]
hutarli (a servant)
i- (to go) [IE *ei- (to go)]
iљљari- (a hand) [IE *g'hesro- (a hand), CA *khesro- (a hand)]
iљta- (to stand) [IE *stá- (to stand), CA *sta- (to stand)]
kaluti- (a turn, a circle) [IE *kwel- (to turn, a wheel)?]
kui- (which, that) [IE *kwi- (relative pronoun), Hittite kui-, Hieroglyphic hwa-]
kummi- (pure) [IE *k'eu- (to shine), Lycian A cumezeine (to pay)]
kuwati (how)
24
lawar- (to break) [Greek labra (a path in a rock)]
luha- (a light) [IE *leuk- (to light), CA *luk- (to light)]
maddu- (honey) [IE *medhu- (honey, honey drink)]
malhaљљaљљi- (belonging to the victim)
mallit- (honey) [IE *meli-t- (honey), CA *melit- (honey)]
mammana- (to say) [Hittite mema-]
mammijan- (a word) [Hittite memija-]
man (if) [Hittite man]
mana- (to see)
masahani- (to favour)
maљљana- (a god)
mawa- (four) [Hittite meu, muwa (four)]
muwattalli- (strong, mighty)
nanaљri- (a sister)
nani- (a brother)
nanun (now) [IE *nú- (now)]
nawa (not, no) [IE *n- (not)]
ni-, niљ- (not; negative particle) [IE *n- (not)]
niљnija- (to link)
owaљљa- (to dress) [IE *wes- (to dress), Hittite waљanzi- (they dress)]
palha- (wide) [IE *pl-, *plú-, *pl-t- (flat, wide, full), CA *plha- (wide)]
para-, papra- (to pursuit)
parna- (a house) [Hittite parn-, pir- (a house)]
parrai- (high) [CA *phrkhu- (high)]
parran, pari (forward, across) [Greek para, peri, Latin pro, Hittite para]
pati- (a foot) [IE *ped- (a foot), Hittite pata-]
pijama- (given) [Hittite pai- (to give)]
sarhija- (to attack) [Hittite sarh- (to attack)]
љarri, љarra (above, up) [CA *ser- (up)]
taluppi- (clay)
tappaљ- (sky) [IE *nebho-, *nebh-es- (sky), CA *ntephes- (sky)]
tarhunt- (thunder god) [Hittite tarh-]
tarkummija- (to announce) [Hittite tarkummai-]
tarpalli- (a change) [IE *terp- 'to turn']
tarweja- (wooden) [IE *deru-, *derw- (a tree), CA *daru- (a tree)]
tasi'- (a stone stele)
tatar- (to damn) [CA *tr- (to speak)]
tati- (a father)
tawi- (an eye)
tideimi- (a son)
tijammi- (ground)
titita- (a nose) [Hittite titita-]
tiwat- (god of the sun) [IE *deiwo- (sky god), CA *diu- (god of daylight)]
tupai- (to beat) [Hittite tupi- (to beat)]
tuwa- (to put, to put)
ura- (big)
uљљa- (a year) [IE *wes- (old, a year), Hittite usa-]
uwalant- (dead)
wanatti- (a woman) [IE *gwen- (a wife), CA *gwana- (a woman)]
waralli- (own, proper)
25
wassina- (a body)
waљ- (to dress up) [IE *wes- (to dress), Hittite weљ-, waљ-]
waљtara- (a cattleman) [Hittite weљtara-]
ziti- (a person, a man)
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
Lydian
Sources:
1. Ivanov V. Common Indo-European, Proto-Slavic and Anatolian Language Systems. Moscow.
3. Gamkrelidze T., Ivanov V. The Indo-European Language and Indo-Europeans. Moscow, 1984.
4. Bajun, L. The Experience of the Comparative Studies of Hitto-Luwian Languages. Moscow, 1990.
5. Shevoroshkin, V. The Lydian Language. Moscow, 1977.
6. Shevoroshkin, V. The Carian Language. Modern stage of development and studies. Matters of IndoEuropean Linguistics. Moscow, 1964.
7. Korolev, A. Hitto-Luwian Languages. Languages of Asia and Africa, vol. 1. Moscow, 1976.
8. Fasmer, M. Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language. Moscow, 1986.
9. Bajun L., Orel V., Language Relations between Phrygian and Anatolian. Moscow, 1989.
Notes for Dictionary:
T - in linguistic literature is written and pronounced like Ancient Greek "tau" [t]
D - written and pronounced like Ancient Greek "delta" [d]
L - written and pronounced like Ancient Greek "lambda" [l]
N - written and pronounced like Ancient Greek "ni" [n]
ã, ê - nasal vowels [a] and [e]
s' - firm [s]
s - soft [s']
More about Lydian phonetic system
Dictionary:
aara - a yard, an estate
afaLa - a bad man [Hittite appala'i- (to mislead)]
afari - a deed of conveyance [Latin ops 'wealth', Hittite happara'i- 'to sell']
akTa - belonging to a dead man [Hittite akk- (to die)]
alus' - a priest [Hittite alwu- 'magic', Phrygian alu- 'priest']
ama- to love [IE *am- (to love), Latin amo (I love)]
amu I, me [IE *mé (me), Hittite ammuk (I, me)]
arlili- own [IE *arjo- 'a master', Hittite ara'ija- 'to assume']
ãrTe- to define
as'aa- kindness [IE *wesu- (good, kind)]
as'êmi- beloved? [Hittite assija- 'to love']
as'trho-, as'tarho- a defender [IE *wesu- (good, kind)]
avka- legal
aLas' - other, another [IE *al- / *ol- (beyond)]
26
basos'akNãki- to do harm
bi- to give [Hittite peja- (to give)]
bi- he, this [IE *ebho- (that), Hittite, Luwian apa- (he, that)]
bifers't - he, she will define
bira- a house [Hittite par-, Luwian parna- (a house)]
borli-, forli- a year
brafr- a member of the commune [IE *bhrátér- (a brother)]
brvãs' - a year
-bu-, -buk or
da- to give [IE *dó- (to give)]
daul- to press [IE *dhaw- (to press, to kill)]
dêt- property
do- up to [Russian do-]
Da-, Di- to devote
Divi- a god [IE *deiwo- (a god)]
DivNali- divine [IE *deiwo- (a god)]
Duve- to construct [Luwian tuwa (to put)]
e- to be [IE *es- (to be)]
ebad - here, there [IE *ebho- (that), Hittite apa- (this)]
êmi- my [IE *mé me, my, Hittite ammel (my)]
es- this [IE *s- (demonstrative pronoun), Hittite asa-, asi- (that)]
es'a- a grandson [Hittite hassa-, Luwian hamљa 'a grandson']
êna- mother
ên-sarb- to write in [IE *en- (in, inside)]
êt- in- [IE *en- (in, inside)]
êtam- a prescription
êtos'- to surround
êtqra- to complete
fa- on-, upon [Slavic po-, Lithuanian pa-]
fênani- to complete
fênsLifi- to spoil
fêtamN- to define
fabaLko- broad
fadol - he constructed
fakarse- to destroy
fakatvãmi- to go forward
fakorfi- to spoil
fas'fên- to grasp, to steal
faTa- defense
fra- across, through, by- [Lithuanian pra-, Latin pro]
fratinid - does, effects
i- to do [Hittite aia-, ai- (to do)]
ifrli- a robber
isqasãnvN- we possess
istamin- a family
-k and [IE *-kwe (and), Lycian -ke (and)]
kan- - a dog [IE *kwon- (a dog)]
kantoru - I trust
kardal - he made, constructed
karTT- to abolish
27
katanil - he has built
katsarloki- to curse
kave- a priest [IE k'ou- 'to foresee', Phrygian kavar- 'a sacrwed place']
kaTTadmê- an inscription
kLida- land
ko- to discover
kofu- water
kot he swears
kot how [IE *kw- (interrogative pronoun stem), Hittite kuwat (how)]
labrus - a pole-ax [Luwian lawar- 'to break']
lailas - a sovereign [Hittite lahhijala- 'a warrior']
laLe- to speak [Greek lalos (talkative), Hittite lala (a tongue)]
laqrisa- a wall
mêtrid - he breaks
mruvaa- a stele [Avestan mrav-, mru- 'to speak', Lycian B mrBBa 'a word, speech']
mLvênda- a part
nãrs'- virtue, valor [IE *ner-, *aner-t- (man's strength), Luwian anarummi- (strong)]
ni- not (negative particle) [IE *@n- (negative pronoun), Luwian ni-, niљ- (not)]
ora- a month
qaLmLus - a king
qelis- everything, anything
qela- an area
qên- to kill [IE *kwen- (to kill), Hittite kwen- (to kill)]
qi-, qy- which, that [IE *kwi- (relative pronoun) Hittite kui- (which)]
qira- property
sav- the good
savênt- they flourish
savtarid- he approves
serli- a leader
s'fa- self (reflexive pronoun) [IE *swe- (reflexive pronoun)]
s'fard- Sardis [Hittite ispart- 'to tower over']
silavad - to take care
s'rfas'ti- upper [Luwian sarri (up)]
tarb-, trfno- to possess
tas'e- a column
tavs'a- powerful [IE *teu- 'powerful', Hittite *taw-, Lycian B tewê 'evil']
ti- this [IE *to- (that), Hittite ati- (that very, the same)]
tro-, tor- to speak [Anatolian *tr- (to speak), Luwian tatar (to curse)]
Tên-, Dên- to sanctify
Tes'a- a sarcophagus
u-, uve- to prescribe
vanã- a tomb
ves'fas' - elder
vis'i- good [IE *wesu- (good)]
viD- to build [IE *widhu- (wood, tree), Palaic wete- (to build)]
vs'ta- a heir
vDbaqên- to destroy, to eliminate
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
28
Lycian
Sources:
1. Ivanov V. The Hittite Language. Moscow, 1963.
2. Gamkrelidze T., Ivanov V. The Indo-European Language and Indo-Europeans. Moscow, 1984.
3. Bajun, L. The Experience of the Comparative Studies of Hitto-Luwian Languages. Moscow, 1990.
4. Bajun L. The Language of Hittite Hieroglyphs. Moscow, 1986.
5. Korolev, A. Hitto-Luwian Languages. Languages of Asia and Africa, vol. 1. Moscow, 1976.
6. Shevoroshkin, V. The Carian Language. Modern stage of development and studies. Matters of IndoEuropean Linguistics. Moscow, 1964.
7. Bajun L., Language relations between Phrygian and Anatolian. Moscow, 1989.
Notes for Glossary:
T - a special Lycian sound usually marked as Greek "theta" [q]
B - a special sound usually marked as Greek "beta" [b]
L - a sound of Lydian transcribed as Greek "lambda"
M - a nasal [m] sound
ã, ê - nasal vowels of Lycian
ñ - the nasal [n] sound
Glossary:
ada- (a fine)
aha- A (to sit) [IE *es- 'to sit', Hittite as-]
ahãma A (beloved) [Hittite assija- 'to love']
aitãta- (eight)
ala (beyond, upon) [IE *alyo- (other), Lydian aLa- (other)]
alb- (clear, white) [IE *albho- 'white']
amu, êmu, êmi, -mu (I, me, my) [IE *me' 'my, me', Hittite ammuk 'me, I']
arawemi- (released, liberated) [Hittite arawa- (free)]
asati, astti- B (to sit) [IE *es- 'to sit', Hittite as-]
cetu (imperative), ciciciti (present) B (to put, to lie) [IE *k'ei- 'to lay, to lie', Hittite kikki-]
ci, cezi, cedi B, cehi A (he, that) [Hittite ka's (this)]
cumezeine A (to pay) [IE *k'eu- 'to shine', Luwian kummi- 'clear']
cupriti, cuprimi B (?, but something positive) [IE *kupro- 'to desire']
da- B (to give) [IE *do'- 'to give']
dde- A, de- B (up to, until)
ddelupeli- B (earthenware) [Luwian taluppi- 'clay']
ddenewe- (thin)
ddewe- (a city)
dewi- B, ddawa- A (constant) [Hittite tawana- 'constant']
dezi B (strong) [Hittite tassijawar 'strength']
ebe- (this, he, that) [IE *ebho- (that), Hittite apa-, api- (that)]
ecãnc- (a death), ece- (dead people)
epeqzze- (posterity)
epide (ready) [Hittite appa'i- (to be ready)]
epirije- A (to appropriate) [IE *arjo- 'a master', Hittite araija- 'to assume']
29
epñ (after, for, back)
eri- (from, out of)
erite A (he managed, he won), inf. erijeinela (to win) [Hittite ara'i- 'to stop, to prevail']
esbedi (cavalry) [IE *ekwo- (a horse)]
esêne-, asa'na- B (blood) [IE *esór-, *esr- (blood), Common Anatolian (CA) *eshar- (blood), Luwian aљhar(blood)]
êke (how)
ênê (under)
hãkka- A (to demand) [Hittite sanh- 'to attempt']
hebeli- (a river) [IE *Hap- 'a river, water', Hittite ap- 'water']
hla- (to glorify) [IE *k'leu- (to hear; fame), Slavic*slaviti (to glorify)]
hri- (above) [CA *ser- (up), Luwian љarri (top)]
hrppi, hri (above, for)
izre- (a hand) [IE *g'hesr- (a hand), CA *khesro- (a hand), Luwian iљљari- (a hand)]
kbane A (to surrender)
-ke (and) [IE *-kwe (and), Lydian -k]
kerþþi- (a city)
kiki- (to beat, to punish) [IE *ghéi- 'to be empty']
klusa B (hostility, a quarrel) [Hittite halluwa'i- 'to be at odds']
kpparãma A (sold) [Latin ops 'wealth', Hittite happara'i- 'to sell']
kride- (a heart) [IE *kerd- (a heart), Hittite kir-, kardi-, Palaic kart- (a heart)]
kTTãna, kTTa A (relatives) [CA *has- 'to give birth']
kttba- (harm)
kudrehila A (a name of a servant) [Luwian hutarli- 'a servant']
kudi (where)
kultti A (he will beat?) [Hittite hulla'i- 'to win']
kzzãta B [Hittite hassant- 'a son']
laBra- B (a stone plate) [Luwian lawar- (to break)]
laka- B (a battle) [Hittite lahha- 'a campaign']
lebi, lelebi B (an agressor?) [IE *lebh- 'to grasp']
lihbezi A (a bodyguard) [Hittite lipsa'i- 'to repel']
luga- B (to burn down) [IE *leuk- 'to shine, light', Hittite lukk- 'to put light on']
mahañ A (a god)
mãmre B (to die?) [IE *mer-, Hittite mer- 'to die']
maskkM (wealth, good) [Hieroglyphic masahani- 'to help']
me- (here; an introductory particle)
medi, metu (to destine?) [IE *me- 'to aim at']
meri- B (a man, a warrior?) [Hittite *mari-]
mireñ- (a man)
mla-, mle- (an offspring, a clan) [IE *ml- 'to appear']
mrBBa- B (a word) [Avestan mru-, mrav- 'to speak', CA *maruwa-]
mrskka- B (to falsify) [Hittite marsahh- 'to falsify']
mukssa (a prayer) [Hittite mukessar 'a prayer']
muni B (a ritual mask) [Hittite munna'i- 'to hide, to conceal']
ne- (direct object particle)
nei, na-, nija-, neitala B (to lead, a leader) [Sanskrit nayati 'he leads', Hittite nija- 'to lead']
nênije- B (to lead) [Hittite nannija- 'to turn out']
ni- (not) [IE *n- (negative particle), Luwian ni-, niљ- (not)]
nice... nice (neither..., nor...)
ñke (how, when)
30
ñte, ñtepi (in, inside) [IE *en- (in, inside)]
ñuñtãta- (nine) [IE *newn (nine)]
pabrati A (to turn out) [Luwian papra- 'to turn out']
pdde- (a place) [Hittite pedan, pieti, pídi (a place)]
pe- (on, upon)
pere (forward) [Slavic *pro- (forward), Sanskrit pra- (before)]
pije-, pibije- (to give) [Hittite pai-, pija- (to give)]
pina- B (to present) [Hittite pijana'i- 'to present']
plqqka- (wide) [IE *pl-t- (wide), CA *plha- (wide), Luwian palha (wide)]
pri- (over-) [Slavic *pre- (over-), Lithuanian per (over, across)]
prije-, pruwa- (high) [IE *bhergh- > CA *phrkhu- (high), Luwian parrai- (high)]
prñna- (a house) [Luwian parna- (a house)]
prñnawa- (to build) [Luwian parna- (a house)]
puce- B (to beat) [IE peug- 'to beat, to push', Hittite pugga'i- 'to hate']
putu (let him press) [Hittite puwa'i-]
pzzi-, pssa- B (to throw) [Sanskrit asyati 'he throws', Hittite pessija- 'to throw']
qaja B (a temple?) [Latin omen, Hittite ha'- 'to believe']
qehñ A, qzze B (descendants) [Hittite hassa- 'grandsons']
qezMmi, kezM B (people) [Hieroglyphic hasami- 'people, a nation']
qidri- B (a personal name) [Hittite hatra'i- 'to write']
qirze B (a ritual share) [Hittite harsi 'bread for rituals']
qlija- (a place of worship)
qñza- B (posterity, a descendant) [Hittite hanzassa 'descendants']
qrbblali B (an altar) [Hittite harpali- 'a religious thing']
qretu (let him destroy) [Hittite harra'i- 'to destroy']
qtti- (to beat) [IE *Het- (to beat)]
sbirte B (a monument) [Hittite ispart- 'to rise, to tower']
si- (this, he)
se-si (him)
sla- B (to propitiate) [IE *selH- 'to favour']
slamati- (to keep memory)
sñta (one) [IE *sem-, *sm- (one, alone)]
ta-, tti-, stta- (to put, to set) [IE *stá- (to stand, to set), Luwian iљta- (to stand)]
tabahaza A (sky) [IE *nebho-, *nebh-es- (sky), CA *ntephes- (sky), Luwian tappaљ- (sky)]
tali (a priest) [Hittite tallija- 'to call gods']
tas-, tesêni B, tah-, teseti (a priest) [Hieroglyphic tasi'- 'a stele']
te-, teli (here) [Lydian tL]
tetbe B, teb- A (to spoil) [Hittite tep-aweh- 'to humiliate']
tewê B (evil) [IE *teu- 'powerful', Lydian tavs'a 'strong']
Tri- (to speak) [CA *tr- (to speak), Luwian tatar- (to damn)]
tedi- (a father) [Lithuanian te.tis (a father), Greek tetta (a father)]
teteri (four) [IE *kwetwores (four), Greek tettares]
teTTi- (paternal)
trei, trije (three) [IE *treyes (three, neuter *tri), Hittite tara- (three)]
trppali, trbbdi B (he turns), trbbi A (against) [IE *trep- 'to turn', Luwian tarpalli- 'a change']
tuta B (an army) [IE *teuta- 'people', Hittite tuzzi- 'an army']
tuwa (two) [IE *duwo, *dwo' (two), Hittite tuwa- (two)]
uni (that)
utã-, uten- (a priest)
utetu (imperative), utaci B (to bring) [IE *wedh- (to bring), CA *weth - to bring]
31
uwe- (a person), uwedri (a community) [IE *swe- 'self', Hittite uwa- 'a masculine']
uwêti- (writes)
wakssa- B (courage) [Hittite wahessar 'sacred']
warasija-, wirasaja- B (an assistant) [Hittite warri- 'help']
wawa (a bull) [CA *wawa - a bull, Hittite wawa]
wazzis- (an army), wazala- A (a warrior) [IE *wedh- 'to thrust']
wedri- (a city)
xabe- (a river) [IE *Hap- (water) CA *hap- (a river), Luwian hapi- (a river)]
xabwa- (a sheep) [IE *owi- (a sheep), Luwian hawi- (a sheep)]
xñna (a mother)
xñta- (first) [Gaulish cintu- (first), Old Irish ce't (first)]
zajala B (a criminal) [Hittite za'i- 'to cross, to overdo']
zazati B (he puts) [IE dhe'- 'to put, to set']
zbali- (a deity) [IE *deiwo- (the sky god), Hittite љiwali- (a deity)]
zini B (a destroyer) [Hittite zinna- 'to eliminate']
ziw- (god) [IE *deiwo- (the sky god), CA *diu- (god of daylight), Luwian tiwat- (god of the sun)]
zrêtêni A (a renegade) [Hittite sarra- 'to separate']
zrigali- (a warrior)
zrqqi- B (to fight, to attack) [Hittite sarh- 'to attack', Luwian sarhija-]
zusi (Zeus) (borrowed from Greek) [IE *deiwo- (the sky god)]
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
Carian
Sources:
1. Bajun, L. The Experience of the Comparative Studies of Hitto-Luwian Languages. Moscow, 1990.
2. Shevoroshkin, V. The Carian Language. Modern stage of development and studies. Matters of IndoEuropean Linguistics. Moscow, 1964.
Notes for Glossary:
T - a Carian palatal sound usually transcribed as Greek "tau"
t_ - a Carian sound usually written as t with a line under it; pronounced [t], while Carian t sounded [th]
N - nasal [n]
Glossary:
Carian
avka (definition, situation)
cehi (him)
ebad, epad (here)
glous (a robber, a pirate)
kaphe'nos (a personal name)
Indo-European
*ebho- (he, that)
Latin ops (wealth)
Anatolian
Lydian avka- (a situation)
Lycian se-si (him)
Lydian ebad- (here, there)
Hittite halluwa'i- (to be at odds)
Hittite happinant- (wealthy)
32
kas- (a personal name)
kave (a priest)
kuo (which, that)
lile (atonement)
lukk- (a Leleg)
mava (goddess Ma)
mesna (a deity)
mukwar (a prayer)
nt_a (in, inside)
p-, -p, -b (he)
pararavmi (liberated)
sangodos (a personal name)
sar (up, above)
sav- (to glorify)
sav, sava (something good)
sfes (self; reflexive possessive
pronoun)
sla-, slars (to honour the memory)
st_esas (a tomb)
-t-, -T- (this)
tavse (powerful)
truoles (a personal name)
uk (I, me)
ul-, velvuussos (a spear), ussollos (a spearcarrier)
*kwi- (relative pronoun)
Hieroglyphic hasami- (a
nation)
Lydian kave (a priest)
Hittite kui- (which)
Hittite lila- (atonement)
Luwian lulahi- (a Leleg)
Lycian mawa, Lydian mavs'
Lycian mahaN (a god)
Hittite mugawar (a prayer)
Lycian Nte (in)
Hittite apa- (he, that)
*en (inside)
*ebho- (he, that)
Greek para, Latin pro, Slavic
Lycian priproHittite arawa- (free)
*sen- (old)
Latin per, Lithuanian per,
Lycian hri (up)
Slavic po-
*selH- (to favour)
Lydian sav- (good)
Lydian s'fa- (self; reflexive
pronoun)
Lycian hla- (to glorify)
*teu- (powerful)
*treu- (to flourish)
*eg'hom (I, me)
*wel- (to wish)
Lydian ti- (this)
Lydian tavs'a- (power)
Hittite tarawa'i- (to get rich)
Hittite uk (I, me)
Hittite walla- (to praise)
*wedh- (to thrust, to beat)
Lycian A wazzis- (an army)
*swe- (reflexive pronoun)
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
Palaic
Sources:
1. Bajun, L. The Experience of the Comparative Studies of Hitto-Luwian Languages. Moscow, 1990.
2. Ivanov, V. The Hittite Language. Moscow, 1963.
3. Ivanov V. Common Indo-European, Proto-Slavic and Anatolian Language Systems. Moscow.
4. Gamkrelidze T., Ivanov V. The Indo-European Language and Indo-Europeans. Moscow, 1984.
5. Friedrich J., Kammenhuber A. Hethitisches Worterbuch. Hdlb., 1975-1989.
33
Notes for Glossary:
љ - a sound [s] written in that way in cuneiform
Glossary:
Palaic
Anatolian
Indo-European
aku- 'to drink'
Hittite eku-, aku- 'to drink'
*ekw- 'water'
aљ- 'to be'
Hittite es-, Luwian Hieroglyphic asa, sa 'to be'
*es- 'to be'
ata- 'to eat'
Hittite et-, Luwian Hieroglyphic at- 'to eat'
*ed- 'to eat'
ginu- 'a knee'
Hittite kinu- 'knee'
*g'enu- 'a knee'
hapari- 'to bargain'
Hittite happaraizzi 'sells'
*Hop- 'to trade'
hapna- 'a river'
Hittite hapa- 'river, stream'
*Hap- 'a river, water'
kart- 'a heart'
Hittite kir-, kardi- 'heart'
*kerd- 'a heart'
kiљt- 'to extinguish' Hittite kiљt-, kasta- 'hunger'
*gwes- 'to extinguish'
malit- 'honey'
Hittite melit- 'honey'
*melit- 'honey'
tijaz, tiuna 'god'
Hittite tiwat- 'god of sunlight'
*deiwo- 'god of sunlight'
wer- 'to call'
Hittite werija- 'to call'
*wer- 'to call'
wete- 'to build'
Lydian viD- 'to built'
*wedh- 'to construct'
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
Gaulish
Sources:
1. Whatmough J. The dialects of Ancient Gaul, Cambridge, 1970.
2. Kalygin, V. The Language of the ancient Irish poetry. Moscow, 1986.
3. Kalygin V., Korolev A. Introduction to the Celtic Philology. Moscow, 1989.
4. Lewis G., Pedersen H. Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen, Goettingen, 1909-13.
5. Mac-Bain, F. The etymological Dictionary of Celtic languages.
6. Fasmer, M. The etymological dictionary of the Russian language. Moscow, 1986.
Notes for Glossary:
a', e', i', o', u' - long vowels: [a, e, i, o, u] respectively
CC - Common Celtic
OI - Old Irish
MI - Middle Irish
MB - Middle Breton
34
Glossary:
aballo- (an apple) [IE *amlu-, *samlu- 'apple'?, OI uball]
adiat (aspiration)
aesus (m) (an age) [Latin aes, Irish aois]
allos (other, second) [IE *alyo-, OI aile]
ambi- (around)
ardus (high) [IE *[email protected] 'high', CC *ardwo-]
are (before, at, on) [IE *par-, Greek para, Latin prae, OI ar]
arganto-, argento- (silver) [IE *arg'- 'white, to shine']
art- (a bear) [IE *arkt-, *Hart- 'a bear']
artuas (stone plates; pl.)
ater (m) (father) [IE *pa'te'r 'a father']
atespos (m) (an answer)
aus (an ear) [Latin ausus]
bagaudas (guerilla fighters) [OI ba'gaim 'I fight']
bardos (m) (a poet) [OI bard, Greek phrazo' 'I speak']
beber, bibro- (a beaver) [IE *bebhro- 'a wild animal, a beaver']
beccus (a beak) [Old English becca 'a hoe', Middle High German bicke]
bedo- (a channel)
bekos (a bee) [IE *bhey- 'a bee', OI bech]
bel- (white; in Belenos, Belisama) [IE *bhel-, *bhal- 'white, to shine']
benn- (a top, a peak) [English knoll, Irish beann]
benna (a carriage) [OI buinne]
bitu- (world, life) [IE *gwei- 'to live', OI bith 'world']
boduus (m) (a raven) [OI bodb 'raven']
brace (malt) [IE *mar- 'dirty', OI mraich]
bratu- (to judge) [OI bra'th 'court']
briga (f) (a hill)
bri'ua (f) (a bridge) [Germanic *bro'wo', *bruwwi' 'a bridge', Old Church Slavonic brivno 'a log']
bru'kos (a pen)
caballos (m) (a working horse)
caddos (saint) [MI cád 'holy']
cambios (n) (exchange)
cambos (m) (a slope)
cammano- (a pitch, a step)
camulos (war god) [MI cuma 'woe', MB caffou 'woe']
candetum (a hundred feet long) [CC *cant-pedum, IE *ped- 'a foot']
cant- (an edge, a circle) [IE *kem- 'to cover', Welsh cant]
capt, coept (captured, taken; participle)
carb- (a wagon)
carros (m) (a wagon)
catu- (a battle) [IE *kot- 'a battle', Greek kotos 'rage', Middle High German hader 'a quarrel', OI cath 'a battle']
cauaros, cavarillus (a giant) [Welsh cawr, Cornish caur]
cervesia (f) (beer)
cet, cait (wood)
cingeto- (m) (a warrior) [OI cingim 'I step, march', cing 'a warrior', Welsh & Breton cam 'a step']
cintu-, cintus (first) [Latin recens 'fresh, young', Greek kainos 'new', Sanskrit kani'nas 'young', OI ce't, ce'tna]
com- (with, together with) [Latin, Umbrian com-,cum-]
35
couer (appropriate, worth-while)
courmi (a sort of beer) [Latin cremor 'dense juice', Russian korm 'forage', OI coirm 'beer']
crix (curly)
crodio- (hard, difficult)
-cue, -pe (and) [IE *kwe 'and']
cumba (dishes)
dag- (kind)
decametos (tenth) [IE *dekmot 'ten']
dede (he put; 3rd sg. perf.) [IE *dhe'- 'to put, to set', OI dál]
delgu (I hold; 1st sg. pres.)
