- ISEAS Yusof Ishak Institute

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- ISEAS Yusof Ishak Institute
Reproduced from The Life and Times of Gerald de Cruz: A Singaporean of Many Worlds, by Asad-ul Iqbal Latif
(Singapore: ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute, 2015). This version was obtained electronically direct from the
publisher on condition that copyright is not infringed. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the
prior permission of ISEAS Publishing. Individual chapters are available at <http://bookshop.iseas.edu.sg>
INDEX
Note: Pages numbers followed by “n” refer to notes.
A
anti-British, 13–14
Abdullah, C.D., 48
in India, 26
Abdul Rahman Ya’kub, 94
anti-colonialism, 60
Abdul Razak Hussein, 92
anti-colonial nationalism, 140
Ah Moke, 37, 61, 72
All-Malayan Council of Joint
power of, 137
Anti-Fascist Committee of Soviet
Action (AMCJA), 53
All-Union Council of Trade
Youth, 66
Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom
Unions, 177
All-Union Leninist Young
Communist League, 66
AMCJA. See All-Malayan Council
League, 66
anti-tank regiment, 19
Arthur Lim, 178n1
ASEAN. See Association of
of Joint Action (AMCJA)
Southeast Asian Nations
AMCJA/PUTERA group, 59
American Revolution, 122–23,
128–30
(ASEAN)
Asia Foundation, 113
Association of Southeast Asian
and French Revolution,
Nations (ASEAN), 182
129–30
An Autobiography (Nehru), 13, 16
B
Anglo-Malay agreements, 53
Balakrishnan, V.R., 175
Anglo-Malay sovereignty, 54
Ballas, Jacob, 78
anti-Asian sentiment, 10–11
Battle of Singapore, 21
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214Index
Battle of Waterloo, 127
Bayly, Christopher, 41
Bernstein, Eduard, 182
Bettelheim, Bruno, 189
children, intellectually
handicapped, 87–90
Chinese Communist Party, 32,
150, 155–56
Bloodworth, Dennis, 67
Chin Peng, 37, 62
Boestaman, Ahmad, 38, 48, 58
Churchill, Winston, 57, 159
Bose, Rash Behari, 24–25
Civil Disobedience Campaign,
Bose, Subhas Chandra, 25
56
Boswell, Wilbur, 82
Civil Rights Convention, 106
Braga-Blake, Myrna, 10
civil servants, 117–18
British Commonwealth, 44
Civil War, 124, 129
British Empire, 11–12, 17
CJA. See Council of Joint Action
British imperialism, 13
(CJA)
British Military Administration, 34
Clarke, Hilda, 86–87
Burhanuddin al-Helmy, 38, 48
columnist
Burke, Edmund, 130
Burmese Communist Party, 66
de Cruz as, 7
for New Nation, 181–92
Comber, Leon, 60
C
Commonwealth Office, 79
Calcutta conference, 65–66, 68
communism, 87, 93, 106, 119,
Cape of Good Hope, 19
122
Carey Island, 36
books, 137, 145–58
CC AUCP (B). See Central
in China, 183
Committee of the AllUnion Communist Party (of
Bolsheviks) (CC AUCP (B))
Central Committee of the All-
and democratic socialism,
150–52
dialectical and historical
materialism, 148
Union Communist Party (of
Eastern Europe, 84
Bolsheviks) (CC AUCP (B),
indoctrination, 148
66
and nationalism, 150
Chan Heng Chee, 98
Chan Ming Chen, 49, 52
pro-communist Barisan
Sosialis, 153
Chaplin, Charlie, 171
rift with, 61–73
Chew Swee Kee, 101, 108–9, 111
in Singapore, 155
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Index215
communist guerrillas
and British, wartime
collaboration between, 34
communist insurgency in
Malaya, 146
Communist Manifesto, The, 131–32
Communist Party, 91, 106, 146,
149, 153
Communist Party of
Czechoslovakia, 82
Communist Party of Great
Britain, 84, 86
Declaration of Independence,
128
decolonization, 137
de Cruz, Adam, 201–2
de Cruz, Coral, 80, 107–8
de Cruz, Gerald Evelyn, 19
in Athens, 81
awarded a gold medal by
NTUC in 1970, 168
birthday programme, 88–90
books, 136–61
in British electoral politics, 91
Communist Party of India, 65
childhood and youth, 9–17
Conceicao, Joe, 30
as columnist, 7
Conference of Youth and
columnist for New Nation,
Students of Southeast Asia
181–92
Fighting for Freedom and
communism, 147–58
Independence, 65
community life, 3
Conservative Party, 94
democracy, 158–61
