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Read - Club of Madrid
THE INTERNATIONAL SUMMIT ON DEMOCRACY, TERRORISM AND SECURITY
Club de Madrid, 2005
Towards a New Consensus
8 11March2005Madrid
THE INTERNATIONAL SUMMIT ON DEMOCRACY, TERRORISM AND SECURITY
Towards a New Consensus
8 11March2005Madrid
INTERNATIONAL SUMMIT ON
DEMOCRACY, TERRORISM AND SECURITY
8 11March2005Madrid
Towards a New Consensus
En homenaje y agradecimiento a todas las víctimas del terrorismo,
cuya memoria permanece viva en nuestra convivencia y la enriquece
constantemente.
Los ciudadanos de Madrid, 11 de marzo de 2005
Inscription inside the memorial fountain,
Bosque de los Ausentes, Parque del Retiro, Madrid
In honour and recognition of all victims of terrorism, whose memory remains
present in our daily life and constantly enriches it.
The citizens of Madrid, March 11, 2005
This booklet is available in Spanish and English.
To order additional copies, please write to:
Club de Madrid
Felipe IV, 9 – 3º izqda.
28014 Madrid
Spain
Tel: +34 91 523 72 16
Fax: +34 91 532 00 88
Email: [email protected]
Above: the entrance of the Palacio Municipal de Congresos, where the Madrid Summit was held.
Previous page: TT.MM The King and Queen of Spain during the official laying of the wreath at the Parque del Retiro, Madrid, on March
11, 2005.
Back cover
Pictures (from top to bottom, from left to right): Madrid Agenda press conference: Kofi Annan; during the panel The Necessary Alliance:
Nik Gowing and Timothy Garton Ash; H.M. The King of Spain in a conversation with his lunch guests Miguel Ángel Moratinos and
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero; main plenary; during the panel Democratic Reform in the Arab World: Carl Bildt and Lyse Doucet;
Working Group 5 Cultural explanations; H.R.H. The Prince of Asturias welcomed by Rt. Hon. Kim Campbell, Diego Hidalgo, Ana
Palacio, Narcis Serra, J. Christer Elfverson; Shimon Peres greets Sadiq Al Mahdi
© Club de Madrid, 2005
Pictures: Jesús Manchado
Design and Production: ESC / Scholz & Friends
Editorial Team: Peter R. Neumann, Henrik A. Lund, Agustina Briano, Gabriel Reyes Leguen
CONTENTS
Foreword
5
The Madrid Agenda
7
Official Speeches
Sponsors and Hosts
Special Plenary
Other Keynote Speeches
List of Delegations
11
16
18
21
Working Groups
Working Group Conclusions
Working Group Recommendations
22
26
Panels
Democracy and Terrorism
The Way Ahead
Other panels
30
31
32
Press Review
40
List of Participants
42
Club de Madrid
Mission and activities
List of members
49
51
Pictures (from left to right, from top to bottom): Fernando Henrique Cardoso welcoming H.M. The King of Spain; shaking
hands with Kofi Annan; in conversation with Alberto Ruíz Gallardón, Juan Fernando López Aguilar, Esperanza Aguirre; applauding
Kofi Annan’s Global Strategy: Fernando Henrique Cardoso, H.M. The King of Spain and José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero; closing
plenary: Maaouya Ould Sid’Ahmed Taya, H.R.H. The Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, José Luis Rodríguez
Zapatero, Josep Borrell, Jorge Sampaio, Jean-Claude Juncker, Kjell Magne Bondevik, Jaap de Hoop Scheffer; TT.RR.HH. The
Prince and Princess of Asturias greeted by Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Madrid, April 15, 2005
Dear friend,
It is difficult to describe what I felt when I first heard of the terrible terrorist attacks that took place in Madrid on March
11, 2004. At first, I simply could not believe that anyone would do this to the citizens of a city whose kindness I have
come to admire on many occasions throughout my political career and, lately, as President of the Club de Madrid.
Within a few weeks of the attacks, the idea of holding an international conference was born. The International Summit
on Democracy, Terrorism and Security was conceived to bring together the best scholars, expert practitioners, civic
leaders and the world’s most influential policy-makers. Together, we would show our solidarity with the people of Madrid
and mourn the victims of terrorism from around the world. Yet we would also use the opportunity to work towards a
new strategy against terrorism in the absolute determination that this must never happen again.
Based on the deliberations of sixteen working groups, the debates among policymakers and opinion leaders in more
than twenty panel sessions, and the contributions of more than sixty official delegations from national governments and
international institutions, we drew up an extensive document. The Madrid Agenda contains an impressive list of practical
policy recommendations, but more broadly, its underlying principles can be seen as a new framework: a new global
consensus on the issue of terrorism.
In my view, three themes are worth highlighting.
First, almost everyone at the Summit agreed that the threat from terrorism was real, but that it needed to be fought with
full respect for human rights and the rule of law. This is not only a moral imperative, it is also a practical one. If terrorism
is a form of psychological warfare that aims to provoke a repressive response, it is essential to maintain the moral high
ground and deny the terrorists the legitimacy for which they long.
Second, if terrorism has become a global challenge, narrow national mind-sets are no longer useful. All national institutions
need to redouble their efforts to improve international co-operation. The bottom line is that no nation can defeat terrorism
alone, and that a multilateral approach not only allows the sharing of political and financial costs, but also brings the
international credibility needed to sustain national policies in the longer term.
The third theme is perhaps the most important. It is the conviction that, ultimately, only democracy will defeat terrorism.
In societies in which people themselves determine their futures, terrorists lack the growth medium of resentment on
which they thrive. For democracy to become a societal immune system, however, it needs to be based on a vibrant
civil society and full respect for the right of ethnic and religious minorities.
To condemn terrorism unequivocally, to fight it through the rule of law, to promote international co-operation, and to
spread and deepen democracy – these are the elements of what I would describe as the ‘Madrid consensus’.
This consensus is not so much a middle way between the ‘war on terror’ and a misguided form of leniency: it is a new
paradigm cutting across the ideological divisions that have hindered the fight against terrorism in the past. It is the
Summit’s principal legacy, and I can assure you that all of us in the Club de Madrid will work very hard at turning this
vision into reality. We trust that you will help us in this effort.
Yours truly,
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
President of the Club de Madrid
Former President of Brazil
Pictures (from left to right, from top to bottom): press conference following the adoption of the Madrid Agenda: Mary Robinson,
Fernando Henrique Cardoso and the Rt. Hon. Kim Campbell; discussing the Madrid Agenda: Ruth Diamint and Poul N. Rasmussen;
Belisario Betancur and Sadiq Al Mahdi; Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada and Lionel Jospin; members of the Club de Madrid shortly
before the Madrid Agenda was adopted; José María Figueres and Andrés Pastrana
The Madrid Agenda
To remember and honour the victims of the terrorist attacks of March 11, 2004, the strength and courage of the
citizens of Madrid, and through them, all victims of terrorism and those who confront its threat.
We, the members of the Club de Madrid, former Presidents and Prime Ministers of democratic countries dedicated
to the promotion of democracy, have brought together political leaders, experts and citizens from across the world.
We listened to many voices. We acknowledged the widespread fear and uncertainty generated by terrorism. Our
principles and policy recommendations address these fundamental concerns.
Ours is a call to action for leaders everywhere. An agenda for action for governments, institutions, civil society, the
media and individuals. A global democratic response to the global threat of terrorism.
The Madrid Principles
Terrorism is a crime against all humanity. It endangers the lives of innocent people. It creates a climate of hate and
fear. It fuels global divisions along ethnic and religious lines. Terrorism constitutes one of the most serious violations
of peace, international law and the values of human dignity.
Terrorism is an attack on democracy and human rights. No cause justifies the targeting of civilians and noncombatants through intimidation and deadly acts of violence.
We firmly reject any ideology that guides the actions of terrorists. We decisively condemn their methods. Our vision
is based on a common set of universal values and principles. Freedom and human dignity. Protection and
empowerment of citizens. Building and strengthening of democracy at all levels. Promotion of peace and justice.
A Comprehensive Response
We owe it to the victims to bring the terrorists to justice. Law enforcement agencies need the powers required,
yet they must never sacrifice the principles they are meant to defend. Measures to counter terrorism should fully
respect international standards of human rights and the rule of law.
In the fight against terrorism, forceful measures are necessary. Military action, when needed, must always be coordinated with law enforcement and judicial measures, as well as political, diplomatic, economic and social responses.
We call upon every state to exercise its right and fulfil its duty to protect its citizens. Governments, individually and
collectively, should prevent and combat terrorist acts. International institutions, governments and civil society should
also address the underlying risk factors that provide terrorists with support and recruits.
International Co-operation
Terrorism is now a global threat. We saw it not only in Madrid, New York and Washington, but also in Dar-esSalaam, Nairobi, Tel Aviv, Bali, Riyadh, Casablanca, Baghdad, Bombay, and Beslan. It calls for a global response.
Governments and civil society must reignite their efforts at promoting international engagement, co-operation and
dialogue.
International legitimacy is a moral and practical imperative. A multilateral approach is indispensable. International
institutions, especially the United Nations, must be strengthened. We must renew our efforts to make these
institutions more transparent, democratic and effective in combating the threat.
Narrow national mindsets are counterproductive. Legal institutions, law enforcement and intelligence agencies must
cooperate and exchange pertinent information across national boundaries.
Citizens and Democracy
Only freedom and democracy can ultimately defeat terrorism. No other system of government can claim more
legitimacy, and through no other system can political grievances be addressed more effectively.
Citizens promote and defend democracy. We must support the growth of democratic movements in every nation,
and reaffirm our commitment to solidarity, inclusiveness and respect for cultural diversity.
Citizens are actors, not spectators. They embody the principles and values of democracy. A vibrant civil society plays
a strategic role in protecting local communities, countering extremist ideologies and dealing with political violence.
7
A Call to Action
An aggression on any nation is an aggression on all nations. An injury to one human being is an injury to all humanity.
Indifference cannot be countenanced. We call on each and everyone. On all States, all organizations – national
and international. On all citizens.
Drawing on the deliberations of political leaders, experts and citizens, we have identified the following recommendations
for action, which we believe should be extended, reviewed, and implemented as part of an ongoing, dynamic
process.
The Madrid Recommendations
Political and philosophical differences about the nature of terrorism must not be used as an excuse for inaction.
We support the Global Strategy for Fighting Terrorism announced by the Secretary General of the United Nations
at the Madrid Summit on March 10. We urgently call for:
• the adoption of the definition proposed by the United Nations High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and
Change.
• the ratification and implementation of all terrorism-related conventions by those states which have not yet
done so.
• the speedy conclusion of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism.
And we believe it is a moral and practical necessity to address the needs of terrorist victims. We therefore recommend:
• the exploration of the possibility of creating high commissioners for victims both at the international and the
national level, who will represent the victims’ right to know the truth, as well as obtain justice, adequate redress
and integral reparation.
International Co-operation
The basis for effective co-operation across national borders is trust and respect for the rule of law. Trust is built
through shared norms, reciprocity and the practical experience of effective collaboration. To encourage this sense
of mutual confidence, we propose:
• the establishment of regular, informal forums for law enforcement and intelligence officials, which may grow from
bilateral consultations into a formalised structure for multilateral co-operation.
• the strengthening of regional organisations, so that measures to combat terrorism are tailored to local needs and
benefit from local knowledge and networks.
• the effective co-ordination of these mechanisms at the global level.
International collaboration in the fight against terrorism is also a question of human and financial capital.
We call for:
• the establishment of an international mechanism – including states, non-governmental organisations and the
private sector – to help link states that are in need of resources with those that can provide assistance.
• the creation of a trust fund for the purpose of assisting governments that lack the financial resources to implement
their obligations, as proposed by the United Nations High-Level Panel.
Underlying Risk Factors
Terrorism thrives on intimidation, fear and hatred. While authorities have a responsibility to ensure freedom, including
religious freedom, leaders, including religious leaders, have a responsibility not to abuse that freedom by encouraging
or justifying hatred, fanaticism or religious war. We propose:
• the systematic promotion of cultural and religious dialogue through local encounters, round tables and international
exchange programmes.
• the continuous review by the authorities and the mass media of their use of language, to ensure it does not
unwittingly or disproportionately reinforce the terrorist objective of intimidation, fear and hatred.
• the creation of programmes, national and international, to monitor the expression of racism, ethnic confrontation
and religious extremism and their impact in the media, as well as to review school textbooks for their stance on
cultural and religious tolerance.
8
While poverty is not a direct cause of terrorism, economic and social policy can help mitigate exclusion and the
impact of rapid socioeconomic change, which give rise to grievances that are often exploited by terrorists.
We recommend:
• the adoption of long-term trade, aid and investment policies that help empower marginalised groups and promote
participation.
• new efforts to reduce structural inequalities within societies by eliminating group discrimination.
• the launch of programmes aimed at promoting women’s education, employment and empowerment.
• the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
Terrorists prosper in societies where there are unresolved conflicts and few accountable mechanisms for addressing
political grievances. We call for:
• new initiatives at mediation and peace-making for societies which are marked by conflict and division, because
democracy and peace go hand in hand.
• a redoubling of efforts to promote and strengthen democratic institutions and transparency within countries and
at the global level. Initiatives such as the Community of Democracies may contribute to this goal.
Confronting Terrorism
Democratic principles and values are essential tools in the fight against terrorism. Any successful strategy for dealing
with terrorism requires terrorists to be isolated. Consequently, the preference must be to treat terrorism as criminal
acts to be handled through existing systems of law enforcement and with full respect for human rights and the
rule of law. We recommend:
• taking effective measures to make impunity impossible either for acts of terrorism or for the abuse of human
rights in counter-terrorism measures.
• the incorporation of human rights laws in all anti-terrorism programmes and policies of national governments as
well as international bodies.
• the implementation of the proposal to create a special rapporteur who would report to the United Nations
Commission on Human Rights on the compatibility of counter-terrorism measures with human rights law, as
endorsed by the United Nations Secretary General in Madrid.
• the inclusion and integration of minority and diaspora communities in our societies.
• the building of democratic political institutions across the world embodying these same principles.
In the fight against terrorism, any information about attacks on another state must be treated like information relating
to attacks on one’s own state. In order to facilitate the sharing of intelligence across borders, we propose:
• the overhaul of classification rules that hinder the rapid exchange of information.
• the clarification of conditions under which information will be shared with other states on the basis of availability.
• the use of state of the art technology to create regional and global anti-terrorism data bases.
The principle of international solidarity and co-operation must also apply to defensive measures. We recommend:
• the creation of cross-border preparedness programmes in which governments and private business participate
in building shared stockpiles of pharmaceuticals and vaccines, as well as the seamless co-operation of emergency
services.
Solidarity must be enhanced by new efforts at co-ordinating the existing instruments of anti-terrorist collaboration.
We propose:
• the streamlining and harmonisation of national and international tools in the fight against terrorism.
• the creation of clear guidelines on the role of the armed forces in relation to other agencies of law enforcement
at the national level.
• the drawing up of national plans to co-ordinate responsibilities in the fight against terrorism, allowing for agencies
or organisations with special skills to contribute to a comprehensive effort.
9
The threat from terrorism has made efforts to limit the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction even more
urgent. We call for:
• the United Nations Security Council to initiate on-site investigations where it is believed that a state is supporting
terrorist networks, and if necessary to use the full range of measures under Chapter VII of the United Nations
Charter.
• the conclusion of the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, and the
strengthening and implementation of the biological weapons convention.
• the continuation of innovative global efforts to reduce the threat from weapons of mass destruction, such as the
Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Global Partnerships.
Terrorists must be deprived of the financial resources necessary to conduct their campaigns. To curb terrorist
funding networks, we recommend:
• increased and co-ordinated law enforcement and political and civic education campaigns aimed at reducing the
trafficking of illegal narcotics, revenues from which are used to finance terrorism.
• the creation of an international anti-terrorist finance centre, which furthers research, trains national enforcement
officials, and serves as a source of co-ordination and mutual assistance.
• the development of tools to increase the transparency of fundraising in the private and charitable sectors through
the exchange of best practices.
• the expansion of ‘financial intelligence units’, which facilitate the effective corporation between government
agencies and financial institutions.
Civil Society
The process of building democracy as an antidote to terrorism and violence needs to be supported by the
international community and its citizens. We propose:
• the creation of a global citizens network, linking the leaders of civil society at the forefront of the fight for democracy
from across the world, taking full advantage of web-based technologies and other innovative forms of communication.