dervo- (a tree) [IE *deru- 'a tree, wood']
deus (m) (a god) [IE *deiwo- 'a deity']
dexs (right) [IE *deks- 'right, correct']
dibu e debu (to the gods and goddesses) [IE *deiwo- 'a deity']
divertomu (we turn; 1st pl. pres.) [IE *wer-t- 'to turn, to roll']
doenti (they give; 3st pl. pres. Celtiberian) [IE *do'- 'to give']
doro (a mouth) [IE *dhwer- 'a door, a gate']
drungus (m) (a crowd) [OI drong]
dubi- (black) [IE *dhubh- 'to smoke', OI dub 'black']
du'la- (a leaf) [MI duille, Welsh dalen, Middle Breton del]
dumno- (world) [OI domun 'world']
dunum (n) (a fort) [Germanic *tu'na- 'town']
dusios (a demon) [OI da'sacht 'rage']
eimu (we go; 1st pl. pres.) [IE *ei- 'to go']
embrekton (a dipped piece of food) [IE *mer- 'wet']
eporeto- (a chariot) [IE *ekwo- + *ret-]
epos, eqwos (a horse) [IE *ekwo- 'a horse']
es, ex (from, out of) [IE *eghs 'out', OI acht 'but']
esok- (a salmon) [Latin esox, Early Irish co', Welsh, Breton eog, Welsh ehawc, Cornish ehog]
essedum (a two-seat wagon) [IE sed- 'to sit', OI saidim 'I sit']
gabi (take!; 2nd sg. imp.) [IE *gebh-, OI gabaim 'I take', Gothic giban 'give', Lithuanian gabe'nti 'bring']
gabro- (a goat) [OI gabor, Welsh gafr]
gaesum (n) (a spear)
geistl- (a lien)
gena (f) (a cheek)
geno-, gnatos (born) [IE *g'enu- 'a knee, a kin, to know', OI gnó]
giam- (a winter) [IE *gheim- 'winter']
glastu- (light blue) [Early Irish glass 'pale', Welsh, Old Welsh, Breton glas 'green', German glast 'sheen']
gobbo- (a mouth) [IE *gonbho- 'a ledge', Irish gob]
gutus (m) (a voice) [Irish guth]
inter (between) [IE *en-ter 'between']
iouin- (young) [IE *you-n- 'young']
isarno- (iron) [IE *esro-no- 'red, bloody metal'?; or IE *ayos-, *ayes- 'metal']
landa- (a field) [IE *lendh- 'open land', OI land]
lanu- (flat, plain) [IE *plo-no- 'full, plain, flat']
lautro- (a bath) [Latin lavare 'to wash', OI lo'athar]
legasit (he laid), lega' (laying; participle pres.) [OI lige 'a bed']
leux, lugus (light) [IE *leuk- 'light, to shine']
lexo- (a slope)
litano- (wide, broad) [IE *plotno- 'wide', OI lethan 'wide']
36
logan (a grave) [IE *legh- 'to lie']
luct- (a tribe, a part) [IE *leug- 'to break', OI lucht 'a part']
magus (young, a servant, a boy) [IE *maghu- 'a young person']
magu- (a field) [OI mag 'field']
maniakys (a neck bandage) [IE *moni'- 'a neck']
maponos (a son) [Ogham Irish maqq 'a son']
marka (a horse) [OI marc]
maru- (great) [IE *mar-, *mor- 'great']
marvos (dead) [IE *mer-, *mor- 'to die']
mat- (kind, good) [IE *ma- 'good', Irish ma'ith]
medios (medium) [IE *medhyo- 'medium, middle']
mesga (to mix) [IE *meik- 'to mix']
more-, -mori- (a sea) [Latin mare, OI muir, Slavic *more, Lithuanian marios]
naumetos (ninth) [IE *newno 'nine']
nemeton, nempton (a temple) [OI nemed 'a temple']
nertos (force, strength) [IE *@ner-, *ner-t- 'strength, power']
novio- (new) [IE *newo- 'new']
odocos (an elder) [Old Prussian addle 'a fir', Latin ebulus 'elder', Czech jedle 'silver fir']
ogros (cold) [IE *oug- 'cold', OI u'ar]
oinos (one) [IE *oino- 'one']
ollon (all, the whole) [MI oll 'big']
ouindho-, vindo- (white) [IE *weid- 'to see', OI find]
oxtometos (eighth) [IE *októ 'eight']
penno- (a head) [OI cenn, cend]
petri (four) [IE *kwetwores 'four']
petrudecametos (fourteenth)
petsi- (a thing)
pinpetos (fifth) [IE *penkwe 'five']
recto- (right) [IE *reg'- 'to rule', OI rigid]
re'da (a chariot) [IE *ret- 'to run, to roll', Irish ri'adaim 'I ride']
ritu- (a ford)
rix (pl. riges) (a king) [IE *reg'- 'to rule']
roudo- (red) [IE *reudh- 'red, rust', OI ruad]
sam- (a summer) [IE *sem- 'summer']
sapo- (soap)
sedlon (a saddle, a seat) [IE *sed- 'to sit', Slavic *sedlo 'a saddle']
sego- (a victory)
selua (a possession)
seno- (old) [IE *sen- 'old']
sirom (a star)
sistat (he stands, stays; 3st sg. pres. Celtiberian) [IE *sta'- 'to stand']
slug- (a servant) [Slavic *sluga 'a servant', Lithuanian slauga 'service', OI sluag 'an army unit']
smer- (fat) [Early Irish smir, Welsh mer, Old High German smero 'grease', Old English smeoru 'lard']
sosin (that)
suadu- (pleasant) [CC *sved- 'sweet', Latin suavis, English sweet]
suextos, sextos (sixth) [IE *sweks 'six']
tarvos (a bull) [IE *tauro- 'a bull']
tigern- (a house) [OI tech]
teuto-, touto- (people) [Oscan touto, Lithuanian tauta, Gothic thiuda, OI tu'ath]
trag- (a foot) [OI traig 'a foot']
37
tri (three) [IE *treyes, *tri 'three']
trougo- (unhappy)
uediiu (I pray; 1st sg. pres.)
ueramos (supreme, the highest)
uerno- (an alder)
uesu-, uisu- (king, cheerful) [IE *wesu- 'good']
uinom (wine; acc.sg. Lepontic) [Latin vinum, Greek oinos, Armenian ginu]
uiro- (a man, a husband) [IE *wiro- 'a man']
uros (a bull)
uxello- (high) [IE *upo-s- 'above', Greek hypsi 'high', OI uas 'above', Polish wysoki 'high']
vasso- (a servant)
ve'co- (fury, rage)
ver (above) [Russian verh 'up, above', Latvian virsus 'up', Sanskrit vars.ma 'height', Latin verruca 'a rough',
OI ferr 'better']
vidu- (wood) [OI fid, Welsh guid, Cornish guiden, Old English wudu, Old High German witu]
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
Irish Ogham
Sources:
1. Kalygin, V. The Language of the ancient Irish poetry. Moscow, 1986.
2. Kalygin V., Korolev A. Introduction to the Celtic Philology. Moscow, 1989.
3. Lewis G., Pedersen H. Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen, Goettingen, 1909-13.
4. Korolev, A. The most ancient documents of the Irish language. Moscow, 1984.
5. Mac-Bain, F. The etymological Dictionary of Celtic languages.
Glossary:
Irish Ogham
anm (a name)
avi (a grandson, a
grandfather)
brana (a raven)
celi (a servant)
coi (here)
cuna (a wolf, a dog)
eqa (a horse)
essi (he is)
iarn (iron)
inigena (a daughter)
Celtic & Indo-European
IE *nem- (to call, to assign), *@nomon- (a name), Common Celtic (CC)
*anmen
CC *avios, Latin avus (a grandfather), Old Irish ua
IE *worn- (a raven), Slavic *vorna (a crow), Tocharic wraun'a (a crow),
Lithuanian varna
CC *keiljo- (a way-farer)
IE *kwon- (a dog)
IE *ekwo- (a horse)
IE *es- (to be)
IE *ayos-, *ayes- (metal), CC *eisarno- (iron), Gaulish isarno- (iron)
IE *en (in, inside), *g'en- (kinship), CC *enigena
38
iva (a yew)
lie (a stone)
CC *ivos (a yew), Lithuanian ieva (a bird cherry tree), Russian iva (a
willow), Old High German iwa (a yew), Armenian aigi (a vineyard)
CC *levink- (a stone), Old Irish lia, German lei (a stone, a rock), Italian
lavagna (a slate)
maguno (a servant, a
IE *maghu- (a young person), CC *makw-, Gaulish magus (a servant)
slave)
maqi (a son)
IE *maghu- (a young person), CC *makwme (my)
IE *mé (me, mine)
mosac (a boy)
mucai (a descendant)
IE *wedh- (to lead), CC *to-vessiko- (a leader), Irish Taoiseach (Prime
tovisaci (a leader)
Minister)
tria (three)
IE *treyes, *tri (three)
vail (a wolf)
CC *vailo- (a wolf), Armenian gail (a wolf)
vics (a warrior)
CC *vikt-, Old Irish fichim (I fight), Latin vinco (I win), Gothic veihan
IE *wel- (to see), CC *velit- (a one who sees), Germanic Veleda (a
velitas (a poet)
prophetess)
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
Oscan
Sources:
1. Neroznak, V. Paleo-Balkan languages. Moscow, 1978.
2. Katicic, R. Ancient Languages of the Balkans. The Hague, 1976.
3. Fasmer, M. The Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language. Moscow, 1986.
4. Bourcier, E. Basic Romance Linguistics. Moscow, 1952.
5. Korletyanu, N. Research in Popular Latin and its links with Romance languages. Moscow, 1974.
6. Lindsey, W. Brief historical grammar of the Latin language. Moscow, 1948.
7. Tsvetaev, I. The Corpus of Oscan Inscriptions. Kiev, 1877.
8. Tronsky, I. A Historical Grammar of the Latin Language. Moscow, 1960.
Notes for Dictionary:
á, é, í, ó, ú - long vowel sounds in Oscan and other languages: [a, e, i, o, u] respectively
Dictionary:
aamanaffed - Latin perfecit - he has completed
acum - agere - to do [IE *ag'- 'to do, to lead']
aesaí - arae - refuge, protection (gen.sg.)
aeteis - partis - a part (gen.sg.)
aídil - aedilis - aedil
aíkdafed - aedificavit - he has built
aiso - sacrum - sacred (neut.)
39
allo - alia - other (neut.pl.) [IE *alyo- 'other']
altrei - alteri - other (gen.sg.) [IE *al-ter- 'other of the two']
amfret - ambiunt - they go around, circuit
ammíd - causa - because of
amprufid - improbe - dishonestly
amvíanud - ambitu - a border (abl.sg.)
anafaket - devovet - he devotes
angetuzet - proposuerint - they had proposed
ant - ante - before, in front of [IE *ant-, *Hant- 'fore, front']
anter - inter - between [IE *en-ter 'between']
aragetud - argento - silver, money (dat.sg.) [IE *arg'- 'white, clear']
aut - at - and, also
auti - aut - or
az - ad - to, towards, at [IE *ad- 'to, towards']
bivus (nom.pl.) - vivus - alive [IE *gwei- 'to live']
cadeís - incommodi - inconveniences (nom.pl.)
caíla - templum - a temple
caranter - they feed
carneis - partis - a part (gen.sg.)
casnar - senex - old
castrid - fundo - I pour
castrous - mani - a hand (gen. sg.)
cebnust - venerit - he will come
censaum - censere - to estimate, to evaluate
cevs - civis - a state, a city
com - cum - with [Gaulish com, Old Irish co n-]
comenei - in comitio - at the meeting
comono - comitia - a meeting, a conference
cúmbened - convenit - he came together
dat - de - from, out of
deded - dedit - he gave [IE *dó- 'to give']
dedícatted - dedicavit - he didicated
deicans - dicant - speaking (participle) [IE *deik'- 'to say, to show']
deíkum - dicere - to say, to speak [IE *deik'- 'to say, to show']
deívaí - divae - goddesses (nom. pl.) [IE *deiwo- 'a deity']
deivaid - iuret - he judges
didest - dabit - he will give [IE *dó- 'to give']
diíkúlús - dies - a day
dikust - dixerit - he had said [IE *deik'- 'to say, to show']
diúveí - Jovi - Jupiter (dat.sg.) [IE *deiwo- + *pátér]
dolom - dolum - a deceipt
dúnúm - donum - a gift [IE *dó- 'to give']
egmo - res - business
ehtrad - extra - extra, from
eítiuvad - pecunia - money
eizazunc - illarum - that (gen.pl. fem.)
embratur - imperator
etanto - tanta - such in quantity (fem.)
ex - sic, ita - that way
ezum - esse - to be [IE *es- 'to be']
40
factud - facito - let him do [IE *dhé- 'to put, to set']
famelo - familia - a family
fefacit - facerit - he will have done [IE *dhé- 'to put, to set']
feíhúss - fimes - walls (acc.pl.)
fiiet - fiunt - they become
fortis - forte - strong (adverb)
fratru'm - fratrum - a brother (acc.sg.) [IE *bhra'te'r 'a brother']
fructatiuf - fructus - a fruit
fufans - fuerunt - they have been [IE *bhú- 'to be']
fust - erit - he will be [IE *bhú- 'to be']
futreí - filiae - a daughter (dat.sg.)
hafiest - habebit - he will have
herest - volet - he wants
hipid - habuerit - he would have
húrz - templum - a temple
íp - ibi - there
kerssnais - cenis - meals (abl.pl.)
kúmparabeneís - consilii - advice (nom.pl.)
lamatir - veneat - he would come
leígúss - legiones - legions
leikeit - pollicitus est - is promised
ligis - legibus - laws (dat.pl.)
líísd - solvit - he releases, loosens
líkítud - liceto - it is allowed
limu - fames - hunger
liokakeit - collocavit - he called over
loufrud - libero - freeman (dat.sg.) [IE *leudh- 'free, free people']
loufir - velit - he would like [IE *leudh- 'free, free people']
maatreís - Matris - the name of the feminine deity [IE *mátér 'a mother']
mahiis - magius - more
maimas - maximae - the largest, the most (nom.pl. fem.)
mais - magis - more
mallom - malum - an apple
manim - manum - a hand (acc.sg.)
manins - manos - hands (acc.pl.)
medicatud - magistratu - a public officer (abl.sg.)
mefiaí - mediae - medium, middle (dat.sg. fem.) [IE *medhyo- 'medium, middle']
memnim - monumentum - a monument
mins - minus - less
minstreis - minoris - the least (gen.sg.)
miricatud - mercato - trade, merchant
moltam - multam - many (acc.sg. fem.)
moltaum - multare - to increase, to multiply
múíníkad - communi - common (nom.pl.)
nei - non - not, no [IE *@n- 'not']
ner - nobilis - a nobleman [IE *@ner-, *ner-t- 'strength, power']
nesimois - proximis - the nearest, the closest (dat.pl.)
ni - ne - not [IE *@n- 'not']
nú - novius - new [IE *newo- 'new']
patensíns - aperirent - they would uncover
41
patír - pater - a father [IE *pátér 'a father']
peeslúm - templum - a temple
peremust - perceperit - he had understood, gained
pert - trans - across, through
pertumum - perimere - to destroy
perum - sine - without
pocabit - quandoque - of one time or another
posmom - postremum - subsequent (acc.sg.)
poteram - poculum
praesentid - praesente - presence (abl.sg.)
preivatud - privato - by oneself, in private
promom - prímum - at first [IE *pro-mo- 'first, fore']
pru - pro - for, instead of
prúfatted - probavit - he has shown, proven
pruter - prius - before (conjunction)
puf - ubi - where
purasiaí - igniariae - a furnace (nom.pl.)
púst - post - after
pústiris - posterius - posterior
pustmas - postumae
putíans - possint - they would be able
púuttram - pontem - a bridge (acc.sg.)
puz - ut - how, when (conjunction)
regatureí - rectori - a leader, a guider (dat.sg.) [IE *reg'- 'to lead, a leader']
rufru - rubus - red, rust [IE *reudh- 'red, rust']
saahtúm - sanctum - saint (acc.sg.)
sakahíter - sacratur - he is consecrated
salavs - salvus - safe
scriftas - scriptae - written (fem. pl.)
serevkid - cura - curing, care
set - sunt - they are [IE *es- 'to be']
sivom - totum - all (acc.sg.)
slaagid - loco, regione - a place, a region (abl.sg.)
staít - stat - he stands [IE *stá- 'to stand']
svae - si - if
sverruneí - dicanto - to a speaking person (dat.sg. participle)
tadait - censeat - he would evaluate
tangineis - sententiae - opinions (nom.pl.)
taurom - taurum - a bull (acc.sg.) [IE *tawro- 'a bull']
tedur - illic - there
teerúm - terra - land [Irish tír 'a country']
tefúrúm - sacrificium - a victim
teremnatúst - terminata est - is finished (fem.)
toutíks - publicus - public [Oscan touto 'people', Gaulish teuto- 'people, a tribe',
touto - civitas, populus - people, a country [Oscan touto 'people', Gaulish teuto- 'people, a tribe',
tríbarakavúm - aedificare - to build
tríbúm - domum - a house, home (acc.sg.)
trstus - testis - a witness [Italic *terstis, IE *ter 'thrice']
trutum - definitum - defined (participle)
úíním - omnium - all, every (gen.pl.)
42
úíttiuf - usus - used (participle)
úlleis - illius - that (gen.sg.)
úp - apud - by, near
úpsannam - operandam - working (gerund; acc.sg. fem.)
urtam - votum - a vote
ururú - curva - curved, bent (fem.)
urust - oraverit - he had spoken [IE *or- 'to speak, to shout']
valgemom - optimum - the best (acc.sg.)
veru - portam - a door, a gate (acc.sg.) [IE *dhwer- 'a door, a gate']
vía - via - a road
vincter - convincitur - it is overcome
víteliú - Italia - Italy [Italic *vitell- 'a little bull']
volloíom - exstruere - to destroy
vorsus - a measure of arable soil
zicelei - die - a day (abl.sg.)
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
Umbrian
Sources:
1. Bourcier, E. Basic Romance Linguistics. Moscow, 1952.
2. Korletyanu, N. Research in Popular Latin and its links with Romance languages. Moscow, 1974.
3. Lindsey, W. Brief historical grammar of the Latin language. Moscow, 1948.
4. Tsvetaev, I. The Corpus of Oscan Inscriptions. Kiev, 1877.
5. Tronsky, I. A Historical Grammar of the Latin Language. Moscow, 1960.
6. Fasmer, M. The Etymological dictionary of the Russian language. Moscow, 1986.
Notes for Glossary:
r' - a special sybylant in Umbrian, written like Czech [rz]
ç - another peculiar Umbrian sound, written like in French commençons
Glossary:
Umbrian
ager (a field)
ahesnes (copper; abl.pl.)
alfu, Pelignan alafis (white)
ander (inside)
anglome (to the edge)
Latin
ager
aenis
albus
in (in, inside)
ad angulum
anouihimu (he dresses)
induo (I put on)
Indo-European
IE *ag'ro- (a field)
IE *albho- (white)
IE *en (in, inside)
IE *ang- (a corner, an edge)
Lithuanian auti (to put on shoes), Armenian
aganim (I dress), Avestan aoðrem (a shoe)
43
arçlataf (a round cake;
acc.pl.)
arsfertur (a priest)
arsie (a victim; loc.sg.)
arsueitu (I bring, I lead)
atru, adro (black; pl. neut.)
berus (a spear; abl. pl.)
bum (a bull; acc.sg.)
cringatro, krenkatrum (a
bandage on the shoulder)
destrame (to the right)
dirsa, dida- (Pelignan) (I
give)
eho (I, me)
eiscurent (they demanded)
emantur (they are being
purchased)
enuk (that way)
ere, erek; dat.sg. esmei,
gen.pl. eru (this)
esaristrom (a temple;
Volscian acc.sg.)
esono- (saint)
arculatas
IE *argw- (a bow and arrows)
IE *bher- (to carry, to bring)
atra
verus
bos, gen. bovis
IE *[email protected] (open fire)
IE *gwerw- (a wooden spear)
IE *gwou- (a bull)
Russian krug (a ring), Norse hringr, Old English
hring (a ring)
IE *dek's- (right)
in dextram
do (I give), dedi (I
IE *dó- (to give)
gave)
ego
IE *eg'hom (I, me)
emuntur
IE *em- (to take, to distribute)
is
IE *so- (this)
et (and)
et
etants (such in quantity)
etru (other; dat.sg.)
fakust (makes)
far (farine)
ferar (they will bring)
fertu (I carry)
fesnafe, fesnere (to the
temple)
foner (people who favour)
fratrom, fratrum (brothers;
gen.pl.)
furo, furu (a forum)
Grabovius (a god of oak)
tantus
Greek eti (more, over), Phrygian eti, Indic atas
(thence)
IE *to- (this)
facet
far
ferunt
fero
IE *dhé- (to put)
IE *bhar- (a herb, millet)
IE *bher- (to carry)
IE *bher- (to carry)
feriae
IE *dhey- (a god?)
faventes
Slavic *govêti (to fast), Norse ga (to respect)
fratrorum
IE *bhra'te'r 'a brother'
forum
IE *dhwer- (an enclosed place, a door)
hortitur (he
encourages)
Russian zarkij (greedy), Indic haryati (he adores),
Greek khairo (I am glad), Gothic gaírns (greedy)
see above
IE *ei- (to go)
IE *yun- (fresh, young)
heriest (he will wish)
herter (wants)
ier (they go)
eunt
iuenga (a heifer)
iupater, dat.sg. iuvipatri
Juppiter
(Jupiter)
karu, abl.sg. karne (a part)
IE *deiwo- (a deity)
44
Norse hathna (a goat-cub), Serbo-Croatian kotiti
se (to whelp)
mano
IE *man- (a hand; power)
mihi, me
IE *me (me)
IE *ner-, *@ner- (power, strength)
nomen, nominis IE *@nm- (to name, a name)
nos
IE *nosmes (we; me and them)
katel, gen. katles (a puppy) catulus
manuve (a hand; loc.sg.)
mehe, me (me)
ner (a man)
nome, numem (a name)
nos (we)
onse (a shoulder; loc.sg.)
peracri (the best;; sharp)
acer
per'i, persi (a foot; dat.sg.) pes, pedis
pihaclo (propitiation; gen.pl.)
pir (fire)
pir'e (something)
quidquid
poei (who, which)
qui, quod
pracatarum (boundaries;
gen.pl.)
privus (peculiar,
prever (alone)
the only)
pune (because)
cum < quom
purdouitu (I have given)
perdedi
putres-pe (which of the two;
utrique
gen.)
rubus (reddish,
rofu (red)
rust)
salu (salt; acc.sg.)
sal, salis
sent (they are)
sunt
stahu (I stand)
sto
sve (if)
si
terkantur (let them see)
tota (a country)
traf (across, through)
tu, dat. tefe, abl. te (thou)
tuplak (double)
ukar, ocar (a capitol)
ull (that)
umtu- (let him smear)
umen (an ointment)
ute (or)
utur (water; abl.sg. une)
vinu (wine)
viru, veiru (a man)
vos (you; pl.)
trans
tu, tibi, te
ocris (a steep
mountain)
ille
IE *ak'- (sharp)
IE *ped- (a foot)
IE *paur- (inanimate fire)
IE *kwi- (relative pronoun)
IE *kwi- (relative pronoun)
Old Russian oprich (besides)
IE *kwIE *kwater- (which of the two)
IE *reudh- (rust, red)
IE *sal- (dirty, grey; salt)
IE *es- (to be)
IE *stá- (to stand)
Gaulish touta (a tribe, people), Gothic thiuda
(people), Old Prussian tauto (people), Hittite tuzzi(an army)
IE *tra- (through)
IE *tú (thou)
IE *duwo- (two) + *plek- (to spin)
IE *ok'- (sharp, steep)
unguentum
aut
vinum
vir
vos
IE *wed- (wet, water)
Hittite wiana, Greek oinos, Armenian gini
IE *wiro- (a man, a human)
IE *yus, *wosom (you)
45
Latin-English lexicon.
abalienato transfer of property, alienation
abavus great-great-grandfather
abbas abbatis
father, abbot
abbatia abbey, monastery
abdico to renounce, reject, abdicate, disapprove of
abdo
put away, remove, hide, conceal
abdomen belly, gluttony
abduco to lead, take away, detach, withdraw
abeo
to go away, retire, depart from life, die
abeo
to digress, change, vanish, disappear
abeo
to pass, to have been
aberro to wander, deviate, escape
abhinc ago, back from now
abicio
to thrown down, dispense with, get rid of
abiego to send away, send off
abigo
to drive off, drive away, rustle cattle, steal
abiungo to unharnass, separate, detach
abiuro
to deny by oath
abluo
to wash clean
abnego to deny, refuse
abnepos great-great-grandson
abnocto to spend the night out, to stay away all night
aboleo to destroy, abolish, annul, do away with
abolesco to die, perish, vanish
aborior to set (as in "the sun sets")
abortio miscarriage
abortivus one prematurely born
abrogo to repeal, annul, remove, take away
abrumpo to break off, sever, remove, dissociate
abruptio separation, divorce
abscido to cut off, to separate, take away
absconditus
hidden, concealed
abscondo to hide, conceal, secrete
absens absent, missing, away, gone
absentis absent, missing, away, gone
absisto to go away, desist
absit
god forbid
absorbeo to swallow, gulp down, carry away, engross
absque (+ ablative) without, except
abstergo to wipe off, clean away
abstulo to take away, withdraw
absum to be absent, to be away, to be missing
abundans abundant, overflowing, abounding in
abundantia
abundance, bounty, plenty
abutor to use abusive language
46
abutor to make full use of, to abuse
accedo to approach, come near
accelero to quicken, hasten, speed, accelerate
accendo to kindle, illuminate, inflame
acceptius suitable for receiving
acceptus welcome, pleasant, agreeable
accido to fall down, to happen, occur, to hack, to ruin
accipio to consider oneself indebted, receive, learn
accipio receive, accept
accommodo
to adjust, adapt, accommodate oneself
accusator accusor, plaintiff
accuso to accuse, blame, find fault with
acer
sharp, keen, eager, severe, fierce
acerbitas harshness, bitterness
acerbus bitter, gloomy, dark
acervus a heap, mass
acidus sharp, sour
acies
keeness, edge, sharpness, battle-line
acquiro to acquire, gain, get, obtain
adamo to fall in love with, find pleasure in
adapto adapt, adjust, make ready, or fit
adaugeo to make greater, add, increase
addo
to give, bring, place, inspire, cause, add, join
adduco to lead, induce, persuade
ademptio a taking away
adeo
to approach, visit, come to, undertake
adeo
to such a point, such an extent, so far, so long
adeptio attainment, obtaining, achievement
adepto to obtain, get, acquire
adfectus affectus influenced, worked upon
adfero affero
to cause, bring about, contribute
adficio to affect, afflict, weaken, sap, exhaust, drain
adflicto affligo
to injure, weaken, discourage, damage, break
adhaero to hang to, stick to, adhere
adhuc
till then, till now, still, even now, besides
adicio
to direct, address, apply, to throw to
adimpleo to fulfill, perform
adipiscor to come up to, overtake, obtain
adiuvo to help, aid, assist
adjicio to add, to turn towards, move towards, suggest
adjungo to join connect
administratio
giving of help, administration, government
admiratio wonder, astonishment, surprise, admiration
admiror to wonder at, admire, marvel at
admitto to admit, receive
admoneo admonish, advise
admonitio warning, reminder
admoveo to move to, bring up, apply
adnuo
to nod assent
adopto to wish for oneself, adopt, select, pick out
47
adservio to aid, help, assist
adsidue assidue
continuously, without remission
adstringo to draw together, tighten, compress, compact
adstringo bind (persons), oblige
adsuesco assuesco to grow accustomed to, used to, make familiar
adsuetudo
custom, habit
adsum to assist, be present, be near, be in attendance
adsumo (assumo) to take to oneself, claim, appropriate, call
aduentus arrival
adulatio fawning, flattery, sycophancy, buttering up
adulescens
young man, youth, lad
adulescentia
youth
adultus (adj.)
grown up, mature, adult, of age
aduro (adustum)
to set fire to, burn, singe, kindle, light
advenio to come, arrive, reach
adversor to oppose, resist, fight back
adversus (prep. + acc.)