Co-operative Movement, trade
democratic socialism, 5–6
unions and development
of, 46
Eurasian Progressive
Movement, 27–30
Cooper, Richard, 184
Fabian Society, 132–35
Corridon, Richard, 105
family of, 9–10, 194–202
cosmopolitanism, 144–45
friend of labour, 167–78
Council of Joint Action (CJA),
going abroad, 77–85
50, 52–61
Cultural Revolution, 135, 155–57
Czech Embassy in Rome, 82
in India, 78
involvement with boycott,
MNP, 51
Czech Secret Police, 83–84
job in ancillary medical
D
joined MDU, 45–46
services, 86
David Marshall, 4, 14, 91, 94,
99–105, 107, 110, 112, 117
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as journalist, 7
journalistic skills, 168
4/8/15 2:06 pm
216Index
labour’s improvement,
contribution to, 6–7
lecture notes on American
Efimova, Larisa, 66
Emergency Regulations, 21
Employment Act, 168
Revolution of 1776,
English Revolution, 122–23, 128
128–30
Eurasian Association, 10, 28
in London, 86
Eurasian community, 20, 29
Machine-Gun Regiment, 21
Eurasian Progressive Association,
Merger, 112–14
nationalism, 137–47
42
Eurasian Progressive Movement,
nationalism and socialism, 20
27–30, 77
paper on workers’ education, 169
Papers, 120–36
F
parents of, 23
Fabian Colonial Bureau, 96
in People’s Action Party, 106
Fabian doctrine, 134
People’s Constitution, 53–54
Fabian Society, 132–35
PMCJA’s representative, 54
politics, 3–4, 90–96
and Marxist approaches,
134–35
President of PMCJA, 55
nationalization, 133–34
Radio Saigon, 24
political equality for women, 134
religion, 4
prevention of “sweated
as revisionist, 6
serial blood donor, 186
social programme, 88
teaching, 5
voluntary service, 5
labour”, 133
reformist demands, 133
socialism, 134
Fellowship of the New Life
movement, 132
de Cruz, Joshua, 11
feudalism, 138–39
de Cruz, Simon Tensing, 196–99
Forum on Communism, 152
Democrat, The, 36, 38
Forum on Nationalism, 141
Department of Motivation,
Fountain Hospital for Mentally-
174–75
Devan, Janadas, 178n1
Retarded Children, London,
86, 88
Free India Radio Saigon, 25–27
E
Eber, John, 20, 28–29, 53, 92–94
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French Revolution, 123, 137,
142, 147
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Index217
American Revolution and,
129–30
independence, 99
India
Burke, Edmund, 130–31
anti-British feeling in, 26
modernity, 138–39
de Cruz, Gerald, 78
and nationalism, 138
and Singapore, 13
Indian Army, 26
G
Indian independence movement,
Gammans, L.D., 91
Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand,
25–26, 56
24–25
Indian National Army (INA), 3, 25
Indonesian Communist Party,
Goh Keng Swee, 92–93, 116–17,
120
154–55
Indonesian liberation movement
Gordon, Shirle, 113
Grand Alliance, 63
in 1946, 65
Industrial Revolution, 123,
Great Depression, 13
137–40, 147
Gwee Ah Leng, 190
intellectually handicapped
H
Intelligence Quotient (IQ), 86
Hack, Karl, 68
Intelligent Woman’s Guide to
children, 87–90
Harper, Tim, 42
Socialism and Capitalism, The
Hassan, Inayat, 25–26, 78–80
Hatta, 47
(Shaw), 27–28
IQ. See Intelligence Quotient
Herzberg, F., 172
(IQ)
Hinton, Harold, 189
Ishak bin Haji Mohammed, 48
Hoalim, Philip, 50
Islam, impact of on Malays, 113
Hobbes, Thomas, 124–25
Ho Chi Minh, 32
J
Hoffman, Leslie, 35
Jaganathan, S., 103
Japanese Occupation, 11, 55, 77
I
Eurasian Progressive
imperialism, 137, 140, 143, 148
Movement, 27–30
Impregnable Fortress, 19
Radio Saigon, 24
INA. See Indian National Army
Sherwood Foresters Anti-Tank
(INA)
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Gunners, 19
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218Index
journalist, de Cruz as, 7
Lee Foundation, 113
Jupp, Audrey, 90
Lee Kuan Yew, 99, 100, 107,
109–11, 113, 116–17, 167
K
Malayan Forum, 94
Katz, Daniel, 172
and Marshall, David Saul,
Kennan, George, 63–64
105–6
Kennedy, John, 185
Lee Song, 65
Kennedy, Robert, 185
Lee Yew Seng, 103
Kesatuan Melayu Muda (KMM),
Liau, Philip, 197
47
Liberal Socialist Party, 111