• an ‘early warning system’ as part of this network, helping to defuse local conflicts before they escalate, as well
as providing a channel for moral and material support to civil society groups facing repression.
Taking The Madrid Agenda Forward
The Club de Madrid will present the Madrid Agenda to the United Nations, the forthcoming Community of
Democracies ministerial meeting in Chile, as well as other institutions and governments. The Club de Madrid will
engage with universities, specialised research institutes and think-tanks to elaborate the proposals made by the
Summit’s working groups and panels.
The space for dialogue and exchange of ideas opened by this Summit, drawing on the work of the numerous
experts, practitioners and policymakers involved, must continue. The papers prepared provide a powerful tool for
all those who wish to understand the challenge from terrorism and seek effective solutions.
Keeping in our hearts the memory of the victims of terrorism in different continents, and in particular the terrible
attacks in the United States in 2001, we believe it would have both symbolic and practical value to hold a further
global conference on September 11, 2006, to take stock of the progress made in realising the Madrid Agenda.
Madrid, March 11, 2005
10
Official Speeches
Sponsors and Hosts
The Club de Madrid expresses deep gratitude to the Spanish Royal Household, the Government of Spain, the Government of
Norway, the Community of Madrid and the City Council of Madrid for the support given. In the following, find excerpts from the
speeches delivered by their representatives. The full text and audio can be found at www.clubmadrid.org.
H.M. The King of Spain, Juan Carlos I
High Patron of the International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security
March 10, 2005
In the autumn of 2001, I had the honour of closing the
Conference on Democratic Transition and Consolidation,
which [gave birth to] the Club de Madrid. That was a
Conference marked by the shock of the terrorist attacks in
New York and Washington on September 11, which was
Terrorism is a perverse phenomenon, inhuman and
unjustifiable, fundamentally contrary to democracy and the
pillars of democratic order. Free, democratic societies can
neither bow nor make concessions to terrorism or the threats,
blackmail and perverse demands it makes. To do so would
be to greatly undermine the
principles and values which
constitute their very foundation as
societies.
Hence the moral obligation of all
democracies to fight, together,
against terrorist violence and against
those who lend it any form of help,
support or protection. It is a fight
that must be pursued with the
strength of our values and
convictions, and which must make
full use of all the tools provided by
the rule of law. It must also be carried
out via the reinforcement of
international cooperation, bilaterally
and multilaterally, through the
relevant international organisations,
based on their principles.
still recent in everyone’s mind, and the subsequent need for
all democracies to intensify their efforts and the level of
cooperation in order to put an end to terrorism, for which
– cruel, abhorrent, totalitarian and senseless as it is – there
can never be any justification whatsoever …
Unity, determination and cooperation are therefore essential
and must go hand in hand in the fight that we must pursue
as democratic societies for the supremacy of the ethical
values on which pluralism, tolerance and the capacity to live
together in peace inevitably hinge.
Tomorrow will be a year to the day since one
hundred and ninety two children, women and
men were brutally killed; a year to the day since
hundreds more were injured, with varying degrees
of gravity; a year to the day since thousands of
families were forced to come face to face with
an immense tragedy, which plunged Spain into
the deepest depths of pain and mourning. The
response from the Spanish people was twofold:
a unanimous outcry of repulsion and indignation
went hand in hand with a show of solidarity that
was as admirable as it was spontaneous. It was
a response bereft of the slightest tinge xenophobia,
and fraught with serenity and generosity …
11
Unity, because divisions within a society only make it weaker
in its fight against terrorism. Determination, because the terrorist
threat affects our fundamental rights and freedoms. And
cooperation, because we face a phenomenon that transcends
borders and can so easily creep into other societies in an age
in which globalisation is an indisputable fact.
of terrorism. Their deaths, their scars, their physical mutilation,
the example of courage which they represent only serve to
remind us every day of our great debt towards them – all of
them – and their families. They deserve nothing less than our
most sincere affection, support and solidarity, and it behoves
us to see to their every need, and carefully protect their rights
and sensibilities.
Unity, determination, cooperation: concepts which find an easy
way into our hearts given the indelible memory of all the victims
H.R.H. The Prince of Asturias, Felipe de Borbón y Grecia
March 8, 2005
Spain, a free, plural, democratic and peace-loving society,
has, unfortunately, been suffering for many years much
death and pain caused by terrorism. It is by no means the
only country that suffers such ills, but here in Spain we have
always strongly expressed our emphatic rejection and
indignation at every terrorist attack, wherever and whenever
it takes place …
Democracy is based on the respect for human rights,
freedom, and pluralism, and the rule of law is essential if it
is to be guaranteed. Terrorism, on the other hand, is, by its
very essence and definition, a threat to life; it violates
fundamental rights, denies freedom and strikes at the very
core of the rule of law. It is therefore, by its very nature, an
enemy of democracy and international security...
Our common objective can be none other than to put an
end to it. The totalitarian mentality of terrorists must be met
by our passion for life, freedom, justice and democracy. The
ethical superiority of a system of which pluralism is the
corner stone must provide a counter to their brutality, and
that of those who lend them help and support. We should
therefore make full use of the efficacy and effectiveness of
democratic institutions and the weight of justice and the
law. Therein lie our strength and reason.
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, Prime Minister of Spain
March 10, 2005
It would be a very serious error to think that behind
international terrorism there is a new ideological division, a
clash of civilisations that makes certain societies or groups
suspicious. History shows that terrorism has been used to
support different ideologies or religious confessions. It isn’t,
therefore, inherent to any particular ideology or religion.
However, certain visions, which clearly lack a full and proper
grasp of the issue, choose to place terrorism within the
radical and fanatical outlook of a religion that may be a key
element of identity of many countries and peoples. It is a
very serious error that only leads to incomprehension among
cultures and within the international community.
Incomprehension is the step prior to separation. Separation
engenders the temptation for hate, and hatred opens the
door to violence.
12
For that very reason, before the UN General Assembly last
September, I proposed an Alliance of Civilisations based on
knowledge, understanding and respect for the other. The
interest shown in that proposal, the many who have bought
into the idea, the moves – thus far – to make it a concrete
reality, only go to show the extent to which the International
Community, as a whole, is fully conscious of the need to
act to close the gap that has opened between the West
and the Islamic world. We cannot remain inactive, and allow
that gap to widen.
The idea that the United Nations Secretary-General should
constitute a group of high level officials dedicated to that
task has gained significant ground. Their mandate must be
clear and precise. It must include the study of the factors
police co-operation and greater co-operation among
intelligence services from country to country. Let us strive
for the greatest possible coherence and rigour in our fight
against terrorism. And let us, in the name of such rigour and
coherence, tirelessly pursue, within individual national borders
and beyond, the trafficking and illegal trading of arms and
explosives, which are used, outside of the law, to spread
terror and impose force.
that have led to this international fall-out and formulate
concrete proposals for the United Nations to provide efficient
solutions to the situation created. Our common aim is to
establish, within the United Nations, a plan of action that
would include measures that pave the way for this
rapprochement between civilisations. Politically, culturally,
economically and in the interest of greater security …
[Finally,] the more democracy there is, the better the quality
of democracy, the more freedom, justice, peace, equality
and peace there are, the less terrorism there will be until it
disappears completely. Man has managed far more difficult
conquests in his history. He has always done so whenever
that immense humanity we all possess deep within has
chosen to serve the most noble causes. The cause that
brings us together here is a noble one.
Let us strengthen the United Nations, multilateralism and
international legality. Let us move to fulfil the Millennium
Objective of poverty eradication. Let us defend the principle
of the peaceful resolution of conflicts. Let us set in motion
the Alliance of Civilisations. Let us increase our collective
security, by loyally sharing legal models, by having greater
Kjell Magne Bondevik, Prime Minister of Norway
March 10, 2005
We cannot do away with terrorism on the battlefield or in
the courtrooms [alone]; terrorism must also be defeated in
people’s hearts and minds … Firstly, democratic, economic
and social development is necessary to give those in need
hope for a better future ... We must provide outlets for
human ambitions, hopes and beliefs, but also for anger and
grief. Secondly, extremist ideologies are a cause of terrorism…
Love, peace, brotherhood and reconciliation are central to
all great religions; terrorism is alien to them all. Through interreligious dialogue, we must build on the values that unite
us.
And thirdly, countless children are today being raised in
an atmosphere of hatred and intolerance. Education can
and should be a primary tool to achieve the opposite. It
should promote tolerance and mutual respect, and parents
have a special responsibility here. … The same applies
to school curricula and religious teachings. Equal access
to education, allowing all children to realise their full
potential, is vital. To sum it up: development, respect for
human rights and democracy are our best protection
against the terrorist threat.
13
Esperanza Aguirre, President of the Regional Government of Madrid
March 8, 2005
On March 11 last year, Madrid was the victim of a particularly
barbaric act, carried out by some terrorists who were
operating for the first time in Spanish territory, but who have
in common with other terrorists not only their methods based
on the most absolute contempt for human life, but the same
totalitarian ends, which are none other than keeping in
submission all those citizens who wish to be free …
Madrid, like Spain, knows a great deal about terrorism, and
knows that terrorism can only be combated and eradicated
with the very firm conviction that the values on which
democratic societies are based are not negotiable. Freedom,
equality before the law for all citizens, whatever their sex,
race, religion or condition, the rule of law, democracy …
none of these things can be questioned if we want terrorists
to know that their crimes are doomed to failure. Furthermore,
all those citizens who are fortunate enough to live in spaces
of freedom, in democracies such as ours, must know, need
to know, that their governments will never give in to terrorists,
because there is simply no possibility of dialogue between
citizens who defend freedom, the law, and democracy, and
those who wish, through terror, to take such things away
from them.
Our values, the value of freedom, equality, and democracy
are superior, infinitely superior, to the visionary utopias and
totalitarian projects of all terrorists. In defence of those values,
Spaniards know that there can be no half-measures,
ambiguities or shady compromises.
Alberto Ruíz Gallardón, Mayor of Madrid
March 9, 2005
On March 11th [2004], the eyes of the world were upon
us because of a crime and a tragedy. Today, they are
again upon us, because of hope and honest undertaking.
Because, after great, indeed very great, pain, after a year
of suffering and perplexity, Madrid is itself again. It is itself
again and can welcome one of the biggest meetings of
Heads of State and Government, former heads of state
and government, academics, intellectuals, artists and
religious leaders, ever …
We need your firm undertaking and effort to make it easier
for us to feel safe again. We need your capacity to penetrate
into the dark minds that attacked us, so we may find a way
to prevent them from doing so again. That is why we believe
that those of you who are here have a certain responsibility
towards Madrid and towards the world, to find the keys that
would allow us to eradicate the scourge of terrorism from
the face of the earth. That is why Madrid, this city which is
also your city, is humbly asking you, today, with humility and
firmness, to put your greatest ethical and intellectual efforts
to the task …
14
We are proud that this undertaking in the name of
democratisation, which also represents a fight against
terrorism, bears the name of our city. Because, as someone
wrote, ‘freedom is indivisible, and even if just one man is
enslaved, none of us are free’. For that very reason, as long
as terrorism continues to be one of the scourges of the
world … Madrid, a city of solidarity … will continue to feel
threatened.
Fernando Henrique Cardoso, President of the Club de Madrid
March 8, 2005
Our common challenge is to rebuild a consensus among
democratic nations on the need for effective strategies to
fight terrorism and safeguard the values and practices of
democracy. To be effective and legitimate, the global response
against terrorism must be based on the full respect for
strengthening of international trust and co-operation among
peoples and governments is absolutely imperative for
concerted action … [Indeed] building trust and cooperation
is more critical than creating new agencies and institutional
mechanisms …
Recent developments in
Afghanistan, Iraq and
Palestine represent concrete
steps in the arduous process
of building democracy, peace
and security. Fair elections
were held in all those
countries, in some of them
against all odds. Those
efforts must be supported.
human rights and the principles of international law. The
means we choose must reflect the ends we seek.
We must combine strength and resilience – including the
consensual decision to use force whenever necessary –
with the unwavering commitment to the due process of law,
both internationally and in every single nation. The
Democracy cannot be
imposed from above and
from the outside. It is
essentially a national
construction. But these
internal processes can and
should be supported by the
international community, by
the United Nations, by
individual countries.
[Furthermore,] democracy is promoted and defended by
people. Citizens are active players, not passive victims. Let
us discuss new forms of alliance and solidarity with leaders
of civil society that are at the forefront of the fight for
democracy in their countries.
p. 11
Pictures: closing remarks: H.M. The King of Spain; audience during the closing remarks of H.M. The King of Spain (from left to
right): H.R.H. Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg, Abdoulay Wade, Stjepan Mesić, Vaira Vike-Freiberga, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, Jorge
Sampaio, Maaouya Ould Sid’Ahmed Taya, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, H.M. Queen Sofía of Spain, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero,
and Kofi Annan
p. 12
Picture: inaugural speech: H.R.H. The Prince of Asturias
p. 13
Pictures: keynote speech: José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero; arrival at the Summit: Nicolas Martínez Fresno, José Luis Rodríguez
Zapatero and Juan Carlos Gafo; keynote speech: Kjell Magne Bondevik
p. 14
Pictures: keynote speech: Esperanza Aguirre; keynote speech: Alberto Ruíz Gallardón
p. 15
Picture: inaugural address: Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Special Plenary
The following are excerpts from the Global Strategy for Fighting Terrorism, presented by Kofi Annan, Secretary-General
of the United Nations, at the Madrid Summit on March 10. For the full text and audio, see www.clubmadrid.org.
A Global Strategy for Fighting Terrorism
This seems to me a fitting occasion to set out the main
elements of [a principled, comprehensive strategy for fighting
terrorism] and the role of the United Nations in it. There are
five elements, and I shall call them the ‘five D’s’ …
Let me start with the first D: dissuading disaffected groups
from choosing terrorism as a tactic …
• It should be clearly stated, by all possible moral and political
authorities, that terrorism is unacceptable under any
circumstances, and in any culture.
• The United Nations and its Specialised Agencies played
a central role in negotiating and adopting twelve international
anti-terrorism treaties. Now the time has come to complete
a comprehensive convention outlawing terrorism in all its
forms.
• For too long the moral authority of the United Nations in
confronting terrorism has been weakened by the spectacle
of protracted negotiations. But the report of the High-Level
Panel offers us a way to end these arguments … The Panel
calls for a definition of terrorism which would make it clear
that any action constitutes terrorism if it is intended to
cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or noncombatants, with the purpose of intimidating a population
16
or compelling a Government or an international organization
to do or abstain from doing any act. I believe this proposal
has clear moral force, and I strongly urge world leaders to
unite behind it, with a view to adopting the comprehensive
convention as soon as possible …
I will now turn to the second D: denying terrorists the means
to carry out their attacks …
• The UN Convention on the Suppression of Financing of
Terrorism has been in force for three years … [but] we also
need effective action against money-laundering. Here the
United Nations could adopt and promote the eight Special
Recommendations on Terrorist Financing produced by the
OECD’s Financial Action Task Force.
• Perhaps the thing that it is most vital we deny to terrorists
is access to nuclear materials … Both the G8 and the UN
Security Council have taken important steps ... We need
to make sure these measures are fully enforced, and that
they reinforce each other. I urge the Member States of the
United Nations to complete and adopt, without delay, the
international convention on nuclear terrorism. And I applaud
the efforts of the Proliferation Security Initiative to fill a gap
in our defences.
My third D is the need to deter states from supporting
terrorist groups.
• In the past the United Nations has not shrunk from
confronting states that harbour and assist terrorists, and
the Security Council has repeatedly applied sanctions …
This firm line must be maintained and strengthened. All
states must know that, if they give any kind of support to
terrorists, the Council will not hesitate to use coercive
measures against them.
The fourth D is to develop state capacity to prevent terrorism.
• Terrorists exploit weak states as havens where they can
hide from arrest, and train or recruit personnel. Making all
states more capable and responsible must therefore be
the cornerstone of our global counter-terrorism effort. This
means promoting good governance and above all the rule
of law, with professional police and security forces who
respect human rights …
• But many poor countries genuinely cannot afford to build
the capacity they need. They need help. The new CounterTerrorism Directorate will assess their needs, and develop
a comprehensive approach to technical assistance …
Last, but far from least, the fifth D — we must defend human
rights …
• Upholding human rights is not merely compatible with a
successful counter-terrorism strategy. It is an essential
element in it. I therefore strongly endorse the recent proposal
to create a special rapporteur who would report to the
Commission on Human Rights on the compatibility of
counter-terrorism measures with international human rights
laws.