toward, against, facing
adverto to turn towards, direct one's attention to
advoco to summon, call, call in an advisor
aedificium building, structure
aeger eger
sick, ill
aegre egre (adv.) hardly, scarcely, with difficulty, laboriously
aegresco egresco to fall ill, become troubled, grow worse
aegretudo egretudo sickness, mental illness
aegrotatio egrotatio sickness, illness
aegrus ill, diseased, unwell
aeneus made of copper or bronze, brazen
aequitas justice, fairness, equity
aequus level, even, calm, equal, favorable, just
aer
air, atmosphere, ether, weather
aeris
air, atmosphere, ether, weather
aestas estas
summer
aestivus estivus
pertaining to summer
aestus estus
heat, tide
aetas
an age, stage, period of life, time, era
aeternus eternus eternal, everlasting, without end
affero
to bring, give, impart, turn over
ager
land, countryside, fields
ager (agri) farm, field, acre
aggero to make a mound, heap up, increase
aggredior to go to, approach, address, attack
agito
to put in motion, move, rouse
agnitio recognition, knowledge
agnosco to recognize, understand, perceive
agnosco acknowledge
agnosco to know again, recognize, report, understand
ago (egi actum )
to spend time, live / manage, drive, lead
ait
he says
aiunt
they say
alibi
else where, in other respects
48
alienus somebody else's, foreign, alien, strange
alii ... alii some ... others
alioqui otherwise
alioquin otherwise, in some respects /in general
aliqua
some
aliquando at any time, sometimes, occasionally, at last
aliquanta moderate, or some size
aliquanto somewhat, considerably
aliquantum
a good deal
aliquantus of some size, moderate
aliqui
some
aliquid someone, somebody, something
aliquis someone, anyone, anything, in any respect
aliquo
in some direction
aliquot some, several
aliquotiens
some times
aliquoties several times
alius
other, another, someone else, something else
allatus (=adfero)
having been brought
allec
herrings
alo (alui altum)
nourish, cherish, support, sustain, maintain
alquod some
alter
otherwise
alter altera alterum the second, the other one
alter ... alter
the one ... the other
altus
high, deep
alumno nurseling, student, disciple
alveus hollow, basket, bed (of a river)
amaritudo bitterness
ambitus border, edge, extent /going around, circuit
ambulo to walk
amicitia friendship
amiculum cloak, cape
amicus friend, comrade
amissio loss
amita
father's sister, paternal aunt
amitto
to dismiss, send away, lose, let slip away
amo
to love, like, be fond of, cherish
amoena pleasant [of a place]
amoenitas pleasantness [of a place]
amor
love, affection, infatuation, passion
amotio removal
amoveo to move away, remove, take out, shift
amplector to embrace, surround
amplexus an embracing, surrounding, loving embrace
amplio to enlarge, increase, improve
amplitudo size, breadth, dignity, grandeur, greatness
amplus large, spacious, ample /great important
ancilla maidservant
andron corridor, aisle
49
anethum dill, anise
angelus angel
angulus corner, niche
angustus narrow, limited, strait, tight, constricted
animadverto
to turn the mind to, take notice of, see
animi
at heart
animosus courageous, ardent, passionate, furious
animus character, intellect, memory, consciousness
animus courage, vivacity, bravery, will, spirit, soul
annona yearly produce
annullo to obliterate, destroy, annihilate
annuo
to nod, consent, give assent to /approve, favor
annuo
to allow, grant, promise /designate
annus
year
ansa
a handle
anser
goose
ante
before
antea
before, previously, formerly
antepono put before, prefer, favor, promote
antequam before (in time)
antiquus ancient, old, hoary
aperio
to uncover, lay bare, reveal, make clear
aperito an opening
aperte openly, frankly
apertio an opening
apparatus equipment, gear, machinery/ splendor
appareo to become visible, appear, manifest
appello to land
appello to call, name, summon
appono to appoint a person, to add something
appono to place near, put to, serve, put on the table
appositus placed near, approaching, appropriate
approbo to approve
appropinquo
to near, drawn near, come close
apto
to fit, approve
aptus
fitted, connected, fastened /prepared
aptus
suitable, appropriate, fitting
apud
among, in the presence of, at
aqua
water
aquila
eagle
aquilo
the north wind
aquilus dark colored, swarthy
ara
altar /refuge, protection
aranea spider's web
arator
plowman, cultivator
aratrum plow
arbitro arbitror
to witness, bear witness / judge, arbitrate
arbor
tree
arbustum a vineyard planted with trees
arbustus planted with trees
50
arca archa
chest, box, money box, coffin, cell
arceo
to shut up, enclose
arcesso; accerso to bring, fetch, summon, call for
arcus
bow (BOW and arrows), arch, bend, arc
argentum silver, money
argumentum
proof, evidence
arguo
to show, make clear, attempt to show /censure
arguo
to blame, accuse /prove, expose, convict /declare
arista
the point of the ear
arma
arms, weapons
armarium cupboard, chest, safe (for food, clothing
armiger arms-bearer
armo
to provide arms, arm, equip, fit out
aro
to plow
ars; artis skill method, technique, conduct, character
articulus a moment, crisis
artificiose skillfuly
artificiosus
skillful, accomplished, skillfuly made
arto
to press together, reduce, abrdiged
arx
citadel, stronghold, fortress, keep, donjon
ascia
carpenter's axe, mason's trowel
ascio
to take up, adopt as one's own
ascisco to receive, admit/ adopt / take up, approve
asper
rough, harsh, severe
asperitas roughness, severity/ harshness, fierceness
aspernatio
contempt
aspicio to look at, behold, gaze at, see
asporto to carry off, take away
assentator
flatterer, sycophant, yes-man
asser
a stake, pole
assero claim, defend
assimilares
similar
assimulo simulate, immatate, represent
assuesco to accustom
assus
dried, roasted, grilled
astrum star, constellation
astus
cunning
atavus great-great-great grandfather, ancestor
ater atra atrum
dark, gloomy
atqui
and yet, still
atrocitas hashness, cruelty, frightfulness, barbarity
atrox
terrible, cruel, horror
attentus attentive, careful of one's property
attero
to weaken, ruin, rub against, rub away, erode
attero
destroy, waste, weaken, impair
attollo
to raise, lifet up, elevate/ excite, exalt
attonbitus frantic, inspired, thunder-struck, stunned
auarca leather sandal worn by pyrenean peasants
auctor
author, originator
auctorita authority, power
51
auctoritas authority
auctus growth, enlargement, increase
audacter; audaciter boldly, proudly, fearlessly
audax
bold
audentia boldness, courage
audeo
to dare. (part. ausus )
audio
to hear, hearken, listen to
auditor hearer, listener
aufero to carry away, remove /steal, carry off
augeo
increase, enlarge
augeo
to increase, strengthen
aureus golden
auris
ear
aurum gold
austerus strict, rigid, stern
aut...aut either...or
autem
moreover, however, but, also
autem
but, on the other hand, however, moreover
autus
increase, enlargement, growth
auxilium aid, help, assistance, support
avaritia avarice, greed
avarus greedy, avaricious
aveho
to carry away, remove
averto
to turn away, avert, avoid. turn back
avoco
to call away, divert
baiulus porter, pall-bearer
balaena whale
balanus acorn, chestnut, date
balatro fool, buffoon, jester
balbus stammering, stuttering, fumbling
balbutio to stutter, stammer /speak obscurely
balineum balneum bath, bathhouse, bathing-place
balnearius pertaining to the bathhouse /bathhouse
balneator keeper of a bathhouse
balo
to bleat
balsamam balsam tree /balsam gum
barathrum pit, abyss /the underworld
barba
beard, whiskers
bardus stupid, slow, dull
basium kiss
beatus blessed, fortunate, sometimes "saint"
bellicus martial, military, war-like
bellum war
bellus
beautiful, pretty, charming, handsome
bene
well
beneficium
benefit, favor, service, privilege, right
benevolentia
benevolence, kindness, good will
benigne kindly, generously
bestia
animal, beast
bibo
to drink, quaff
52
bis
twice
blandior to flatter, caress
blanditia blandishments, attractions, allurement, charm
bonus
good (melior : better / optimus : best )
bos (bovis )
cow, ox. bull
brevis
short, small, brief
brevitas shortness, brevity
breviter briefly
cado
to fall, drop, plummet, topple
caecus blind, sightless
caedo
to fall, kill
caelestis heavenly, celestial / noun, a god
caelum sky, heaven
caetera the rest, that remaining
calamitas calamity, misfortune, disaster
calamus anything made or reed -- pen, arrow, pipe, etc
calcar
spur
calco
to tread, trample upon
calculus pebble, stone
caligo
to make dizzy
calix
a vessel for drinking
callide skilfully, cleverly / cunningly, slyly, subtly
callidus clever, dextrous, experienced, skilful / cunning
caltha
marigold
calumnior to accuse falsely
calvus bald
calx
the heel /stone, pebble /lime /goal, aim
camera vault, vaulted room /small boat
caminus a forge, large hearth
campana bell
campus level place, field, plain
camur
curved, bent, hooked
canalis channel, canal /pipe
candela taper, candle
candeo to shine, glow, grow brilliant, sparkle
candide openly, clearly, candidly
candidus bright, shining, white
canis
dog
canities grey hair /old age
canonicus canonical, according to the canons, legal, lawful
canonus canon, member of a cathedral chapter or canonry
canto
to sing
capillus hair
capio
to rent, hire /seize, arrest
capio
to seize, take, choose/ attack
capistro to halter, put a halter on a horse
capistrum halter, harness, mazzle
capitagium
poll tax
capitale cattle, possessions, chattels
capitulus chapter, chapter meeting, chapter house
53
captivas captivity
capto
to grab, try to get, grab at
capulatio decapitation
caput
head /top, summit /chief
caput ieiunius
Ash Wednesday
carbo
carbon, coal, charcoal
carcer
prison, cell, jail, dungeon
careo
be without, be deprived of, lack
caries
rottennes, corruption, decay
cariosus rotten, decayed
caritas dearness, affection / charity
carmen song, poem
carpo
to pluck, seize, grab, lay hold of, hold on to
carus
dear, beloved /costly, high-priced, expensive
casso
to bring to naught, destroy, annul, make void
caste
purely, spotlessly, purely, uprightly, chastely
casus
downfall
casus
a falling /occasion, opportunity /event, accident
casus
accident, chance, fortune
catena chain, fetters
caterva crowd, troop, flock
catervatim in troops, in masses
cattus
cat
cauda
the tail of an animal
causa
on account of, for the sake of
causa
case at law, case, law-suit /situation
causa
cause /reason, motive, pretext /interest
caute
cautiously, with security
cautela caution, precaution, security
cautus careful, cautious /[things] secure
caveo
beware, avoid
caveo
provide for
cavus
hole, pit
cedo
to go, proceed /turn out, happen/go away
cedo
give ground to, submit to
cedo cessi cessum to grant, yield
celebratio large crowd, audience, assembly
celebrer renowned, well known, popular, famous
celebritas crowd, multitude /celebration /fame, renown
celebrus abounding in, rich in, much frequented
celer
quick, swift, rapid, speedy, fast
celeritas speed, swiftness, rapidity, quickness
celeriter rapidly, quickly, swiftly, speedily
cella
room, store-room, garret
celo
to hide, conceal, keep secret
celox
fast, rapid, swift, fleet
celsus elevated, lofty /arrogant, proud, haughty
cena
dinner, meal
cenaculum
garret, attic
ceno
to dine
54
censeo estimate, assess, evaluate
censura judgement
census wealth, property /census
centum one hundred
cerno
to separate, sift, distinguish /decide, resolve
cernuus faling headlong
certamen contest, contention, rivalry of any kind
certe
certainly, assuredly
certo
to contend, settle, dispute, to settle by combat
certus
undoubted, certain, sure, settled, resolved
cervus stag. deer
cesso
to leave off, cease /linger, delay
cetera
for the rest, otherwise
ceteri
the remaining, the rest, the others
ceterum otherwise, moreover, but
ceterus the other, the rest
charisma gift, present
chirographum
autograph
cibo
food for animals
cibus
food for men and animals
cicuta
hemlock
ciminatio accusation, calumny, charge
ciminosus reproachful, slanderous
cinis cineris
ashes, embers
circumvenio
to beset, assail
circumvenio
to come around, surround, cheat, defraud
citara
a harp
citatio
summons, call
citatus summons, citation
citatus quick, speedy
citivolus swiftly flying
cito
quickly, rapidly, speedily
cito
to be moved, aroused
civilis
civil, civic
civis
citizen, townsman, bourgeois, burgess
civitas
state, citzenship, city-state
clam
secretly, in secret
clamo
to call, shout, cry aloud, proclaim, declare
clamor loud shouting, cry
claro
to make bright or clear, make clear in the mind
clarus
clear, bright /renowned, famous, illustrious
claudeo to limp, halt, be lame, to hobble
claudo (clausus)
to confine, shut up, close, blockade, besiege
claudus lame
claustrum bolt, bar, prison, den, pen, enclosure/ cloister
clementia indulgence, forbearance, humanity, mercy
clibanus oven, furnace/ tray for bread making
coacto to force, compel, coerce
coactu by force, under compulsion
coactum force, compulsion, coercement
55
coadunatio
a gathering together, a summing up, a uniting
coaegresco
to become sick at the same time
coepi
began, started, undertook
coepto to begin, undertake
coerceo surround, enclose, restrain, confine
cogito
to think, ruminate, ponder, consider, plan
cognatus related by blood (noun) a relative
cognomen
surname, family name, nick-name
cognosco to examine, inquire, learn
cogo
to bring together, drive, draw
cogo
to compel, restrict, confine /force, compel
cohaereo to cling to, correspond to
cohaero cohero cohesi cohesum
to adhere, stick together
cohibeo confine, restrain, hold back, repress
cohors a yard, enclosure /troop
cohortor to encourage, incite, exhort
colligo legi, lectum, to collect, gather together
colloco to place, put, arrange
collum neck
colo colui cultum
cultivate, cherish
color
color
coloratus colored /dark-complexioned
coloro
to color
coma
hair of the head, leaves, rays of light
combibo to drink up, suck in
comburo to burn up, to ruin, consume
comedo comedi comesum
to eat up, consume /waste, squander
comes comitis
companion, friend, comrade /count
cometes comet
cometissa comitissa countess
comis
courteous, kind, friendly
comitatus accompanied
comitatus train, retinue, following /war band
comiter courteously, in a kindly, friendly manner
comito to accompany
comitto to entrust, commit
commemoro
to remind, relate, mention/ to keep in mind
commeo To go up and down, back and forth, in and out
commessatio; onis eating together
comminor to threaten
comminuo to scatter, weaken, damage
comminus hand to hand, in close combat
commisceo
to intermingle, join, mix
commissum
undertaking, that which is entrusted
commodo to furnish, lend, give
commodo to make fit, adapt, please, oblige, serve
commodum
convenience, advantage, opportunity, comfort
commodum
suitable time, opportunity, convenience, use
commodus
proper, fit, commodius
commoneo
to impress upon one. to remind
56
commoneo
to remind someone forcibly of somthing
commoneo
to remember, recollect
commoror remain, stay, abide, linger
commoveo
to move violently, disturb, shake /excite, upset
communis common, general, run of the mill
comparo to compare
compater the godfather of a man's child
compatior to suffer with one, feel pity, have compassion
compello to drive together, collect, force, compel
comperio to disclose fully, find out with certainty
comperio to learn, find out
comperte on good authority
compescor
to fasten together, hold in check, restrain, curb
compescor
to suppress, repress, check, restrain
competo to be appropriate, suitable, fit
complectus
embrace, grasp
compleo to fill up, man, bring up to strength, fulfil
compleo to finish
complexo encompass, embrace
complico to fold together
compono to put together, compose
compositio
composition, agreement, pact/ arrangement
compositus
orderly, matching, made up of pieces
comprehendo
to grasp, take together, unite /comprehend
comprehendo
to seize, arrest, take prisoner
comprehendo
to embrace, take firmly, include, seize
comprobo to approve fully/ to confirm, prove, establish
compromitto
to agree to refer to arbitration
comprovincialis
born in the same province
comptus a head-dress, a hairband
conatus exertion, effort / undertaking / impulse
concavo to hollow out
concedo to concede, yield, allow, grant, withdraw
concepta measures, capacity
concero connect join, twine, join in conflict
concido to fall down, sink, perish / (wind) subside
concido to be ruined, fail /cut up, cut down, destroy
concilio to assemble, bring together /win over, reconcile
concilium council
concipio to take or lay hold of, receive, take in
concisus cut up, broken, brief, concise
concito to move violently, stir up, excite, arouse
conculco to tread under foot, despise, oppress, suppress
concupiscentia
avarice, covetousness
concupisco
to covet, aim at, desire eagerly
concurro to concur
concutio to shake together, agitate, alarm, disturb
condico to agree, fix, settle, make arrangements
condo
erect, establish, build
conduco hire, employ for wages
57
confero discuss, debate, confer/ betake oneself, devote
confero to bring together, put together, collect/
confestim speedily, rapidly, immediately, without delay
confido have confidence in, be confident of, rely upon
confingo to fabricate, make up
confirmo to confirm
confiteor confessus to confess, own up, admit, acknowledge
conforto to strengthen much
confugo to flee, have recourse to, take refuge
confundo to pour together, mix, blend /confound, confuse
confusim in a confused way, fumbling
confusio mingling, mixture /confounding, confusion
confusus confused, disorderly /embarassed, troubled
confuto to check, repress, stop, halt, turn back /silence
confuto to confute /restrain, check, repress
confuto supress, keep silent /convict
congelo to congeal, harden, freeze
congregatio
assembly, society, union
congrego to gather together, assemble, convene
congressus
a meeting, association
congrue adv, suitably
congruo coinside, agree, conform
congruus agreeing, fit, suitable
conicio to hurl, throw /put together, conjecture
coniecto to throw together, infer, guess, conclude
conitor to press upon, to struggle to reach
coniuratio conspiracy, plot
coniuratus conspirator, plotter
coniuro to take an oath together, plot, conspire
conor
to undertake, try, venture, presume, attempt
conqueror to complain loudly
conscendo
to ascend, mount, go up
conscientia
conscience, consciouness, knowledge
conscindo to tear in pieces
conscius conscious of, aware of
conseco to dismember, cut into pieces, chop up
consecro to dedicate, consecrate
consectatio
striving, pursuit
consenesco
to grow old, weak, feeble, infirm
consensio agreement, harmony, cooperation /plot, conspiracy
consentio to agree, consent /plot, conspire
consequentia
consequential, relating
conservo to preserve, conserve, maintain, keep, hold to
considero to look at, regard carefully
consido to set down, settle
consilio intentionally, on purpose, designedly
consilium deliberation, consultation, assembly, council
consilium advice, suggestion, wisdom, plan, purpose
consimilis adj, similar
consisto to be formed of, consist/ stop
58
consisto to depend on, rely on
consisto to take one's stand, stand still, stop
consitor sower, planter
consolatio encouragement, amelioration, consolation
consonum harmonious
conspergo
to sprinkle, bestrew
conspicio to catch sight of, perceive, behold, understand
constans steady, firm, unchanging, constant, unwavering
constanter
steadily, firmly
constituo to fix, station, place, cause to stand, set
constituo to arrange, decide, appoint, settle, found
constituo to set up, place, establish, post, station
consto to be established, stand firm, stop, endure
constrictio to bind together, draw together
constupator
ravisher, debaucher
constupro to ravish, corrupt
consuasor advisor, counselor
consuefacio
to accustom, acclimate, become used to
consuesco
to accustom, inure, habituate
consueta customary, usual
consuetudo
custom, usage, habit /intimacy
consulatio deliberation, inquiry, full consideration
consulo to look to the interests of
consulo look to the interests of/consult
consulo to reflect, consider, ponder, reflect
consulto to consider carefully, weigh, ponder
consulto to ask the advice of, consult
consultum decree
consummatio
completion, summing up, adding up
consummo
to add together, sum up, make perfect, complete
consumo to spend, employ, use up, finish, waste away
consuo consui consutum
to sew together, stitch
consurgo to stand up, rise up /to arise, break out
contabesco
to waste slowly away, decline in health
contactus touching, contact /contagion
contages a touch, contact
contagio contagium contagion, infection /touching, contact
contamino to pollute, infect
contego to cover, shield, protect, defend
contemno to think meanly of, despise, condemn, hate
contemplatio
survey, contemplation
contemplor
to mark out, regard, consider carefully, survey
contemptim
contemptuously
contemptio
scorn, disdain, contempt
contemptus
despised, despicable, contemptible
contendo to compare, contrast /compete
contendo to assert, maintain /shoot (a missile), cast
contendo to contend, strive, struggle, hasten
contente eagerly, earnestly
contentus contented, satisfied
59
contentus strained, stretched /eager, zealous
contigo to happen, befall
contineo to keep in, surround, contain, confine, include
contineo hold together, keep together, connect, join
contineo to touch, reach, grasp, affect, infect
contineo to hold back, restrain
contineo to hold, to keep togethere, to contian
contingo to touch /(intransitive) to happen, befall, occur
contingo to touch closely, happen to, befall
continuo to join (together), to be after
continuo immediately, at once
continuus connected together, continuous, uninterrupted
contra
against
contradico to speak against, oppose verbally, gainsay
contradictio
a speaking against, contradiction
contradictio
contradiction, opposition
contrado to deliver together, or wholly
contraho to gather together, assemble, draw up, unite
contraho to conclude (an agreement)/ to reduce, contract
contrarius contrary, opposed
contrecto to touch, handle, feel
contremisco
to tremble, shake, quake /be afraid of
contremo to tremble, shake
contristo to sadden, afflict, damage (of crops)
contristo to make sad or gloomy
conturbo to confuse, scatter, throw into confusion
conventus coming tohether, assembly, union, congress
conversatio
way, manner of life /monastic life
converto to turn around
converto to convert
convinco to overcome, to demonstrate
convoco to call together, convene
copia
abundamce, supply
copiae copie
supplies, troops, forces
copiose fully, at length, copiously
copiosus wealthy, rich, abundantly provided
Corbeiam Corbie
cornu
horn
corona crown, diadem
corpus corporis
body, corpse
correptius more shortly
corrigo o make correct, make right
corripio to seize, snatch up, steal, attack (of a disease)
corroboro to strengthen
corrumpo to falsify / (character) to corrupt
corrumpo to break up, destroy, annihilate /spoil, weaken
corruo to fall to the ground, sink down /be ruined
Corturiacum
Courtrai
coruscus flashing, twinkling, shaking, trembling
cotidie daily, every day
60
Courtacum
Courtrai
crapula wine-drinking, intoxication, drunkenness
cras
tomorrow, on the morrow
crastinus of the morrow, the morrow
creator creator, founder
creatura creature, servant
creber thick, frequent, numerous
crebro repeatedly, often, one after the other
credo
to believe /trust, commit / trust in
creo
to create, make
crepido foundation, base / pedestal / pier
crepitaculum
a rattle
crepito to rattle, creak, rustle
creptio taking by force, seizure
crepundia a toy, rattle, plaything
crepusculum
dusk, twilight
cresco to grow, increase, expand / spring forth
creta
chalk, fuller's earth
cretatus chalked, in white
cretosus abounding in chalk
cribro
to sift
cribrum sieve
crimen an accusation, charge / fault, guilt
criminatio accusation, charge, calumny
criminator accuser
criminor to accuse / complain of
criminose reproachfully
criminosus
slanderous, reproachful
crinis
hair
crinitus long haired
crispans wavy, curly
crispo
to curl / move rapidly / brandish, wave
crispus curly-haired, curly / trembling, quivering
crista
crest, plume / rooster's comb
cristatus crested, plumed
croceus yellow, golden, saffron-colored, of saffron
crocinus yellow, saffron-colored / saffron oil
crocodilus crocodile
crocotula saffron-colored robe
crocus crocus, saffron / yellow, saffron-colored
crotalia ear-rings
cruciamentum
torture, torment
cruciatus torture, torment
crucio
to torture, torment
crudelis cruel
crudelitas cruelty, inhumanity
crudeliter cruely
crudesco to become violent, become hard
cruditas an overly full stomach
crudus green, fresh, immature
61
crudus bleeding / raw
cruento to make bloody, stain with blood
cruentus bloody, bloodthirsty, blood-red
crumens bag, purse / funds, store of cash
cruor
bloodshed, murder, slaughter, gore
crur; cruris
leg, shank, shin, also foot
crusta
rind, peel, bark, shell / inlay, embossing
crustulum pastery, cookie
crustum bread, cake
crux crucis
cross
crypta
vault, grotto, covered gallery
crystallinus
of crystal
crystalus a crystal, crystal drinking cup
cubans sloping
cubicularis
pertaining to a bedroom
cubicularius
bed-chamber servant, chamberlain
cubiculum bedroom, sleeping chamber
cubile
bed, lair, den
cubitalis a cubit long
cubito
to lie down often
cubitum the elbow /a cubit
cubitum ire
to go to bed, retire
cubitus a lying down, rest
cubo
to lie down, recline / be ill in bed
cuiusmodi of what kind
culpa
fault, blame
culpo
to blame, censure, accuse
cultellus a little knife
cultor
cultivator
cultura cultivation
cum
when
cum
with
cum
when, as, while, since
cunabula cradle
cunae
nest for young birds
cunctatio delay
cunctator delayer, procrastinator
cunctor to delay, impede, hold up
cunctus all, all collectively, the whole
cupiditas ambition, avarice, party spirit, eager desire
cupido passion, desire, wantining, yearning, longing
cupio
to desire, wish, long for, desire
cuppedia delicacies, candies, sweetmeats
cupressus cypress, cyrpess wood, a cypress-wood casket
cur
why, wherefore
cura
management, administration, care, concern
curatio attention /medical attention, healing, curing
curator guardian, overseer
curia
court
curiositas curiosity, inquisitiveness, nosiness
62
curiosus careful, attentive/ curious
curis quris
a spear
curo
to see to a thing being done / cure
curo
to care for, trouble about, pay attention to
curo
manage, administer /provide money
curriculum a running, race, lap around the track, course
currus
cart /a plow with wheels
cursim hastily, quickly, rapidly
cursito to run up and down
curso
to run back and forth
cursor
runner, carrier, messenger
cursus a race, a running, race course, race track
curto
to shorten, abbreviate
curtus
shortened /mutilated, defective /gelded
curvo
to bend, arch, curve /influence
curvus arched, bent, bowed, curved, crooked
cuspis point, the pointed end /spear
custodia protection, custody
custodiae custodie guards, wardens
custos guardian, keeper, watchman, attendant
damnatio condemnation
damno to condemn, damn
damnum loss, damage, injury /a fine
dapifer senescal
de
down from, from, concerning
debello cnquer, vanquish /end a war
debeo
to owe, to be morally bound to, to be bound by
debilito to weaken, ennervate, sap, exhaust
debitum debt
decens; decenter properly, fittingly, suitably
decentia propriety, decency of behavior
decerno to decide, determine
decerpo to pluck off / to gather, take away
decertatio a contest, contention
decerto to contend, fight to the finish
decessio a retreat, withdrawal / departure
decessor someone who retires / a predecessor
decessus retirement / withdrawal / departure / death
decet
it is seemly, comely, suitable, proper
decido to fall down / fall dead, die / sink, fall
decido to cut down, cut off / arrange
decimus tenth
decipio ensnare, trap, beguile, deceive
declamo to declaim, orate / speak loudly
declaratio a clarification
declaro to explain, explain
declino to turn aside, deflect
declive a slope, decline
decoctor a spendthrift, bankrupt
decollo to behead
63
decolo to trickle away
decolor pale, without color
decoloratio
discoloration
decoquo to boil down
decoquo to waste / become bankrupt
decor
beauty, grace
decoro beautify, embellish, adorn
decorus beautiful, graceful, charming, proper, fit
decrepitus infirm, decrepit
decresco to decrease, grow smaller
decretum decree, judgment, edict, order
decumbo to fall, fall into, lie down
decurro to sail downstream
decursio a charge, manoeuver
decursus a running down / charge, manoeuver
dedecor unseemly, shameful, disgraceful, dishonorable
dedecus shame, dishonor, disgrace, crime
dedico to dedicate
deduco to lad out colonists, found a colony
defaeco to cleanse, purify, purge
defendo to defend, ward off, protect, shelter
defero to carry, to bear, to bring
defero to hand over, carry down, communicate, offer
defessus weary, tired
defetiscor (defessus)to grow tired, weary
deficio to fail, to weaken, to be in want
deficio weaken, to be in want
defigo
fasten down, secure, fix firmly/ concentrate
defleo
to bewail, weep for
defluo
to flow down, waste, disappear
defluo
to flow away, disappear, be lost
defungo to discharge one's duties, quit, retire, die
degenero to be unlike one's kind, fall off, degenerate
degenero to cause to degenerate, disgrace by degeneracy
degero to pass time, live
degusto to taste
deinde next, then, thereafter, from that place
deinde adv, afterwards
delectatio delight, pleasure, enjoyment
delecto to attract
delego to transfer, commit, assign, impute, attribute
deleo
to destroy, wipe out, erase
deleo
blot out, erase /annihilate, destroy
delibero to consider, deliberate
delicate luxuriously, delicately, slowly
deliciae allurements, charms, delights
delinquo to fail, be wanting/ fail in duty
deludo to mock, cheat
demens insane, mad, out of one's mind
demergo to sink, plunge into, dip under, go into debt
64
demitto to let down, lower
demitto set dowwn
demo
to take away, subtract
demonstro
to indicate, show, describe, explain
demoror to loiter, linger, tarry, belay
demulceo to stroke down, caress by stroking
demum at length at las, finally
denego to refuse, deny, reject
denique at last, finally, again, in short
dens
tooth
denuncio declare, give notice, announce
denuntio to announce officially, pronounce, declare
denuo
anew, again, a second time, afresh
deorsum downwards
depereo to perish, be utterly ruined
depono to put down, lay aside
depopulo to lay waste, ravage, devastate
deporto to carry off, to take away
deposco depoposci to demand
depraedor depredor to plunder, lay waste, pillage, ravage
deprecator
intercessor, one who pleads on behalf
deprecor to entreat for, beg for /intercede /curse
deprecor to beg by entreaty, to excuse oneself / curse
deprehensio
detection
deprimo (depressus) to press down, depress, low-lying
depromo to take down, produce, fetch out
depulso push aside, thrust away
deputo to count, estimate/prune, cut off
derelinquo
to forsake, desert, abandon
derideo to laugh at, mock, deride
derigo
to set straight, put in order
deripio to tear down, snatch away
deruptus broken off
desero to leave, abandon, foresake
desiderium
wish, longing /regret, grief /want, need
desidero to long for, wish for greatly, to miss
desidiosus
lazy, unmotivated
designo to define, describe, designate
designo designate, define, describe, mark out
desino leave off, give over, cease, stop, end, desist
desino (desiit)
to leave off, give over, cease, stop, desist
desipio to act foolishly, play the fool
desolo to leave desolate, abandoned, to forsake
desparatus
given up on / desparate
despecto overlook, dispise, look down upon
despero to have no hope, despair, give up
despero to be without hope, despair / despair of
despiciens
contemptuous
despicio to look down, regard from above, despise
desposco to demand
65
destinatus resolute, firm, determined
destino to fasten down, make fast
destituo to place /leave in the lurch, abandon
desum to fail, err, fall short, be missing, absent
desumo to select, elect, choose, take out
desuper from above
detego to uncover, lay bare, disclose
determino to fix the limits of, set boundaries to, delimit
detineo hold off, hold back, detain
detrimentum
damage, loss, detriment
deus
god
devenio to come to, arrive at, reach
devito
to avoid
devoco to call away, call down, call aside
devotio piety, devotion, zeal
devoveo to consecrate, sacrifice, devote /curse
dexter
right, on the right
dextera the right hand
diabolus devil, Satan
dico
to say, tell, speak, name, call
dictata things dictated, lessons, presents
dictator dictator
dictito
to say often, reiterate
dicto
to say often, dictate, get written down
dictus dictus
a saying, a speech
didico
to be told
dido dididi didtum to separate, divide, distribute
dies diei day
diffama spread around, made known
differo
to delay, postpone / to differ, be different
differo
to spread news / delay, defer, postpone
differo
to spread about, spread news / harrass, disturb
differtus stuffed full, crammed, jammed
difficilis difficult, hard, troublesome
difficultas difficulty, need, trouble, distress
digestor arranger, composer, one who makes a pattern
dignitas merit, worth, prestige, dignity
dignosco dignosco to distinguish, recognize as different
dignus worthy of, meritorious
dignus worthy
digredior digredi digressus
to depart, deviate, digress
digressio separation, departure, digression
digressus separation, departure, digression
dilato
to spread out, extend, expand, increase
dilgenter attentively, earnestly, carefully, diligently
diligens diligent, careful
diligentia diligence, industry, perseverance, persistence
diligo
to choose out, esteem highly, prize, love
diluculo dawn, daybreak
diluo
to remove, resolve
66
dimidium half
dimitto to break up, dismiss, leave, abandon
directus plain, simple, direct, open, straightforward
diripio
to separate, tear apart /pillage, devastate
diripio
to tear in pieces, lay waste, devastate, plunder
dirunitas long duration
diruo
to destroy
diruo
to demolish, destroy, ruin
dis
rich, possessing wealth or worth
discedo to break up, depart, go away
discedo to depart from, deviate, leave
discerpo to dismember, disjoint, sever /divide, break up
discessio management, ordering, direction
discidium separation, division, disagreement
discipulus disciple, student, learner, pupil
disco
to learn, become acquainted with
discrepo to differ, to be diifferent, vary, disagree
dispono to arrange, put in order, draw up (troops)
disputatio debate, dispute, discussion
disputo discuss
dissero to examine, treat of, discuss
dissimilis unlike, different, disparate, dissimilar
dissimulo to ignore, leave unnoticed
dissimulo to conceal, disguise, keep secret
dissolutus lax, weak, wanting in energy, dissolute
distraho distract /(property) sell up
distraho distraxi distractum
to pull apart, pull in pieces
distribuo to distribute, divide
districtus (f. distringo)
strict, severe /hesitating /busy
dito
to enrich, make wealthy
dito
to enrich, endow, make wealthy
diu
by day, for a long time, a long time ago
diu
adv. a long while, long time, for a long time
diutinus lasting a long time, enduring, long-lived
diutius longer, too long (a period of time)
diuturnus lasting a long time, of long duration
diversus different, unlike, opposed, hostile
dives
rich, opulent, wealthy
divinatio prediction, divination
divinitus divine influence, admirably, nobly
divinus divine, sacred
divitiae divitie
riches, wealth
do dare dedi datum to give, offer, convey, offer, donate, furnish
doceo docui doctum to instruct, teach, tutor
doctor
teacher
doctrina doctrine, teaching, instruction, learning
doctus taught, instructed, learned, tutored
dolens painfully
doleo
to suffer pain, to be pained, grieve
dolor
pain, grief. misery, pain, suffering
67
dolose slyly, deceitfuly
dolosus crafty, cunning, sly, deceitful
dolus
fraud, deceit, guile, treachery, a trap
domesticus
domestic, civil
domina lady, mistress
dominatus rule, mastery, tyranny, domination
dominica demesne
dominus domno
master, lord
domito to tame, subdue, break in
domus house, home, residence
donec
up to the time when, until, as long as, while
donum gift, present, donation
dormio to sleep, slumber, siesta, nap
dubito
to doubt, hesitate
dubium doubt, hesitation, reservation
duco
to lead on the march, marry a wife, command
duco
to draw, shape, construct/ (time) spend, delay
duco
to calculate, count, reckon, esteem, considered
duco
to lead, draw, esteem, consider
duco
to charm, influence, mislead, draw in
dudum for a long while, a long while ago, some time ago
dulcedo sweetness, pleasantness, charm
dulcidine sweetly, pleasantly, charmingly
dulcis
sweet, pleasant, agreeable
dum
while, as long as, until
dummodo provided
dumtaxat at least, not less than / at most, not more than
duo
two
duro
to harden, last, endure
durus
hard, harsh, tough, strong,enduring, rough
Dusiol petram
Duissenpierre
dux ducis leader, guide, commander, general, duke
eatenus so far, thus far, up to then
ebullio to boil up, bubble up, to appear
ecce
Lo! Behold! See!