King, Martin Luther, 185
Likert, Rensis, 172
KMM. See Kesatuan Melayu
Lim Chin Siong, 167
Muda (KMM)
Lim Hong Bee, 30, 35, 46, 67,
Komsomol, 66
83, 92
Kristac, Max, 27
Lim Kean Chye, 49, 52
Kuok Ping Chen, Billy, 15, 36,
Lim Yew Hock, 96, 99, 101, 109
53
leadership styles, 103–5
Singapore People’s Alliance, 111
L
Locke, John, 124–26
Labour Front, 92, 96, 98–101,
Loi Tek, 49, 61–62
103–4, 109, 111–12
Central Committee of, 99
M
funds, 110
Machine-Gun Regiment, 20–21
and Trades Union Congress,
Magna Carta, 123
95
Labour Government, 87–88
Labour in a Technological
Society: Action Programme
for the 70’s, 171
labour movement, 90, 169
Labour Party, 94
formation of, 134–35
Mak Pak Shee, 98–99, 103
Malayan Communist Party
(MCP), 3–4, 28, 37–38, 59,
152, 161
Chinese-educated leadership
of, 33
Council of Joint Action (CJA),
50
La Brooy, Sholto, 21–22
formed in Singapore, 32
Laycock, John, 50
Labour Party, 47–48
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Index219
Malayan Democratic Union
leadership styles, 103–4
(MDU), 30, 41–51, 59, 77
and Lee Kuan Yew, 105–6
Central Committee meeting,
resignation of, 91–92, 94–96,
59
98–102
de Cruz joined, 45–46
Marshall, George C., 63
Manifesto, 42–45
Marshall, Jean, 107–8
Malayan Forum, 92, 94
Marshall Plan, 63
Malayan independence, 90–91
Mausner, M., 172
Tunku Abdul Rahman and, 92
May Fourth movement of 1919,
Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese
Army (MPAJA), 47
Malayan Security Service (1948),
51
32
Mayo, Elton, 171
McNiece, Sir Percy, 78
MCP. See Malayan Communist
Malayan Union, 36, 45
Malay Nationalist Party (MNP),
Party (MCP)
MDU. See Malayan Democratic
46–48, 59
Malaysia, 29, 93
anti-colonial movement in, 32
Union (MDU)
Merger, 112–14
Mind in the Making, The
communal tensions in, 42
(Robinson), 28
communist insurgency in, 146
Ming, Ah, 36
during immediate post-war
MNP. See Malay Nationalist Party
years, 41
Indian independence
movement in, 24–25
(MNP)
More, Thomas, 182
Moscow Institute, 177
nationalism, 71
Mostyn, Lyn, 91
peasants, development of in, 113
MPAJA. See Malayan People’s
rabble-rousing in, 87
referendum campaign, 127
Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA)
Mydin, Rashid, 48
Malay Sultans, 53
Manifesto, MDU, 42–45
N
Maoism, 132
Nair, C.V. Devan, 167, 178n1,
Maoist China, 184
Marshall, David Saul, 14, 107–8,
112, 196, 198
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200
NAMH. See National Association
for Mental Health (NAMH)
4/8/15 2:06 pm
220Index
Nathan, S.R., 119
P
National Association for Mental
Pakistan Special Branch, 79
Health (NAMH), 86
nationalism, 20, 71, 137–47
communism and, 150
cosmopolitanism, 145
French Revolution and,
138–39
imperialism and fascism, 140
nationalization, Fabian Society,
133–34
Pan-Malayan Council of Joint
Action (PMCJA), 53, 57, 78,
113
Pan-Malayan Federation of Trade
Unions (PMFTU), 38, 52, 59
PAP. See People’s Action Party
(PAP)
Papers, de Cruz, Gerald
American Revolution, 128–30
National Service in Singapore, 140
English Revolution, 122–24
National Trades Union Congress
Fabian Society, 132–35
(NTUC), 167
National Productivity
Board and employers’
federations, 175
Seminar on the Modernization
of the Labour Movement,
168
symposium, 171
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 25–27
New Democratic Youth League, 42
New Nation, columnist for,
181–92
Nixon, Richard, 185
NTUC. See National Trades
Union Congress (NTUC)
French Revolution, 130–31
Greeks, 120–22
humanity, 135
Patel, Akbar, 79–80
People’s Action Party (PAP),
111–12, 116, 143
Civil Rights Convention, 106
in elections, 109–10
pro-Communist leaders in, 105
People’s Constitution of
Malaysia, 59, 113
People’s Liberation Army (PLA),
156
People’s United Front, 46
Phipps, Coral, 77–79
PLA. See People’s Liberation
O
Army (PLA)
Ong Eng Guan, 110–11
Platonic idealism in politics, 122
Osborne House, 87, 89–90
PMCJA. See Pan-Malayan
social programme at, 88