That completes my brief summary of the most important
elements of a comprehensive strategy to fight terrorism …
Tomorrow morning we shall commemorate, in deep sorrow,
and in common with the whole of Europe — indeed, the
whole world — the 192 innocent people who were so brutally,
p. 16
Picture: view of the plenary; Kofi Annan
p. 17
Picture: keynote speech: Kofi Annan
inexcusably murdered in the terrorist attack here in Madrid
exactly one year ago …
To all victims around the world, our words of sympathy can
bring only hollow comfort. They know that no one who is
not so directly affected can truly share their grief. At least
let us not exploit it. We must respect them. We must listen
to them. We must do what we can to help them. We must
resolve to do everything in our power to spare others from
meeting their fate.
Other Keynote Speeches
The Madrid Summit was attended by delegations from sixty-three states and international institutions. The full text and
audio of their statements can be found on the Club de Madrid’s web site (www.clubmadrid.org). In the following, find
excerpts of some of these contributions in alphabetical order of the states or institutions the speakers represented.
All speeches were delivered on March 10.
Hamid Karzai, President of the Islamic
Republic of Afghanistan
Extremism and terrorism aim to divide people, break up
societies and families, and hold people down by hatred, by
inflicting harm. In Afghanistan, the Afghan people, together
with the rest of us here, the international community, proved
the other way: that that cannot happen when the world,
mankind, women and men get together and help each other.
In Afghanistan today, the example is not one of terrorism
succeeding; the example is one of mankind succeeding and
defeating terrorism.
has featured very prominently on the political map of
developing countries, yet only with the kidnapping of
journalists and development workers in Iraq has the topic
been given attention by the international community as a
whole.
Terry Davis, Secretary General of the
Council of Europe
It is not possible for countries who are members of the
Council of Europe … to deport to a country where there’s
a risk of … inhumane degrading treatment or the death
penalty. So that is a restriction – an obstacle to dealing with
international terrorism. It is not an obstacle, however, which
should be removed by making it possible to deport to
countries. It’s torture and the death penalty that need to be
removed.
José Manuel Durão Barroso, President of
the European Commission
A terrorist attack on any part of the European Union
affects the European Union in its entirety. This is natural,
because the European Union is a union of nations whose
governments have signed a constitutional treaty that
embraces the principle of solidarity … [Indeed, while] we
cannot bring back the lives of lost loved ones, we can
work together to make our societies more secure and
offer the promise of a better world to our children.
Abdelaziz Bouteflika, President of the
People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
The defence and the promotion of humans rights, freedom
and democracy are vital elements of a new system of
collective security. In this respect, it is important that acts
of terrorism qualify as crimes under international law, and
that the Counter-Terrorism Committee of the Security Council
actively contributes to the extension of anti-terrorist cooperation in whatever area is required.
Francisco Santos Calderón, Vice President
of Colombia
There are other forms of terrorist acts about which we talk
very little, but which should not be ignored. I would like to
mention one in particular, that of kidnapping. Over the past
ten years, more than twenty-five thousand Colombians have
been abducted, mostly by illegal organisations. The issue
18
Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the
European Council and Prime Minister of
Luxembourg
Secret services keep on behaving as if the security concern
was exclusively national, whereas in reality it has become
continental and even global. It is not just a matter of fighting
terrorist finance, not just a matter of putting in place the
necessary legislative instruments: we also need to understand
that – although there is no justification for terrorism because
there is no justification ever for killing others – we need to
fight the paths of recruitment on which the terrorist networks
can rely.
Josep Borell, President of the European
Parliament
To fight against terrorism makes it necessary to ask for its
causes … Some reject this because they think that to speak
of causes means to justify it. Nothing could be further from
the truth ... Prevention must take place inside each society,
by ensuring the full integration of immigrants, furthering their
social, cultural, and religious integration, through the
promotion of dialogue, by fighting against discrimination,
renewing our efforts at external prevention, as well as by
initiating co-operation between intelligence services.
Joschka Fischer, Vice-Chancellor and
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Germany
We must take a closer look at our own countries and societies
… A firm commitment to tolerance and to the fundamental
values of an open society is absolutely essential, and so is
our struggle against the threats of intolerance, racism and
anti-Semitism. And it is just as important that we do everything
we can to redress the circumstances which foster such
activities, through better integration of minorities and migrants.
bolster co-operation; and we are reaching out to new regions
across the Mediterranean and into the Middle East to foster
understanding and assist reform.
Marek Belka, Prime Minister of the Republic
of Poland
One additional aspect of international collaboration is often
overlooked. Many instruments that serve the war on terrorism
can also be used to prevent or minimize the adverse results
of natural disasters. Early warning systems, the co-ordination
of rescue operations, the creation of rapid reaction forces,
the safeguarding of areas affected by disasters or
contamination, the distribution of medical supplies, hospital
care for victims and infrastructure protection are but a few
examples. Indeed, contemporary terrorism is a kind of
catastrophe too, caused not by the forces of nature but by
the influence of distorted ideologies and contaminated
minds.
Igor Ivanov, Secretary of the Security
Council of the Russian Federation
No reason whatsoever, whether it is political or ideological,
should be used to defend or justify terrorist attacks. Neither
the actual perpetrators nor those who encourage them to
commit these acts should be able to escape their
responsibility. If a state harbours terrorists or their accomplices,
for whatever reason, the trust among members of the
international community is undermined. This gives terrorists
a justification and encourages them to commit new atrocities.
...In order to reinforce the co-operation in the fight against
terrorism, we always must guard the respect for the rights
and liberties of man. For this purpose, Russia has presented
a resolution to the General Assembly of the UN, Human
rights and Terrorism, which – among other elements –
includes important principles such as the right of human
beings to be protected against terrorism.
Kostantinos Karamanlis, Prime Minister of
Greece
An example of effective collaboration in the area of antiterrorism were the Olympic Games in Athens in the summer
of 2004. It was the biggest international sports event after
the abhorrent attacks of September 11, 2001. The measures
taken by Greece, along with the co-operation provided by
the international community, resulted in the games being
held in a safe environment with full respect for the Olympic
principles, while not restricting the human rights and civil
liberties of both Greek citizens and foreign visitors.
Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, Secretary General
of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
Democracy remains the best answer to terror, as we all
recognise today here in Madrid. The Atlantic Alliance is
standing up to protect and promote these basic values ...
We are building better, deeper relations with farther nations
and other international organisations to spread stability and
19
Abdoulay Wade, President of the Republic
of Senegal
If we want to defeat terrorism, we need to stress the
incompatibility of terrorism and religion … In fact, during an
anti-terrorism conference in Dakar in 2001, for which I had
taken the initiative, it was remarked that the word ‘peace’
could be found 668 times in the Koran, whereas the word
‘war’ appeared on only eight occasions. One would be hardpressed, therefore, to find a doctrine of violence in the holy
scriptures.
Petro Poroschenko, Secretary of the
National Security and Defence Council of
Ukraine
The new democratic Ukraine shares the international
community’s concern over the growth of international
terrorism … We believe that the establishment – within a
United Nations framework – of a unified databank of
international criminal organisations that are linked to terrorist
activity could become an effective step in strengthening
international co-operation in the fight against terrorism …
We think it is vital to create an international mechanism
which facilitates the interaction between law enforcement
bodies in emergency situations … [Indeed,] international
co-operation might also include the exchange of technology
as well as technical and military equipment for the purpose
of countering terrorism.
Alberto Gonzales, Attorney General, United
States of America
Ronnie Kasrils, Minister of Intelligence of
the Republic of South Africa
We join the United Nations in stressing the need to achieve
the Millennium Development goals to assist the poorer
countries in achieving development. This will prevent … the
growth of frustrations and [thus] the growth of terrorist bases
in failed states of such regions. [In other words,] we need
to address human security issues: if one addresses the
need for security from want, one addresses the need for
security from fear, because the extremists exploit people’s
deprivation in order to gain recruits.
In this battle against terrorism, we are all looking for ways
to seize the initiative. And we seek to do so in a way that
is consistent with the rule of law, knowing that how we fight
reflects our shared respect for individual rights and liberties
-the ultimate foundations of enduring democracies ... Europe
and the United States have never worked more closely in
law enforcement than we have since September 11, 2001.
Ahmad Al Soswa, Minister of Human Rights,
Republic of Yemen
In Yemen, which is a very small and poor country that has
been hit by terrorism a long time before the terrible attacks
on September 11 … we tried our best to strike that balance
between enforcing the law and the question of human rights
... We know and we all agree that only democracy and
human rights will defeat terrorism. But this is going to be a
very long journey.
Samuel Schmid, President of the Swiss
Confederation
In Switzerland, we apply the Money Laundering Act, which
stipulates that in justified cases of suspected money
laundering, links with a crime or a criminal organisation,
banks and financial intermediaries are obliged to block the
accounts in question. For Switzerland, as an important
international financial centre, the fight against terrorism, and
especially cooperation in the identification and blocking of
assets attributed to international terrorism, has become an
important issue.
p. 18
Pictures (from top to bottom): Hamid Karzai; José Manuel Durão Barroso
p. 19
Picture: Igor Ivanov
p. 20
Pictures (from top to bottom): Abdoulay Wade; Ahmad Al Soswa
List of Delegations
Heads of State or Government
Heads of International Organisations
Afghanistan: Hamid Karzai, President
Algeria: Abdelaziz Bouteflika, President
Croatia: Stjepan Mesić, President
Dominican Republic: Leonel Fernández Reyna, President
Ethiopia: Girma Woldegiorgis, President
Greece: Konstantinos Karamanlis, Prime Minister
Latvia: Vaira Vike-Freiberga, President
Luxembourg: H.R.H. Grand Duke Henri
Mauritania: Maaouya Ould Sid’Ahmed Taya, President
Norway: Kjell Magne Bondevik, Prime Minister
Poland: Marek Belka, Prime Minister
Portugal: Jorge Sampaio, President
Romania: Călin Popescu Tăriceanu, Prime Minister
Senegal: Abdoulay Wade, President
Serbia and Montenegro: Svetozar Marović, President
Switzerland: Samuel Schmid, President
Turkey: Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Prime Minister
United Nations: Kofi Annan, Secretary-General
European Parliament: Josep Borell, President
European Council: Jean-Claude Juncker, President
European Commission: José Manuel Durão Barroso,
President
European Council: Javier Solana, Secretary General
Council of Europe: Terry Davis, Secretary General
Inter-American Development Bank: Enrique Iglesias,
President
League of Arab States: Amre Moussa, Secretary
General
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation: Jaap de Hoop
Scheffer, Secretary General
Other Delegations
(in alphabetical order of state represented)
Austria: Liese Prokop, Minister of the Interior
Belgium: Patrick Dewael, Vice Prime Minister
Bulgaria: Zhelio Mitev, former President
Canada: Peter Stollery, Chairman of the Standing
Committee on Foreign Affairs of the Senate
Chile: Carlos Portales, Special Envoy of the President
China: Qian Qichen, former Vice Prime Minister and former
Foreign Minister
Colombia: Francisco Santos Calderón, Vice President
Côte d’Ivoire: Pascal Affi N’Guessan, former Prime Minister
Czech Republic: Miroslava Nemcova, Vice Chairperson
of the Chamber of Deputies
France: Michel Barnier, Minister of Foreign Affairs
Georgia: Irakli Alasania, Representative for Abkhazia
Germany: Joschka Fischer, Vice Chancellor and Minister
of Foreign Affairs
Hungary: Monika Lampert, Minister of the Interior
India: B. Raman, Director of the Indian Institute of Tropical
Studies
Iraq: Hamid Albayati, Deputy Foreign Minister
Ireland: Seamus Brennan, Minister of Social and Family
Affairs
Israel: Shimon Peres, First Deputy Prime Minister
Lithuania: Gintaras Steponavicius, Vice President of the
Parliament
Malaysia: Dato Zainal Abini Mamad Zain, Director of the
Southeast Asia Regional Center
Malta: Carmel Mifsud Bonnici, Secretary of State of Justice
and the Interior
Mexico: Rafael Macedo de la Concha, Attorney General
Morocco: H.R.H. Prince Moulay Rachid
Netherlands: Hans van Mierlo, Deputy Prime Minister
and Minister for Foreign Affairs
Nigeria: Adolphus Wabara, President of the Senate
Palestinian Authority: Mohamed Dahlan, Minister of Civil
Affairs
Panama: Arístides Royo, former President
Russia: Igor Ivanov, Secretary of the Security Council
Saudi Arabia: Nizar Madani, Deputy Foreign Minister
Slovakia: Daniel Lipsic, Minister of Justice
Slovenia: Karen Erjavec, Minister of Defence
South Africa: Ronnie Kasrils, Minister of Intelligence
South Korea: Il Hwan Cho, Ambassador for CounterTerrorism
Sweden: Bosse Ringholm, Vice Prime Minister
Syria: Salid Al Mu’alem, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs
Tunisia: Abdelbaki Hermassi, Foreign Minister
Ukraine: Petro Poroshenko, Secretary of the National
Security and Defence Council
United States of America: Alberto Gonzales, Attorney
General
Yemen: Amat A. Al Soswa, Minister of Human Rights
21
Working Groups
In the months leading up to the Madrid Summit, two hundred of the world’s leading scholars and expert practitioners
explored the issues of democracy, terrorism and security in an unparalleled process of scholarly debate. The discussions
were conducted through a system of password-protected web-logs. On the first day of the Summit, the groups met in
closed sessions to conclude their work.
Conclusions
There were sixteen working groups in four subject areas. The conclusions were presented by the subject area co-ordinators
on the second day of the Summit. The following are excerpts from their presentations. The full text and audio of the
speeches can be found at www.clubmadrid.org.
Louise Richardson, co-ordinator of the subject
area ‘The Causes or Underlying Factors of
Terrorism’:
We all share the belief that without an understanding of the
underlying factors that lead to terrorism we cannot develop
an effective counter-terrorism strategy ... We believe terrorism
is a complex multi-faceted phenomenon and each terrorist
movement must be understood in its own specific context
… We believe that there is no one terrorism but many. There
is no one terrorist psychology, but many. Terrorism is a tactic
employed by many different types of groups in many parts
of the world in pursuit of many different objectives …
We believe that there are crucial distinctions that need to
be drawn. We need to distinguish between mass-based
movements and groups that are isolated from their
communities. We need to draw distinctions between the
leaders of these movements and their followers. We believe,
for example, that poverty is not a cause of terrorism but that
rapid modernisation and structural inequalities, both national
and international, and the culture of resentment and alienation
they often breed, are risk factors for terrorism. We believe
that no one religious tradition is particularly prone to terrorism:
all religious traditions are open to violence. We also believe
that religion is seldom the only cause of terrorism. But we
also believe that religious justifications can make terrorist
groups more absolutist and less restrained.
22
We believe that terrorism occurs under different political
structures: from mature democracies to democratising
regimes. However … there are a great many things that
democracies can do to counter terrorism. Just a few
examples. We can intervene in the schools, churches and
prisons where individuals are radicalised. We can impede
entrance into and facilitate exit from radical groups. We can
sow dissent among the radicals. We can mobilise the
moderates. We can integrate the marginalized. We can
educate our public in the traditions of the many cultures in
their midst. We can develop societal resilience to terrorist
threats. We can mitigate the impact and violence of rapid
socio-economic changes. We can do much, much more.
Louise Richardson is Executive Dean of the Radcliffe Institute
at Harvard University.
and that ‘community policing’ had an important role to play
… The group on terrorist financing formulated a proposal
for an independent finance centre … Finally, the military
group argued that the special expertise of armed forces
could be useful, but that it should always be complementary
to that of the civil institutions and the police.] This short
summary cannot do justice to the tremendous amount of
work that was done in the groups in my subject area. I am
confident, therefore, that our contribution will serve the
drafting of the Madrid Agenda very well.
Ray Kendall was Secretary General of INTERPOL for three
successive mandates (1985-2000).
Ray Kendall, co-ordinator of the subject area
‘Confronting Terrorism’:
Although the groups in my subject area worked independently,
we all accepted that the prevention and suppression of
terrorism required a multi-lateral and multi-faceted approach.
We also believed that, whatever action was taken, there
should be full application of democratic principles and
absolute respect for the rule of law.
Terrorism is a serious crime, and it is one that is of concern
to the international community as a whole. No cause is so
just that it can justify targeting innocent civilians and noncombatants through deadly acts of violence. Such acts
constitute terrorism and intellectual honesty requires that
they are recognised as such. Indeed, this important principle
meant that we did not have to spend too much time on
dealing with the thorny issue of the definition of terrorism.