ecclesia church
econtra against, opposite
ecquando at any time? ever?
edico
to announce, declare
edificium building, structure
editio
the publishing of a book, an announcement
edo
put forth, give out
edo edi essum
to eat, consume, devour, waste
edoceo to inform fully, instruct thoroughly
educo
to draw out, lead out, march out/bring up
edulis
edible
eduro
to last endure, persist
edurus hard
effector producer, someone who causes something
effectus doing, execution, performance, effect, result
68
effercio to cram, stuff, fill
effero
to carry out, bury, lift up, exalt
effertus stuffed, jammed, crammed
efferus savage, wild, untamed, undomesticated
effervo to boil up, swarm out (like bees)
efficaciter effectively, efficiently
efficax effective, efficient
efficens efficient, effective
efficenter efficiently, effectively, powerfully
efficio
to do, produce, effect, make/ bring about
effigies idol, likeness /ghost, appartition /ideal
effingo to form, fashion, make /duplicate, copy
efflagito to plead urgently
effligo
to wipe out, obliterate, destroy
efflo
to breathe out, blow out
effloresco to blossom, bloom, break out
effluo
to vanish /be forgotten /pour out, leak
effluvium an outlet /seepage
effodio to dig out, excavate /to gut
effor
to speak, express /state /declare
effreno to let go without reins
effrenus wild, unrestrained, unchecked, unbridled
effringo to break, break open
effugio flee from, escape, elude, run away
effundo to pour out, pour forth, shed, utter
effusio a pouring form, effusion, exhilaration
effutio
to gab, chatter
egelidus thawed, lukewarm, tepid
egenus in want of, in need of, destitute
egeo
to need, lack, want, be without
ego
I, self
egredior to go out, leave, depart, exit
eicio
to throw out, eject, drive out
elatus
puff-up, proud of oneself, arrogant
electus chosen, select
elementum
first principle, element, basic constituent
elemosina alms
elemosinarius
almoner, person in charge of providing charity
eligo
to pick out, select, choose
eloquens eloquent, persuasive, fluent
eloquentia eloquence, readiness of speech, fluency
eloquor to speak out, express oneself, declare
eluo
to wash out, rinse cleanse /squander, waste
eluvies a flowing over, flood, innundation
eluvio
inundation
emanio to flow out, spread /arise, emanate, originate
emendo to amend, correct
emercor to buy up
emergo to arise, come up, rise up, occur
emerio to obtain by service, earn completely
69
emineo to stand out, project, be remarkable
eminor to threaten, menace
eminus at a distance, from a distance
emiror
to wonder at exceedingly
emo emi emptum to buy, purchase
emoveo to move away, remove, take away
emptio a buying, a purchase
eneus
made of copper or bronze, brazen
enim
for, in fact, truly
enim
in fact, truly, indeed
enumero to count, count up, enumerate
eo ire itum
to go, advance, proceed, travel, move along
episcopalis
episcopal
episcopus bishop
epistola letter, epistle, missive, message
epistula letter, epistle, missive, message
epitaphium
funeral oration
epithalamium
wedding song
epitoma abridgement, summary
epitome abridgement, summary
epops
the hoopoe (a bird)
epos
epic poem
epotus drunk up, drained / swallowed up
eptheca an addition
epulae a banquet, feast / food / dishes
epulo
sumptuous food, banquet, feast
epulor
to feast, banquet, dine
epulor
to feast, feast on
epulum a banquet, feast
equa
a mare
eques equitis
horseman, cavalry man rider (classical)
equester equestrian, relating to cavalry
equidem indeed, truly, for my part
equinus equine, relating to horses
equitas justice, fairness, equity
equitatus cavalry, horsemen (classical)
equito
to ride on horseback
equus
horse, steed, mount
equus
level, even, calm, equal, favorable, just
era
mistress, lady
eradico to root out, destroy, obliterate, get rid of
erado
to scratch out, erase / destroy
erectus upright
erepo
to creep out, creep over, creep up
ereptio seizure, taking by force, confiscation
ereptor thief, robber
erga
toward, about
ergastulum
a workhouse for slaves
ergo
accordingly, then, therefore
ergo
on account of, because of
70
ericius hedgehog, chevaux de frise
erigo ; erexi
to erect, raise, set up / arouse, encourage
erilis
relating to a master or mistress
eripio
to snatch away, take away / rescue, free
erogatio payment, expenditure
erogo
to ask for / to pay out, expend, disburse
errabundus
wandering
erratio a wandering, straying
erratum fault, error, mistake
erratus wandering, straying
erro
to wander, stray, rove / be mistaken, err
error
error, mistake
erubesco to blush to, blush for, respect
erubescundus
something to be ashamed of, worth blushing over
eruca
a colewort (plant)
eructo
to vomit, throw up /to cast out, throw out
erudio
to polish, smooth / instruct, teach, educate
eruditio instruction, teaching / knowledge, learning
erumpo to break out, burst forth / (milit.) attack
erumpo to break open, vent, discharge, erupt
eruo
to dig up, pull out / raze, demolish
eruptio an eruption, bursting forth / sally, attack
erus
master, owner, lord
ervum
a bitter weed, vetch
esca
food / bait
escendo to ascend, go up, climb, to go inland
escensio a movement inland / milit. marching inland
esculentus
succulent, delicious, ripe
esito
to continue eating
essedarius
one who fight from a chariot
esurio
to be hungry, to hunger / long for, desire, yearn
esuritio hunger
et ... et both ... and
etenim for indeed
ethologus a mimic
etiam
actually? really? in truth?
etiam
yes (answering a question), certainly
etiam
as yet, still / even, also, besides
etiam atque etiam again and again
etiamnun yet, still, until now
etiamsi even if, although
etiamtum even then / until then
etsi
even if, although, nothwithstanding
eu
good! well done! good job!
eunuchus eunuch
evado
to go out
evagor to wander out, stray off
evanesco to vanish, disappear / pass away
evangelium
the gospel
evanidus vanishing, disappearing / passing away
71
evasto to lay waste, devastate
evello
to tear out
evello
to happen, occur
evenio to come to pass, happen, befall
eventus consequence, issue, result, occurrence
everbero to strike violently, to hit hard
everriculum
a fishing net, seine / a clean sweep
everro to sweep out, plunder, pillage
eversio an overturning, destruction, ruin
eversor a destroyer
everto
to destroy, ruin, demolish
everto
to turn out, throw out
evestigatus
found out, discovered. tracked down
evidens clear, distinct, plain, visible, evident
evidenter clearly, distinctly, plainly
evigilo to awaken /be alert
evincio to tie up, bind
evinco to conquer, subjugate, enthrall, defeat
eviscero to disembowel
evito
to shuun, avoid; also, to kill
evoco
to draw out, draw on, produce
evolo
to flee, escape, fly away, rush out
evolutio unrolling and reading of a scroll
evolvo to untangle, extricate, detach, disclose
evomo to vomit forth
evulgo to publish
ex
out of, from within
exaequo exequo
to be like, equal/ make level or even, relate
exaresco to become dry, arid
exaro
to plow up, dig up /write on a wax tablet
exaudio to listen to, hear plainly, hear favorably
excedo to exceed, leave, pass beyond
excellentia
excellence, merit, worth
excessum departure, death, digression
excipio to take out, except /take
excito
call forth, bring about, wake, raise up
exclamo to shout, cry aloud, exclaim
excludo to shut out, exclude
excolo to honor (a deity), polish, adorn, refine, serve
excorio to shave /scalp, flay /oppress /peel
excrucio to torment, torture, cause great pain
excusatio excuse
excuso to exempt from blame, excuse, make excuses
executio to seize, recover
executor adminstrator, executive officer
exemplar model, pattern, original, prototype
exemplum pattern, model, example
exempoator
m, model, example
exerceo to train, cultivate, keep at work, exercise
exercitus army
72
exertus tested, tried, approved, experienced
exesto extra esto
exheredo to disinherit
exheres disinherited
exhibeo exibeo
to produce, show, display, offer, allow, cause
exhilaro to make cheerful
exhorresco
to be horrified, to shake, shudder /dread
exigo
complete, finish, determine, decide, settle
exigo
drive out, force out, exact, demand, sell
exilis
thin, slender, meager
eximietate uncommonness, excellence
eximius extraordinary, excellent, fine, superb
eximo
to free, release, take out, remove, waste
exinde thence, next/ thereupon, after that
exinde thence, furthermore
exitium destruction, ruin
exitus
going out, going forth, exit, end, finish
exordium the beginning (especially of a speech)
exorior to rise, spring up, issue, appear, come forward
exorno to furnish, provide, supply
exoro
to prevail upon a person, entreat successfully
exorsus begun
exosus loathing, fiercely hating, despising
expalpo to lure out, coax out
expedio to release, set free, clear /explain, clarify
expedio to free from a snare, disentangle /ready, settled
expedite freely, easily
expeditione
military operation, military force, expedition
expeditus unimpeded, unchecked /(mil.) light-armed
expello (expuli expulsum )
to drive out, expel, force out, banish
experior (experiri; expertus ) to try, test, experience, prove
expers wanting, destitute of, not sharing in
expetens desirous, eager
expeto to fall upon
expeto to demand, require / desire, strive after
expilatio plundering, taking booty
expiscor to fish out, find out, discover
expleo to make losses good/ fulfil, discharge (duties)
expleo explevi expletum
to fill, fill up, complete, finish
expletio satifying
expletus perfect, complete
explicatus explanation, exposition
explico to unfold, unroll, disentangle / explain
expono (exposui expositum ) to set forth, explain, expose
expositus open, accessible, exposed
expostulo to demand earnestly / to make a claim
expugno to capture, overcome, subdue, take by storm
exquisitus sought after, exquisite,excellent, fine
exsequor to execute, avenge, punish /relate, describe
exsequor to maintain, keep up, carry out, fulfill
73
exsequor exequor to follow to the grave, follow to the end
exsertus exertus
project, thrust forward
exsilium exile, banishment
exsisto to emerge, appear, exist, be
exsisto existo
to stand forth, arise, appear
exspecto to look for, expect, await, wait for
exsto
to stand out, be extant, appear, project
extermino exussum, burn down, burn, set on fire
externus outer, foreign, outside, external
extollo to lift up, raise up, erect /elevate, exalt
extollo to praise exaggerate /decorate, adorn
extorqueo to twist, wrench, dislocate /extort by force
extra
beyond, outside
extraho prolong, protract/ bring forward
extraho extraxi extractum
drag out, extract, remove
extraneus outside, exraneous/ foreign, strange/ a foreigner
extrarius outward, external/ strange, unrelated, foreign
extremitas end, farthest part
extremus outermost, last, extreme
extrico disentangle, free, extricate, clear up, unravel
extrinsecus
outwardly, externally, from the outside
extundo drive away, repel violently, extort
extundo to form by beating with a hammer, invent, devise
exturbo to drive away, thrust out
exubero to grow thickly, abound
exulcero to aggravate, exacerbate, irritate, make worse
exulto
to exult, be joyful
exululo to howl loudly
exundo to overflow, abound
exuo
to lay aside, put away, store/strip, deprive
exuro; exussum
burn down, burn, set on fire
exustio burning up, conflagration
exuviae dress, clothing/ spoils
faba
broad bean
faber
skilled, ingenious
faber
craftsman, artisan
fabre
skillfully, ingeniously
fabrica manufacture /craft, trade, art /trick, device
fabula
fable, story, tale, play
facesso to work zealously, do, accomplish
facies
face, visage, countenance /aspect, appearance
facile
easily
facile
easily, without difficulty
facilis
easy, agreeable, affable, pleasant
facillimus easiest, most agreeable, pleasantest
facina -oris
bad deed, crime, villainy/ deed, action
facinarose viciously, scandalously
facio
to make, do, act, perform, cause
facio
to sacrifice, suit, help, be of service
facio
to give permission/ to experience
74
facis
a bundle, packet
facticius artificial, man-made
factum deed, accomplishment, work, act, achievement
facultas feasibility, opportunity, resources.\, abundance
facultas power, means, opportunity, capacity, ability
facunde eloquently, fluently
facundia fertile, productive, profitable
facunditas fertility, qickness or readiness of speech
facundus eloquent, fluent, ready of speech
faenum hay
falsus
false, deceptive
fama
talk, report, rumor, gossip, tradition
familia family, household
familiaris belonging to a household / friendly, intimate
familiaritas
confidential friendship, intimacy
famosus much spoken of, renowned /notorious
famulatus servitude, slavery
famulor to be a servant, to serve
famulus servant
famulus serving, servile /a servant, slave
fanaticus enthusiastic, inspired, frenzied
fanum
a temple or church with the land around it
far farris spelt, grain, meal
farci; farci; fartum to fill up, stuff
farina
meal or flour
farrago mixed fodder for cattle, mash /mishmash, medley
farratus provided with grain
fartim
stuffing, filling
fartor
one who fattens fowls
fas
divine law or command/ fate, destiny/ lawful
fas est it is right, it is fitting, it is lawful
fascia
bandage, band, girdle, girth
fascino to bewitch, envy
fastidio to dislike, have an aversion to, loathe
fastidiosus
squeamish, dainty, fastidious
fastidium disgust, dislike, sqeamishness /scorn, disdain
fastidium aversion, loathing
fastigate slantingly
fastigatus pointed down, sloping down
fastosus pride, haughtiness
fateor
to confess, admit, allow, reveal, make known
fatigo
worry, fatigue, vex, harass, tease
fatua
foolish
fatum
fate, destiny, doom, lot, weird
fautor
favorer, promoter, patron, partisan, supporter
faveo
To be inclined to do
faveo
be favorable to, aid, support, help
feculentia dregs, lees, impurities, filth
feculentia dregs, lees, impurities, filth
fefello
to be failed by, disappointed by something
75
feliciter happily
felix felicis
lucky, fortunate, happy
femina woman
fenestra window
fere
almost, near;y, not quite, generally
feretrum bier, litter
feritas
wildness, savageness
ferme; fere
almost, about
fero tuli latum
to carry, bring, tell, relate, and much else
ferocia high spirit, courage /arrogance, ferocity
ferocitas courage, untamed spirit /arogance
ferociter with spirit, courageously /arrogantly
ferox
spirited, courageous, warlike /wild, arrogant
ferramenta
tools made of iron, or shod with iron
ferrarius of iron /a blacksmith /iron mines
ferratilis in chains (slaves and prisoners)
ferreus made of iron /hard, unfeeliing, cruel, unbending
ferrugineus
rust colored, dusky
ferrugo the color of rust
ferrum iron, sword
fertilis
fruitful, fertile, productive
fertilitas fertility, fruitfulness
ferula
the herb fennel /a rad to beat children with
ferus
fierce, wild, savage, untamed
fervefacio to heat, boil, melt
fervens glowing, hot, heated /(character) heated, fiery
ferventer hotly, warmly
ferveo
to be boiling hot, boil, seethe
fervesco to become hot, begin to glow or boil
fervidus boiling, seething, foaming /fiery, passionate
festinatio speed, haste
festino to hasten, hurry, speed
festinus hastening, hasty
feteo
to have a bad odor, stink
ficus
fig tree
fidelis
faithful, loyal, true
fidelitas fidelity, loyalty, homage
fidens
confident, without fear, courageous
fides
promise, assurance, word of honor, engagement
fides
trust, confidence, reliance, belief, faith
fiducia confidence, trust, assurance
fiendo
same as faciendo, the making
filia
daughter
filius
son
fimus
dung, dirt, filth, manure
fines finium
boundaries, limits, territory
fingo-finxi-fictum
to touch, conceive, contrive
finis
end, limit, boundary, purpose
finitimus finitumus neighboring, adjacent, related to, similar
fio; fieri; factus
be made, be done, become
76
firmo
to assert, maintain/ strengthen
firmus
firm, strong, reliable, solid
flamma flame, fire
flatus
blowing, blast, breathing, arrogance
flax; falcis sickle, bill-hook, pruning hook
fleo
to weep, cry, shed tears, sob
flere
to cry, shed tears
fluctus billow, wave
flumen river
fluo
to flow, pour, stream
fodio
to prick, sting, jab
foede
fouly, in a filty manner
foedis-e foul, fithly
foedus compact, covenant, agreement / law
foeteo
to smell bad
foetes dirt
foetidus smelly, stinking
foetor
a bad smell, a stink
foliatus leafy
folium
leaf
folliculus small bag, small purse, little sack
follis
a leather bag, purse, bellows, puffed-out cheeks
fomentum poultice / alleviation
fomes
tinder
fomeus smoky, smoke-filled
fons
fountain, spring / fresh water / source, origin
fonticulus small spring, little fountain
for
say, speak, talk about
forabilis penetrable
foramen hole, opening, aperture
foras
outside, without
forca
pitfall, snare, trap
forceps pincers, tongs
forda
a cow with calf
fore; forem
future infinitive of sum
forensis legal
forensis relating to the forum / relating to legal business
forfex
scissors, shears
foris
out of doors, outside, abroad / from abroad
foris
a door, opening, entrance
forix
arch, vault / arcade / an arched sallyport
forma
shape, beauty
formalis having a set or standard form, formal
formamentum
conformation
formator a former, fashioner, maker
formatura forming, fashioning, shaping
formica ant
formidilose
dreadfully, teribly
formidilosus
causing dread, fear, terror
formido dread, terror / dreadfulness / scarecrow
77
formido to be terrified, frightened, afraid
formo
to shape, form, fashion
formose beautifully
formositas beauty
formosus beautiful, well-shaped
formula physical beauty / formula / rule, principle
fornacalis relating to an oven
fornacula a small oven
fornax
oven, furnace, kiln
fornicatus arched, vaulted
foro
to bore, pierce, make a hole, penetrate
fors-itis chance, luck
fors fortis chance, luck, fortune
forsit forsan forsitan perhaps, probably
fortasse perhaps
forte
by chance, by luck, accidentally
fortis
strong, brave, powerful, robust, steadfast
fortiter strongly, bravely
fortitudo physical strength, courage, moral bravery
fortuito accidentally, by chance
fortuitus accidentally, by luck, casual
fortuna fortune, luck, fate, chance
fortunate fortunately, happily
fortunatus fortunate, lucky /wealthy, rich
fortunatus fortunate, lucky, happy
fortuno to make happy, to bless, to prosper
foruli
book-case
forum
market place, town square
forus
gangway of a ship
fossa
ditch, trench, channel, moat
fossio
an excavation
fossor
a digger, ditcher, sapper / fool, boor, clown
fossura digging, delving, sapping, ditching
fovea
a pit, trap for game, pitfall
foveo
to cherish / to warm, keep warm, caress
foveo
to foster, support, encourage
fraga
strawberries
fragilis fragile, easily broken / fleeting
fragilitas frailness, weakness, fragility, frailty
fragmen a breaking / fragments, remains, ruins
fragor
a crash, crack
fragosus roaring, crashing, rough /broken
fragro
to smell, be odiferous, redolent
frango to break in pieces, shatter
frater
brother
fraudatio fraud, deceit, trickery
frendo to gnash one's teeth, bruise, crush, grind
frendo gnash the teeth, crush, bruise, grind
freno
curb, restrain, hold back, restrain
frenum reins, bridle, bit /restraint
78
frequentatio
frequency, crowding
frequentia a large concourse, population, numerous assembly
frequento to crowd, collect in large number, visit
fretus
relying upon, depending on, banking on
frigus
cold, coolness, cold of winter /dullness
frons
forehead, brow, front
fructuarius
fruitful, fertile
fructus fructus
fruit, profit, enjoyment, produce
frugalitas frugality, economy, pinching pennies
frumentum
grain
fruor
to have the benefit of, to enjoy
frustra in vain, mistakenly, wantonly, without reason
frustra esse
to be deceived, to be mistaken
frustro to deceive, dupe, trick, disappoint
frux; frugi fruits of the earth
fuga
flight, escape
fugio
to flee, escape, runa aaway /avoid, shun
fugitivus deserter, runaway slave
fugo
to put to flight, chase away, drive into exile
fulcio
to support, strengthen, uphold/ to besiege
fulgeo (fulsi )
to flash, shine, beam
fultus
supporter
fumidus smoky, smoke-filled
fumo
to smoke, steam, reek
fundatio-onis
foundation
fundator founder
funditus totally
fundo
to pour, pour out (like molten metal), melt
fundo
to rout, scatter, defeat, put to flight
fungor; fungi; functus
to occupy oneself, perform, do, execute
funiculus a thin rope, cord, string
funis
rope, cord, line
funis -is rope, cord, line
furax
inclined to steal
furca
a fork, pitchfork /narrow pass
furcillo to act as a support
furor
madness, rage, frenzy
furs
thief
furtificus thievish
furtim
by stealth, stealthily
furtum theft, robbery
fusus
spread out, extended, wide, copious
futurus absurd
galactinus the Milky Way
galbinus a greenish-yellow color
galea
helmet
gallina hen
gallo
cock
Gandavum
Ghent
ganea ganeum
brothel
79
garrio
to chatter, babble
garrulus noising, talkative
garum a fermented fish sauce
gaudeo to rejoice, take delight
gaudeo to take delight in
gaudium joy, delight, happiness
gauisus rejoicing, joyous, glad, happy
gelamen assembly, gathering
gelide
coldly, weakly, feebly
gelidus cold, frosty, icy, freezing
gelo
to freeze
gelu
frost, chill, cold
Gemblacensis
Gembloux
gemino to double
geminus twinned /double /paired /half and half
gemo
to sigh, groan, wail
generasco
to be produced, to be born
generatim by kinds, according to classes /generally
genero to beget, engender, produce, create
generose nobly
generosus
of noble birth, aristocratic, well-bred
gens
clan, race, nation, people, tribe
genus
kind, sort, class, category
gero
to have, bear
gero
to carry, bear, wear /bear
gesto
to carry, bear about
gestum (gero)
carrying about, conduct (oneself)
gestum (gero)
carriage, bearing / having borne
gigno (genuit)
to bring forth, bear, beget, father
glacialis icy, frozen, full of ice
gladius sword
gloria
fame, renown, glory
glorifico to glorify, adorn, exalt
glorificus glorious, full of glory
glorior
to glory, boast, pride oneself
glorior
to pride oneself, boast, glory in
gluten
glue
gluto
glutton
gluttio
to swallow, gulp down
gnaritas knowledge
gnarus knowing, acquainted with, expert
grano; onis
hailstorm
grassor go about, go ahead, proceed, attack
grate
freely, willingly, happily
gratia
on account of
gratia
gratitude, favor
gratia
in order to, for the sake of, to
gratia agere
to thank
gratulor to wish a person joy, congratulate
gravatus sick, oppressed, ill
80
gravis
heavy, weighty, serious, important /severe
gravitas weight, seriousness, dignity, importance
graviter heavily, seriously
gravo
to oppress, burden, make suffer
gregatim in flocks, herds, troops, crowds
gregatim in troops, or crowds
gubernatio-ionis
direction, government
gusto
to taste
gutter
neck, throat, gullet
habeo habui habitum
to have, hold, possess /consider, regard
habito
to have frequently /dwell
habitus disposed, in a certain condition
hac
this side, this way, here
hactenus hitherto, up to this point, so far
haereticum
heretical
Hasnonium
Hasnon
haud
no, not at all, by no means
Heniis Harniis
Hames
hereditas inheritance
hesito (haesito)
to be unsure, uncertain, wavering
hic
here
hic haec (hec ) hoc this, the latter /he, she, it
hilaris
cheerful, merry, gay
hinc
from this place, hence
hodie
today
hodiernus of today
Hoienses huy, belgium, between liege and namur
homo hominis
human being, man
honeste respectfully, properly, suitably, appropriately
honestus honorable, respectable /fine, beautiful /proper
honor
honor, esteem, public office
honorabilis
respectful
hora
hour, time
hordeum; ordeum barley
horrendus horrible, dreadful
hortor
exhort, incite, encourage
hortus ortus
garden / pl. grounds, park
hospes guest, host, stranger
hospitium hospitality /guest chambers, inn
hostes hostium
the enemy
hostis
an enemy of the state
humanitas kindness, culture, refinement
humanus pertaining to man, humane, humane, cultured
humilis lowly, humble
humo
cover with earth, bury
humus ground, earth, soil /land, country
Hunnam Bunna
hypocrita hypocrite
iaceo
to lie, lie prostrate, lie dead
iacio
to throw, cast, hurl, lay, scatter, diffuse
81
iactantia bragging, boasting
iaculator thrower, javelin man, spear thrower
iaculum dart, javelin, short spear
iam
now, by now, already/ presently, immediately
iam
moreover, henceforth, indeed, just, further
iam pridem
now for a long time
iamdiu now for a long time
iamdudum
now for a long time
ianitor
doorkeeper, porter
ianua
door
ianus
arcade, covered passage
ibi
there
ibidem in the same place, at the moment, in that matter
Ico
to strike, hit, wound /strike a bargain
ictus
blow, bite, stroke, bolt, thrust
ictus
blow, wound, stabbing, thrust
idcirco on that account, for that reason
idem eadem idem the same
identidem again and again, repeatedly
ideo
for that reason, on that account, therefore
idoneus proper, worthy, fitting, deserving, capable
iecur
the liver
ieiunitas hunger, emptiness /meagerness, poverty
ieiunium fast, abstinence, hunger /leanness, thinness
ientaculum
breakfast
iento
to eat breakfast
igitur
therefore, consequently, for this reason
ignarus ignorant, not knowing
ignavus lazy, listless, inert, sluggish cowardly
igneus fiery, ardent, burning
ignis
fire
ignoro
to be ignorant of, not know /rarely neglect
ignotus unknown, obscure, ignorant, ignoble
ile
guts, intestines
ilicet
it is finished /right away, immediately
ilico
on the spot, immediately
ilico
on the spot, in that very place /immediately
illac
over there /along that path, in that direction
ille illa illud
that, the former, the famous /he, she, it
illic
there, at that place, therein, in that matter
illuc
thither, to that place, to that matter
illudo-si-sum
to mock, to scorn
illudo illusi illusum to mock, make fun of, ridicule
imago
image, likeness
imber
rain shower, rain storm, pelting rain
imbibo imbibe, drink in /think up, conceive
imbrium of rain
imbuo
to soak, steep, saturate /to stain
imcomposite
adv from incompositus; also incompositione
imitabilis that which can be imitated
82
imitor
to imitate
immanitas savagery, frightfulness
immerito undeservingly, without merit, unjustifiably
immineo to hang over, be imminent, threaten
immo
nay, should I say, on the contrary
immo
by all means, by no means, on the contrary
immodicus
immoderate, excessive, beyond measure
immortalis immortal
immotus unmoved
immunda unclean, impure, dirty, foul
immundus foul, impure
impedimentum
hindrance, impediment, obstacle, difficulty
impedio entangle, ensnare, obstruct, surround, hinder
impeditus entagles, hindered /embarassed, prevented
impedo to entangle, ensnare, hinder, prevent, obstruct
impello to drive against, strike upon
impello impuli impulsum
to set in mortion, impel, urge on
impendeo to hang over, threaten, menace, be imminent
impendo to lay out, expend, weigh out
impenetrabiilis
impenetrable
impensa expense, outlay
imperator commander in chief, general, emperor
imperceptus
unperceived /unknown
imperiosus
imperious, dominering, powerful
imperium power to command, authority, command, rule
impero to give orders, command /to rule, hold sway
impervius unpassable
impeto to attack, head for
impetro to get, accomplish, effect, obtain (by asking)
impetus attack, rush, assault /impulse, sudden passion
impiger diligent, active
impingo to hurl against, strike
impius without respect, irreverent, unpatriotic /wicked
impleo to fill up, content, satisfy
impono to place, set, stow /embark /cheat, deceive
importunus
unsuitable, unfavorable
impraesentiarum
for the present, in present cirumstances
imprimis especially, particularly, specifically
improbus inferior, bad, wicked, persistent, perverse
improvidus
improvident, negligent, thoughtless, feckless
improviso unexpected/ (ex improviso) suddenly
impudens impudent, shameless, insolent, presumptuous
impudenter
impudently, insolently, presumptuously
impugnatio
attack
impugno to attack, assault
impunitus unpunished, unrestrained, safe
imputo to lay to a charge, enter in an account
in
into, toward, against
in praesentia
for the present
inanis
empty, vain, inane
83