Osman China, 36–37, 39
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Council of Joint Action
(PMCJA)
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Index221
PMFTU. See Pan-Malayan
Robert Yeo, 119
Federation of Trade Unions
Robespierre, 130
(PMFTU)
Robinson, James Harvey, 28
Political Study Centre, 116–20
Rojak Rebel, 201
Prakash, Jaya, 195, 199–201
Roth, Andrew, 96
Prakash, Judith, 178n1, 194–95
Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 124,
about her father, 194–95
family, 195–96
Protestant economic settlement,
123
126–27
royal absolutism, 129
Russian Revolution, 151
Russian trade union, 175
Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of
Capitalism, The (Weber),
S
123
Samsudin, Abdullah, 94
Puritanism, 123
Sarawak Foundation, 94
Pusat Tenaga Rakyat, 50
Selwyn-Clarke, Hilda, 96
Semonov, Anatoly, 175–77
Q
Sharma, P.V., 78, 167
Queen’s Scholarship class, 15
Shaw, Bernard, 133
Sherwood Foresters Anti-Tank
R
Gunners, 19
racism, 86
Simmons, A.C., 15
Radio Saigon, 24–25
Singapore
Raffles Institution, 15
anti-colonial movement in, 32
Rajah, T.T., 94
communism in, 155
Red Guards, 155–56
Council of Joint Action, 50
Red Republic of Malaya, 67
economic revolution, 169
referendum campaign, Malaysia,
Eurasian community, 20
127
Religion and the Rise of Capitalism
(Tawney), 123
Rendell Constitution, 103
revisionism, ideological
legitimacy of, 182
revisionist, de Cruz as, 6
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government, 117
harbour, 23
India and, 13
Indian independence
movement in, 24–25
Malayan Communist Party
(MCP) formed in, 32
4/8/15 2:06 pm
222Index
Malayan Democratic Union
Soviet Union, 77, 81–82, 147,
(MDU) contribution to
175, 183
social reform in, 45
Stalinism in, 131
nationalism, 142
Stalinism, in Soviet Union, 131
trade unionists, 175
Stalin, Josef, 83
Singapore Anti-British League,
59
Singapore People’s Alliance,
formation of, 111
Stamford Raffles, 9
Stenson, Michael, 69
Stiletto, 187
Straits Times, The, 7, 13–15, 19,
Singapore Recreation Club, 11
Singapore Trades Union
21, 24, 28, 35
STUC. See Singapore Trades
Congress (STUC), 103
Singapore Women’s Federation,
42
Sino–American rapprochement,
Union Congress (STUC)
Suez Canal, 10
Sukarno, 47, 66
Sun Life Assurance Company,
182, 185
Canada, 78
Sino–Japanese War, 33
Suyin, Han, 60
Sino–Soviet split, 150, 158
“sweated labour”, prevention of,
Slánský, Anna, 81–82
133
Slánský, Richard, 81–83
Slánský, Rudolf, 82–83
T
Snyderman, B., 172
Tahr, Hashimy, 46
social contract, 126
Tan, C.C., 50
socialism, 20, 134
Tan Cheng Lock, 55–56, 78
origins of, 143
socialist critique of imperialism,
42
Social Welfare Department, 77
Societies Ordinance, 49
Tan, S.H., 110
Taylor, Frederick, 171
Thomas, Francis, 101, 109, 111
Thomson, George, 30, 104,
116–18, 120
Socrates, 135, 145
Thumboo, Jacko, 36, 53
Soviet Communism: A New
Tiger and the Trojan Horse, The
Civilisation (Sidney and
Webb), 73
Soviet labour unions, 177
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(Bloodworth), 67
Toh Chin Chye, 94, 109
Trades Union Congress (TUC), 95
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Index223
Trade Union Movement, 46
W
trade unions, 139
Wechsler-Bellevue Diagnostic
Russia, 175
Tests, 87
Truman Doctrine, 63
women, political equality for, 134
Truman, Harry, 63
Woodford, Leslie, 14
TUC. See Trades Union Congress
Workers’ Educational
(TUC)
Tunku Abdul Rahman, 92, 112
Association, 90
workers’ education, paper on, 169
Workers’ Party, 100
U
Wu Tien Wang, 30, 35, 46
Union of Democratic Control,
90
United Kingdom, colonies of,
128
Utopia, 182
Y
Yeo Kim Wah, 41–42
Yong, C.F., 33
Yu-Foo Yee Shoon, 177
Utopian element in
communism, 182
utopianism of Soviet Union, 183
Z
Zainal Abidin, 113–14
Zaleznik, Abraham, 172–74
V
Zhdanov, Andrei, 63–64
Vietnam War, 182
Zhdanov Line, 64–65, 68
Virginia’s Bill of Rights, 128
Zhou Enlai, 102, 156
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