The question of the duties and obligations of states was
very important. It is the duty of every state to prevent and
suppress terrorism and its duty is owed to the international
community as a whole. Very nice to say, but how can you
do it? I think this is where people like myself, who have
practised for many years at the ground level, believe that
the political community has a very large responsibility.
There were a number of policy recommendations. [The
group on legal responses, for example, stressed that the
provisions necessary to fight terrorism already exist, and
that the real issue was compliance … The intelligence group
drew up ideas on how the exchange of intelligence and
information could be simplified … The policing group dealt
with similar issues, insisting that much of the information
needed to fight terrorism was available at the street level,
Phil Bobbitt, co-ordinator of the subject area
‘Democratic Responses’:
The umbrella of democratic responses to terrorism included
groups on human rights, good governance, and international
institutions … All groups agreed on five propositions: that
we needed a precise definition of terrorism, that incorporation
of anti-terrorism measures in international and national law
was crucial, that the promotion and protection of democracy
was indispensable, that greater transparency in government
operations was needed, and – above all – that the human
rights of all persons were at stake and that they had to be
zealously guarded ...
It was felt that having a definition was critical, so that arbitrary
government acts couldn’t hide behind the claim of combating
terrorism, and so that terrorists themselves couldn’t evade
the frank term for what they were doing. The human rights
group noted that a climate of impunity had emboldened
those involved in acts of terror, that it had eroded due
process and the rule of law, and that it had deprived victims
of the right to seek justice ...
23
All three groups agreed on the need for the promotion of
democracy ... The international institutions group
recommended that the UN become more proactive in
supporting democratic governance. It called attention to the
Community of Democracies and its UN incarnation, the
Democracy Caucus… The good governance group stressed
the need to protect the quality of democracy and to deepen
it in all states. They stressed the crucial criteria of inclusion.
There was less agreement in this group on whether
conditionality should be used as an incentive for democratic
practices. However, they emphasised that counter-terrorism
aid ought to be made compatible with the democratic and
civilian control over the armed forces.
Third, democracy cannot be imposed from above or from
the outside, yet the process of building democracy can and
should be supported by the international community. Fourth,
the working groups have been inspired by the experience
of Madrid. The people of this city showed that it was possible
to counter the new type of terrorist networks with new forms
of social networking and civic mobilisation. We urge the
Madrid Agenda to acknowledge and build on this.
Miguel Darcy is the founder of Civicus and Comunitas.
Most importantly there was complete agreement across all
three groups that the protection of human rights was essential
to democracy … The best advice of these groups [therefore]
is that we strengthen our immune systems. That means
strengthening human rights and democracy.
Phil Bobbitt holds the A.W. Walker Centennial Chair of Law
at the University of Texas at Austin.
Mary Kaldor, co-coordinator of the subject area
‘Civil Society’:
Our central recommendation is for the creation of a new
global citizens’ network. The goal of this network is to
support for civil society and protect and empower individual
citizens in areas of violence. The aim is to exchange stories
and experiences ... and to raise public awareness and
knowledge about civil society groups across the world. [But
we also want] this network to function as a mechanism of
early warning and reaction.
Miguel Darcy, co-coordinator of the subject
area ‘Civil Society’:
Let me share with you four key points that emerged from
our discussions. The first is that terrorism is a global
phenomenon, and that we need to overcome the Western
focus of the debate … Second, the most violent places in
today’s world are either authoritarian states or failed states
and conflict zones … The focus of the struggle against terror
should [therefore] be in these places of violence … because
those are the places in which violence and injustice are
invoked as a justification by terrorists.
24
The members of this network will be people … who commit
themselves to express solidarity towards each other wherever
they come from. People who share common values based
on the notion of human security: the security of the individual.
These values include the equality of human beings; that the
lives of human beings are valued equally wherever they are
and whoever they are; and the principles of justice, human
rights and the rule of law. We ask the members of the Club
of Madrid to support and welcome this initiative.
Mary Kaldor is Professor of Global Governance at the London
School of Economics and Political Science.
impediment to fuller international cooperation. And a much
needed international convention on terrorism … would fill
normative gaps at the national and international levels.
[Indeed] there is a strong case for saying that the key rules
should be gathered together under a new umbrella convention
which clearly and unequivocally articulates the basic norms
that should drive all law and policy. The critical issue is a
clear-cut and universally endorsed definition of terrorism that
would trigger remedial measures by states and international
organisations. [In this respect,] the Secretary General’s High
Level Panel has produced a consensus draft, which states
that acts that specifically target civilians or non-combatants,
whatever the context and whatever the motive, must be
absolutely outlawed.
Fen Hampson, international co-operation
oversight co-ordinator:
Terrorism compels co-operative international action, not only
because of its global reach, but because of its local origins.
No society can be wholly safe from terrorism while any
society serves as a local recruiting ground, training camp
or safe haven for terrorists. The security of every country is
interdependent with the security of every other. These facts
define three priorities for international co-operation against
terrorism. The first is to build capacity for countering terrorism
in all countries. The second is to mobilise civil society against
the local origins of terrorism and the global threat that
terrorism represents … [Third,] the struggle against terrorism
[needs] to be carried out in full compliance with the
international human rights covenants and with international
humanitarian law …
Challenges for international co-operation [can be found in
the areas of domestic governance, economic globalisation,
trans-governmental co-operation, regional organisations
and global institutions]. Let me conclude [however] by saying
that every country is exposed to terrorism’s fearful costs
and shares an urgent global interest in preventing and
suppressing the crimes that terrorists commit. This is the
manifest argument for cooperative counter-terrorism in all
the dimensions that I talked about. It is both an inescapable
legal obligation and a practical necessity.
Fen Hampson is Director of the Norman Paterson School
of International Affairs, Carleton University, Ottawa.
Terrorist acts are prescribed in twelve international treaties,
at least seven regional conventions, and successive
resolutions of the UN Security Council. The absence of an
agreed, authoritative definition of terrorism remains a political
p. 22
Pictures (from top to bottom): Presentations of the working group conclusions (from left to right): Rt. Hon. Kim Campbell,
Ray Kendall, Fen Hampson, Miguel Darcy, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Peter R. Neumann, Phil Bobbitt, Mary Kaldor, Louise
Richardson; Causes or Underlying Factors: Louise Richardson
p. 23
Pictures (from top to bottom): Confronting Terrorism: Ray Kendall; Democratic Responses: Phil Bobbitt
p. 24
Pictures (from left to right): Civil Society: Miguel Darcy; Civil Society: Mary Kaldor
p. 25
Pictures (from top to bottom): International Co-operation Oversight: Fen Hampson; the subject area co-ordinators Ray
Kendall, Louise Richardson and Phil Bobbitt in discussion
Recommendations
Each of the sixteen working groups issued a final paper of recommendations. These papers have been published in the
Club de Madrid Series on Democracy and Terrorism and can be ordered directly from the Club de Madrid. They are also
available on the Club de Madrid’s web site: www.clubmadrid.org.
Subject Area I: The Causes or Underlying
Factors of Terrorism
Working Group 1: Individual and Psychological
Explanations
integrating ‘weak globalisers’ into the world economy
through duty-free regimes, membership in international
trade organisations and the transfer of key technologies.
The co-ordinator of the group was Ted Gurr, Distinguished
Professor at the University of Maryland.
Focusing on the psychological and behavioural bases of
terrorism, the group highlighted the need to engage in forms
of psychological rather than actual warfare, including
programmes aimed at inhibiting potential terrorists from
joining a group, producing dissension in the group, facilitating
exit from it, reducing support for the group and undermining
the legitimacy of its leader, as well as increasing societal
resilience to terror. The group also pointed out that the
socialisation to hatred and violence begins early, and that
interventions should therefore involve educational, religious
and social organisations as well as the media.
The co-ordinator of the group was Jerrold Post, Professor
of Political Psychology at George Washington University.
Working Group 2: Political Explanations
The group stressed that it was vital to understand the
distinctions between different types of terrorist threats.
Some terrorist groups, for example, had extensive social
support based on shared grievances while others did not.
Some groups had goals that are fundamentally antidemocratic while others made claims that could be
accommodated through compromise. Governments should
resist popular pressures to respond to terrorism with
unselective repression, which may create support where
none existed before. Moreover, whilst isolating extremists,
democratic governments needed to bring moderate elements
of the opposition into the political process.
The co-ordinator of the group was Martha Crenshaw,
Professor of Government at Wesleyan University.
Working Group 3: Economic Factors
The group argued that while poverty per se was not a cause
of terrorism, political violence was most likely to occur in
societies characterised by rapid economic modernisation,
social and political change. The group proposed a variety
of measures that could help to reduce structural inequalities
within societies and mitigate the impact of rapid socioeconomic change. These included programmes aimed at
reducing group discrimination and barriers to socioeconomic
mobility, promoting women’s education and employment,
empowering marginalised groups generally, as well as
26
Working Group 4: Religion and Religious Extremism
The group stressed that any response to religiously motivated
terrorism had to be multifaceted: responses relying solely
on security and military considerations could appear to
legitimate the terrorists’ vision of ‘cosmic war’. Long-term
responses should be aimed at promoting tolerance and
religious moderation, for example through intercultural
education at all levels of society, and the systematic
monitoring of how religious communities are represented
in the news media, school textbooks and other public
forums. In addition, religious leaders should be reminded
that, while the authorities had a responsibility to uphold
religious tolerance, they had a responsibility not to abuse
that freedom by encouraging or justifying hatred and
fanaticism.
The co-ordinator of the group was Mark Juergensmeyer,
Professor of Sociology at the University of California at
Santa Barbara.
Working Group 5: Cultural Explanations
Working Group 7: Intelligence
Focusing on the rise of Islamist terrorism, the group
emphasised that a culture of intolerance and alienation was
a growth medium in which the process of radicalisation
could commence. The response needed to encompass a
variety of levels, ranging from the promotion of tolerance for
Islamic culture, civilisation and religion to the local training
of Western Imams. Furthermore, the group believed that it
was vital to distinguish between global terrorist groups with
transformational goals and those with limited objectives.
Regarding the latter, the resolution of local conflicts and the
establishment of viable political systems, while not ending
global terrorism, could reduce the opportunities for the global
Jihadi movements to expand.
Based on the assumption that preventing large-scale violence
by terrorists was the single most important task for intelligence
services today, the group called for a redoubling of efforts
in the area of intelligence sharing, a radical overhaul of
classification regimes (most of which had been developed
during the Cold War period and were now obsolete), as well
as for a transformation of the ‘intelligence culture’ which –
according to he group – had to become more agile and
adaptive. The group also saw a need for more public
education about the purpose and role of the intelligence
services: if the intelligence services were to adopt more
assertive actions, it was essential that they had continued
public support.
The co-ordinator of the group was Jessica Stern, Lecturer
in Public Policy at Harvard University
The co-ordinator of the group was Brian Jenkins, Senior
Advisor to the President of RAND Corporation.
Working Group 8: Military Responses
Subject Area II: Confronting Terrorism
Working Group 6: Policing
The group called for increased international co-operation
between law enforcement agencies and proposed a set of
strategies through which to achieve this aim. The group
recommended the establishment of regular, informal forums
between police services at the national and international
levels. Legal provisions should be adopted to enable a more
proactive approach in the collection and handling of
information, thus increasing the availability of information.
In the group’s view, there was also scope for increasing the
use of technologies, for example by creating large regional
and international databases. Furthermore, the group stressed
the police force’s ‘antenna function’ in society, and the
consequent need to establish permanent dialogues with
minority communities as a preventive measure.
The group concluded that, even when forceful measures
were involved, the preference was to treat terrorism as a
form of criminality, because this would help in undermining
the terrorists’ quest for legitimacy. The group recommended
that military responses should be complementary to other
responses, and that parallel political processes were essential.
Armed forces, however, might turn out to be useful when
police forces could not cope with the threat, when the threat
had acquired a cross-border dimension, or when there were
particular needs or capability which only armed forces could
meet, for example in relation to intelligence gathering,
communications, logistics, or when dealing with hostage or
hijacking crises.
The co-ordinator of the group was Sir Lawrence Freedman,
Professor of War Studies at King’s College London.
The co-ordinator of the group was Jürgen Storbeck, former
Director General of EUROPOL.
27
Subject Area III: Democratic Responses
Working Group 11: Human Rights
Working Group 9: Terrorist Finance
Stressing that existing approaches had failed to curb terrorist
financing, the group proposed the establishment of an
independent terrorists finance centre whose aim would be
the collection, analysis and dissemination of information. It
also recommended the creation of a judicial review process
in order to put onto a sound legal footing the anti-terrorist
measures already taken by the international community.
Finally, it called for the creation of forward compliance
mechanisms as a means of institutionalising measures to
prevent the spread of terrorist activity. This included, for
example, the increase of financial intelligence units organised
under the so-called Egmont Group, which allowed for the
effective exchange of information between the public and
private sectors.
The co-ordinator of the group was Loretta Napoleoni,
independent economic consultant.
Working Group 10: Legal Responses
Stating that terrorism constitutes one of the most serious
violations of the principles of law, order and the values of
human dignity, the group recommended a comprehensive
series of legal measures to be implemented at the national
and international level. It called for the implementation and
full ratification of all relevant conventions and UN Security
Council Resolutions. The group demanded universal
compliance with established standards of human rights and
humanitarian law, proposing a series of stringent safeguards
to uphold the rule of law and safeguard the rights of terrorist
suspects. It also made a series of recommendations for
international assistance and cross-border judicial aid.
The co-ordinator of the group was Hans Corell, former Legal
Counsel and Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs at
the United Nations.
28
The group noted that a ‘climate of impunity’ had eroded
due process and the rule of law, and demanded that there
should be no impunity either for acts of terrorism or for the
abuse of human rights in counter-terrorism measures. The
group stressed the need to strengthen the capacity of
international tribunals, including the International Criminal
Court. It recommended that resources should be allocated
to broaden and reinforce the respect for human rights at all
levels. The group urged the United Nations to incorporate
human rights concerns in all its initiatives and actions relating
to counter-terrorism, especially in the work of the CounterTerrorism Committee.
The co-ordinator of the group was Asma Jahangir, Director
of the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan.
Working Group 12: Promotion of Democracy and
Accountable Government
The group concluded that democratic countries should
demonstrate greater solidarity and readiness to co-operate
in fighting global terrorist networks that openly oppose the
principles of liberal democracy: the ‘Community of
Democracies’ could be an appropriate forum in which to
develop a global strategy to fight terrorism. In the group’s
view, democracy should be promoted for its own sake, but
the context of fighting terrorism had to be taken into account
when designing future strategies. Moreover, the group
endorsed a more nuanced attitude to political Islam, moderate
forms of which should be engaged rather than marginalised.
The co-ordinator of the group was Ghia Nodia, Chairman
of the Caucasus Institute for Peace, Democracy and
Development, Georgia.
Working Group 13: International Institutions
Working Group 15: Civil Society and Political Violence
Stating that international institutions and a reliable international
normative framework are critical in the fight against terrorism,
the group called for the adoption of the UN High-Level
Panel’s definition of terrorism. It also demanded the rapid
conclusion of a comprehensive convention on international
terrorism, an increased mandate for the UN Executive
Directorate to improve the organisation’s capacity-building
function, and the reform of the Security Council, thus making
it more responsive and representative. Further
recommendations included the support for a number of
initiatives to curb the spread of weapons of mass reduction,
including the full implementation of the Non-Proliferation
Treaty, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the G8
Global Partnership.
The group noted that the key to dealing with political violence
was the establishment of legitimate political authority capable
of taking responsibility for the rule of law. This authority,
however, needed to be legitimated by the people and become
responsive to their concerns. In the group’s view, this
demonstrated the need for the promotion of civil society,
substantive democracy and the adoption of human security
approaches. The group also noted that, in most violent
situations, women’s groups played a key role in overcoming
fear and in promoting democracy, and that these had to be
supported more systematically.
The co-ordinator of the group was Fen Hampson, Director
of the Norman Paterson School for International Affairs,
Carleton University, Ottawa.
Working Group 16: Strategies against Violence
Subject Area IV: Civil Society
The moderator of the group was Kayode Fayemi, Director
of the Centre for Democracy and Development, London.
Noting that terrorism was a global phenomenon that required
a global response, the group asserted that civil society can
play a critical role in countering political violence. The group
argued that civil society groups had succeeded in building
vibrant transnational alliances on global causes, such as
women’s rights, the fight against AIDS, environmental
protection, etc. The group’s key recommendation, therefore,
was for the establishment of a civil society network to link
up local civil society groups in violence ‘hot spots’ through
a worldwide web-based system, which could also serve as
an early warning mechanism.