inasnum foolish, insane
incassum in vain
incedo to awake, march, go, enter into
inceptor beginner
inceptum beginning, attempt, enterprise
incertus uncertain, doubtful, unsure, hesitant
inchoatus unfinished, only begun
incido
to fall in or on, fall in with /happen, occur
incido in mentionem to happen to mention
incipio to take in hand, begin, commence
incito
to excite, spur, inspire, increase /hasten
inclino to bend, incline, turn, change / fall back
includo to shut in, enclose, establish a siege, surround
inclutus inclitus
celebrated, famous, renowned
incogitania
thoughtlessness
incogitatus
thoughtless, inconsiderate / spontaneous
incogito to plan, arrange, contrive, think out
incognitus unknown, unexamined / unrecognized / unclaimed
incoho to begin, start upon, turn to, start
incol
resident
incola
resident
incolo
to inhabit, reside somewhere, dwell (in)
incolumis uninjured, safe, scatheless, unharmed
incolumitas
safety
incomitatus
alone, unaccompanied, without followers
incommendatus
without a protector, without a lord
incommode
inconveniently
incommoditas
inconvenience, uncomfortable / disadvantage
incommodo
to be troublesome, unpleasant, annoying
incommodus
inconvenient, troublesome, irksome, disagreeable
incommutabilis
unchangeable
incomparabilis
without compare, peerless, incomparable
incompertus
unknown
incomposite
irregularly, in a disorderly manner
incompositus
disorder, lack of regularity
incomprehensibilis impossible to catch, incomprehensible
incomptus unkempt, untrimmed / rude, rough
inconcessus
forbidden, prohibited, not allowed
inconcinnus
awkward, clumsy / without elegance / absurd
inconcussus
firm, unshaken, stable
inconditus disorderly, not arranged, unplanned, confused
incongruens
not agreeing, inconsistent, out of place
inconsiderate
thoughtlessly, without consideration
inconsideratus
without thought, inconsiderate/ reckless
inconsolabilis
inconsolable / uncurable
inconstans
inconsistent, changeable, fickle
inconstanter
inconstantly, changeably, inconsistently
inconstantia
changeability, inconsistency / faithlessness
inconsulte indiscreetly
inconsultus
without asking advise, precipately / imprudent
84
inconsumptus
unconsumed, undiminished, not depleted
incontaminatus
pure, unadulterated, unpolluted
incontentus
unstretched, not extended, unstrained / untuned
incontinencia
lack of restraint, incontinence
incontinens
incontinent
inconveniens
not suiting / dissimilar
incorrectus
unimproved, uncorrected, not emended
incorruptus
uncorrupted, genuine, pure, untainted
increbresco
to grow strong, prevail, increase, wax
incredibilis
incredible, unbelievable
incredulus incredulous
incrementum
growth, increase / offspring
increpito to call out to, to rebuke
increpo to chide, rebuke
incresco to grow in, or upon
incruentatus
bloodless
incruente without bloodshed
incubo to hang over
inculco to crowd in, press in, trample in / impress upon
inculpatus innocent, without blame, guiltless
inculta waste, desert
incultus untilled, uncultivated / unpolished, rude
incultus neglect, lack of cultivation
incumbo to apply oneself, concentrate / favor
incumbo to lie or lean upon, lean over, overhang
incunabula
swddling clothes / infancy, birthplace / source
incuratus unhealed, uncured, untended
incuria carelessness, neglect
incuriose negligently, carelessly
incuriosus neglect, careless, negligent
incurro to run into, assail, attack, raid into
incursio clash, collision / attack, raid, foray, invasion
incurso to collide with, strike against / attack
incursus an attack, assault / efforts, impulses
incurvo to bend, curve, make crooked
indagatio investigation
inde
thence, from there, for that reason, thereafter
indebitus not owed, not due
indicium data, information, evidence
indico
to proclaim, make publicly known, announce
indifferens neither good nor bad
indifferente
indifferently
indigeo to require, need, stand in need of
indignatio indignation
indignus unworthy, lacking in merit, unfit
indo (past indidi)
to establish, cause, occasion
indomitus untamed, wild
induco cover, put on clothing, erase writing, revoke
induco to bring, lead, conduct
induco bring in, introduce, induce, persuade / decide
85
induco-are
to lead
induco indux inductum
to lead in, introduce, induce, influence
industrius industrious, diligent, assiduous, hard-working
indutiae truce, armistice, suspension of hostilities
induviae clothes, clothing, garb
inedicabilis
unexplainable, inexplicable
inefficaciter
ineffectually, vainly, in vain
inefficax ineffectual, unproductive, profitless /weak
ineo
to enter, go in /begin, commence, undertake
ineptio to play the fool, to trifle
inexpugnabilis
impregnable, unconquerable
infamo to put to shame, disgrace
infantia infancy, babyhood
infector dyer
infectum reddere to revoke, render impossible, make voil, annull
infectus unworked /not done, unfinished, incomplete
infecunditas
barrenness, sterility
infecundus
barren, sterile
infelicitas bad luck, misfortune
infeliciter unhappily
infelix
the gallows
infelix
unfruitful, barren, unproductive, infertile
infenso to attack, avenge
infensus hostile, agressive /(arms) aimed
inferi
those down below, the dead
inferne on the lower side, below
infero
bring on, occasion, cause
infero
to infer, conclude
infero
to carry in, put or place on
inferus below, under, southern
infervesco to come to a boil, become hot
infeste in a hostile manner, belligerently
infesto to attack, disquiet
infestus aggressive, hostile, dangerous
inficio infeci infectum to tinge, dye, stain, imbue
inficio infeci infectum to poison, taint, corrupt
infidelis unfaithful, disloyal, untrue
infidelitas faithlessnes, disloyalty
infideliter faithlessly, disloyally
infidus untru, disloyal
infigo
to fix, fasten /to imprint, impress
infindo infidi infissum to cut into
infinitas infinitio
eternity, infinity, endlessnes
infinitus unlimited, infinite, without bounds, boundless
infirmatio weakening /refusing /invalidating
infirme weakly, faintly
infirmitas weakness, feebkeness /instability, fickleness
infirmo to weaken /shake /invalidate, annull/disprove
infirmus not strong, weak, feeble /(sometimes) sick, ill
infit
he, she, or it begins, begins to speak
86
infitialis negative, containing a no, rejection
infitias ire to deny
infitior
to deny /deny a debt, refuse to return something
inflammo to set on fire, inflame, to torch, kindle
inflatio inflation, flatulence
inflatius too pompous /on a grander scale
inflatus blowing into, blast, inspiration
inflatus pompous, swollen, puffed up, inflated
inflecto to warp /change, sway, affect
inflecto inflexi inflectum
to bend, bow, curve
infletus unwept, unmourned, unlamented
inflexio a bending, swaying
inflexus bending, curving
infligo inflixi inflictum to strike, hit, knock /cause damage
inflo
to blow
influo influi influxum to flow in /to rush in, steal in
infodio infodi infossum
to dig in, bury
informatio concept, idea
informis formless, shapeless /deformed, hideous
infortunatus
unfortunate, unhappy, unlucky
infortunium
misfortune, bad luck /punishment
infra
below, under /(time) later than
infra
below, underneath /to the south
infra inferius infimus low down
infractio a breaking /infractio aninimi dejection
infractus broken, weakened, impaired
infragilis unbreakable, strong
infremo to growl
infrenatus without a bridle
infrendeo to gnash the teetch
infrenis infrenus
unbridled
infreno to bridle, check, restrain, break in
infrequens
scanty, thin
infrequentia
scantiness, emptiness, loneliness
infringo infregi infractum
to beak, weaken, impari, discourage
infructuosus
unproduction, infertile, unfruitful
infucatus colored
infula
insignia of office, headband, fillet
infula
headband (worn by a priest), insignia
infundo infudi infusum
to pour in or over /(+ dat.) administer
infusco to make dark, blacken
ingemino to redouble, repeat /be redoubled, increase
ingemisco to groan, sigh over
ingemo to groan, sigh over
ingenero to plant, implant, generate
ingeniose cleverly
ingeniosus
able, talented /neturally fit, adapted
ingenium innate character, talent, nature
ingens of immoderate size, vast, huge, monstrous
ingenuitas free birth, noble-mindedness, frankness
87
ingenuus free-born, noble-minded, upright, honorable
ingero
to go off to, betake oneself to, pour forth
inglorius without fame, unddistinguished, inglorious
ingluvies crop, maw
ingrate ingratiis ingratis
unwillingly, ungratefully
ingratus ungrateful, unpleasant, disagreeable
ingravesco
to become heavy, a burden, weary, pregnant
ingravo to weight down, aggravate, afflict
ingredior to enter upon, begin on /(with inf.) to begin to
ingredior ingredi ingressus
to step in, enter, go in, walk
ingressio an entering /beginning
ingressus entering, going in /inroad, movement
ingruo
to fall upon, assail, attack, assault
inguen the groin
ingurgito to glut oneself, gorge
ingustatus untasted
inhabilis unmanageable, ill-fit, poorly adapted, unsuiited
inhabitabilis
uninhabitable, unfit for man or beast
inhabito to inhabit
inhaeresco inheresco
to adhere to, begin to cling to
inhaero inhero
to stick in, cling to, cleave to
inhalo
to breathe upon
inhibeo to hold in, check, restrian /back water /practice
inhio
to gape /yearn for, desire, want, covet
inhoneste dishonorably
inhonesto to disgrace, dishonor
inhonestus
degraded, dishonored /dishonorable
inhonoratus
unrewarded, not honored
inhonorus dishonored
inhorreo to bristle
inhorresco
to begin to bristle, shudder, quiver, shake
inhospitalis
inhospitable
inhospitalitas
lack of hospitality
inhospitus inhospitable
inhumane inhumanly
inhumanitas
curelty, inhumanity/ incivility
inhumaniter
discourteously
inhumanus
cruel, savage, barbarous, inhuman, uncivil
inhumatus unburied
inibi
therein, in that place /(time) near at hand
inicio inieci iniectum to throw on, put on, don /inspire
inimicus personal enemy, foe, opponent
iniquus unequal, unjust, unfair
initium beginning, start, commencement, origin
iniuria
injury, damage, hurt /injustice, wrong
iniustus unjust, inequitable, unfair
innotesco to become know, noted
innuo
to give a nod to, give a sign to
innuo
to hint at, suggest, mean
inobedio-ire
disobident, disloyal
88
inolesco to grow in or on
inops
poor, helpless, in need
inquam I say
inquis
you say
inquisitor juror, member of an inquest, trustee
inquit
he, she, it says
inreto
ensnared, entrapped, entangled
inrideo to laugh at, mock, ridicule
inritus irritus
void, invalid, in vain, useless, ineffectual
inruo irruo to rush in, fling in
insania insanity, irrationality, madness, folly
insanum foolish
insciens unknowing, unaware, ignorant
inscribo inscribe, entitle, enlist
insensatus
irrational
insequor to follow, pursue, assail, reproach, rebuke
inservio to be a slave, serve, be devoted to
insideo sit upon something, be firmly placed
insidiae treachery, ambush, plot, conspiracy
insignio to put a mark upon, adorn, distinguish
insinuo to insinuate, work one's way in, intimate
insisto to enter upon [a journey] tread; (with d.) follow
insolita unaccustomed, unusual
insolitus unaccustomed /unusual, strange, uncommon
insons insontis
guiltless, innocent
insperatus unexpected, unlooked for, unanticipated
insquequo until
instabilitas
constant motion, restlessness
instanter urgently
instar
a form, figure, after the fashion of, like
instigo to goad, incite, stimulate, urge
instituo to establish, found, institute
instituo-ui-utum
put in place, begin
instituta apostolica canon law
insto
to pursue eagerly, devote oneself to
instructus trained, taught
instructus (from instruo)
equipped, trained, supplied
instruo prepare, provide /draw up an order of battle
instruo to built in, set up, construct, furnish /train
insuadibilis
adamant, immovable, not to be persuaded
insudo exert oneself in
insula
island
Insula
Lille
insulto to leap at or on /revile, insult, deride
insultus attack, assault
insum
to be in or on, contained in
insumo get one's wish, obtain one's desire
insumptuosus
inexpensive, cheap, economical
insuper as mentioned above
insurgo insurgi insurrectum
to rise up, rebel, revolt
89
integer whole, untouched, unhurt, undamaged /complete
intempestivus
understanding, being understood
intemporaliter
eternally, without end
intendo to extend, aim, direct, direct one's course
intendo to stretch, strain, try to prove
intenta earnestness, seriousness
intentio effort, exertion, attention, intent / attack
intentor informant
intentus thorough, tense, anxious, strict
inter
between, among
inter
approximately, about, around, roughly
inter canem et lupum
at twilight
interdico to forbid, prohibit, outlaw, gain an injunction
interdico to place an interdict
interdum sometimes, now and then, at times
intereo to perish, die
interfectio-onis
a killing
interfixus paved, made firm
interpono to place between, interpose /intervene
interrogatio
interrogation, inquiry
intertio arrest, seize, take into custody
intervigilium
a nap, a doze, forty winks
intestina-us-um
internal
intolerabiliter
unsupportably
intorqueo twist, distort
intrepidus eager, hot-blooded
intro
to walk into, enter, make one's way into
introduco to lead in, introduce
intueor to look at attentively, gaze at, consider
intumesco to swell up, increase, swell with anger
intus
within
inultus unavenged, unpunished
inundantia flood, overflowing, inundation
invado to undertake, go in, enter, get in
invado to assail, usurp, seize, attack, fall upon
invalesco to gather strength, become stronger
invenio to come upon, find, discover
inventor inventor, discoverer
investigo to track down, investigate
inveteratus
hardened by age, of long-standing
invetero to give duration, to render old
invicem one after the other, by turns, mutually
invictus unconquer, unconquerable, undefeated
invideo to envy, be jealous of, look upon with envy
invidia envy, jealousy, hatred /censure
inviso
to go to see, visit, inspect, look at
invisus hated, hateful
invito
to invite, summon
invitus unwilling, against one's will
invocatio invocation, an invoking
90
ioco iocor to joke, jest, make merry
iocus
joke, jest, jape, gag
ipse ipsa ipsum
himself, herself, itself
ipsemet his own very self
ira
anger, wrath
irascor iratus
to be angry, to be wrathful
iratus
angry, wrathful
irrito
to irritate, exasperate, excite
irritum
nothingness, worthlessness, vanity
irritus
vain, useless, ineffectual, of not effect
irritus
undecided, void, unfixed, of no effect
irruo
to rush into, rush upon, attack
is ea id this, that /he, she, it
iste ista istud
that /sometimes pejorative
ita
and so; (with adj. or adv.) so
ita
so, thus
ita ut
in such a way that
itaque
and, so, therefore
item
likewise, moreover
iter itineris road, route, journey
itero
to repeat, say again, iterate
iterum
again, a second time, once more
iubeo iussi iussum to order, command /tell someone to do
iucunditas pleasure, charm
iucundus agreeable, pleasant, gratifying
iudex
judge, juror
iudicium judgment, decision, opinion, trial
iudico
to judge, consider
iugis iuge perpetual, continuous
iugo
to bind together, connect, couple
iugosus mountainous
iugulum iugulus
the throat
iugum
crossbar, beam of scales /crest, ridge
iugum
yoke /a team of oxen, a pair /bond
iuguolo to cut the throat, butcher, kill, destroy
iumentum beast of burden
iunceus made of rushes
iunctio connection, joining
iunctura a joining, joint /rekationship, combination
iunctus united, connected, joined together
iuncus the rush
iungo iunxi iunctum to join, unite, cinnect /yoke, harness /to mate
iuniperus the juniper tree
iuratus under oath
iureiuro to swear an oath
iurgium quarrel, altercation, brawl
iurisdictio administration of justice, extent of competence
iuro
to swear, to make an oath
ius iuris justice, law, right /broth, soup
iussu
at the command of, by order of
91
iusta
due forms /funereal rites
iuste
fairly, justly, rightly
iustitia justice, fairness, equity
iustum what is right
iustus
just, right, equitable, fair, lawful, proper
iuvenalis iuvenilis youthful
iuvenesco to reach the prime of life
iuventus youth (between 20 and 45)
iuvo
to help, aid, assist /to please, delight
iuxta
just short of
iuxta
close to, near to/ (time) just before
iuxta
close by, near/ in like manner, equally
iuxtim
equally
ivi
past tense of eo
jaceo-ere-ui
to stand (that which is stated)
jaculum dart, javelin
judicium trial, legal investigation, judgement, decision
judico
to condemn, judge, try
jugis
continual, ceaseless, perennial, constant
jugiter
continually, perpetually, constantly / instantly
jumentum draft animal
juvenis young man, youth
juventus the age of youth (20-40 years)
juxta
in a like manner, likewise
labasco to give way, totter
labecula a slight stain, minor disgrace
labefacio labefeci labefactum to shake, loesen /impair
labefacto to weaken, disturb /shake violently
labellum a little lip /a small washing vessel
labes labis
stain, blemish, disgrace, infamy /misfortune
labiosus having large lips
labo
to totter, sink, begin to fall
labor
hardip, fatigue, distress
labor laboris
labor, work, toil
labor lapsus
to slip, glide, slide
labores solis
eclipse of the sun
laboriose laboriously, with great effort
laboriosus toilsome, laborious /(persons) industrious
laboro
to work, toil, suffer, be afflicted
labrum lip, edge, rim /bathing tub
labrusca wild grape vine
labruscum the wild grape
lac lactis milk
lacer
torn, mangled, cut to pieces
laceratio a tearing, mangling
lacero
to tear to pieces
lacerta lizard
lacertosus muscular, powerful
lacertus the upper arm /strength
lacesso to harass, attack
92
lacrima tears /exudations from some plants
lacrima Heliandum amber
lacrimabilis
lamentable, deplorable, woeful
lacrimo to weep, shed tears /exude, drip
lacrimosus
tearful, mournful, shedding tears
lactans giving milk
lactatio enticement, come-on
lacteus milky, of milk, milk-white
lacto
to allure, entice, wheedle
lactuca lettuce
lacuna a hole, empty space /pond, pool /deficiency
lacuna missing letters, words
lacunar panelled ceiling
lacus
a hollow /lake, pool, pond, troough, tank, tub
laedo ledo strike, hit, hurt, damage, offend, annoy
laesio lesio
rhetorical attack /wounding
laetabilis letabilis joyous, glad
laetans rejoicing, joyous
laetatio letatio
rejoicing, joy
laetifico letifico
to fertilize /cheer, galdden, delight
laetificus letificus gladdening, joyous, spreading happiness
laetitia joy, gladness, delight
laetitia letitia leticia fertility /richness, grace /joy, delight
laeto leto to cheer, gladden, make joyful
laetor letor
to rejoice, be joyful
laeve leve
left-handedly, awkwardly
laevus levus
the left hand, left side, left-handed
laevus levus
foolish, silly /unlucky, unpropitious
laganum a cake
lama
bog, slough
lambo
to lick /(of rivers) to wash
lamenta (neut. pl) weeping, wailing
lamentabilis
lamentable, mournful
lamentatio weeping, wailing, lamenting
lamentor to weep, wail, lament /(trans.) to bewail
lamia
witch, vampire
lamnia lammina lamna
sheet of metal, coin, knife blade, nutshell
laniatus a tearing, ripping, mangling, mutilating
lanx
dish, platter, plate
lapsus fall, fault, error, sliding, gradual movement
laqueum noose, halter, snare, trap
laqueus snare, trap, noose
largior
lavish, bestow, grant, give abindantly
lascivio to run riot, play, be wanton
lasesco to become tired, grow weary
late
broadly, widely, extensively
latenter secretly, in a concealed manner
latito
to lie hidden, be concealed
latrator a barker (such as a dog)
latratus barking
93
latro
to bark, bay / rant /runble, roar
latro
hunter
latrocinor serve as a mercenary / to rob, steal
latrunculus
highwayman, robber, brigand
latus
broad, wide, extensive
latus -eris sides, flank / lungs
laudabilis praiseworthy, laudable
laudabiliter
in a laudable fashion
laudatio praise, commendation
laudator praiser
laudo
to praise, extoll, commend /name, mention, cite
Laudunum
Laon
laureatus crowned with laurel, laureate
laureola a laurel branch, crown of laurel / victory
laurifer carrying laurel, crowned with laurel / tiumphant
laurus
the laurel, bay tree / triumph, victory, success
laus
praise, glory, fame
lautitia splendor, elegance
lautumiae stone quarry
lautus
washed, bathed, cleaned / fine, elegant, refined
lauvabrum
a bath
lavatio washing, bathing
lavo
to wash, bathe/ moisten, get wet / wash away
laxamentum
a widening, expansion / rest, respite
laxe
widely, loosely / unrestrained
laxitas wideness, expansiveness, roominess
laxo
sell formally, give up, loosen / widen, extend
laxo
to relieve / release, set free
laxus
wide, spacious /later, postponed / lax, loose
lea
lioness
lebes
copper kettle, basin, cauldron
lectica litter, bier
lectio
selection, picking out / reading, perusal
lector
reader
lectulus a small bed, cot
lectus
bed, couch
legatarius legatee
legatio office of legate / office of ambassador
legatus deputy, ambassador, envoy / commander of a legion
legens a reader
legio
a selection / chosen body / legion
legitiums lawful, licit, right, proper, legitimate
lego
to gather, choose, collect, pass through
legumen a bean, pea, legume
lemiscus a ribbon
lemma theme, title, epigram
lemures ghosts, phantoms
lenimentus
alleviation, impreovement, mitigation
lenio
to mitigate, relieve, make better
lenis
smooth /gentle, kind, mild
94
lenitas lenitudo
smoothness, gentleness, mildness
leno
procurer, go-between
lenocinium
enticement, allurement
lenocinor to pander, flatter, make up to /to promote
lente
slowly, calmly, cooly, deliberately
lentesco to become soft, flexible, sticky /to weaken
lentitudo slowness, sluggishness / apathy
lento
to bend
lentulus rather slow, a little slow
lentus
lethargic, inactive /slow, lingering
lentus
tough, resistant, tenacious /supple, pliant /
leo
lion
Leodie Liege
Leodium Liege
lepide
charminly, wittily, elegantly, pleasantly
lepidus charming, witty, pleasant, elegant
lepor lepos
charm, wit, elegance
lepus
hare, rabbit
Lesciense; monastery of
Liessies
letalis
mortal, deadly, fatal
letaliter mortally, fatally
letanie litany
lethargus drowsiness, apathy, sleepiness, coma
letifer
deadly, mortal
leto
to kill, slay
letum
death, ruin, annihilation
levamen alleviation, mitigation, solace, refreshment
levamentum
comfort, easing, alleviation, consolation
levatio alleviation, mitigation, solace
leviculus empty-headed, vain, silly
levidensis thin, slight, poor
levis
light, slight, trivial /beardless
levis
rapid, swift /unimpotant /fickle
levitas lightness, levity /fickleness
leviter
lightly, softly, slightly
levo
to raise, lift up /relieve, ease /diminish
levo
to smooth, polish
lex legis law, statute /covenant, agreement
libatio
libation
libellus little book
libenter willingly, with pleasure
liber
child, offspring
liber libera; liberum free, independent, unrestricted
liber libri book
liberalis courteous, generous, gentlemanly
liberaliter courteously, generously, honorably
liberatio release, liberation, aquittal, setting free
libere
freely, openly, frankly
libero
to lift (an obstacle), raise
libero
to set free, deliver, liberate, release /exempt
95
libertas freedom, liberty, independence / frankness
libido
whim, caprice, violent desire
licens
unimpeded, free, unrestrained, unchecked
licentia license, leave, authorization /freedom
licentio to authorize, permit, dismiss
liceo
to be valued at, be for sale
liceor
to offer a price, to offer to buy, bid, proffer
licet
granted that, although
licet
granted that, although / it is allowed
licet
it is right, just
licitus
permitted, allowed
lift tondeo totonsi tonsum
shave, shear, clip, mow, reap, browse
ligamen string, thread
ligatio
imprisonment, bondage, captivity, servitude
lignarius carpenter
lignator wood-cutter
ligo
to bind, tie
lima
file, polishing, revision
limen limina
threshold
lingua
language, tongue, speech
lino
to smear, befoul, dirty
linteum linnen, napkin
liquidus fluid, flowing, liquid / clear, evident, certain
litigo
to quarrel, dispute
littera
letter (of the alphabet)
litterae letter, epistle, missive, note /literature
loci
passages in literary works
loco
to place, put, position
locupleto to enrich, make wealthy
locus
place, location, situation, spot. [monastery]
loginquitas
distance, remoteness, isolation
longe
far
longe lateque
far and wide
longus long
loquax talkative, loquacious, garrulous
loquor
to say, speak, tell, declare
lorica
hauberk [a coat of chain mail]
loricatus wearing armor, armored
lubricus oily, slippery, slick
lucerna lamp
lucidus shining, bright, clear
lucinaria lamp
lucror
to gain, profit, win
lucrosus profitable, gainful
lucrum gain, profit
luctisonus sad-sounding, mournful, baleful
luctus
lamentation, mourning, grief
ludio
actor, player
ludo
to play, sport /imitate, banter /delude, deceive
ludus
game, sport, school
96
lues
plague, pestilence, calamity
lugeo
to mourn, be in mourning, grieve/(tans
lumen
light, lamp
luminare window shutter
luminarium
light, lamp
luminosus bright
luna
moon
lunatus crescent-shaped
lupus
wolf
Lutosensis
Leuze
lux lucis light
luxuria luxury, extravagance, opulence
macellarius
butcher, slaughter-house
macer
thin, lean
macero to soften, weaken, reduce, torment
macies thiness, gauntness /poverty barrenness
macresco to become lean, skinny, thin
mactabilis deadly, lethal
macto
to magnify, glorify, honor /slay, fight, punish
macula stain, mark, spot/ blemish, fault, flaw
maculo to stain, blemish, defile, pollute
maculosus
spotted, speckled, poluted
madesco to get wet
madide drunkenly
madidus wet, moist, soaked, boiled, soft, drunk, dyed
mador maero
to grieve, sorrow
maeror meror
mourning, grief, sorrow
magis
more, to a greater extent, rather, for preference
magister master, canon / master of a school, professor
magnopere magnus opere
very, very much
magnus maior maximus
large, great, important
magus magical
maiestas majesty, dignity, greatness
maiores ancestors
Malbodiensis
Maubeuge
male peius pessime badly, ill, wrongly
malens preferring
maligo-are
to do/contrive evil
Malmundarium
Malmedy
malo
to choose, prefer
malo mallui malus to choose, prefer
malum evil, misfortune, misdeed, crime, injury, damage
malus peior pessimus
bad, wicked, evil
mancipo mancepo to sell formally, turn over, give into charge
mandatum
order, decree, mandate, instruction
mandatum
commission, charge, entrust
mando to commit, entrust, order, command
mane
morning, early in the morning, early
manentia permanency
maneo to remain, stay, stay the night, last, endure
97
mano
to flow
mansuetus
mild, soft, gentle
manus manus
hand, band, handwriting
Marcieniensis
Marchiennes
mare maris
sea
maritus husband
marmoreus
like marble
maro
to apply marl to the soil
martyr-yris
martyr
martyrium n, martyrdom
mater matris
mother
matera vat for the fermentation of beer
materia material, substance, matter
matertera maternal aunt
matrimonium
marriage
maxime greatly, exceedingly, to the highest degree
maxime especially, particularly, principally
medicor to heal, cure
medicus doctor, physician
medie
moderately
mediocris ordinary, average, fair, moderate, mediocre
meditatio practice, preparation
meditor to reflect upon, consider, ponder /practice
medium everyday life, the common good, the public eye
medius middle, the middle of, central, midst
mei
my
mel mellis
honey
melior
better
mellitus honeyed, sweet as honey
membrana
thin skin, film, parchment, membrane
memini meminisse to remember
memor mindful, remembering, grateful, thoughful
memoratus
mentioned
memoria memory, remembrance, recall, recollection
mendiosus
full of mistakes, shot with errors
mendosus faulty, full of faults
mendum menda
fault, blemish, mistake, error
mens mentis
mind, thought, intention, intellect
mensa table
mensis mensis
month
merces mercedis pay, reward, recompense, compensation
mereo deserve, gain, obtain, serve as a soldier
mereo mereor
deserve, earn, be entitled to, merit
meretrix meretricis prostitute, whore, harlot
meridianus
midday, afternoon, south
messis the harvest, in-bringing, crop
messor reaper, harvester
mestitia misfortune?