The moderator of the group was Mient Jan Faber, Secretary
General of the Interchurch Peace Council.
Working Group 14: Citizens as Actors
The group started from the assumption that citizens were
not condemned to be the passive victims of terrorism. To
build democracy as an antidote to terrorism required citizens
to take control of their situation. Citizens played a crucial
role in establishing legitimate political authority on whose
consent and active participation all institutional arrangements
depended. Most importantly, this meant that donors, who
sometimes equated civil society with NGOs, had to recognise
that civil society was a free space where citizens took charge
of their own destinies, and that efforts to promote civil society
should be directed towards this aim.
The moderator of the group was Arzu Abdulayeva, President
of the Helsinki Citizens’ Assembly, Azerbaijan.
p. 26
Pictures (from top to bottom): Working Group 3: Economic Factors; Working Group 4: Religion and Religious Extremism
p. 27
Pictures (from left to right): Working Group 5: Cultural Explanations; Working Group 6: Policing
p. 28
Pictures (from top to bottom): Working Group 8: Military Responses; Working Group 12: Promotion of Democracy
p. 29
Pictures (from top to bottom): Working Group 13: International Institutions; Working Group 16: Strategies against Violence
Panels
The Madrid Summit hosted more than twenty panel sessions in which policymakers and experts debated the most pressing
issues and questions relating to the conference’s main themes of democracy, terrorism and security. The following pages
contain highlights of these sessions. Full transcripts and audio of the panels can be found at www.clubmadrid.org.
Democracy and Terrorism
The panel Democracy and Terrorism discussed how
democratic states have responded to the challenge from
terrorism. The session was chaired by the British journalist
Jonathan Dimbleby.
The former U.S. Secretary of State, Madeleine K. Albright,
noted that it was difficult for democratic societies to protect
themselves from the ‘new’ forms of terrorism that could be
seen in New York and Madrid, ‘partly because it is so difficult
to understand, but also because its breadth and scope
changes continually’.
Lars Thunell, President and CEO of the Swedish bank
SEB, introduced an economic dimension, asserting that the
attacks on September 11 had cost the American economy
more than $150bn.
Fernando Savater, the Spanish philosopher and antiterrorism activist, argued that a tragedy like 9/11 ‘has helped
the world to understand the drama experienced by the
Spanish people as a result of Basque terrorism’.
The panel took a question from Amre Moussa, Secretary
General of the League of Arab Nations, who criticised
Western rhetoric and ‘double standards’ in the fight against
terrorism.
The plenary closed with an emotional speech by the Mayor
of Madrid, Alberto Ruiz Gallardón, who praised the citizens
of Madrid as a positive example for other democracies:
‘They chose to move on without bitterness’.
Daniel Cohn-Bendit, a Franco-German Member of the
European Parliament, responded by saying that there should
be no double standards on either side: ‘We here, white men
… we have to say to the white man: “You produced injustice!”
… [But] you have to tell the Palestinians: “If you want freedom,
you can’t do it through bombing!” Everyone has to address
their own difficulties, not only the difficulties of others’.
Some of the questions asked during the session came from
a global online forum on democracy and terrorism conducted
by openDemocracy.net. These online debates were run in
the three months leading up to the summit and attracted
more than 30.000 visitors. On March 11, openDemocracy
organised several hundred meetings across the globe at
which the Madrid Agenda was discussed.
Robert L. Hutchings, former President of the U.S. National
Intelligence Council, insisted that the American decision to
go to war in Iraq will help to spread democracy and reduce
terrorism only if it is accompanied by the application of ‘soft
power’, especially a ferocious battle for education and
equality.
30
The Way Ahead
The participants of the panel The Way Ahead identified the
most important elements of a long-term strategy against
terrorism: international co-operation, the promotion of
democracy, education and the creation of economic
opportunities for developing countries.
The President of Afghanistan, Hamid Karzai, underlined
the Afghans’ desire for peace, and declared that international
co-operation played a crucial role in creating the environment
in which this aim could be achieved.
Javier Solana, the European Union’s High Representative
for foreign policy, supported Karzai, noting that international
co-operation was vital in ensuring the success of any longterm strategy against global terrorism. Solana also pointed
out that the international community needed to tackle
festering local conflicts and the economic disparities between
rich and poor countries. While the latter was not a direct
cause of terrorism, he argued, economic inequalities gave
rise to alienation which could be exploited by terrorists.
Enrique Iglesias, President of the Inter-American
Development Bank, added that international organisations
could make a useful contribution to the struggle against
terrorism by leading the fight against underdevelopment.
Kjell Magne Bondevik, the Norwegian Prime Minister,
emphasised the importance of education as a way of
promoting tolerance and strengthening dialogue. The
problem, he said, was the fear of the unknown.
The President of the Open Society Institute, George Soros,
stressed the importance of democracy as an instrument in
the fight against terrorism, and went on to highlight the idea
of the Community of Democracies, which – in his view –
should be pursued with more vigour.
Miguel Ángel Moratinos, the Spanish foreign minister who
moderated the debate, defended the idea of the Alliance of
Civilisations, which had been initiated by Spain. Articulating
his own vision, he noted that the problem of terrorism was
complex but that it needed to be confronted without fear:
‘We will vanquish terrorism with democracy’.
p. 30
Pictures (from top to bottom): Madeleine K. Albright, Robert L. Hutchings; Fernando Savater and Lars Thunell; Daniel
Cohn-Bendit
p. 31
Pictures (from top to bottom): Hamid Karzai, Javier Solana, George Soros; Hamid Karzai, Javier Solana; Miguel Ángel
Moratinos, Enrique Iglesias and Kjell Magne Bondevik
Other Panels
The War on Terror and the Arab-Israeli Conflict
The panel The War on Terror and the Arab-Israeli Conflict
noted that the Madrid Summit took place at a possibly
crucial juncture in Middle Eastern politics. All panellists
expressed their hope for a positive turn in the fate of the
region, with one panellist claiming that a peace deal could
emerge within a matter of months. The renewed prospects
for peace, however, also challenged both sides to deliver
on their previous commitments: the year 2005, one participant
stipulated, was a moment of truth! The panel was organised
in collaboration with the Toledo International Centre for Peace
Terrorism and the Travel Industry
In the panel Terrorism and the Travel Industry, the participants
highlighted the severe impact of major terrorist attacks on
the transport and tourism industry. While all sectors of the
industry were affected, air travel had suffered
disproportionately and continued to be the most vulnerable.
The implementation of new security measures was costly,
but unavoidable. One panellist stressed the need to integrate
and co-ordinate the actions of all stakeholders, and
suggested that modern technology in the form of large
databases could offer a solution. The panel was organised
in collaboration with the Instituto de Empresa.
Protecting the Humanitarian Space in the Face of Violence and Terror
The panel Protecting the Humanitarian Space in the Face
of Violence and Terror discussed the challenges for
humanitarian action following the attacks of September 11
and the consequent ‘War on Terror’. Panellists argued that
it was necessary to ‘roll back’ the politicisation of humanitarian
32
aid. Ideas for strategies through which the lost space for
humanitarian action could be recovered included increased
accountability towards local actors, as well as the greater
involvement and participation of civil society. The panel was
organised in collaboration with Intermón Oxfam.
Democratic Reform in the Arab World
In the panel Democratic Reform in the Arab World, the
discussion revolved around recent developments in the
Middle East. Panellists’ experiences from Yemen, Egypt and
Iraq helped to view the situation through a variety of regional
lenses. Most were hopeful that a new dawn for democracy
had broken, because most Arabs were – in the words of
one panellist – fed up with the current state of affairs. There
was some argument about the merits of foreign intervention
to help build democracy, with some arguing that democracy
can only emerge from within a nation whilst others welcomed
the American attitude towards regime change in Iraq.
Immigration: Is Integration Failing?
In the panel Immigration: Is Integration Failing?, the debate
focused on the various experiences with integrating minority
communities in Western countries. While some maintained
that integration had been more successful than widely
assumed, other panellists criticised the increased targeting
of Muslims by law enforcement agencies which gave rise
to alienation. There was some debate about the different
models of integration, with one panellist arguing that a
stronger emphasis on assimilation would help to further
immigrants’ identification with society. The panel was
organised in collaboration with the European Policy Centre
and the Center for American Progress.
From Conflict to Peace: Lessons from the Frontline
The panel From Conflict to Peace: Lessons from the Frontline
highlighted the need for political dialogue, the role of economic
development, and the inclusion of civil society actors in
situations of sustained conflict. However, the panellists –
from places like Sri Lanka, Colombia, Northern Ireland, and
El Salvador – warned that the period of transition could also
be fraught with new dangers, such as the degeneration of
once politically motivated actors into criminal gangs. The
panel was organised in cooperation with The Project on
Justice in Times of Transition at Harvard University and The
Columbia University Center for International Conflict
Resolution.
33
Missing the Plot? The Politics of Intelligence post 9/11
The panel Missing the Plot? The Politics of Intelligence post
9/11 drew on the experiences of senior members of the
intelligence community from across the world. There was
agreement that, while organisational adjustments, reform
and improved co-operation between different agencies were
vital, there also needed to be a change in the entire intelligence
culture, including the analysts’ ability to ‘think outside the
box’. The ability of intelligence agencies to predict every
major terrorist event was an unrealistic expectation, one
panellist argued, but the services could play a vital role in
reducing the public’s fear of terrorism.
Balancing the Agenda: How to Promote Development and Fight Terror
In the panel Balancing the Agenda: How to Promote
Development and Fight Terror, the participants criticised the
decline in development aid budgets since 9/11. There was
a conflict between the security and development agendas,
it was argued, yet funding security at the expense of
development was short-sighted. One panellist noted that
Africa suffered the equivalent of several terrorist attacks
every day from AIDS and other diseases. The panel was
organised in collaboration with Intermón Oxfam and the
Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales.
The Necessary Alliance: Strengthening Transatlantic Relations in the 21st Century
The panel The Necessary Alliance: Strengthening Transatlantic
Relations in the 21st Century discussed the recent political
frictions between the United States and Europe. Most
panellists agreed that there was more work to do in order
to restore the close relationship between the two, with one
34
arguing that – in the absence of a unifying force like the Cold
War – this was not possible at all. In either case, movement
was required on both sides: the United States had to become
more flexible, whereas Europeans had to show that they
were capable of putting their ambitious rhetoric into practice.
Freedom, Security and Civil Liberties
In the panel Freedom, Security and Civil Liberties, the
panellists discussed how civil liberties and human rights
could best be protected in the fight against terrorism. Most
panellists agreed that existing provisions were not only
sufficient, but that it was essential to defend them. Others
argued that terrorist attacks will lead people to accept more
limits on their personal freedoms, and that it was important
to educate the public about the effectiveness of the existing
arrangements. The panel was organised in cooperation with
the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el
Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE).
Women, Terror, Religion, Democracy: An Interactive Dialogue
The panel Women, Terror, Religion, Democracy: An Interactive
Dialogue, highlighted the numerous forms of violence suffered
by women. In the panellists’ view, however, this was no
excuse for passivism. There was agreement that women
needed to be empowered, so they could become dynamic
agents for change, especially in environments in which
women’s social participation was limited by traditional
cultures, norms or religious values. It would be wrong, one
panellist argued, to underestimate the extraordinary power
of the ‘weak’! The panel was organised in co-operation with
Globalitaria and The Rockefeller Brothers Fund.
UN High-Level Panel Report
The session on the UN High-Level Panel Report heard from
several of its members. There was a strong feeling that the
political deadlock on the issue of terrorism, which hindered
effective action at the international level, needed to be
broken, and that the recommendations made in the UN
report could provide a winning formula. This was particularly
true for the panel’s proposed definition of terrorism, which
– in the words of one panellist – met both political and moral
imperatives. Most panellists agreed that the fight against
terrorism had wider political, economic and social dimensions,
and that all these needed to be tackled by the UN to retain
its credibility as an effective arbiter of international peace,
security and justice.
35
Terrorism Goes High Tech
The panel and ad hoc working group Terrorism Goes High
Tech discussed how modern society had become highly
vulnerable. In one panellist’s view, terrorists increasingly act
like venture capitalists in choosing targets that maximise the
political and economic damage to their enemies. Specific
vulnerabilities included the power grid and the internet. There
was also a danger that terrorists may steal or acquire
weapons of mass destruction. However, modern technologies
could also be drawn on in the fight against terrorism, with
one panellists arguing that technology could help to minimise
the terrorist risk at every stage of a group’s development.
The World over a Barrel: The Politics of Energy
In the panel, The World over a Barrel: The Politics of Energy,
most participants agreed that the energy industry was a
target for terrorists, although it was debatable how significant
the impact of potential attacks was. The most important
effects, the panellists argued, lay in the perceived security
risk which contributed to the rise in energy prices. At the
political level, one panellist maintained that the forceful
democratisation of the Middle East was counterproductive,
because it maintained high oil prices, which allowed autocratic
regimes to ‘buy off’ internal opposition. The panel was
organised in collaboration with the Instituto de Empresa.
Religion and Religious Extremism
The panel Religion and Religious Extremism dealt with the
complex relationship between violence and faith. Some
panellists argued that the revival of religion, in particular that
of a politicised version of Islam, was related to the prolonged
social and economic crisis in the Arab world. The key was
36
to channel the anger of young people with little economic
or social perspective into constructive directions. There was
agreement, for example, that the clergy needed to teach
tolerance and respect. The best solution, however, was to
construct viable political and economic systems.
From Violence to Voting: Armed Groups and Peace Processes
In the panel From Violence to Voting: Armed Groups and
Peace Processes, the participants highlighted the complex
nature of peace negotiations and the different factors that
could prove to be influential. Drawing on experiences from
El Salvador, Colombia and a number of other conflict zones,
the panellists noted the value of third party negotiators, the
imperative of involving civil society in processes of
peacemaking and reconciliation, as well as the need to
maintain, and respond to, dynamic processes (the existence
and continuation of which could be of value in themselves).
The panel was organised in collaboration with Conciliation
Resources.
Terrorism and Anti-Terrorism in Spain
The panel Terrorism and Anti-Terrorism in Spain evaluated
the country’s experiences with Basque and Islamist terrorism.
Controversially, one panellist argued that the Basque case
had proved some of the liberal assumptions wrong: political
initiatives had consistently failed, democracy – if anything
– appeared to encourage the terrorists, and economic
prosperity had contributed little to creating stability. Others
believed that the Basque experience provided crucial lessons,
namely that co-operation – between countries, as well as
between the police and the political agencies of the state
– was crucial in making counter-terrorism measures effective.
The panel was organised in collaboration with Rey Juan
Carlos University, Madrid.
The Media and Terrorism: Friends or Foes
In the panel The Media and Terrorism: Friends or Foes, the
panellists debated how terrorism should be reported, and
whether journalists should feel bound by political or
professional imperatives. While some argued that the
journalists’ only obligation was towards the reader, others
stressed that it was important to deny the terrorists the
‘oxygen of publicity’. One panellist said that ‘democracy
dies in bits’, meaning that the increasing restrictions imposed
on reporting as well as the self-censorship practiced by
many journalists had gradually, yet substantially, eroded civil
liberties. The panel was organised in collaboration with grupo
PRISA.
37
Stopping the Spread of Weapons of Mass Destruction
The panel Stopping the Spread of Weapons of Mass
Destruction revolved around the question of how to prevent
WMD from falling into the hands of terrorists. Should terrorists
manage to launch a nuclear bomb, one panellist pointed
out, this would change the world more than the end of the
Cold War. Therefore, regardless of whether the risk of this
happening was high or low, the implications were so great
that one had to give serious thought to its prevention. The
panellists’ ideas on strengthening non-proliferation focused
on treaty-based measures and operational strategies.
The Impact of Terrorism on Financial Institutions
In the panel The Impact of Terrorism on Financial Institutions,
the panellists explored the issue from various perspectives.
The long-term impact of terrorism on the stock market, one
panellist maintained, was quite limited, but financial markets
continued to be vulnerable to terrorist attacks, for example
from cyber space. Furthermore, the participants highlighted
the absolute need to combat corruption and overhaul the
existing practices and methods through which terrorist
financing is fought. The panel was organised in collaboration
with the Instituto de Empresa.
Democracy, Terrorism and the Open Internet
The panel Democracy, Terrorism and the Open Internet
discussed if it was advisable to restrict or impede public
access to the internet because of the possibility of abuse
by terrorists. The panellists agreed that interfering with the
democratic freedoms offered by the internet would probably
damage democracy more than it would harm the terrorists,
38
and that the internet’s positive effects – in connecting people,
for example – far outweighed the possibility of abuse. The
internet, in the words of one panellists, is a technology
embedded with democratic values. The panel was coordinated with the Safe Democracy Foundation.
p. 32
Pictures (from top to bottom, from left to right): The War on Terror and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Terje Rød-Larsen, Shlomo
Ben-Ami, Sa’eb Erakat; Terrorism and the Travel Industry: David Unger, Isabel Aguilera, Francesco Frangiali, Victor Aguado, Pedro
Argüelles, William Fell; Protecting the Humanitarian Space: Hany El-Bana, Ed Cairns, María Angeles Espinosa, Austens Davis,
Denis Caillaux
p. 33
Pictures (from top to bottom, from left to right): Democratic Reform in the Arab World: Fred Halliday, Amat Al-Soswa, Carl
Bildt; Lyse Doucet, Hamid Albayati, Saad Eddin Ibrahim, Marina Ottaway; Immigration: Is Integration Failing?: Assia Bensalah
Alaoui, Morton H. Halperin, Gilles Kepel, Pierre Lellouche, Robert Leiken, Tariq Ramadan, Jan C. Ting; From Conflict to Peace:
Wendy Luers, Joaquín Villalobos, John Hume, Harriet C. Babbitt, David Ervine, Timothy Phillips, Ram Manikkalingam, César
Gaviria, Rose Styron
p. 34
Pictures (from top to bottom, from left to right): The Politics of Intelligence post-9/11: Greg Treverton, Richard Ben-Veniste,
Jean-Michel Louboutin, David Wright-Neville, Alexandr Kostin; Balancing the Agenda: Theo Sowa, Peter S. Watson, Kumi Naidoo,
Jesús Nuñez, Ignasi Carreras, Eveline Herfkens; The Necessary Alliance: Nik Gowing, Timorthy Garton Ash, Hubert Védrine,
Madeleine K. Albright, Emma Bonino, Gijs de Vries, Rand Beers, John Edwin Mroz
p. 35
Pictures (from top to bottom, from left to right): Freedom, Security and Civil Liberties: Robert K. Goldman, Nicholas Howen,
Jorge Dezcallar, Celso Lafer, Irene Khan, Terry Davies; Women, Terror, Religion, Democracy: Rosemary Vargas, Morena Herrera
Argueta, Mahnaz Afkhami, Michael Conroy, Huda Imam, Aleya El Bindari Hammad, John Raines; UN High Level Panel Report:
Kenneth Roth, Satish Nambiar, Gareth Evans, Amre Moussa, Antonio Vitorino, Anand Panyarachun, Robert Badinter
p. 36
Pictures (from top to bottom, from left to right): Terrorism Goes High Tech: Brian Jenkins, Anja Dalgaard Nielsen, Declan
Ganley, Peter Zimmerman, Steve Lukasik, Mark Lampert; The Politics of Energy: Alastair Morrison, Gary Hart, Roger Diwan, David
Buchan; Religion and Religious Extremism: Ben Mollov, Radwan A. Masmoudi, Kjell Magne Bondevik, Oliver McTernan, S. Iqbal
Riza, Feisal Abdul Rauf, Hassan Hanafi
p. 37
Pictures (from top to bottom, from left to right): From Violence to Voting: Joaquín Villalobos, Alastair Crooke, Andrés Pastrana,
Dame Margaret Anstee, Tore Hattrem, Celia McKeon; Terrorism and Anti-terrorism in Spain: José Manuel Mata, Fernando Reinares,
Florencio Domínguez, Carlos Fernández de Casadevante, Rogelio Alonso, Antonio Elorza, Edurne Uriarte, Oscar Jaime Jiménez,
Francisco Llera; The Media and Terrorism: Judith Miller, Hasan Cemal, Matthias Nass, Antonio Franco, Juan Luis Cebrián, Francisco
Santos Calderón, Giannini Riotta, Jean-Marie Colombani, John Vinocur
p. 38
Pictures (from top to bottom, from left to right): Stopping the Spread of WMD: Sergei A. Ordzhonikidze, Jonathan Schell,
Rolf Ekeus, Christopher Dickey, John Colston, Eugene Habiger, Mahmoud Barakat; Terrorism and Financial Institutions: Rico
Carish, Reto Francioni, Peter Eigen, Arpad von Lazar, Hermann Alexander Schindler, Peter Sutherland; Democracy,Terrorism and
the Open Internet: Joichi Ito, Rebecca MacKinnon, John Gage, Dan Gillmor, Noriko Takiguchi, Martin Varsavsky, Marko Ahtisaari
Press Review
Financial Times
Regaining Balance on Terrorism
London, March 12, 2005
Another terrorist incident in the west might reverse the
progress [made in the fight against terrorism], but there are
signs that western democracies are beginning to realise that
basic human rights need not be sacrificed for effective
counter-terrorist measures. One theme of this week's
conference to mark the first anniversary of the terrorist
attacks in Madrid has been that not only is there no necessary
trade-off between human rights and counter-terrorism but
also the former can reinforce the latter. The credit for this
goes not to governments but to other institutions that make
democracies work.
Die Zeit
Europe’s Open Wound
Hamburg, March 11, 2005
The workshop and panel discussions explored some of the
most pressing issues, with participants displaying none of
the grandstanding and self-promotion that one usually
expects at events like this. Contrary to what one may have
thought, therefore, the conference exceeded expectations,
offering a shockingly frank picture of the current situation
and recommendations on what can be done about it. The
conclusions of the summit left no room for doubt: the new
terrorism threatens Europe as much as America, and no
country has reason not to worry.
El Pais
Democracy against Terrorism
Madrid, March 12, 2005
The protection of human rights and democracy constitute
the starting point for both the global strategy that Annan
has designed and the Agenda that came out of this global
summit in Madrid, which stressed the character of terrorism
as a ‘crime against humanity’. Its defeat calls for international
cooperation, helping those countries that do not have the
necessary means, and constructing a global network to
strengthen civil society. But – this much became clear – it
is also necessary to fight the growing social injustice in this
world and initiate a dialogue between the cultures …
An indication that the meeting, called by the Club de Madrid,
had an impact is the response from Al Qaeda’s branch in
Iraq, which felt obliged to warn that the ‘infidels and apostates’
will be defeated no matter how often they meet and what
they do, because God had promised them ‘victory’.
Daily Dispatch
Response to Terrorism
East London (South Africa), March 17, 2005
No one denies the need of free societies to defend themselves
against terrorist attack, but how legitimate is it to sacrifice
human rights in the cause of self-defence? This was the
theme of a three-day international conference on terrorism
held in Madrid last week …
One broad conclusion that emerged from the conference
was that the best way for states to combat terrorism was
40
to stay within the rule of law and not be tempted to adopt
the terrorists’ own methods … But perhaps the most valuable
lesson is that terrorism cannot be fought by military and
police methods alone. The roots of terror must be addressed,
and this means tackling the political grievances which cause
desperate men to throw away their lives in striking at the
enemy.
La Repubblica
The Five Pillars of a Global Strategy against Terrorism
Rome, March 11, 2005
It must not have been easy to make the Palestinian chief
negotiator and the former head of Mossad sit down at the
same table; neither – one assumes – was it simple to bring
together the former head of the El Salvadorian guerrillas,
the leader of the Protestant paramilitaries in Northern Ireland,
a Nobel peace prize winner and a former Colombian president
in one panel session …
The working group discussions were behind closed doors
but open to new ideas and contributions. In the group on
intelligence, one could find the head of the analysis
department of the Italian security service, a former Green
Beret captain in Vietnam (who is now a senior analyst to the
RAND corporation and one of the world’s leading authorities
on terrorism), France’s former intelligence director and the
erstwhile chief UN weapons inspector in Iraq, Rolk Ekeus.
Divided only by thin walls, there were scholars of Islam and
American neo-cons – all open to confront their very different
ideas in sometimes controversial debates.
La Vanguardia
Practical Means against Global Terrorism
Barcelona, March 12, 2005
During the presentation of the Madrid Agenda, former
Canadian Prime Minister and Secretary General of the Club
de Madrid, Kim Campbell, insisted that the document is not
‘an idealistic vision’ but rather a ‘practical strategy’ to win
the struggle against terrorism … To facilitate the
implementation of these measures, the Club of Madrid asks
for the adoption of a consensual definition of terrorism, the
full ratification of all existing agreements and conventions,
and the conclusion of the global agreement on international
terrorism. The Director of the UN Counter Terrorism
Committee, Javier Rupérez, remarked that he will present
the recommendations of the Madrid Agenda to his body by
the end of next week ...
Boston Globe
Nations Urged to Unite in Terror Fight
Boston, March 13, 2005
On the first anniversary of the Madrid train bombings that
killed 192 people, a summit of world leaders, diplomats and
some of the globe’s best minds on terrorism presented a
new international agenda to help government balance
democracy and security …
The Club of Madrid, an independent, non-partisan
organization composed of 55 former heads of state, brought
together a stellar cast – which included dozens of current
and former heads of state and government, including
President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan and King Mohammed
VI of Morocco.
The three-day summit ended Friday with the presentation
of the ‘Madrid Agenda’, calling for a ‘global democratic
response to the global threat of terrorism’. It urged better
cooperation among democracies to fight terrorism while
also ensuring that civil rights are respected in every corner
of the battle. The document also connected poverty and
despair as a root cause of terrorism and encouraged
developed countries to stick to promises for aid to poorer
countries.
41
List of Participants
The list contains the names of all registered participants who were not members of the Club
de Madrid or part of an official delegation.
Abbas, Hassan
Tufts University
Abdul Rauf, Feisal
American Sufi Muslim Association Society
Abdullaev, Nabi
The Moscow Times
Abdullayeva, Arzu
Helsinki Citizens Assembly, Azerbaijan
Abril i Abril, Amadeu
Universidad Ramon Llull, Spain
Abu Issa, Don Issam
Palestinian International Bank
Afkhami, Mahnaz
Women's Learning Partnership
Aguado, Víctor
Eurocontrol
Aguilera, Isabel
NH Hoteles
Aguirre, Mariano
Ford Foundation
Aguirrezabal, Irune
International Coalition for the International Criminal Court
Ahlberg, Anders
Company Astro S.A.
Ahmad Nizami, Farhan
Oxford University
Ahtisaari, Marko
Nokia Ventures Organization
Akerboom, E. S.
Dutch Police
Akóts, Klara
Government of Hungary
Al Issawi, Omar
Al Jazeera
Al Kholi, Hamza
Al Kholi Group, Saudi Arabia
Al Mashriqui, Amin
Poet
Al Nasir, Samer
Universidad San Pablo CEU, Spain
Al Rubaie, Mowaffak
National Security Advisor, Iraqi Interim Government
Albright, Madeleine K.
Albright Group LLC
Álcantara, Manuel
Universidad de Salamanca
Alhadeff, Giampiero
Solidar
Al-Mashta, Jalal
Al-Nahdhah Daily, Iraq
Almqvist, Jessica
FRIDE
Alonso, José Antonio
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Alonso, Rogelio
Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain
Alonso Suárez, José Antonio
Minister of the Interior, Spain
Al-Rawi, Isam Kadhem
Baghdad University
Al-Sadeq, Heba
Gaza Community Mental Health Programme
Al-Soswa, Amat A.
Minister of Human Rights, Yemen
Alvarez Junco, José
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Álvarez-Couceiro, Antonio
Club de Madrid and FRIDE
Amirah Fernández, Haizam
Real Instituto Elcano
Anasagasti, Iñaki Mirena
Spanish Senate
Anderson, Andrea
University of the Middle East
Anderson, Kenneth
American University
Ansorena, María Asunción
Casa de América, Spain
Anstee, Margaret
United Nations (Rtd.)
Aranda Guerrero, Francisco José
Spanish Police
Argüelles, Pedro
Boeing Spain
Arias, Inocencio F.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Spain
Arias Robles, Marta
Intermón Oxfam
42
Arístegui y San Román, Gustavo Manuel
Spanish Parliament
Arthurs, William
The Transatlantic Institute
Arviola, Serafín
Philippine Normal University
Atran, Scott
University of Michigan
Ayalon, Ami
The People's Voice, Israel
Azoulay, André
Essaouira-Mogador Association, Morocco
Azra, Azyumardi
State Islamic University, Indonesia
Azzam, Fateh S.
American University Cairo
Babbitt, Harriet C.
Hunt Alternatives Fund
Bach, David
Instituto de Empresa
Badia i Chancho, Lluís
Spanish Senate
Badinter, Robert
French Senate
Baena Soares, Joao Clemente
Organization of American States
Ballesteros, Miguel Angel
Escuela Superior de las Fuerzas Armadas de España
Barakat, Mahmoud
Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt
Barber, Benjamin R.
University of Maryland
Bari Atwan, Abdel
Al-Quds Al-Arabi, UK
Barlow, John Perry
Electronic Frontier Foundation
Barnett, Anthony
openDemocracy.org
Barragán Rabadán, Arantzazu
Intermón Oxfam
Barton, Carola
Saga Foundation
Basombrío, Carlos
Instituto de Defensa Legal, Peru
Bassat, Lluis
Grupo Bassat Ogilvy Iberia
Becerril, Soledad
Spanish Senate
Beers, Rand
Government of the United States (rtd.)
Beeston, Richard
The Times, London
Beissinger, Mark R.
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Bekker, Pieter
White & Case LLP
Belge, Murat
Yeni Gündem Magazine, Turkey
Ben-Ami, Shlomo
Toledo International Centre for Peace
Benegas, José María
Spanish Parliament
Benítez, Rafael
Council of Europe
Benjumea, Rafael
Fundación Duques de Soria
Bensalah Alaoui, Assia
Centre for Strategic Studies, Morocco
Ben-Veniste, Richard
9/11 Commission
Berzosa Alonso Martínez, Carlos
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Bhagwati, Jagdish
Columbia University
Bhanu Mehta, Pratap
Author
Bhargrava, Rajeev
University of Delhi
Biehl, John
Organization of American States
Bilbassy Charters, Nadia
Al Arabiya TV
Bin Issa al Jaber, Sheikh Mohamed
MBI International
Binetti, Carlo
Inter-American Development Bank
von Bismarck, Celia
Geneva Centre for Security Policy
Bjorgo, Tore
Police University College, Norway
Bobbitt, Phil C.
University of Texas at Austin
Boggio, Carlos
UNHCR
Bonino, Emma
European Parliament
Boorstin, Robert
Center for American Progress
Borgwardt, Jorg
European Security Advocacy Group, The Netherlands
Botín, Ana Patricia
Banesto Bank
Boyer, Jan E.
Institute for International Economics
Brademas, John
New York University
Braizat, Fares
University of Jordan
Bravo, Pablo
Sociedad Estatal para Exposiciones Internacionales
Breytenbach, Breyten
New York University
Brillantes, Alex
University of the Philippines
Bruder, Ron
The Education For Employment Foundation
Bruggeman, Willy
Benelux University Centre
Bruh, Brian
Brian Bruh Associates LLC
Buchan, David
Financial Times
Buesa, Mikel
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Bunbongkarn, Suchit
Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
Burton, Matthew
Actor
Busha, Hana'a Edwar G.
Al Amal Foundation, Iraq
Caillaux, Denis
Care International
Cajal, Máximo
Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation (Rtd.)
Calduch Cervera, Rafael
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Calvo, Luis
Assistant Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Spain
Cardoso, Ruth
UN Foundation
Carisch, Rico
Journalist
Carmon, Yigal
MEMRI
Carmona, Jesús
Council of the European Union
Carothers, Thomas
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Carreras Fisas, Ignasi
Intermón Oxfam
Casado Cañeque, Fernando
United Nations
Cassinello, Emilio
Toledo International Centre for Peace
Castillo Semán, Pelegrin
National Congress of the Dominican Republic
Castresana, Carlos
University of San Francisco
Castro Rabadán, José
Spanish Senate
Ceballos Watling, Gonzalo
Government of Spain
Cebrián Echerri, Juan Luis
grupo PRISA
Cemal, Hasan
Milliyet Newspaper, Turkey
Cepeda, Fernando
Universidad de los Andes, Colombia
Civico, Aldo
Columbia University
Codur, Anne-Marie
University of the Middle East
Cohen, David
New York City Police Department
Cohn-Bendit, Daniel
European Parliament
Colston, John
NATO
Conroy, Michael
Rockefeller Brothers Fund
Constantino-David, Karina
Philippine Civil Service Commission
Cooper, Abraham
Simon Wiesenthal Center
Corell, Hans
United Nations (Rtd.)