Metim
Metz
metuo
to fear, dread, be frightened
98
metus
fear, dread, anxiety
meus
my
mica
crumb, morsel, grain /small loaf
micans twinkling, sparkling, shining, gleaming, flashing
michina nostril
mico
glitter, gleam, shine, sparkle, flash, be bright
mico
to serve /quiver, shake, palpitate
miles militis
soldier, warrior, knight
milia
thousands
militaris -e of a soldier, military, martial
militus
ground, milled (of grain)
mille
a thousand
millies milies
a thousand times
minae
battlements, parapets /threats, menaces
minagium duty of the sale of grain
miniatus damaged, diminished, lessened, decreased
minime in the least degree, very little/not at all
minimus least, smallest, slightest
ministro to serve, wait upon, provide, supply
ministro to attend, wait upon, assist
minor
smaller, less, slighter
minuo
to draw blood, let blood, to bleed (someone)
minuo minui minutum
to less, diminish, decrease, grow smaller
minutor miner
miracula a miracle play
miraculose
miraculously
mire
wonderfully, mervellously, uncommonly
mirifice wonderfuly, marvelously, extraordinarily
miro
to wonder
miror
to marvel at, admire, wonder
mirus
wonderful, astonishing, extraordinary
misceo miscui mixtum
to mix, mingle, blend
miser
wretched, unfortunate, miserable
miserabile sadly, mournfully, wretchedly
miserabilis
sad, wretched, mournful, plaintive
misere wretchedly, miserably
misereo to pity
misericordia
pity, mercy
missa
holy mass
mitesco to grow mild, ameliorate
mitigo
to make mild or ripe, make smooth, pacify
mitis
mild, gentle /ripe, mature
mitto
to send, dispatch
modestus orderly, within bounds, moderate, restrained
modica moderate, within bounds, limited
modicus ordinary, undistinguished, within bounds
modio
a grain measure, a bushel basket
modo
now, just now, only
modo...modo
at one time ... at another
modus measure, bound, limit /manner, method, mode, way
99
moenia walls, fortifications of a city /ramparts /castle
Moguntium
Mainz
moleste take annoyance
molestia annoyalce, troublesomeness /stiffness
molestus troublesome, disagreeable, annoying
molior
to build, erect, construct, contrive, toil
mollio
to soften, make pliant
mollis
soft, pliant, flexible, easily moved, gentle
monachus monk
monasterium
monastery, abbey, convent
moneo to warn, admonish, remind, advise, instruct
monitio admonition, warning
mons montis
mountain, mount
monstro to show, appoint, point out, ordain, appoint
monstrum portent, omen, monster
mora
delay
moratlis mortal
morbus sickness, disease, illness
mores; morium
ways, conduct, character, morals
morior
to die, wither away, decay
mors mortis
death
morsus a biting, bite, also, sting, pain
mortalitas the state of being mortal/ death, a dying
mortifera deadly things
mortuus dead, deceased, passed away, gone West, departed
motus-us motion (earth quake)
moveo moti motum to move, arouse, affect, influence
mox
soon, presently, then, thereupon
mucro
a sharp point, edge, dagger point
mugio
to groan, bellow, roar, low
mulier
woman
multi
many, numerous /the common herd
multiplex manifold, many-fold, many times / tortuous
multipliciter
in many ways, in various ways
multo
by much, by far, by a great deal, by a lot
multum much, greatly
multus much, great
multus plus plurimum
much, a lot
mundo to clean
mundus clean, neat, elegant
mundus world, universe
munero/munerior to give, present
munimentum
fortification, protection, defenses
munio
to fortify, defend, protect /build a road
munitio fortifying, defense works, bridging
munus service, office, function, duty /gift
mus muris mouse
mussito to grumble, mutter
mutatio change, alteration, transformation
muto
punish, fine, mulct
100
muto
to change, alter /exchange
mutuo
borrowed, lend
mutuus interchanged, mutually, reciprocal / reciprocity
mutuus a loan
nam
for, for example, instance
nam
but now, on the other hand /surely
Namucense
Namur
narro
to make known, say, speak, narrate
nascor nasci natus to be born, spring forth
natalis natalis
birthday
natio
nation, people
natio nationis
nation, race, people, breed /pagan people
natu
by birth
natura nature
nauta
sailor
navale ship's station, dockyard
navigatio voyage, navigation
navigo to sail, navigate
navis navis
ship, vessel, boat
navitas energy, get up and go
ne
that ... not, in order that ... not
ne ... quidem
not ... even
nebulosus misty, foggy
nec
conj, and not
nec ... nec neither nor
nec tamen
and yet ... not
necdum (neque dum)
and not yet
necessarius
necessary, needed, essential, necessary
necesse necessary, unavoidable, indispensable
necne
or not
necnon and also
neco
to kill, slay, put to death
necto
to tie up, bind, fasten
nefas
wrong, sin
nego
to deny, refuse a request
negotium employment, business, task, occupation, pains
nemo
no one, nobody
nemorosus
wooded, covered with trees, forested
neo
to spin, interweave. (to spin thread and yarn)
nepos nepotis
grandson
nequam worthless, good for nothing, bad
nequaquam
by no means, not at all
neque ... neque
neither ... nor
neque nec
and not, nor
nequeo not to be able, to be impossible
nequequam
by no means, not at all
nequiter wretchedly
nequitia nequities worthlessness, badness, wickedness
nescio to be ignorant, be unaware, not know
nichilominus
nevertheless
101
nidor
vapor, smell, reek, odor
niger
black
nihil
nothing
nihildom nothing as yet
nihilominus
nevertheless
nihilominus nichilominus
nevertheless, notwithstanding
nihilum nothing
nimirum of course, undoubtedly
nimis
adv. too much, overmuch, excessively
nimis
too much, overmuch, excessively
nimium too much, overmuch, excessively
nisi
if not, unless, except
niteo
to shine, glitter, be bright, glow, be sleek
nitesco to begn to shine /to grow fat or sleek
nitesco to begin to shine, grow sleek
nitidus bright, shining /fat, sleek /flowering
nitor
to rest, lean, support oneself / trust in
nitor
to strive, exert oneself, make an effort
nitor
splendor, glow, elegance, brilliance, brightness
nitor
brillance, brightness, glow, elegance, splendor
Nivellensem
Nivelles, city and monastery
niveus white, snowy
nixor
to lean against /strive, strain, labor, struggle
nixus
strain, effort
no
to swim, float, fly, sail
no
being done, made
nobis
us /the world belongs to US
nocens bad, wicked, injurious, culpable, evil
noceo
do harm, inflict injury
noceo
to do harm to, inflict injury, hurt
nolo
to be unwilling, wish not to, refuse
nomen name
nomen Romanorum Roman power
nominatim by name, expressly
nomine tenus
nominally, in name
non
not
nondum not yet
nonnisi not? not unless?
nonnullus some /pl. several
nonnumquam
sometimes
nonus
ninth
nosco
to become acquainted with, get to know
noster nostra nostrum
our, ours
nota
mark, token, note, sign
notabilis noteworthy, notable, notorious
notarius stenographer (class.), notary, legal scribe
noto-are make note, mark down
novem nine
novitas newness, novelty, strangeness
novo
to make anew, refresh, revive, change, alter
102
novus
novel, unusual, extraordinary /news, novelty
novus
new, fresh, young, inexperienced, revived
nox noctis night
nullus
not any, no, none
numerus total, category, class, number
numquam at no time, never
nunc
now, at the present time, soon, at this time
nunc quidem
at one time...then
nuncupo to call, proclaim
nunquam never
nuntio
to announce, report, relate
nuntium-i messenger
nuntius messenger, message
nuper
newly, recently, not long ago
nusquam nowhere
nusquam nowhere, in no place, nothing, for nothing
nusquam esse
not to exist
nutrimens food, nourishment
nutrimentus
nourishment
nutrio
to suckle, nourish, bring up, rear
nutus
a nod, command, will / gravitation
nutus
a nodding, nod, command, will
obdormio to fall asleep
obduco to draw over, cover/ lead against / pass, spend
obduro to be hard, persist, endure, last, hold out
obicio obieci obiectum
to offer, throw in someone's teeth
obligatus bound, under an obligation
obliquo to turn sideways, turn aside
oblittero to cancel, blot out
oblivio forgetfulness, oblivion
obruo
to overwhelm, destroy
obsequium
indulgence, pliancy, submission
obses
hostage, security, pledge, surety
obsideo to sit near /haunt, frequent /besiege, invest
obsido blockage, besiege, invest
obstinatus firm, resolved, staunch
obtestor to implore, entreat, beg, call as a witness
obtineo to hold, keep, possess, maintain /to continue
obviam in the way, on the way, toward
obviam on the way, in the way /(+ dat.) towards
obviam ire to go to meet, oppose /help, remedy
obvius on the way, in the way / (in dat.) open
obvolvo to wrap up, cover
occasio favorable moment, opportunity
occasus setting (of the sun, etc)/ the west /fall
occatio harrowing
occidio slaughter, massacre
occido to fall, fall down/ (for the sun) to set
occisor murderer
occludo to close, shut up, close off
103
occulco to trample (down)
occulte secretly, in secret, by stealth
occulto to hide, conceal, cover
occultus hidden, concealed /secretly
occumbo to fall, topple, drop /fall dead
occupo to take possession, grasp, seize, enjoy
occuro to occur, come about, happen
occurro to occur / run to meet, attack /oppose
occursus a meeting
ocius
quick. fleet, sooner, faster
oculus eye
odio
to hate, despite, hold in contempt
odium
hatred
odorus keen scenter, sharp nosed
oestrus horse-fly, frenzy
offa
lump, swelling /pellet, shot /mass of something
offendo to knock, hit, strike /shock, offend
offensio striking, knocking, hitting against, blow
offensus collision, shock /dislike, displeasure
offero
to bring forward, place before, present, offer
officina workshop, factor
officiosus respectful, attentive
officium duty, service, job
olim
at that time, formerly, once
omitto
to omit, leave out /let go
omitto
to let slip, lose, pardon
omnigenus
of all kinds
omnino altogether, entirely, wholly, certainly
omnipotens
all-powerful, almighty, omnipotent
omnis
all, every
onero
to load, burden, oppress, fil up
onus
load, burden, weight, trouble / charge
opera
work, pains, labor
operor to work, labor, toil, take pains
opes
means, wealth, abundance, riches
opinio
opinion, report, rumor, conjecture, report
opinor
to be of the opinion of
opisthotonos
A disease where the body is curved backward
oporotheca
place for keeping fruit
oportet imper v., to assume it shall be, reasonable
oportet it is fitting, it is proper, reasonable, becoming
oportet it is proper, one should, one ought
oportunitas
convenience, fitness, advantage, opportunity
oppono opposui oppositum to set against, oppose, be opposite
opportune opportunely, conveniently
opportunitas
fitness, suitability, convenience, advantage
opportunus
opportune, fit, convenient, suitable
opprimo oppressi oppressum to suppress, overwhelm, overpower, check
opprobrium
reproach, disgrace
oppugno to fight against, attack, assault, assail
104
optimates the aristocratic party
optimus one of the best, aristocrat, noble
opto
to desire, wish for, want
opulens rich, wealthy / powerful, mighty / splendid
opulente richly, wealthily
opulentia riches, wealth / power, might / opulence
opus operis
work, labor, work done, completed work, building
opusculus a little or small work, a small book
ora
edge, rim, border, boundary / coast, coast-line
ora
region, clime, district
oraculum a solemn statement, oracle, prophecy
oratio
speech, address, oration
orator
orator, speaker. spokesman, envoy, ambassador
oratorie oratorically
oratorius oratorical / oratory
oratu
by request
orbis
circle, orb, ring, disk, orbit
orbis lacteus
the Milky Way
orbis signifer
the Zodiac
orbis terrarum
the world, the Earth
orbita
a wheel rut
orbitas bereavement, loss of children, loss of parents
orbus
deprived of children or parents
orca
a pot or jar
orchas a type of olive
orchestra theater space reserved for the Senate / senators
ordinarius according to order, regular, ordinary
ordinatim regularly, ordinarily
ordinatio rule, government, order, arrangment, regulation
ordinatus arranged, orderly
ordine; ordinem
regularly, appropriately, properly
ordino
to set in order, regulate, arrange
ordior
to begin, start (esp. of speaking)
ordo
rank, class, order
orexis
appetite, desire
organum instrument, musical instrument
orgia
a festival of mysteries, orgy
orichalcum
copper ore / brass
oriens
rising, the rising sun / east / morning
origo
origin, start, source, beginning / ancestor
orior
rise, become visible, appear
orior oriri ortus
rise, become visible, appear
oris
face, countenance, sight / expression
oriundus arising from, springing from, coming from
ornamentum
weapons / honor, distinction
ornamentum
equipment, kit
ornate splendidly, ornately, elegantly
ornatus dress, attire, equipment, ornament
orno
to equip, furnish, supply / decorate, adorn
ornus
mountain ash
105
oro
to speak, argue, plead, orate, beg, entreat
orsa
beginning, start, undertaking / first few words
orsus
a beginning, undertaking, initiative
ortus
birth, origin, rising / origin, source
oryx
gazelle, wild goat
oryza
rice
os
a bone
os
mouth, opening, source / a mask
ostendo show, reveal, present, make plain, declare
ostendo to show, to exhibit
ostium entrance, door
otium
free time, leisure, ease, peace, repose
ovis ovis sheep
paciscor to make a bargain or agreement, covenant, deal
paciscor to make an agreement, covenant, pact
pactum treaty, pact, contract
pactum agreement, contract, covenant, pact
pactus agreed-upon, stipulated, betrothed
paecipio to warn, admonish /teach, instruct
paene; pene
nearly, almost
paganus countryman, peasant, pagan
pagatim in vilages, in a village manner, in a rusticway
pala
spade, peel for putting bread in the oven
palam
openly, publicly, in the presence of
palea
chaff
palestra gymnasium, wrestling school
paliurus a plant, Christ's thorn
pallens pale, wan, pale yellow, pale green /weak
palleo
be pale, be yellow
pallesco grow pale at
pallidus pale, wan; causing paleness
pallium coverlet, mantle, cloak
pallor
paleness, fading
palma
palm
palmarium
excellent, splendid, outstanding
palmula blade of an oar
palor
to wander, stray, err
palpito throb, tremble, shake
palpo
carress, stroke /coax, cajole, flatter
paludosus swampy, marshy, boggy
palus
pale, stake /swamp, bog, marsh
paluster marshy, swampy, boggy
pando
to stretch out, spread out, extend
pandus curved, crooked, arched, bowed
pango
to fix, hammer in, drive in, fasten
panis
bread
pannus rag, patch, piece of cloth
panthera leopard, panther
papas
tutor
papaver poppy
106
papilla teat, breast, nipple
pappo
to eat
papula a pimple
par
equal, like
paratus prepared, ready, equipped; (of persons) skilled
paratus preparation, fitting out, equipment
parce
moderately, economically
parco
avoid, spare, keep oneself from
parco
to spare, refrain from injuring
parcus sparing, thrifty, economical, moderate
pardus panther, leopard
parens parent
pareo
to be obedient to, obey
paries parietis
wall (of a house)
parilis
similar, like, equal
pariter alike, at the same time, together
pariter equally, in like manner, as well
paro
to prepare, get ready/ set, put/ furnish
pars partis
part, share /direction
partim
partly /some
parum too little, too few, not enough
parum minus minime
little, too little, not enough
parumper for a short time, for a little while, for a bit
parvulus child, infant, young, little /very small, tiny
parvus minor minimus
small, little
pasco
to graze, forage, browse
passer sparrow
passim far and wide, everywhere
patefacio to disclose, expose, open, make open
patella dish, platter, plate
pateo
to be revealed, to stand open, to be clear
pateo
to be open, be exposed
pater patris
father
paterna of a father, paternal, native
paternus of a father, paternal, native
patesco to be laid open, bare, exposed, to be revealed
patibilis endurable, bearable, sufferable
patiens patient /(+ gen.) capable of enduring
patientia patience, suffering, endurance
patina
a dish
patior
to suffer, endure, permit
patria
fatherland, one's native country, homeland
patricius a nobleman
patrocinor to protect, defend, support, patronize
patronus patron, protector
patruus paternal uncle
pauci
few, a few, some
paulatim gradually, litle by little
paulisper for a little while, for a short time
paululum very small, very little
107
pauper beggar, person without means
pauper poor, with few means, poverty-stricken
paupertas beggardry, poverty, humble circumstances
pax pacis peace
pax pacis peace, truce, treaty
peccamen sin, fault, error
peccatus sin
pecco
to do wrong, err, sin, go astray
pecto
to comb, card, thrash (to card wool)
pectus heart, breast
peculium a bit of money, a small property
pecunia money
pecuniosus
rich, wealthy \profitable, lucrative
pecus
a single head of cattle
pedes
going on foot, walking /foot-soldier, infantryman
peior
worse (see malus)
pello pepulli pulsum
to hit, beat /exile, drive away, banish
peloris a clam
pelvis
font
pendeo to hang, depend, be suspended /be uncertain
pendo
to weigh, value, consider, judge, esteem
penetrabilis
capable of being penetrated / penetrating
penetralis interior, inner rooms
penetralis passing through, penetrating / internal, inner /
penetranter
deeply, penetratingly, searchingly
penetro to put into, pass through, penetrate
penicullus a painter's brush, pencil, stylus
peniculus a sponge, brush
penintentiarius
confessor, penintentiary
penis
tail (кур/хуй)
penitens a penitent
penitentia penance
penitio to do penance
penitus accurately, thoroughly, wholly, entirely
penitus inside, widely, through and through
penitus inward, inner, internal, interior
penna
feather, wing
pennatus winged, with feathers
penniger winged, with feathers
pennipes wing-footed, swift, fleet
pennipotens
capable of flight
pennipotenti
birds
pensilis hanging
pensio a weighing out / paying, payment
pensito to weigh carefully, weigh out / pay / ponder
penso
to weigh out / estimate, ponder
penuria lack, want, penury
penuriosus
penurious, poor, poverty-stricken
penus; us provisions, supplies, victuals
peplum robe of state
108
per
through, with, by
per
because of, on account of
per
through, along
per
throughout, during
per
very, excessively, quite
per antea before, formerly
per sic quod
on condition that, with the understanding that
pera
wallet, purse, bag
peractio completion, finishing, end
peracto to carry through, complete, accomplish
peraeque quite equally
peragito to harass, push around
perago to prosecute to the end
perago to harass, disturb / mention / complete
peragro to wander through, travel through
percipio percepi perceptum to gain, learn, perceive, understand
percontor percunctor inquire, interrogate, investigate
perculsus a shock
percutio (percussum)
to strike hard, pierce, transfix /shock
perdignus very worthy
perditio loss, destruction
perdo
to lose, destroy
perdo
to destroy, ruin, waste, scatter, squander
perduco to lead through, conduct, carry through
perduco perduxi
bring through, spread over
peregrinus
wanderer, foreigner, stranger / pilgrim
pereo
to pass away, be destroyed, perish
perfectus complete, finished, done /perfect, without flaw
perfero to bear, suffer, endure
perfero pertulit
to endure, undergo
perficio to do thoroughly, accomplish, bring about
perfidia treachery, faithlessness
perfidiosus
treacherous, faithless
perfringo to break through, penetrate /shatter
perfruor to execute completely, enjoy to the full
perfusus steeped, soaked, drenched
pergo
to continue, proceed, go on with
periclitatus
put in peril, endangered
periclitor to test make a trial, put in peril, endanger
periculosus
hazardous, dangerous
periculum danger, risk
perimo peremi peremptum
to destroy
peritus skilled, expert
periurium perjury, oath-breaking, foreswearing an oath
perlustro to pass through, survey, look, examine
permaximum
the very greatest
permeo to pass through
permitto permissi permissum to allow, permit, let
permoveo to excite, agitate, stir up, move
perniciosus
pernicious, destructive
109
perperam wrongly, falsely
perpetro to complete, accomplish, perform
perpetuus perpetual, lasting, continuous, uninterrupted
perscitus very clever, exceedingly sharp
perscribo to write out, write down, place on record
perseco to cut through, dissect, cut away
persequor to persecute, hunt down, track, trail
persequor persequi persecutus to follow, pursue, take revenge
perseverantia
perseverence, persistence
persevero to persist, persevere, continue
persisto to persist, persevere
persolvo to unloose, explain, expound /pay off a debt
persona actor's mask, part, role /character, personality
persona one holding an honor, official
personam gero
to act a part
perspicuus
transparent, bright, clear, evident
persto
to persist, remain firm
persuadeo persuasi persuasum
to persuade
perterreo to terrify
pertimesco
to become very much afraid
pertinacia firmness, obstinacy, stubborness
pertinaciter
stubbornly, obstinately
pertinax persistent, firm, mean, stubborn, obstinate
pertineo to pertain to, relate to, concern
pertingo to stretch out, extend
pertorqueo
to twist, distort
pertraho to drag, forcibly conduct, entice, allure
perturbo to disturb, trouble, perturb, disrupt
perturpis very disgraceful
peruro perussi perustum
to burn up, consume /inflame, gall, chafe
pervalidus very strong
pervenio to reach, attain, reach, be passed to
perverto perverti perversum to turn upside down, overturn, overthrow
pervideo pervidi pervisum
to look over, survey, inspect, discern
pes pedis foot
pessimus worst (see malus)
pessum to the ground, to the bottom, downward
pessum dare
to destroy, ruin, wreck
pessum ire
to sink, be ruined, destroyed, be put to an end
pestifer pestilential, injurious, damaging, plaguey
pestifere destructively, injurously
pestilencia
pestilence, plague
pestis pestis
plague, epidemic, pestilence /destruction, curse
petitus inclining toward
peto
to make for, go to, seek, strive after
peto
to ask for, beg, request, demand / to sue for
Pevela Pevele, near Cisoing
pharetra a quiver
phasma phasmatis ghost, spirit, specter
philologus scholar, learned man / adj. learned, literary
110
phthisis consumption, tuberculosus
physiologus
a natural science
pia pium honest, godly, holy, pious, dutiful, patriotic
piaculum a victim, sacrifice, atonement, punishment /a sin
pica
jay, magpie
picea
the spruce tree
pictor
painter
picturatus painted / of cloth, embroidered
picus
woodpecker
pie
adv, piously, religiously
pietas
dutifulness, dutiful comduct, piety, devotion
piger pigra pigrum lazy, slow, dull
pignus pawn, pledge, token
pilo
to shave, sut the hair
pilosus hairy, covered with hair
pilum
heavy javelin
pilus
a single hair /a trifle
pinetum pine wood
pingo
to paint, embroider, draw /stain, dye /decorate
pinguesco to grow fat, sleek
pinguis fat, oily, rich, sleek, fertile
pinguitudo fatness, rotundity
piper; piperis
pepper
pipio
to chirp, tweet, pipe
pirum
pear
pirus
pear tree
piscator fisherman
piscis piscis
fish
pius
dutiful, godly, holy, upright, kind, honest
placeo to please, be agreeble to
placet
it is agreed, it is resolved, it seems good
placide quitely, gently
placidus quiet, still, gentle
placitum accord, agreement, pact /assembly for judgment
placitum judgment, case/ plea, litigation / defense
placo
to placate, appease
plaga
a blow, stroke, wound, buffet
plaga
district, zone, region
plaga
plague (Vulgate), affliction, scourge
plagiarius kidnapper, plagiarist
plane
plainly, clearly
plango planxi planctum
to strike, beat /bewail, mourn
platea
street, courtyard
plaustrum wagon, cart
plebs plebis
the common people, the masses, the crowd
plecto
to punish
plector to be punished
plene
completely, wholly, fully
plenus full, complete, full, satisfied, rich, mature
plerumque
for the most part, generally, commonly, mostly
111
plerusque very many, a great number, a large part
plico
to fold
plorabilis deplorable
ploratio lamentation, mourning, weeping
plorator a lamenter
ploratus weeping, lamenting
ploro
to lamen, weep, weep over
pluit
it is raining, a shower is falling
pluma
feather /featherbed /pen
plumbeus leaden, made of lead /dull, stupid, heavy
plumbum lead, a bullet, lead pipe
plumbum album
tin
pluo
to rain, shower, sprinkle
plura
more numerous, several, many
plures
more numerous, several, many
pluries often, frequently
plurimi at the highest price, of the highest worth
plurimus most, very many
pluris
at a higher price, of a great value
plus
more
plusculus somewhat more, rather more
pluvia
rain, shower
pluvialis pertaining to rain, of rain
pocius potius
rather, preferrably
poema poematis
poem, verse, rhyme
poena
pain, punishment, penalty
poeta
poet
polenta pearl barley, barley groats
pollen
fine flour, fine meal
polleo
to be strong, powerful, able
pollex
thumb, big toe
polliceor to promise, offer
pollicitus promised, a promise
pomum fruit, apple
pondera balance, equilibrium
pondero to weigh, consider, reflect
pondus a pound's weight /weight, mass, load /heavy body
pono posui positum to lay, place, put, set /(milit.) post, station
pons pontis
bridge
populatio devastation, wasting /population
populus people, the people, nation, crowd, multitude
porro
forward, further, next, in turn
porta
gate, entrance
posco
to call upon, ask ernestly, request
positus position, place, arrangment
possessio possession, property
possum posse potum
to be able, avail, have influence
post
after, behind
post modum
afterwards, presently, shortly
postea afterwards
112
posteri posterity
posterus; postremo subsequent, following, next, future
posthabeo
to put after, consider of less account
postpono to put after, consider secondary
postquam after
postulatio a demand, request, desire /complaint
postulator plaintiff, complainant
postulo to complain /contain, measure /need, require
postulo to ask, demand, require /summon, prosecute
potens able, mighty, powerful, strong
potentia might, power, authority
potestas power, ability, authority /opportunity
potior
to possess, hold
potissimum
chiefly, most of all
potissimus
best of all, chief, principal
potius
in order that, rather
potius
rather, preferably
prae
before, in front of
prae dulcis
exceedingly sweet
prae pre before, in front
prae quam
in comparison with
prae se ferre / pre se ferre
to show, exhibit, on account of
praebeo to show oneself, present oneself
praebeo to offer, hold out, supply, provide, allow
praecedo to go, result
praecedo to precede, go before /surpass, excell
praecelsus
exceedingly high
praecepio precept, preconception
praeceptum
precept
praecido to cut short, lop, mutilate
praecipio to instruct, advise, warn, anticipate
praecipue especially
praecipue especially, chiefly
praeclarus
excellent, famous, beautiful, striking
praeconor to be a public crier, to herald, proclaim
praecox ripe beforehand, premature
praeda plunder, booty, spoils of war, loot, gain, prey
praedicare
to preach
praedicatio
preaching (s), foretelling (s), condemning
praedico to warn, admonish, instruct, foretell
praeeo to go before
praefatus-i
before mentioned
praefero anticipate, carry by, ride by
praefero to carry in front, display, prefer
praefinio to appoint ahead of time
praefoco to choke, suffocate
praegravo to press heavily upon, weigh down, oppress
praeire to go before
praemitto to send forward, dispatch, send in advance
praemium reward, prize
113
praemo to press down, strike down
praenuntio
to foretell, announce before hand
praenuntius
foretelling, harbinger, omen, token
praeparo to prepare, ready, make ready, arrange
praepono to set over, prefer
praepositus prepositus
prior
praeproperus preproperus
over-hasty, precipitate
praesentia presentia presence, presence of mind, effect, power
praesidium presidium
guard, garrison, detachment /protection
praesieo-sedi-ere to sit before, preside, command
praestans prestans excellent, distingished, imminent
praestantia prestantia
superiority, excellence
praesto to stand before, be outstanding, excell, surpass
praesto presto
to answer for, be responsible for
praesto presto
to do, perform, display, fulfill, offer, present
praestolatio prestolatio
the waiting for, expectation
praesul presul
dancer /presider, protector, director
praesum to be before
praesum presum to be at the head of, be in charge of
praesumo presumo to anticipate, take for granted
praeter beyond, after
praeter except; prep. + acc., besides, beyond
praeterea besides, moreover, as indeed it is
praeterea besides, further, hereafter
praetereo to pass over, pass by, omit
praeteritus
past
praetermissio
neglect, passing over, omission
praetorgredior
to pass betond, go beyond
praevenio get the start of
praevenio; prevenio to come before, anticipate
praevius previous, former
pravitas crookedness, depravity, deformity, perversity
pravus depraved, wicked, evil, perverse
precipio to anticipate, instruct, advise, warn
precipue especially, particularly, chiefly
precipue chiefly, especially, particularly
precipuus excellent, distinguished, special, extraordinary
precor to pray, beg, entreat, invoke
prehendo to seize, snatch, grasp, detain, arrest
premo squeeze, press down, strike down
premo pressi pressum
to squeeze, press down, strike down
prenda booty, loot, stolen goods
prepositus reeve, steward, provost, prior, abbot
presertim praesertim especially, chiefly
pretereo to go by, pass by, escape
pretium price, vaue, reward
prevenire to come to, go before hand, attend
prex precis
request, entreaty, prayer
primitus first, for the first time
primo
first, at first, at the beginning, at the start
114
primordia atoms
primordium
first beginning, origin
primoris first, foremost, at the top, uppermost
primoris first, foremost /most distinguished, first
primum as soon as possible
primum at first, for the first time, in the first place
princeps chief, prince
principatus
rule, dominion, pre-eminence, first place
principium beginning
prior
former, prior
priores forefathers, ancestors
priscus ancient, antique, former, old days, venerable
pristinus former, venerable, ancient
prius
before, formerely
priusquam
before
privatus private, unofficial, a private person
privigna step-daughter
privo
to deprive
privus
deprived of
pro
in return for, instead of /for, as
pro eo because of the fact, because, for this reason
probatur from probo-are, to judge, test, examine
probitas probity, uprightness, honesty
probo
to show, prove, demonstrate, approve, find good
procedo to go ahead, proceed, advance, continue
procedo to go out, come out /result
procella storm, tempest, gale; (milit) charge, onset
procer chief noble, prince
procinctu prepared or ready for battle
procul
far, at, to, from a distance
procuratio management, administration, diretion
procurator manager, bailiff, agent
procuro to take care of, manage
prodeo advance, go forward, appear, go forth
prodico to put off, delay
prodigentia
profusion, prodigiality
prodigialiter
amazingly, wonderfully
prodigiosus
unnatural, wonderful, miraculous, amazing
prodigium prodigy, portent / monster, unnatural thing
prodigo drive forth, waste, spend, expend
prodigus rich, extravagant, abound in, profuse
proditio treason, betrayal
proditio betrayal, treason
proditor traitor, betrayer
prodo
deliver, transmit, hand over
prodo
publish, bring forth, appoint /abandon, betray
prodoceo teach, inculcate, indoctrinate
prodromus
forerunner
producto produxi productum promote, divulge, bring to light
producto produxi productum produce, bring forward, bring out
115
proeliator warrior
proeliator preliator fighter, warrior, combatant
proelium battle
profano profane, desecrate
profanus not sacred, uninitiated, ordinary, common
profectio departure, source, origin
profecto truly, really, indeed
profero to enlarge, extend/ delay, postpone
profero to carry out, bring forth/ advance, impell/cite
professio declaration, profession/ trade, art, craft
professor authority, expert
professorius
authoritative
proficio advance, assist, help, aid, be of use
proficio to make progress, advance
proficiscor to depart, set out, to start forward, to arise
proficuus to start forward, set out, depart, arise
profiteor to make a public statement / to declare oneself
profor profari profatus
to speak out
profugus fleeing, fugitive, banished, migratory
profundo frofui profusum
to pour forth, gush, stream
profundum
a depth, abyss, chasm /the sea
profundus deep, profound, high, thick, dense, boundless
progener husband of a grand-daughter
progenero to produce, engender
progenies descent, lineage, progeny, offspring
progenitor founder of a family, ancestor
progigno progenui progenitum to engender, briing forth
prognatus born, sprung from /son
progredior to go forth, advance, proceed, go out
progressio
advance, progress, increase
progressus
advance, going forward, increase
prohibeo to prevent, hinder, restrain, prohibit, forbid
prohibitio prohibition, restrain, forbidding
proicio to throw forth, fling, abandon
proinde consequently, therefore, as a result
proinde quasi
just as if
prolabor to slide forward, slip forward, fall forward
prolapsio a slipping or sliding
prolatio a bringing forward
prolato to enlarge, lengthen, extend /put off, defer
prolecto to entice, allure
proles
offspring, descendants, posterity
proletarius
a citizen of the lowest rank
prolicio prolixi
to lure forth, entice
prolix
long, stretching
prolixus wide, broad, long / willing, obliging, favorable
proloquor to speak out, declare openly
proluo prolu prolutum
to wash away, wash clean
prolusio preliminary exercise, prelude
proluvier innundation /scouring /discharge
116
promereo to deserve, merit
promeritum
desserts, merit, credit
prominens
jutting out, standing out /a projection
promineo to stand out, jut, extend
promisce indiscrimately
promiscus promiscuus
mixed, indiscriminate /commonplace, usual
promissio a promise
promissor a promiser, suretor, guarantor
promitto to let go, send forth, undertake, promise
promitto to let go forward, send forth, promise
promo prompsi promptum
to produce, disclose, bring forth
promontorium
peak, mountain crest, ridge, promontory
promoveo promovi promotum push forward, move ahead, advance
prompte promptly, resolutely, readily
promptu to have read, display, have on show
promptu to be ready, to be easy, to be clear
promptu to make clear, reveal, disclose
promptus prepared, resolute, prompt
promptus ready at hand, visible, apparent
promulgatio
publication, promulgation (of a law)
promus steward, butler
promutuus
prepaid, arragned beforehand
pronepos proneptos great-grandson
pronuntio to proclaim, announce, declaim
propago-are
to spread, propagate
prope
near, nearly, not far from, just now, closely
prope
near, near to, not far, not long from now
propello to drive before one, drive away
propero to hasten / accelerate, speed up
propero to hasten, speed, move rapidly, come quickly
propinquo to come near, draw near, approach
propinquus
near, close, similar, nearly related
propitius favorable, gracious
propono display, publish, relate, tell, propose, promise
propositum
a design, purpose, scheme, theme of discourse
proprie exclusively, particularly, peculiarly. properly
proprius characteristic, particular
proprius one's own, permanent, special, peculiar
propter near, close, on account of, because of
propugnaculum
fortification, rampart, defense
prorsus forward, straight ahead, to sum up, utterly
prosequor (prosecutus)
to attack, go with, pursue, attend
prosper favorable, fortunate, lucky, prosperous
prosperitas
propserity, good fortune
prospicio to look into the distance, contemplate
prosterno to knock down, cast down /destroy, ruin
prosum to be useful, do good, benefit
prosum (profuturus) to be useful, of benefit, do good
protestor; protesto to declare in public, affirm, bear witness
prothonotario
protonotary
117
protinus forward, further on, continuously, immediately
protraho (protractus) to draw out, rpotact, defer, make known
prout
as, just as, according to
provectus aged, old, advanced in years
provectus advanced, advanced in age
proveho to carry on, carry forward, advance, promote
proventus a growing up, increase, crop, yield, or issue
provideo to foresee, provide, make provision for
provisor one who provides for, or against
provolvere se
to throw oneself down, abase oneself
proximus nearest, closest, next
prudens prudent, wise
prudenter wisely, discreetly
prudentia foresight, wisdom, discretion
Pruma Prums
publicus of the people, public, open to all
puchre beautifully, finely, handsomely
pudendus shameful, disgraceful
pudeo
to be ashamed
pudicus modest. chaste
pudor
modesty, bashfulness
puella
girl
puer
boy
puerilis childish, boyish, folish, foolish
pueriliter boyishly, childishly, foolishly
puga pyga
buttocks
pugna
fight, battle, conflict, set-to
pugnacitas
the desire to fight, pugnacity
pugnaculum
fortress
pugnax fond of fighting, combative, stubborn
pugno
to fight
pugnus the fist
pulchellus pretty
pulcher pulchra pulchrum
beautiful, handsome, fine
pulchritudo pulchritudinis
beauty, fineness
pulex
the flea
pullulo shoot up, sprout, burgeon
pullus
young animal /chicken, chick
pullus
dark-clorored, blackish /sad
pulmentum
anything eaten with bread, sauce or relish
pulmo
the lung
pulpa
flesh
pulpitum platform, stage
pulso
to strike (the hours)
pulsus beating, blow, push, impulse, influence
pulvis
dust, powder /arena, scene of action
pumilius pumilio
a dwarf
punctum a prick, little hole, puncture /a point, spot
pungo pupugi punctum
to prick, puncture, stab /touch, move
pungo pupugi punctum
to penetrate /sting, annoy, harrass
118
puniceus purple, red
punio
to punish, avenge, gave vengeance
punitor punisher, avenger
pupa
doll /little girl
pupillus pupilla
orphan, ward
puppis stern of a ship, the poop
pupula pupil of the eye
purgamentum
rubbish, trash, filth, sweepings
purgatio cleaning out, cleansing /excsuing, justification
purgo
to clean, cleanse, purify/ clear away
purpura purple dye, purple cloth /high rank, emperorship
purus
pure, free from, spotless, without stain
pusillus tiny, puny /petty, mean
putator pruner
puteo
to stink, be redolent, smell bad
puter
rotten, decayed, putrid /loose
putesco to putrefy, day, rot
puteus well, pit
puto
to clear, settle up, consider, think, believe
putus
pure, unmixed, unadulterated
pyropus bronze
pyus pyxidis
a little box, casket
qua
by which route, where
quadraginta
forty (Indecl.)