Corral Salvador, Carlos
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Cousens, Elizabeth
International Peace Academy
Crawford, Susan
Yeshiva University
Crelinsten, Ronald
University of Ottawa
Crenshaw, Martha
Wesleyan University
Crooke, Alastair
Conflicts Forum
Cruz Moratinos de Ruiz del Arbol, Dolores
Casa de América, Spain
Chammari, Khémaïs Ben Mohamed
Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network, Tunesia
Champion, Daryl
The Daily Star, Lebanon
Chandler, Michael
UN Monitoring Commission
Da Silva, Jorge Bento
European Commission
Dahdaleh, Victor Philip
London School of Economics and Political Science
Dahlan, Mohammed
General Delegation of Palestine in Spain
Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja
Danish Insititute for International Studies
Dalhuisen, John
Council of Europe
Dana, Karam
University of Washington
Darcy de Oliveira, Miguel
COMUNITAS, Brazil
Darcy de Oliveira, Rosiska
Women's Leadership Center, Brazil
Davies, Desmond
Africa Week Magazine, UK
De Borbón-Parma, Carlos
Institut Quimic de Sarriá, Spain
De Capitani, Emilio
European Parliament
de Kerchove D'Ousselghem, Gilles
Council of the European Union
de la Dehesa, Guillermo
Goldman Sachs Europe
de la Guardia Rivera, Julio
Government of Spain
de la Iglesia, Juan Pablo
Government of Spain
de la Torre, Enrique
Caja Madrid
de Palacio, Loyola
Former Vice President of the European Commission
de Ugarte, David
Ciberpunk
de Vel, Guy
Council of Europe
de Vries, Gijs
Council of the European Union
Devero, Anne
Partners for Democratic Change
Dezcallar, Jorge
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Spain
di Tella, Rafael
Harvard Business School
Diamint, Rut
Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Argentina
Diamond, Larry
Stanford University
Díaz Espí, Pablo
Asociación Encuentro de la Cultura Cubana, Spain
Dickey, Christopher
Newsweek
Díez-Hochleitner, Ricardo
Club of Rome
Dimbleby, Jonathan
Journalist
Dittrich, Mirjam
European Policy Centre
Diwan, Roger
PFC Energy
Doherty, Ivan
United States National Democratic Institute
Domínguez, Jorge I.
Harvard University
Domínguez Iribarren, Florencio
Vasco Press Agency
Donfried, Mark
Institute for Cultural Diplomacy
43
Donohue, Laura
Stanford University
Doucet, Lyse
British Broadcasting Corporation
Du Vall, Jack
International Centre for Non-Violent Conflict
Duque González, Armando
Asociación Cultura por Naciones Unidas, Spain
Duran i Lleida, Don Josep Antoni
Spanish Parliament
Durán Sánchez, Juan Manuel
Randriamandriato Holdings
Durandez Adeva, Angel
Fundación Euroamérica
Dworkin, Anthony
The Crimes of War Project
Eckert, Sue E.
Brown University
Eddy, Randolph Post
Center for Tactical Counterterrorism
Eigen, Peter
Transparency Internacional
Ekberg, Christer
National Crimminal Investigation Department, Swedish Police
Ekeus, Rolf
OSCE and SIPRI
Ekiert, Grzegorz
Harvard University
El Banna, Hany
Islamic Relief
El Bindari Hammad, Aleya
Wagner School of Public Service
El Moneim Said Aly, Abdel
Al Ahram Centre for Political and Strategic Studies, Egypt
Elcock, Ward
Deputy Minister of Defence, Canada
El-Guindy, Sheik Khaled
Imam
Elorza Dominguez, Antonio
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Erakat, Sa’eb
Chief Palestinian Negotiator
Ervine, David
Progressive Unionist Party, Northern Ireland
Escobar, Silvia
CEAR Foundation
Escudero Pérez, Paloma
Intermón Oxfam
Espinosa, María Ángeles
El País
Esposito, Carlos
FRIDE
Estrella, Rafael
Spanish Parliament
Evans, Gareth
International Crisis Group
Ezzat, Heba Raouf
Cairo University
Faber, Mient Jan
Interchurch Peace Council, The Netherlands
Fanjul, Gonzalo
Intermón Oxfam
Farer, Tom
University of Denver
Farid Azzi, Mohammed
Oran University, Algeria
Farid Imam, Huda
Al Quds University, Israel
Farmer, Dan
Writer and Consultant
Fayemi, J. Kayode
Centre for Development and Democracy
Fayos-Solà, Eduardo
World Tourism Organization
Felder, Hershey
Actor
Fell, William
British Airways
Fernandes, Rubem Cesar
Viva Rio, Brazil
Fernandes, Simon
Real Instituto Elcano
Fernández de Béthencourt, Marcos
Peres Center for Peace
Fernández de Casadevante, Carlos
Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain
Fernández-Figares Castelo, Clara
Club de Madrid
Fielding, Nick
The Sunday Times, London
Flores D'Arcais, Alberto
La Repubblica, Italy
Fogg, Karen
International IDEA, Sweden
Francioni, Reto
SWX Swiss Exchange
44
Franco, Antonio
El Periodico de Cataluña
Frangialli, Francesco
World Tourism Organisation
Freedman, Sir Lawrence
King's College London
Fuentetaja Rubio, Pedro
Government of Spain
Gabilondo, Iñaki
Cadena Ser
Gage, John
Sun Microsystems
Gamba, Virginia
Safer Africa, South Africa
Gambs, Hubert
European Commission
Ganley, Declan
Ganley Group of Companies
Ganzer, Giampaolo
Italian Military Police
García, Javier
Government of Spain
Garton Ash, Timothy
Oxford University
Gautier, Louis
Cour des Comptes, France
Gerecht, Reuel Marc
American Enterprise Institute
Gil-Robles, Alvaro
Council of Europe
Gillmor, Dan
Grassroots Media Inc.
Gladney, Dru
University of Hawaii
Glesta, Anita
Artist
Glicken, Howard
Americas Group
Goggans, Chris
COMSEC
Goldman, Robert K.
American University
Gonzalo Puebla, Francisca
Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional
Gooch, Charmian
Global Witness
Gorelick, Steve
City University, New York
Goshgarian, Annie
The Atlantic Council of Canada
Goslin, Bruce
Kroll Inc.
Gotchev, Atanas
University of National and World Economy, Bulgaria
Gowing, Nik
British Broadcasting Corporation
Guedj, Nicole
Ministry of Justice, France
Guinart, Josep María
Spanish Parliament
Gunaratna, Rohan
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Gunning, Jeroen
University of Wales at Aberystwyth
Gupta, Dipak
San Diego State University
Gurr, Ted
University of Maryland
Gyimah-Boadi, Emmanuel
Ghana Centre for Democratic Development
Habiger, Eugene
US Air Force (rtd.)
Hadad, Sama
Iraqi Prospect Organisation, UK
Haering, Barbara
Swiss Parliament
Hafner, Gerhard
University of Vienna
Hager, Michael
The Education for Employment Foundation
Haider, Ejaz
Daily Times, Pakistan
Haider, Huma
The Atlantic Council of Canada
Halevy, Efraim
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Halimi, Gisele
Éditions Plon-Perrin, France
Halperin, Morton H.
Open Society Policy Center
Halliday, Fred
London School of Economics and Political Science
Hamada, Wided
African Youth, Algeria
Hamarneh, Mustafa
University of Jordan
Hampson, Fen
Carleton University
Hanafi, Hassan
Cairo University
Hare, Austin
UN Foundation
Hart, Gary
United States Senate (rtd.)
Hasina, Sheikh
Bangladesh Awami League
Hassan, Nasra
United Nations
Hattrem, Tore
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway
Heinbecker, Paul
Centre for International Governance Innovation
Heintz, Stephen B.
Rockefeller Brothers Fund
Herfkens, Eveline
United Nations
Hermonsín Bono, Carmen
Spanish Parliament
Herrera Argueta, Morena
Las Dignas, El Salvador
Herrero, José Luis
FRIDE
Hidalgo, Juan
Government of Spain
Hidalgo, Diego
FRIDE
Hilder, Paul
The Young Foundation
Hilton, Isabel
BBC and The New Yorker
Hill, Christopher
Agora Group
Himanen, Pekka
Berkeley Center for the Information Society
von Hippel, Karin
King's College London
Holbrooke, Richard
Perseus, LLC
Holmes, Stephen
New York University
Hoppé, Ana María
Kroll Inc.
Horgan, John
University College Cork
Hortal Castaño, Jesús
Government of Spain
Howeidy, Amira
Al-Ahram Weekly, Egypt
Howen, Nicholas
International Commission of Jurists
Hume, John
European Parliament
Hurley, C. Michael
9/11 Commission
Hutchings, Robert L.
Princeton University
Ibrahim, Barbara
Population Council, Egypt
Ibrahim, Saad Eddin
Al Ahram Centre for Political and Strategic Studies, Egypt
Iglesias, Carmen
Real Academia Española
Iglesias, Enrique
Inter-American Development Bank
Imroz, Parvez
J&K Coalition of Civil Society, India
Iñiguez, Santiago
Instituto de Empresa
Iraburu, Beatriz
Fundación Internacional para la Difusión de las Artes y Humanidades
Isenberg, David
Isen.com, LL
Ito, Joi Ichi
Neoteny Co., Ltd.
Jaenicke, Dieter
World Culture Forum, Brazil
Jahangir, Asma
Human Rights Commission of Pakistan
Jain, Bawa
World Youth Peace Summit
Jenkins, Brian
RAND Corporation
Jiménez, Oscar Jaime
Spanish Police
Jiménez-Ugarte, Javier
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Spain
Juergensmeyer, Mark
University of California at Santa Barbara
Kaldor, Mary
London School of Economics and Political Science
Kam, Ephraim
Tel Aviv University
Kandic, Natasa
Humanitarian Law Centre, Serbia and Montenegro
Kane, Ibrahima
INTERIGHTS
Karlsson, Roger
Center for Asymetric Threat Studies, Sweden
Kendall, Raymond
INTERPOL
Kennedy, Mike
Eurojust
Kepel, Gilles
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
Kessler, Giovanni
Parliamentary Assembly, OSCE
Khalfan, Dhadi
Dubai Police
Khan, Irene
Amnesty International
Kichka, Michel
Studio Michel Kichka, Israel
Knapp, Julian
Aspen Institute
Koch, Stéphane
Conseil de Formation en Intelligence Économique, Switzerland
Kolodko, Grzegorz W.
TIGER - Transformation, Integration and Globalization Economic
Research, Poland
Kostin, Aleksandr N.
National Anticriminal and Antiterrorist Foundation, Russia
Krastev, Ivan
Center for Liberal Strategies, Bulgaria
Kubba, Laith
National Endowment for Democracy
Kubis, Jan
OSCE
Kumar, Radha
Delhi Policy Group
Kupchan, Charles
Georgetown University
Kyriakou, Dimitris
European Commission
Labayle, Henri
Université de Pau, France
Lafer, Celso
Former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Brazil
LaFree, Gary
University of Maryland
Lange, Doron
Peres Center for Peace
Langellier, Jean-Pierre
Le Monde
Langsdorff, Hermann
Eurojust
Larres, Klaus
University of London
Lasagabaster, Begoña
Spanish Parliament
Lateef, Noel
Foreign Policy Association
Laurenti, Jeff
UN Foundation
Lazar, Arpad
Instituto de Empresa
Leclair, Gilles
Anti-Terrorism Coordination Unit, France
Leiken, Robert
The Nixon Center
Lenaerts, Koenraad
European Court of Justice
León, Bernardino
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Spain
Lerma, Joan
Spanish Senate
Lessig, Lawrence
Stanford University
Lezertua, Manuel
Council of Europe
Lieven, Anatol
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Likhotal, Alexander
Green Cross International
Lindhout, Julie
The Atlantic Council of Canada
Lindstrom, Gustav
EU Institute for Security Studies
Linz, Juan-José
Yale University
Lodhi, Maleeha
Palestinian Authority
Longoria, Alvaro
Morena Films
Lopes, Antero
United Nations
López, Juan Fernando
Minister of Justice, Spain
Lopez Navarro, José Maria
NATO
45
Lubetzky, Daniel
Peaceworks Foundation
Lucas, Juan José
Spanish Senate
Luck, Edward
Columbia University
Luers, Wendy
Foundation for a Civil Society
Luers, William
United Nations Association of the United States of America
Lukasik, Steve
Consultant
Lyngdoh, Bremley
London School of Economics and Political Science
Llamazares, Gaspar
Spanish Parliament
Llera Ramo, Francisco José
Universidad del País Vasco, Spain
MacKinnon, Rebecca
Harvard University
Madhuku, Lovemore
Zimbabwean Parliament
Magalhaes, Pedro
Universidade de Lisboa
Magallón, Carmen
Fundación Seminario de Investigación para la Paz
Magnus, George
UBS
Makram-Ebeid, Mona
Association for the Advancement of Education, Egypt
Malashenko, Aleksei
Carnegie Moscow Center
Malley, Robert
International Crisis Group
Mani, Rama
Geneva Centre for Security Policy
Manikkalingam, Ram
Rockefeller Foundation
Mantici, Alfredo
General Information and Security Service, Italy
Maravall, José-María
Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias Sociales, Spain
Marín, Manuel
Spanish Parliament
Marlier Robaut, Catherine
Marlier Houses & Buildings
Marret, Jean-Luc
Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique
Martens, Hans
European Policy Centre
Martí-Fluxá, Ricardo
ITP
Martín Villa, Rodolfo
Sogecable S.A.
Martínez Gorriarán, Carlos
Basta Ya, Spain
Masmoudi, Radwan A.
Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy
Mata Lopez, José Manuel
Universidad del Pais Vasco, Spain
Matthews, George
Gorbachev Foundation of North America
Matussek, Matthias
Der Spiegel
Maughan, Janet
Rockefeller Foundation
Mayor Zaragoza, Federico
Fundación Cultura de Paz, Spain
McCallum, Colin
Grenzebach Glier Europe
McIntyre, Anthony
The Blanket, Ireland
McKeon, Celia
Conciliation Resources
McLaughlin, Andrew
Google Inc.
McTernan, Oliver
Forward Thinking
Medina, Claudia
Toledo International Center for Peace
Mehigueni, Reda
Algerian Youth Forum
Meintjes, Garth
JETH Foundation
Mendelsohn, Joshua
Mendelson Forman, Johanna
UN Foundation
Méndez, Constantino
Government of Spain
Méndez, Juan
International Center for Transitional Justice
Merari, Ariel
Tel Aviv University, Israel
Mermet, François
General Directorate for External Security (rtd.), France
46
Mert, Nuray
Journalist, Turkey
Mesa Peinado, Manuela
Centro de Investigación para la Paz
Miloshevic, Desiree
Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
Miller, Judith
The New York Times
Minami, Takashi
Government of Japan
Mincheva, Lyubov
Sofia University
Missana, Sergio
Fundación BBVA
Mlade, Nicole
Center for American Progress
Mollov, Ben
Bar Ilan University, Israel
Mombrú Sampere, José Luis
DFC Group
Mora, Gotzone
Foro de Ermúa
Moratinos, Miguel Ángel
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Spain
Moreno, Juan
Escuela Superior de las Fuerzas Armadas de España
Morris, Christopher
University of Maryland
Morrison, Alastair
Kroll Inc.
Moss, Jeff
DEFCON and Blackhat
Moura, Carlos
Comissão Brasileira Justiça e Paz
Mroz, John Edwin
EastWest Institute
Muñagorri Triana, Ramón
Fundación CEAR
Nacos, Brigitte
Columbia University
Nadery, Ahmad Nader
AIHRC, Afghanistan
Naidoo, Kumi
Civicus, South Africa
Naidu, Rama
Democracy Development Programme, South Africa
Naim, Moises
Foreign Policy Magazine
Nambiar, Satish
Council of the United Services Institution of India
Napoleoni, Loretta
Economic consultant
Nass, Matthias
Die Zeit, Germany
Navarro, Isaura
Spanish Parliament
Nelson, James
Lockheed Martin Spain
Nemyria, Grygoriy
Center for European and International Studies, Ukraine
Neuhaus, Matthew E.K.