quadratus square, a square
quadrigae four-horse team
quadrivium
second stage of the medieval curriculum
quadrivium
crossroads, place where four roads meet
quadrum a square
quadruplator
an exaggerator, informer
quadruplor
to be an informant
quaero to seek, search for, get, obtain
quaero quero
to seek, search for / ask, enquire, search for
quaero quero
to miss, want / seek to know / obtain, get
quaesitio quesitio investigation, interrogation
quaeso queso
to seek for, ask for
quaestio questio seeking, searching /inquiry, investigation
quaestuosus questuosus
profitable, fond of gain, rich
quaestus questus profit, a source of profit, gainiing, getting
qualis
of what kind? of the kind that
qualiscumque
of any kind whatever, any whatever
qualislibet of what sort you will
qualitas quality, property, nature
qualiter just as, in whatever manner/way
quam
how, than, as ... as possible
quam plures
as many as possible
quamdiu such a long time
quamobrem
for which reason, on which account, why
quamobrem; quam ob rem
wherefore? why? for which reason
quamquam
though, although
119
quamquam
nevertheless
quamvis ever so much
quamvis however much
quando when
quandoque
of one time or another
quandoquidem
since, because
quanti
for how much, at what price
quanto by how much (+ comp. adj. or adv.)
quantocius quantotius
the sooner the better
quantocius quantotius
as quickly as possible
quantum regard to, as much as, the more, the greater
quantum how much?, how much!, as much as
quantum as much of ... as
quantum in me est as much as in me lies
quantus how great, as great as
quantus how great?, how great!, how much, as great as
quantus ... quantus as great as, as much as
quantuslibet
as much as you will, as great as you will
quantuvis as great as you please, however great
quapropter
wherefore
quare
wherefore, why, because of which thing
quartus fourth
quarum their envy and jealousy
quas
the fates
quasi
as if, just as, just as if, as it were /a sort of
quassatio a shaking
quasso to shake violently, shake to pieces, break
quatenus/quatinus since, as, in order that, that
quatenus/quatinus how far, to what extent, where, seeing that
quater four times /again and again
quattuor four (indecl.)
quemadmodum
just as, lust like
quemadmodum
how, in what manner
quendam a certain (one, thing, someone)
queo
to be able
quercetum
an oak grove, and oak forest
quercus oak tree
quereia querella
complaint, complaining
queribundus
complaining, plaintive, whining
querimonia
complaint, a charge in court
queritor to complain excessively, whine, gripe
quernus oaken
queror to complain, lament, bewail (dogs) whine
querulus complaining, whining, lamenting
questus complaint, lament
qui quae que quod which, what, that
quia
because
quianam why?
quiane why?
quibus the beards
120
quibus his sons
quibus the good fortune
quicquid whoever, whatever, whatsoever, anything at all
quicum with whom, with which
quicumque
whatsoever, anthing that, all that
quicumque
any (one, thing, etc.) available
quid
how much? how many?
quid ita why so?
quidam quaedam quedam quidam
a certain person or thing / a kind of
quidem adv, certainly, at least, indeed
quidem indeed, certainly, at least
quidne why not?
quies quietis
quiet, rest
quiesco to rest, sleep
quiete
quietly, calmly
quietus resting, sleeping, undisturbed / neutral / quiet
quilibet anyone, anything, whatever (or whomever) you like
quin
but come now, rather, indeed
quin etiam why even, in fact, moreover
quinam quaenam quenam quodnam
which? what?
quindeciens
fifteen times
quingenti five hundred
quinquagesimus
fiftieth, a fiftieth part
quinque five
quinquennis
five years old
quinquiplico
to multiply by five
quinymo quinimmo no, rather
quippe certainly, to be sure, indeed, of course
quiris
a spear
quiritatio a scream, cry, shriek
quirito
to scream, cry out
quis
who?, what?, which?
quis
anyone, anybody, anything
quislibet anybody, whom you will, all, any
quisnam; quidnam who, what
quispiam anyone, anything / someone, something
quisquam anyone, anything
quisque each one, each person
quisquiliae
rubbish, trash, garbage, refuse
quisquis whoever, whatever, whatsoever, anything at all
quo
to which place, to what place, whither, where
quod
and, but, now
quod
because, whereas, the point that, the fact that
quodammodo
in a certain way, in a certain measure
quomodo in what manner, how/ in whatever way, somehow
quondam formerly, once, at one time, ertswhile
quoniam since, whereas, because
quoque also, too
quorum dangers
quot
how many, as many (indecl.)
121
quotiens often
quotienscumque
however often
quovis to whatever place you will
rabidus raging, crazy
rabies
madness, fury, frenzy
rabiose savagely, furiously
radicitus by the roots, utterly
rapio rapui ratum to seize, snatch, carry away
rare
thinly, rarely, uncommonly
rarus
rare, uncommon /far apart /thin, scanty
ratio
system, manner, method, procedure, manner
ratio
reckoning, account /reason, judgment
re vera in truth
recedentia
retreat, ebbing, disappearance / distant, far
recedo retire, withdraw
recedo to go back, retreat, retire, disappear
recessus a going back, retreat /place of retreat
recipio recepi receptum
to go back, retire, recede, retreat
recito
to read aloud, recite
recognosco
to recognize, recollect, recall
recolligo gather, regather, flock together
recolo
reflect upon, consider, recall
recolo
to cultivate, work again, resume, rehabilitate
recolo
to recall, reflect upon, rework, resume
reconcilio to restore, repair / (of persons) unite
recondo lay up, store, hoard
recordatio recollection, memory, recall
recordor to remember, think of, recollect, ponder over
recro
to recreate, restore, revive
rector
guider, leader, director, ruler, master
rectum virtue, right
rectus
right, correct, proper, upright, natural, plain
recuperatio
recovery, recuperation
recupero to regain, recoup, recover
recuso to refuse, decline, reject, be unwilling
recuso to refuse
redarguo disprove, refute. with gen. prove guilty
reddo
to give back, restore, return /answer, translate
reddo
to repeat, recite, represent, imitate, pay up
redemptio ransoming, redemption, buying back
redemptor redeemer (Christ)
redeo
to fall back upon, be reduced to, be brought to
redeo
to go back, come back
redeo
to be reduced to, fall back upon
redigo (redactum) to bring or reduce to a condition, lessen
redimio to crown, bind around
redimo to redeem, ransom, buy back /hire, buy, procure
redintegro to repair, fix, restore
reditus return /income, revenue /reward
redivivus rennovated, reconstructed, rebuilt /recycled
122
redono to give back, give up
reduco to lead back, bring back, return
redundantia
overflowing, redundancy
redundo to overflow, stream over, overflow, excess
refectorium
refectory, monastic mess hall
refercio to stuff, cram
refero
to say back, reply, answer
refero
to put down
refero
to bring as expected, pay up, deliver
refero
to carry back, bring back, return
refero
to bring again, restore, repeat, echo, reproduce
refero retuli relatum to bring back a message, refer
refert retuli
it makes a difference
refertus stuffed, crammed
reformo to form again, mould anew
refugium refuge
regalis of a king, royal, regal
regina
queen
regius
royal, regal
regnum rule, authority, kingdom, realm
rego rexi rectum
to guide, direct, to rule
regula
rule / monastic rule
relaxo
to loosen, enlarge, relax, ease, lighten
relego relegi relectum
to read again, re-read
relevo
to lift again, lighten, alleviate, relieve
relictus having inherited, been bequeathed
relinquo to leave behind, bequeath/abandon, forsake
reliquum remainder, what is left, leavings
relucesco to become bright again
reluctor to struggle against, resist
remando to send back word
remaneo to remain, stay, continue
remaneo to remain behind, stay, continue
rememdium
cure, remedy, nostrum, medicine
removeo to draw back, set aside, take away
remuneror to repay, reward
renovatio renewal, renovation, restoration
renovo to revive, renew, restore, repair, repeat
renuntio to declare, announce, report, give notice
renuo
to deny, refuse, reject
reor
to think, suppose, decide
reparo to restore, renew, make good /buy, purchase
repecto to comb back
repello to drive back, repel
rependo to ransom, pay back, requite
repens sudden, unexpected, fresh, recent
repente suddenly, unexpectedly
repere to crawl
reperio to get again, find, ascertain, dicover, invent
reperio get again, find again / discover, invent
123
repetitio repetition
repeto to seek again, ask back
repeto to return to, begin again, deduce, recall
repleo
to replenish, fill up, fill up again, fill
repletus filled, full
repo repsi reptum to creep, crawl
repono to deposit, lay up, store / requite
reprehendo
to blame, reprove, refute, hold back, check
reproba false
reprobo reject, disaprove, condemn
repuo
to reject
reputo to consider, judge
requietum to rest
requiro to ask for, look for, demand, desire, miss
res publica
commonwealth, state, republic, public business
res rei
thing, matter, busines, affair
resarcio to repair, mend, patch
reseco to cut back, cut short, diminish
reservo keep back, hold back, reserve /keep, preserve
resisto to resist, make a stand, oppose
respergo to sprinkle, splash
respicio to look back, provide for, respect
respiratio respiration, exhalation
respiro to breathe /breathe again /recover /decline
respondeo respondi responsum
to answer, reply, respond
responsal deputy, representative
responsiva
a written reply, answering letter
restio
rope-maker
restituo restore, put back, replace, reinstate, repair
resumo (resumpsi; resumptum) to renew, repeat, resume
resurrectio
resurection, awakening, renewal
retardo to impede, slow down, obstruct
retendo to slacken, unbend, become flexible
retineo to hold back, restrain, detain, keep, maintain
retraho to draw back, pull back
retribuo to give again, give as due
reus
defendant, accused, answerable, bound
revenio to come back, return
reverto to go back, return, revert
revertor reverti reversus
to return, come back
revoco to call back, recover, refer, revoke
revolvo to unroll a book, go over again, repeat
rex regis king
rhetor
rhetorician, teacher of rhetoric
rhetoricus rhetorical
rideo risi risum
to laugh at, laugh
ridiculum ridiculous
riginta
thirty
rigor
stiffness, hardness, sterness
ritus
usage, ceremony, rite
124
rogo
to ask, ask for
rogo eum ut +subjunctive
to ask someone to do something
rostrum bill of a bird, beak
rota
wheel
Rotomagense
Rouen
rotundus wheel-shaped, round
rubor
redeness, blush, modesty, shame, disgrace
rudimentum
trial, attempt, essay
rudis
rude, raw, rough, uncultivated
rudo
to bellow, roar
rufus
red, ruddy
ruga
a wrinkle
ruinosus falling down, going to ruin
rumex
sorrel
rumino to chew the cud, ruminate
rumor
rumor, gossip
rumpo to break, shatter, interrupt, annull, violate
runa
a dart
runco
to thin out, weed, cull
ruo
to rush, fall, be ruined
rursus
on the other hand, in return, back, again
rus
the country, countryside, rural area
rustice boorishly, in a peasant manner
rusticus rustic, rural /peasant
ruta
bitterness, unpleasantness, the herb rue
rutila
a spade, shovel
rutilus
red, golden, auburn
sabbatum sabbath
sacculus purse, little bag, little sack
sacrificum sacrifice
sacrilegus sacrilegious, impious
saepe
often, frequently, repeatedly
saepe
hedge, fence, enclosure, haye
saepenumero
repeated, again and again
saepius sepius
often, frequently, repeatedly
saeta
hair
saeta equina
horse-hair
saevio to rage, be furious, take violent action
sal
salt, wit
salsus salty, witty
saltem at least, at all events
saltem at least
salus
health, safety, well-being
saluto
to wish well, greet, visit, reverence
salutor visitor, caller
salveo to be well, be in good health
salvus safe, sound
sanctifico to sanctify, make holy
sanctimonia
purity, charity, virtue, sanctity, sacredness
sanctimonialis
nun, sister
125
sanctus holy, sacred, saint
Sanctus Egidius
St. Gilles
Sanctus Eleutherius St. Eligius
Sanctus Rodoenus St. Ouen
sane
rationally, sensibly, really, indeed, to be sure
sane
rationally, soberly /really, indeed
sanitas health, soundness of mend, sanity
sano
to heal
Santiago st. james
sanus
sound, healthy, sane
sapiens wise, judicious
sapiens a wise man, philosopher
sapienter wisely, judiciously
sapientia wisdom
sarcina bundle, pack, burden, load
satago to pay a creditor, satisfy a creditor
satago have one's hands full, have enough to do
satio
to satisfy, sate
satis
enough, sufficient /sufficiently
sato
to sow, plant
satura
satire
saturo
to fill, satisfy
satus
origin, start, beginning /planting, sowing
scaber scabby, rough
scabies the itch, mange, a rash
scaccarium
chessboard, game of chess
Scaldus Scheldt
scamnum bench, stool
scaphium (sciphus pot, bowl, drinking vessel
scapulare sword-belt
scapulus the shoulder
sceleratus to pollute with guilt
scelestus wicked, accurse, infamous, criminal
scelus sceleris
crime, sin, evil deed, wickedness
schola school /elite troop of soldiers
scientia knowledge, science, skill
scilicet rightly, it is just
scilicet evidently, certainly, of course, no doubt
scindo to cut, rend, split/divide, separate
scio
to know, understand
scisco
investigate, ask, inquire/ vote, ordain, resolve
scribo; scripsi scriptum
to write, compose
scrinium bookcase, case for papers
scriptor writer, author, scribe
se astringo
to commit oneself to
se gero to conduct oneself, conduct, carry on
se habere to keep oneself
secedo to go apart, withdraw
secerno secrevi secretum
to separate
seco
to settle (as to settle an argument)
126
seco
to cut, hurt, wound, amputate, divide, part
secundum following, after, during, according to
secundum after, behind
secundum accordingly, in an accordance with
secundus second
securis axe, hatchet, battle-axe
securus safe, secure, free from care, unworried
secus
just so
secus
otherwise, not so
secus
wrongly, badly, not as one would wish
secus + atque or quam
differently from, otherwise than
secuutus follower, pursuer
sed
but/ and indeed, what is more
sedeo sedi sessum to sit
seditio dissension, quarrel, insurrection, mutiny
sedo
to settle, smooth, calm, allay
seductor seducer
seges
wheatfield, wheat crop, field of wheat
semel
a single time, for the first time, even once
semen-inis
seed, kin
semper always, ever
senectus old age, dotage
senex senis
old, aged, old man
sensus feeling, sense
sententia opinion, thought, way of thinking, meaning
sentio
to judge, suppose, vote
sentio
feel, perceive, experience, hold an opinion
seorsum apart, separately
sepelio to ruin, destroy, bury
septem seven
sepulchrum
grave, tomb, sepulcher
seputus buried, sunk, immersed
sequax following, attending, pursuing
sequor sequi secutus
to follow, trail
serio
seriously
serius
serious, grave, solemn
sermo
discussion, talk, common talk, conversation
sero
to sow, plant. Also, late, at a late hour
servio
to be a slave to, serve
servitus serviude, slavery
servo
to watch over, keep, protect, observe, save
servus slave, serf
sese
himself, herself, itself
sesqui one and a half times
sessio sitting down, loitering, hanging around /chair
severitas severity, rigor, sternness, strictness
si
if
sibimet to them themselves
sic
so, thus /yes, that is so, that is right
sicco
to dry up, out
127
siccus
dry, thirsty/ sober, temperate
sicut
as, just as, as it were
sidus
constellation, star
signum sign, seal, indication, sign/ mark /token
silens
silent, still
silenti etc the dead
silentium silence, stillness, quiet, repose, obscurity
sileo
to be still
silex silicis (med. cilicis)
hard stone, sharp, rock, flint
siligo
wheat, wheat flour
silva
woods, forest
similis
similar, like, resembling
similis
like, similar, resembling
similitudo likeness, resemblance/ uniformity
simplex simple, unaffected
simul
together
simul
at once, at the same time, together
simul atque
as soon as
simulatio pretense
sine
without
singularis alone
singularis alone of its kind, solitary /machless, unique
singulariter
one by one, exceedingly, especialy
singuli one each, one apiece, single, separate
singultim stammeringly
singultus sobbing, gasping, death rattle
singulus single, separate, one at a time, one each
sino
allow, suffer, permit, let
sinus
curve, fold, bend /pocket, lap /bay
siquidem since, indeed
sis
if you wish, are willing, want, prefer
sitio
to be thirsty
sitis
thirst, dryness, drought, eager desire
sive
on the one hand, but if, if...or if
sive seu or if
socer
father in law
socius partner, comrade, associate, ally, fellow
socius sharing, associated, allied
socius-i companion
socus
plowshare
sodalitas fellowship, companionship, secret society
sol solis sun
soleo
to be accustomed, be used to
solitas lonliness, solitude, being alone
solito
to be accustomed, to have the habit of
solitudo loneliness, solitude
solitus accustomed, usual, habitual, ordinary, customary
solium chair of state, throne / bath-tub
sollers clever, skillful
sollicite anxiously, worriedly
128
sollicito to stir up, incite, arouse
sollicitudo uneasiness, anxiety, disquiet, apprehension
sollicitudo concern, anxiety, solicitude, worry
sollicitus uneasy, worried, anxious, restless, agitated
sollicitus troubled, anxious, concerned, worried
solum
alone, only
solum
land, country, soil, ground/ bottom, floor
solus
alone, only, the only
solutio loosening /payment /solution /explanation
solvo
to loosen, untie, release, free, dissolve
somniculose
sleepily, drowsily
somniculosus
sleepy, drowsy
somniculosus
sleepy, drowsy
somnio to dream /(+ acc.) to dream of
somnio to dream /+ acc.to imagine foolishly
somnium a dream, fancy /foolish nonesense
somnium dream, fancy, day-dream /foolishness, nonsense
somnus sleep
sonitus noise, sound
sophismata
falso conclusions, logical fallacies
sopor
deep sleep
sordeo to be dirty, appear vile
sordes filth, meanness, stinginess
sordesco to become dirty
sortitus casting lots, deciding by lot
spargo sparsi sparsum
scatter, strew, spread
spatior to stoll, walk around, take a walk, amble
specialis secret
specialissimus
very strange, peculiar, individual
specialitas
special friendship /peculiarity
speciosus beautiful, handsome
spectaculum
spectacle, show
specto to look at, watch, see/aim at, tend towards
speculum mirror
specus cave, cavern, grotto, den
spensa storehouse
spera
hopes
sperno sprevi spretum
to scorn, despise, spurn
spero
to hope for, hope
spes
hope
spiculum sharp point, sting, spear, dart
spiritus breath, breathing /life /spirit
spoliatio plundering, looting, stripping, robbing
spolio
to strip, plunder, despoil, rob, loot
spolium spoils, plunder, booty
sponte willingly, of one's own accord, unaided
St. Richarius
St. Riquier
stabilis firm, stable, steadfast
stabilitas firmness, stability, durability
Stabulaus Stavelot
129
statim
instantly, immediately
statim
firmly, steadfastly, on the spot, at once
statua
statue, image
statuo
to give a ruling, make an arrangment, decide
statuo
to hold, to establish
statuo
to cause to stand, establish, place, set up
status
stage
stella
star
sterilis
barren, useless, unproductive
stilla
a drop (of liquid)
stillicidium dripping moisture, rainwater from the eaves
stilus
a pike, pale /a stylus for writing /writing
stipatio a crowd of attendants, a following
stipator an attendant of a nobleman
stipatores following, retinue, attendants, bodguard
stipes
log, stump, tree trunk, branch, post, club
stipo
to compress /to press around
stips
small coin, gift
sto
to stand, stand still, stand firm
stolide stupidly
stolidus dull, obtuse, dull-witted, dumb
strages massacre, bloodbath, carnage /debris
strenuus brisk, active, vigorous/ turbulent, restive
strues
piles, heaps, masses
studio
to study, pursue eagerly, be eager for
studiose eagerly
studium eagerness, zeal
stultus foolish /a fool
suadeo to recommend, advise (a person)
suasoria persuasive discourse
sub
under, up under, close to
subcribo to write beneath, sign /prosecute
subcriptio subscription, signature / register
subdo
to subject to
subiecto to put down, to put under
subito
adv. suddenly, unexpectedly
subitus sudden, unexpected
subiungo to yoke beneath, join, attach, subdue, subjugate
subjectio forgery, falsehood
subjungo to join, yoke
subligo to bind below, bind on
sublime on high, aloft
sublimis lofty, raised, elevated, sublime
sublimitas loftiness, height, elevation, sublimity
subluceo to gleam faintly, glimmer, glow
subluo to wash beneath /(rivers) flow beneath
sublustris faintly glimmering, faintly gleaming
subnascorto grow out of
subnecto to bind on beneath, to tie
subnego faintly deny, partially refuse
130
subnixus subnisus propped up, supported
subnoto to mark beneath, notice secretly
subnuba a rival
subnubilus
partly cloudy, somewhat cloudy
subo
to be in heat
subobscenus
risque, faintly obscene
subobscurus
somewhat obscure
subodiosus
rather unpleasant
suboles shoot, sprout, offspring, progeny
subolesco to grow up, mature
suborior to arise in succession
suborno to furnish, equip, provide /instigate secretly
subrepo surrepo to creep up or crawl up from below
subrideo subrisi subrisum
to smile
subrigo; subrexi subrectum
to raise up, elevate
subringor to make a face
subruo subruti subrutum
to undermine, overhtrow, destroy
subseco to cut away, pare
subsentio to notice secretly
subsequens
ensuing, following
subsequor
to follow after
subservio to be subject to, comply with
subsidarius
in reserve
subsidium reserve troops, auxiliary troops /support, help
subsido to crouch down, settle, sink
subsilio toleap up, spring up
subsisto to stand, withstand /stop, halt, cease /stay
substantia substance, essence, means of subsistence
substerno to spread out beneath, lay under, set out
substo to stand form
substrictus
narrow, contracted, small
substringo to draw together, bind up
substructio
base, foundation
substruo to build beneath, lay a foundation
subsulto to spring up, leap up
subsum subesse to be near, close at hand, be under, be subject
subter supter
below, beneath, underneath
subterfugio
to escape
subterlabor
to glide away, flow under, slip away, escape
subvenio to come up to aid, relieve
subvenio to come to the aid, succor, relieve, help
subvertio to destroy, overthrow
succedo to approach, submit, etc. etc
succendo to kindle, set afire from below
successio succeeding, succession, descent, descendant
succurro to run up under /aid, assist, help
sufficio to be sufficient, suffice, be enough
suffoco to strangle, choke, suffocate
suffragium
vote, franchise /approval support, aid
suggero to bring up, supply, provide, add
131
sui
himself, herself, itself
sulum
each, every
sum fui futurus
to be, exist
summa the highest part /whole, sum
summisse humbly, softly, calmly, modestly
summissus (from summitto) let down, lowered, gentle, mild
summitto to condescend, submit /raise, rear
summitto to send as help /to send secretly
summitto to let down, lower /subject, subordinate
summopere
very much, exceedingly
sumo
to take, choose, obtain, buy./ take for granted
sumptus expense, cost
supellex supellectilis furniture, apparatus, gear
super
over, above /concerning, about
super
over, above, besides, beyond, moreover
superabundo-avi
to be very abundant
superbia pride, arrogance
superbus overbearing, arrogant, haughty, proud
superficies
surface, top
superfluo flow over, overflow, be superfluous
superna northeast by north wind
superne from above, above
supernus above, superior
supero to be above, have the upper hand, surpass
superstes survivor of another's death
supersum to be superfluous, to remain
supervacuus
superfluous, unnecessary
supervenio
to arrive, come up, arrive unexpectedly
suppellex suppellectilus
household articles, furniture, goods
suppellex suppellectilus
ornaments
supplanto to trip up
supplex kneeling, entreating, suppliant
supplicium
punishment
suppono subpono to put in place of, substitute, forge
suppono subpono to put under, subject /put next to, add
supra
above
surculus shoot, sprout
surgo surrexi surrectum
to get up, arise
sursum upwards
sursum deorsum
up and down
suscipio to raise up, maintain, support, accept, receive
suscipio take up, support, raise /accept /undertake, begin
suscitatio rekindling, awakening
suscito to stir up, arouse, excite
suscriptor the signer of a document
susicivus left over, to spare, extra, superfluous
suspectus suspected
suspendo suspendi suspensum
to suspend, hang
suspicio to look upward at, esteem, respect /to suspect
suspiro to sigh, draw a deep breath /long for
132
sustento to maintain, sustain
sustineo to hold up, sustain, endure
sustituo to put next, put under, put in place of
suus sua suum
his, her, its, their own
synagoga synagogue
tabella writing tablet
tabellae letter, document
tabernus booth, hut, cottage, hove, small shop, inn
tabesco to melt, waste away, pine, be spoiled
tabgo tetigi tactum to touch
tabula
board, plank, gaming board, painted panel
taceo
to be silent, say nothing, pass over
taceo tacuitacitum to be silent, leave unmentioned
tactus
sense of feeling, touch
taedium; tedium
disgust, weariness, boredom
talarius having to do with dice or dice-playing
talea
rod, stick, stake, bar /cutting, slip
talio; -onis retribution
talis
of such a kind, such
talus
the ankle, ankle bone
tam
adv, so, to such a degree
tam
to such a degree, so, so far
tam ... quam
as ... as possible
tamdiu for such a long time
tamen
however, but
tamen
nothwithstanding, nevertheless, yet, still
tametsi even if, although
tamquam tanquam as, just as, like as, just as if
tandem at last, finally
tango-tetigi-tactum to touch, touch upon, to speak of
tanquam adv, just as, as if, like as
tantillus so little, so small
tantum only
tantummodo
only just, just so long as
tantundem
adv, just so much, just as far as
tantus
so large, so great, of such a size
tardus
slow, late, tardy
Taruennam
Therouanne
tego texi tectum
to cover, bury, conceal, hide, protect, shield
tela
a web, that which is woven, cloth, tissue
telum
javelin, spear, arrow, bolt, dart
temerarus rash, imprudent, heedless
temeritas rashness, temerity
temperantia
moderation, self-control, temprance
tempero be moderate, control oneself
tempero to mix properly, temper, regulate, mitigate
tempero o control, use with moderation, spare
tempero to keep from, refrain from
tempestas storm, weather
templum sacred precinct, temple
133
temporalis-e
transitory
temptatio trial, temptation
tempus temporis
time, stage, epoch, era
tenax
grasping, stingy, cligning, frugal, obstinate
tendo
to direct, try, attempt, stretch, extend, present
teneo
to hold, keep, possess, maintain
teneo
to keep on, persist, persevere, endure
teneo
to grasp, know, understand
tener tenera tenerum
tender, delicate, soft, young
tentatio-onis
trial, attack, duration, temptation, judgement
tenuis
thin, slight, feeble, slim, slender
tenura holding, tenure, feudal holding
tenus
as far as, up to, to, down to
tepesco to cool, grow lukewarm, decrease
tepidus warm, luke-warm, tepid
ter
three times, thrice
terebro to bore through, perforate
teres
rounded, polished, smooth, fine, elegant
terga dare to flee, retreat, run awar
tergeo tergo tersi tersum
to wipe, scour, clean
tergiversatio
backwardness, reulctance, evasion
tergo (a tergo )
in the rear, fom behind
tergum skin, hide
tergum back, rear
tergus
the back /skin, hide, leather
termes a tree branch (especially olive)
terminatio termination, determination
termino restrict, define, close, set a limit to
terminus a boundary mark, limit, end, border
tero trivi tritum
to rub, wear out
terra
earth, ground, land, country, soil
terrenus-a-um
earthly, temporal
terreo
to frighten, terrify, scare away, deter
territo
to fighten, terrify, intimidate
territo
to scare, frighten, intimidate
terror
friight, fear, terror
tersus
clean, neat, correct
tertius
third
testimonium
proof, evidence, witness, indication
testis
one who gives evidence, witness
texo
to weave, twine together, plait, construct
texo
the main verb for weaving of cloth
textilis
woven fabric, piece of cloth
textor textrix
weaver
textus
woven cloth, web
thalassinus
sea-green
theatrum theater
theca
case, envelope, covering
thema
subject, topic, theme
thema thematis
theme
134
theologus theologian
thermae warm springs, warm baths
thesaurus treasure, horde /store-room, treasury
thesis
proposition, thesis
thorax
breastplate
thymbra the herb savory
thymum the herb thyme
timeo
to fear, be afraid, dread
timidus fearful, timid
timor
fear, dread, object causing fear
titulus
label, title, placard
to distraho
to break up, dissolve
tolero
to tolerate, bear, endure, sustain
tollo sustuli sublatumto lift up, raise, elevate, carry away
tonsor
barber
Tornacense
Tournai
torpeo to be sluggish, inert, numb, inactive, immoveable
torqueo to twist, curl, rack, torture, torment, distort
tot
so many
tot
so many
totidem just as many
toties; totiens
so many times, so often
toto
all togther, completely towards
totus
whole, entire, complete, all
traba
a beam of wood, a timber /tree-trunk, ship
tractare to handle, manage, perform
tracto
to drag, handle /treat, discuss, deal with
tractus course, progress, movement /space, time
tractus a dragging, drawing, pulling /territory, tract
trado
surrender /hand over /transmit, teach
traho
to drag, pull /derive, get
Traiectensium
Utrecht
Traiectum Maastricht
trans
across
transeo to go over, pass over, cross over, go past
transfero transtuli translatum carry across, transfer, convey
transitus crossing, passing over, transit /changing
transmitto to send, carry, or convey across
transporto send, carry, or convey across
tredecim thirteen
tremo
to tremble, shake, shudder
trepide with trepidation, in confusion
tres tria three
Treverim Triers
tribuo
to give out, divide, allot, assign, grant, give
tricesimus lasting three days
triduana lasting three days
triduanus three days' duration, lasting three days
triduum a period of three days
trilustralis lasting for fifteen years
135
tripudio to leap, jump
tripudium joy, rejoicing
tristifico to make sad, cause sadness, sadden
tristis
sad, mournful, sowerful
triticeus sown in wheat
tritico
thresh
triticus wheat
triumphus triumphal procession, triumph
trucido to kill cruelly, slay, butcher, massacre
truculenter
wildly, savagely, fiercely, cruelly
trunco
maim, mutilate, mangle /imperfect, not whole
tu
you
tubineus cone shaped
tum
at that time, then /thereupon, in the next place
tumbarius keeper of a tomb
tumbus tomb
tumeo
to puff up, swell /to be pompous
tumesco to swell up with anger /swell, swell up
tumulo to bury, inter
tumulosus hilly
tumultus uprising, disturbance, riot, tumult
tumulus mound, grave, heap of earth
tunc
then, at that time, next, and then
Tungris Tongres
turba
uproar, disturbance /mob, crowd, multitude
turbatio disturbance, confusion
turbatus angered, exasperated/ disturbed, restless
turbo
to disturb, upset, throw into disorder, confuse
turbo; onis
hurricane. tornado, that which spins
turpe
a disgrace
turpis
foul, ugly, disgraceful, morally corrupt
tussio
to cough
tussis
a cough
tutamen defense, protection
tutela
protection, guard, charge /guardianship
tutis
protected, safe, secure
tyrannus tyrant, absolute ruler
ualeo
to be able to, to succeed in (doing something)
uber
productive, fertile, abundant, rich
uberrime most luxuriantly, most abundantly
ubertas bounty, plenty, abundance
uberte abundantly
ubi
when, as soon as / wherein, whereby, whereas
ueraciter more veracious, more truly
ueratius more true
ulciscor to take vengeance for
ullus
any
ulterius farther, more advanced, more remote
ultio ultionis
avenging, punishment, revenge
ultra
farther (than), more (than)
136
ultra
beyond, on the far side of
ultrix
avenging
umbra shade, shadow
umerus humerus shoulder, upper arm
umquam ever, at any time
una
in one, together
uncia
a twelfth, an ounce
unciatim little by little
unde
whence, from where /how, from whom
undique from all sides, everywhere, on all sides
undisonus resounding, loud with waves
undo
to surge, wave, undulate /to flood
unguentum
salve, balm, ointment
universe generally, in general
universi all together
universitas
the whole, total, universe, world /university
universum universe, the world
universus combined in one, whole, entire
unus
one, only one, at the same time/ single, alone
upilio opilio
shepher
urbanus urban, urbane, pertaining to the city
urbs urbis city
uredo
blight of plants
uredo
a plant blight
urino
to dive
urinor
a diver
usitas
customary, usual
usque
all the way, up (to), even (to)
usquequaque
always
ustilo ustulo
to burn, scorch
usura
using, enjoying
usurpo to take for oneself, use, employ, enjoy /perceive
usurpo to obtain, acquire, get possession of
usus
use, experience, skill, advantage, profit
ut
when, as
uter
either of the two
utercumque
whichever of the two
uterlibet whichever of the two you wish
uterque both, each side, each party
uterus
womb, belly, lower stomach
Uticensium
Evroul
utilis
useful, advantageous, helpful
utilitas utility, usefulness
utique
at any rate, certainly, at least
utor uti usus
to use, employ, possess, enjoy/ associate with
utpote
seeing that, inasmuch as, inasmuch as, since
utrimque from both sides, on both sides
utroque to both sides
uxor
wife, spouse
vaco
to be free from work, of a master, of property
137
vacuus empty, devoid of, free from
vado
go, hasten, rush
vae
woe, alas, woe to
valde
intensely, very much, extremely, greatly
valde
strongly, powerfully /very, exceedingly
valde
great, exceedingly
valens stong, powerful, healthy /able, worthwhile
valeo
to be strong, have power, be well
valetudo health. good health, bad health
validus strong, robust, able
validus strong, mighty, powerful, exceeding
vallum palisade, earthen wall, entrenchment, rampart
vapulus flogged, beaten, knocked about
varietas variety, differences, diversity
varius
various, varied
vastatio devastation, ravaging
vegetus lively, fresh, vigorous
vegrandis diminutive, small, tiny
vehemens violent, furious, impetuous
vehementer
violently, forcefully, strongly, exceedingly
vehiculum conveyance, vehicle
veho
to sail, ride, drive, etc
veho vexi vectum to carry, convey
vel
vel ... vel either ... or
vel
or, even, actually, for example
velamen covering, garment
veles
light-armed troops
velico
to pluck, twitch /criticize, taunt
velitatio skirmish, bickering, dispute, wrangling
velius
hide, fleece, skin
vello
to pull, pluck out
velociter quickly, rapidly, swiftly
velox
quick, rapid, swift, fast
velum
sail, covering, awning, curtain
velut
just as, like, even as
vena
vein /stream /vein of ore /streak
venalia venial sins /supplies
venalicium
market
venalis to be sold, up for sale /a slave
venaliter by bribery, corruption
venatio hunting, game, the chase
venator hunter, huntsman
venditio sale /closing of a bargain
vendo
to sell, offer for sale, advertise /betray
Vendolius Vendeuil
veneficus poisonous, magical /witch, wizard
venenifer poisonous
venenum drug, poison, potion
veneratio respect, reverence, honor, veneration
venia
grace, indulgence, favor, pardon, forgiveness
138
venio
to get into a certain state, to fall into
venio
to come /happen, come about, come to pass /arise
veno
for sale
venor
to hunt
ventagium winnowing
venter
the stomach, belly, abdomen
ventilo to fan /to wave something
ventio
a coming
ventito to come often, to visit frequently
ventorium winnowing fan
ventosus full of wind, windy, breezy
ventulus breeze, soft wind
ventus wind, rumor, favor
venum for sale
venustas loveliness, charm, attractiveness, beauty
vepres thorn-bush, briar
ver
spring, the production of spring
verbera blows, a beating, thrashing
verberantia
a flogging
verbum word
vercundus bashful, modest
vere
in fact, real, true
vere
truly, really, actually, rightly
verecundia
feeling of shame, shame, bashfulness
vereor to respect, fear, be in dread of, to be afraid
vergo
to bend, incline, verge, to draw to an end
veritas truth
Vernandense
Vermandois
vero
in truth, indeed, to be sure /however
versus line, verse
verto
to turn, turn around, turn up / to put to flight
verto
to flee/ interpret, understand/ upset, overthrow
verum-i truth, truly, in fact
verumtamen verumptamen
notwithstanding, nevertheless
verus
true, real, proper, right
vesco; vescor
to feed, to eat
vesica bladder, bladder-like tumor
vesper evening star, evening
vespera eening prayer, vespers
vespillo undertaker
vester vestra vestrum
your, yours
vestigium footstep, trace, mark
vestio vestivi vestitum
to clothe
vestis
clothing, garment, covering, blanket, carpet
vetus
old
vexamen shake-up, upheaval
vexillum flag, banner, standard /troop, company
vexo
to vex, annoy, irritate /shake, toss
via
road, way, street
viaticus pertaining to a journey, a journey /money
139
viator
traveller /messenger
vicinus neighbor/ (med.) resident
vicissitudo change, alteration
victor
victor, winner
victoria victory
victualia supplies, foodstuffs, provisions
victus
living, manner of life / nourishment, food
videlicet it is clear/ (adv.) clearly, plainly, namely
videlicet of course, to be sure
video vidi visum
to see, observe, understand, comprehend
videor
to be seen, seem, appear
viduata deprived, widowed, bereft
viduatus widowhood
viduo
to deprive
vieo
to weave together, stitch, plait
vietus
shriveled, withered, shrunken
vigilo
to be awake, watch, be vigilant /to keep vigil
vigor
vigor, liveliness
vilicus; villicus
pertaining to an estate, overseer, steward
vilis
cheap, worth little
vilitas
cheapness, low-price, worthlessness
villa
country house, country estate /(med.) manor
vinco vici victum
conquer, overcome, master, win, surpass, excel
vinculum bond, fetter, tie
vindico to avenge, punish, liberate, deliver, protect
vindico to liberate, deliver/ punish, avenge/ claim
vindico (vindicatum) claim, arrogate, assume, appropriate
vinea
vineyard
vinitor
vine-dresser (a man who prunes grape vines)
vinum
wine
vir
man, hero, man of courage
virga
a green twig, rod, stick, wand, broom, streak
virgo
maiden, virgin, young girl
viridis
green
viriliter manfully
virtus
manliness, excellence, character, worth, courage
vis
violence /a large number, quantity
vis vires (pl.)
force, power, strength, might, influence
viscus
flesh, internal organs, bowels, entrails, heart
visio
likeness, face, visage
vita
life, way of life
vitiosus vicious, full of vice, corrupt
vitium
fault, vice, crime
vito
to avoid, shun
vitualis-e manliness, virtures
vituperium insult
viva vox an oral statement
vivificus live-giving, life-restoring
vivo vixi victum
to live, be alive
vix
scarcely, hardly, with difficulty, barely
140
vociferor to cry aloud, shout
voco
to call, summon, name invite
voco in dubium
to call into question
volaticus winged, flying /inconstant, unreliable/ flighty
volatilis wuged, flying /swift, rapid /fleeting
volens willing, favorable
volito
to rush back and forth, flutter
volo
to fly, speed, move rapidly
volo
to wish, want, will, ordain, suppose
volo (sibi velle)
to mean, signify, denote
volubilis rapid, fluent, voluble
volubilis rolling, revolving, turning around /changeable
volubiliter fluently
voluntarius
voluntary
voluntas wish, will, inclination / good will
voluntas last will, testament / meaning, sense
volup
agreeably, pleasantly
voluptarius
pleasant, one devoted to pleasure
voluptas pleasure
voluptuosus
delightful, pleasurable
volutabrum
pigsty, slough
volva
womb (particularly that of a sow)
vomer
plowshare
vomica ulcer, sore, boil /plague, curse
vomito to vomit, vomit forth, throw up
vorago chasm, pit, abyss
vorax
gluttonous, voracious
voro
to eat greedily, swallow up, consume
votum
prayer, wish, desire /vow, promise to God
voveo vovi votum to promise to God, vow, pray for
vox vocis voice, word /(med.) power, right, authority
vulgaris common, ordinary, usual
vulgariter in the common way, ordinary manner
vulgivagus
wandering, vagrant, intinerant
vulgo
to spread, publish, impart, make accessible
vulgus the common people, mob, rabble
vulnero to wound, injure, hurt, harm
vulnus wound
vulpes volpes
fox
vulticulus look, aspect, appearance
vultuosus grimacing, affected
vultus
the face
vultus
expression of the face, countenance, look
xiphias sword-fish
ymber
rain shower, rain storm, pelting rain
ymo (immo)
on the contrary, by no means/ by all means
WordGumbo Indo-European Comparative Indo-European
141
Tocharian
Sources:
1. Tocharian Languages. Edited by V.Ivanov. Moscow, 1959.
2. Windekens, A.J., Le tokharien confronté avec les autres langues indo-européennes. Louvain, 1976.
3. Burlak, S. The Historical Phonetics of Tocharian languages. Moscow, 1995.
4. Gamkrelidze T., Ivanov V. Indo-European Language and Indo-Europeans. Moscow, 1984.
5. Fasmer, M. The etymological dictionary of the Russian language. Moscow, 1986.
Notes for Dictionary:
general - Common Tocharian or Tocharian A words
italic - Tocharian B words
á, í, ú - long [a], [i] and [u] sounds
ç - a sound like in Sanskrit açva or in English cashier
ä - a sound similar to German Käse (cheese) or English band
ñ - a soft [n'] sound
s' - palatal [s] usually written as a little line over it
n., m., r., s. - cerebral sounds
@ - the Indo-European 'schwa' sound
Dictionary (192):
açc- - a beginning, a start (Sanskrit ásad- - to get down, ádis - a start, Slavic *jézda - a riding)
ak, ek - an eye (IE *okw- - an eye)
akmal - a face (see ak + malañ)
amokyo - art (instr.sg.)
asam.khe - a variety
as's'i - exactly (particle)
ats - exactly
ámpi - both (IE *ambh- + *bhó - both)
áñc - down
ánt - through, across
ánt, ánte - a forehead (IE *ant- - fore, forehead)
ant-api - both (see ámpi)
ákás'acc - to the sky
ánte - a plain
áre - a plough (IE *ár- - to plough)
árki , árkwi- - white (IE *arg'- - white, shining; silver)
ártimár - we should love
ásta - bones (IE *kost-, *ost- - a bone)
ati - grass (IE *ad- - to grow?)
bime - a thought, an idea
cake - a river (IE *tek- - to flow, to run)
ckácar, tkácer - a daughter (IE *dhutér- - a daughter)
142
çtwar, çtwer - four (IE *kwetwores - four)
e-, ai- - to give (IE *ay- - to give, to take)
eçane - an eye
ents-, en'k - to bear (IE *nek'- - to bear, to carry)
i- - to go (IE *ei- - to go)
íkam - twenty (IE *wíkmot - twenty)
kaklyus.u - on hearing (verbal adverb) (see klyos-)
kakmu - on coming (verbal adverb)
kaltr - he stops
käm- - to come (IE *gwem- 'come')
kam, keme - a ripple, a tooth (IE *gonbh- - a ledge)
känt, kant, kante - a hundred (IE *kmotom - a hundred)
kanwem - knees (dual, IE *genu- - a knee)
káryap - harm
kuryar, karyor - a purchase (IE *kwreya- - to buy)
kus - who? (IE *kwis - who)
käs - to go out, to extinguish (IE *gwes- - to extinguish)
kast - famine
kay-urs, ka-urs.e - a bull (IE *wers- - a bull)
kektseñe - a body
kerciye - a palace (IE *gher- - to stockade; a settlement)
kláw - to declare, to announce (IE *kleu- - to hear)
klots, klautso - an ear (IE *kleu- - to hear)
klyos- - to hear (IE *kleu- - to hear)
knán - to know (IE *gnó- - to know, from *gen- - kinship, a knee)
ko, keu - a cow (IE *gwou- - a bull)
krons'e - a bee (IE *k'ers- - an insect)
ksaise - old
ktsai - to grow old
ku - a dog (IE *kwon- - a dog)
kukäl, kokale - a wagon (IE *kwel- - round, a wheel)
kulmänts - reed (IE *k'[email protected] - straw)
kuras', krost - cold (IE *krus- - an edge of ice?)
kwyall - why?
laks, läks - a fish (IE *lak'@s- - fish, a salmon)
lap - a skull (Greek lophos - a nape, a hill, Slavic lob - a forehead)
lip- - to remain, to stay (IE *leikw- - to stay)
lk-, lyk- - to see (IE *léuk- - to see, to look)
lw - a beast
lyukemo - illuminated (participle) (IE *leuk- - light)
lyutár - excessively (Welsh llid < *lúto- - rage, Russian lyuty - angry, terrible)
má - not (Greek má, mé - not, Sanskrit má - don't)
mácar, mácer - a mother (IE *mátér- - a mother)
makí - much (IE *mag'- - large, many)
malañ - a cheek
malk-, mälk - to milk (IE *melg-, *melk- - to milk)
malto - for the first time (IE *mal-/*mel- - a top)
malyw, mely - to press (IE *mel- - to grind)
mañ, meñe - a month (IE *men-es- - moon, a month)
mänt - how
143
mäs's'unt - brains (IE *mazgh- - brains)
men'ki - less (IE *manw- - small, little)
misa - meat, flesh (IE *méms- - meat)
mit - honey (IE *medhu- - honey)
nás - us (IE *nosmes - we)
ñkat, ñakte - a god (IE *nekt- - a deity)
ñom, nem - a name (IE *nem- - to call, to assign)
ñu - new (IE *newo- - new)
ñú - nine (IE *newno - nine)
nut, naut - to die (IE *náw- - a corpse, to die)
okat, okt - eight (IE *októ - eight)
oki - like (conjunction)
om-post-am. - after that (IE *po- - after)
onkaläm - an elephant
orkäm - gloom, darkness (Greek orphnos - dark, dark brown)
orto - up (Latin orior - I rise)
pältsäkk - a thought
pák, páke - a section (IE *bhag- - to share with smb)
pácar, pacer - a father (IE *pa'te'r - a father)
päk- - to cook, ripen (IE *pekw-/ *pokw- 'to cook')
päl, píle - a wound (IE *bhal- - ill, sick)
pält, pilta - a leaf (IE *bhel- 'leaf')
pañä, piç, pis' - five (IE *penkwe - five)
pant, pin.kce - fifth (see above)
papaks.u - something boiled (*pek-, *pekw- - to bake)
pärkär - long
pärwán, pärwáne - an eyebrow (IE *bhrú- - an eyebrow)
pärvat, pärwes.s.e - the oldest, a wizard (see parwe)
parno, perne - shining (participle)
parwe - at first (?) (IE *pro-wo- - forward, first)
pás, pásk - to graze (IE *pá-, *paH- - to secure, to graze)
pe, pai - a foot (IE *ped- - a foot)
pin'kam. - he writes (IE *peik'- - to draw signs)
plák - to be agree
plewe - a ship, a boat (IE *pleu- - to sail)
pokem. - a hand (IE *bhághu- - a hand)
por., puwar - fire (IE *paur- - inanimate fire)
porat, peret - an axe (IE *pelk'- - to chop) - could be borrowed from Iranian
pracar, procer - a brother (IE *bhrátér- - a brother)
prak, pärk - to ask (IE *prok'- - to ask)
pres'ciye - ooze
put-k - to judge, to divide (Latin putare - to think, Russian pytat' - to torture)
rake, reki - speech, a word (IE *rek- - to speak)
ratre, rtär, ratrem. - red (IE *reudh- - red, rust)
ri, riye - a city
rit - to search
s.äk, skas - six (IE *sweks - six)
s'äk, s'ek, s'ak - ten (IE *dekmot - ten)
sále, sályi - salt (IE *sal- - grey, dirty; salt)
sälk- - to pull out (IE *selk- - to drag, a furrow)
144
salu, sol - whole (IE *salw- - whole, healthy)
s.älyp, s.alype - fat, oil (IE *selp- - fat)
s.amáne - a monk
s'äm, s'ana - a wife (IE *gwen- - a wife, a woman)
s'ánmaya - he was proclaimed
s.ar, s.er - a sister (IE *swesór- - a sister)
särk, sark - an illness
sas, se, s.eme - one (IE *sem- - one, the only, alone)
s'cirye - starry
se, soyä - a son (IE *sú- - to be born)
se (masc.), sá (fem.), te (neut.) - this (IE *so, *sá, *tod - this)
s'is'kiss - a lion (acc.sg.)
skente - they are (IE *es- - to be)
smimám. - smiling (participle) (IE *smey- - to laugh)
soma-, somo- - the same, similar (IE *smoo- - the same, some)
s.päm, s.päne - a dream (IE *swep- - to sleep, *swep-no- - a dream)
s.pät, sukt - seven (IE *septom - seven)
spin- - a hook, a peg (IE *spey- - a peg)
s.tám, stám - a tree (IE *stá- - to stand)
s.top, s.tow - a stick (IE *stúp- - a branch, a stump)
su (masc.), sá (fem.), tu (neut.) - that (see se)
súwa - to eat (Slavic *z'vati - to chew, Latvian z'aunas - gills, Old High German kiuwen - to chew, Armenian
kiv - arboreal resin, Persian javiden - to chew)
suwam. - it is raining (IE *seu-, *su- - to rain, to flow)
swase, swese - rain (see above)
täm - this (IE *to- - demonstrative pronoun)
tän'k-, tan'k- - to interfere (IE *tnog- - heavy, hard)
tápärk - now (Russian teper' - now?)
tek - to touch
tetriwu - he pounds (IE *ter- - to rub)
tkam, kem - ground (IE *dhghom- - ground)
tmäk - that is why
tmäs' - then
träm-, tärm-, treme (pl.) - to shiver, a shiver (IE *trem- - to shake)
tri, traiy - three (IE *treyes, *trí - three)
trit, trite - thrice (see above)
[email protected] - a hand (IE *g'hesro- - a hand)
tsär - rough, shaggy (IE *khar- - sharp)
tsatsápau - warmed (participle) (IE *tep- - warm)
tsik - to generate
tsirauñe - power, strength
tsras'i - strong
tsu- - to link, to bind (IE *dhów- - to bind)
tu - thou (IE *tú - thou)
tumane, tumám. - ten thousand
tunk - love
wac - a quarrel, struggle (IE *wod- - to speak, to shout)
waiwalau - dizziness (IE *wel- - to turn, to twist)
wak, wek - voice (IE *wekw-/ *wokw- 'voice')
wäl, walo - a prince (IE *wal- - strong, powerful)
145
wäl - to die
walke - long
wälts, yaltse - a thousand
want, yente - to fly, to breathe
wáp - to weave
wär - water (IE *war- - water, wet)
warto, wärto - a garden, a grove (IE *wer- - to defend, to close)
wäs - gold
wätk-, watk- - to order (see wac)
wes - we (IE *wei- - we, me and you)
weskemane - speaking (participle)
wramm - a thing
wrauña - a crow
wu (masc.), we (fem.) - we two (see wes)
wu, wi - two (IE *duwo, *dwo - two)
yam, ya, yám - to do (Hittite aia- - to do)
yok - to drink
yokani - thirsting (participle)
ysar, ysár - blood (IE *esór- - blood)
ysäs. (3rd sg. pres.), yayásau (participle) - to boil (IE *yes- - to boil)
ytár (f) - a path, a way (see i-)
yuk, yakwe - a horse (IE *ekwo- - a horse)
146