Commonwealth Secretariat
Nodia, Ghia
The Caucasus Institute for Peace, Democracy and Development,
Georgia
Norman, Ziba
The Transatlantic Institute
Nuwere, Ejovi
SecurityLab Technologies
Oatley, Michael
Consultant
Obe, Ayo
Civil Liberties Organisation, Nigeria
Oddone, Fabián
Government of Spain
Offe, Claus
Humbolt Universität, Germany
Ogawa, Kazuhisa
Japanese Military (Rtd.)
Ohr, Bruce
Department of Justice, United States
Olonisakin, Funmi
King’s College London
Ordzhonikidze, Sergei
United Nations Office at Geneva
Orlando, Leoluca
Sicilian Renaissance Institute
Ortega, Andrés
Foreign Policy Edición Española
Ottoway, Marina
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Pagazaurtundua, Maite
Fundación Víctimas Terrorismo
Pajín, Leire
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Spain
Palacio, Ana
Spanish Parliament
Palmero, Pilar
Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional
Pallares, Gustavo
OSCE Parliamentary Assembly
Papenkort, Bernd
Multi-Lateral Academy Institute, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Paramio, Ludolfo
Government of Spain
Pardess, Yael
Artist
Paris, Jonathan
Oxford University
Pascal, Jean Jacques
Directorate of Territorial Security, France
Peckham, Gardner
BKSH & Associates
Peleg, Samuel
Netanya College, Israel
Peral, Luis
FRIDE
Pereira, Merval
O Globo, Brazil
Perera, Rohan
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sri Lanka
Pérez Caldentey, Ignacio
Council of Europe
Pérez Díaz, Víctor
Analistas Socio-Políticos Gabinete de Estudios
Perger, Werner A
Die Zeit
Pesic, Goran
The Atlantic Council of Canada
Petitbó, Amadeo
Fundación Rafael del Pino
Phillips, Timothy
Club de Madrid and Harvard University
Picado, Sonia
Instituto Iberoamericano de Derechos Humanos, Costa Rica
Picco, Giandomenico
GDP Associates, Inc.
Piccone, Ted
Club de Madrid and Democracy Coalition Project
Piris, Alberto
Centro de Investigación para la Paz
Pojar, Tomas
People in Need
Portela, Paloma
Comisión Nacional del Mercado de Valores, Spain
Posner, Michael
Human Rights First
Post, Jerrold
George Washington University
Princess Irene of Greece
Mundo Armonía
Pritzker, Thomas
Hyatt International and Hyatt Corp.
Pugès, Luis
ESADE
Puri, Harish K.
Guru Nanak Dev University, India
Qaisar, Iftikhar
Daily Jang, Pakistan
Raines, John
Temple University
Ramadan, Tariq
Bureau de Tariq Ramadan
Ramírez Castanedo, Jesús
Asociación Víctimas del 11M
Ramo, Joshua
Office of John Thornton
Ranstorp, Magnus
University of St Andrews
Rashid, Ahmed
Journalist
Rayón, Mariano
Spanish Police
Reader, Ian
Lancaster University
Rees Gallanter, Joanna
Venture Strategy Partners
Reinares, Fernando
Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain
Renedo Sedano, Alvaro
Telemadrid
Rey, Francisco
Spanish Red Cross
Richards, Andrew
Fundación Juan March
Rifkind, Gabrielle
Oxford Process
Rigo, Andrés
Fulbright and Jaworski
Riotta, Gianni
Corriere della Sera
Ripper, Velcrow
Canadian Film Board
Rivero, Paulino
Spanish Parliament
Riza, Syed Iqbal
United Nations
Rocamora, Joel
Insitute for Popular Democracy, Philippines
Rød-Larsen, Terje
International Peace Academy
Rodríguez, Annabelle
Asociación Encuentro de la Cultura Cubana, Spain
Rodríguez Burdalo, Juan Carlos
Government of Spain
Rodríguez Zapata, Jorge
Constitutional Court, Spain
Rojo, Francisco Javier
Spanish Senate
Romero, José Manuel
Romeno Moreno Abogados
Rose-Ackerman, Susan
Yale University
Rosen, David
The American Jewish Committee
Rotenberg, Mark
Electronic Privacy Information Center
Roth, Kenneth
Human Rights Watch
Rothschild, Danny
Council for Peace and Security, Israel
Royo, Sebastián
Suffolk University
Rubio, Ana
Kroll Inc.
Rupérez, Javier
United Nations
Ryabov, Andrei
Carnegie Moscow Center
Ryan, Karin
The Carter Center
Sadek Ribeiro de Sousa, Maria Tereza
Humanas University, Brazil
Sadik, Nafis
United Nations
Sadr, Shadi
Womeniniran.org
Sageman, Marc
Foreign Policy Research Institute
Sagramoso, Domitilla
King’s College London
Sahathevan, Ganesh
Journalist
Said, Yahia
London School of Economics and Political Science
Saint-Malo, Roberto
Adara Venture Partners
Salame, Ghassam
Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, France
Salazar de la Guerra, Ana-María
Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain
Salem, Walid
Panorama Center, Jerusalem
Samuels, Shimon T.
Simon Wiesenthal Center
Sanahuja Perales, José Antonio
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Sánchez, Emilio George
Author
Sánchez Camacho, José Miguel
Spanish Senate
Sánchez-Cuenca, Ignacio
Yale University
Sánchez Sánchez, Policarpo
Escuela Superior de las Fuerzas Armadas de España
Santamaría Ossorio, Julián
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Santos, Juan Manuel
Fundación Buen Gobierno, Colombia
Sanz, Félix
Joint Chief of Staff, Spanish Military
Sanz, José Antonio
Government of Spain
Sauquillo, Francisca
Movimiento por la Paz, el Desarme y la Libertad
Savater, Fernando
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Scharf, Michael P.
Case Western Reserve University
Schell, Jonathan
Yale University
Schindler, Alexander
Union Asset Management
Schmid, Alex
United Nations
Schreier, Fred R.
Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
47
Schwartz, Michael
State University of New York at Stony Brook
Seltzer, Wendy
Electronic Frontier Foundation
Sendagorta Gómez de Campillo, Fidel
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Spain
Serra Rexach, Eduardo
Real Instituto Elcano
Shahandeh, Behzad
University of Tehran
Shapcott, William
Council of the European Union
Sharifa, Najib
Government of Aghanistan
Sheffer, Gabriel
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Shiva, Vandana
The Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology, India
Shonholtz, Raymond J. D.
Partners for Democratic Change
Siboni Gabay, Don Isaac
Instituto de Estudios Sefardíes & The Peres Centre for Peace
Siemens, María-Ángeles
UNHCR
Silver, Kim
Grenzebach Glier & Associates, Inc.
Simancas, Mariano
EUROPOL
Simeon, Richard
University of Toronto
Smidt, Wolbert
German Forum for the Discussion of Intelligence
Smith, David
Internet & Data Networks
Solchaga, Carlos
Solchaga, Recio & Asociados
Son, Gi-Woong
Korea Institute for National Unification
Sorasio, Denise
European Commission
Soros, George
Open Society Institute
Sotelo, Ignacio
Academia Europea de las Artes y las Ciencias
Sourani, Raji
Palestinian Centre for Human Rights
Sowa, Theo
Consultant
Spottorno, Rafael
Fundación Caja Madrid
Staberock, Gerald
International Commission of Jurists
Stanmeyer, John
Photographer
Stepanova, Ekaterina
Center for International Security, Russia
Stern, Jessica
Harvard University
Stern, Nikki
Families of September 11
Stohl, Michael
University of California at Santa Barbara
Stone, Chris
Harvard University
Storbeck, Jurgen
Ministry of the Interior, Germany
Stout, Chris
University of Illinois
Styron, Rose
Author
Suranyi, György
Bancaintesa
Sussman, Gary
Tel Aviv University
Sutherland, Peter
Goldman Sachs International
Sznajder, Mario
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Takama, Gohsuke
Meta associate
Takiguchi, Noriko
Loop Magazine
Tato, Javier
Escuela Superior de las Fuerzas Armadas de España
Taweel, Hala
University of the Middle East
Taylor, Ron
Grenzebach Glier Europe
Thunell, Lars
SEB
Tibbi, Bassam
Göttingen University, Germany
Ting, Jan
Temple University
Toledo, Teresa
Casa de América, Spain
48
Tommasoli, Massimo
International IDEA, Sweden
Treverton, Greg
RAND Corporation
Tulchin, Joseph
Woodrow Wilson International Center
Turullols Escalada, Gloria
El País
Unger, David
The New York Times
Urgell Deu, Anna
Fundación CIDOB
Uriarte Bengoetxea, Edurne
Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain
Uteem, Cassam
International IDEA, Sweden
Vallespín Oña, Fernando
Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, Spain
Van Rooijen, Adriaan
Instituto de Empresa
Vargas, Rosemary
Globalitaria
Varsavsky, Martín
Safe Democracy Foundation
Védrine, Hubert
Former Minister for Foreign Affairs, France
Vendley, William
The World Conference of Religions for Peace
Victoroff, Jeff
Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California
Villalobos, Joaquín
Oxford University
Vitorino, Antonio
Former European Commissioner
Vixie, Paul
Internet Software Consortium
Vogt, Andreas
Norwegian Institute of International Affairs
Walden,Tsvia
Author
Wardak, Farooq
JEMB Secretariat, Afghanistan
Watson, Peter S.
OPIC
Weinberg, Leonard
University of Nevada
Weinberger, David
Harvard Law School
Weine, Stevan
University of Illinois at Chicago
Whitehead, Laurence
Oxford University
Whiteside, Edward C.
NATO
Wilson, Robin
Democratic Dialogue, Northern Ireland
Williams, Brian Glyn
University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth
Wright-Neville, David
Monash University, Australia
Yañez-Barnuevo, Juan Antonio
Government of Spain
Youngs, Richard
FRIDE
Yousef, Abbas
ASI Global SA
Zaldívar, Carlos
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Spain
Zaplana, Eduardo
Spanish Parliament
Zeilinger, Anton
University of Vienna
Zimmerman, Peter
King's College London
Zimmermann, Ekkart
Dresden University of Technology
Zogby, John
Zogby International
Zoido, Antonio
Madrid Stock Exchange
Zuckerman, Ethan
Harvard University
Club de Madrid
Mission
Programmes and Activities
The Club de Madrid is an independent organization whose
purpose it is to contribute to the strengthening of democracy
around the world. It launches global initiatives, conducts
projects, and acts as a consultative body for governments,
democratic leaders and institutions involved in processes
of democratic transition. The personal and practical
experience of its members – fifty-seven former heads of
state and government – in processes of democratic
transition and consolidation is the Club de Madrid’s unique
resource. Along with the experience and co-operation of
other high level political practitioners and governance
experts, this resource is a working tool to convert ideas
into practical recommendations.
The Club de Madrid brings three major resources to its
work:
Contact
• A unique mix of former Heads of State and Government.
• A committed focus on democratic transition and
consolidation.
• Programmes with a practical approach and measurable
results.
The Club de Madrid undertakes projects related to its core
mission of promoting and defending democracy. One of
the Club de Madrid’s major assets is the ability of its
members to offer strategic advice and peer-to-peer counsel
to current leaders striving to build or consolidate democracy.
The organisation also plays an advocacy role in promoting
democratic principles in certain country, regional or thematic
cases, such as with the International Summit on Democracy,
Terrorism and Security.
To learn more about the Club de Madrid’s mission and
activities, please go to our web site: www.clubmadrid.org.
Club de Madrid
Felipe IV, 9 – 3° izqda.
28014 Madrid
Spain
Tel: +34 91 523 72 16
Fax: +34 91 532 00 88
Email: [email protected]
49
Pictures (from top to bottom, from left to right): Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo and Felipe Gonzalez; Fernando Henrique Cardoso,
Rt. Hon Kim Campbell and Mary Robinson greeting Kofi Annan; Club de Madrid Family picture with TT.RR.HH. The Prince and
Princess of Asturias at the opening of the Madrid Summit; Lionel Jospin, Javier Solana, Antonio Guterres, José María Figueres;
Leonel Fernández and Alvaro Arzú; Lee Hong Koo and Antonio Mascarenhas; H.M. The Queen of Spain, Fernando Henrique
Cardoso, Mary Robinson
Members of the Club de Madrid
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique*
President. Former President of Brazil
Robinson, Mary*
Vice-President. Former President of Ireland
Clinton, William J.
Honorary Co-chair. Former President of the United States
Campbell, Kim*
Secretary General. Former Prime Minister of Canada
Adamkus, Valdas
President of Lithuania (on leave)
Ahtisaari, Martti
Former President of Finland
Alfonsín, Raúl
Former President of Argentina
Al Mahdi, Sadiq
Former Prime Minister of Sudan
Arzú, Alvaro
Former President of Guatemala
Aylwin, Patricio
Former President of Chile
Aznar, José María
Former Prime Minister of Spain
Betancur, Belisario
Former President of Colombia
Bildt, Carl
Former Prime Minister of Sweden
Brundtland, Gro Harlem
Former Prime Minister of Norway
Calvo Sotelo, Leopoldo
Former Prime Minister of Spain
Carter, Jimmy**
Former President of the United States
Cavaco Silva, Aníbal
Former Prime Minister of Portugal
Chissano, Joaquim
Former President of Mozambique
Delors, Jacques
Former President of the European Commission
Dimitrov, Philip
Former Prime Minister of Bulgaria
Fernández, Leonel
President of the Dominican Republic (on leave)
Figueres, José María*
Former President of Costa Rica
Frei Ruiz-Tagle, Eduardo*
Former President of Chile
Gaviria, César*
Former President of Colombia
González Márquez, Felipe
Former Prime Minister of Spain
Gorbachev, Mikhail
Former President of the Soviet Union
Gujral, Inder Kumar
Former Prime Minister of India
Guterres, António
Former Prime Minister of Portugal
Havel, Václav
Former President of Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic
Hurtado, Osvaldo
Former President of Ecuador
Jospin, Lionel
Former Prime Minister of France
Kohl, Helmut
Former Chancellor of Germany
Konare, Alpha Oumar
Former President of Mali;
Chairperson of the Commission of the African Union
Kucan, Milan
Former President of Slovenia
Lee, Hong Koo*
Former Prime Minister of Korea
Major, John
Former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Mascarenhas Monteiro, Antonio M.
Former President of Cape Verde
Masire, Ketumile
Former President of Botswana
Mazowiecki, Tadeusz
Former Prime Minister of Poland
Meidani, Rexhep*
Former President of Albania
Meri, Lennart
Former President of Estonia
Paniagua, Valentín*
Former President of Peru
Panyarachun, Anand
Former Prime Minister of Thailand
Pastrana, Andrés
Former President of Colombia
Pérez de Cuéllar, Javier
Former Secretary-General of the United Nations
and former Prime Minister of Peru
Prodi, Romano
Former President of the European Commission
and former Prime Minister of Italy
Quiroga, Jorge
Former President of Bolivia
Ramos, Fidel Valdes
Former President of the Philippines
Rasmussen, Poul Nyrup
Former Prime Minister of Denmark
Roman, Petre
Former Prime Minister of Romania
Sánchez de Lozada, Gonzalo
Former President of Bolivia
Sanguinetti, Julio María*
Former President of Uruguay
Shipley, Jennifer Mary
Former Prime Minister of New Zealand
Soares, Mario
Former President of Portugal
Suárez, Adolfo*
Former Prime Minister of Spain
Suchocka, Hanna*
Former Prime Minister of Poland
Zedillo, Ernesto*
Former President of Mexico
Other members of the executive committee
Other honorary members
Diego Hidalgo
President of the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el
Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE)
José-Manuel Romero
Trustee of FRIDE
George Matthews
President of the Gorbachev Foundation of North America (GFNA)
T. Anthony Jones
Vice-President and Executive Manager of GFNA
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
Prime Minister of Spain
Esperanza Aguirre
President of the Regional Government of Madrid
Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón
Mayor of Madrid
(*) Member of the Executive Committee
(**) Honorary Member
51
Pictures (from top to bottom, from left to right): H.R.H. The Prince of Asturias is welcomed to the Summit by Fernando
Henrique Cardoso, Andrés Pastrana, Petre Roman, Julio María Sanguinetti, Jennifer Shipley; Mikhail Gorbachev during the 2001
Conference on Democratic Consolidation and Transition; William J. Clinton during the Club de Madrid’s Second General Assembly
in November 2003; family picture at the 2001 Conference on Democratic Consolidation and Transition; Club de Madrid Executive
Committee in New York in 2003; Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle and Osvaldo Hurtado at the Madrid Summit