Annual Report 2012-2013 (pdf - 3.64 MB)



Annual Report 2012-2013 (pdf - 3.64 MB)
Annual Report
2012 | 13
The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh is a Charity registered
in Scotland (number SC007983) and is supported by the Scottish Government, Rural and Environment
Science and Analytical Services (RESAS) Division.
For further information on the Royal Botanic Garden
Edinburgh and its work, or to obtain further copies of this Annual Report, please contact:
Corporate Services Manager
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh
20A Inverleith Row, Edinburgh EH3 5LR
United Kingdom
Tel 0131 552 7171
Fax 0131 248 2901
All website addresses and contact details are correct at the time of going to press. Should a website address or contact details change or move, and information is required, contact RBGE at the above address.
All text and images © Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2013, except where mentioned.
Front cover: Visitors enjoy the sun on the lawn in front of the Glasshouses at the
Edinburgh Garden. Photo: Lynsey Wilson. Inside front cover: Ramalina farinacea.
Printed by Caledonian Colour Printers Ltd,
Peeblesshire, using vegetable-based inks and eco-friendly varnish, under the control of an environmental Management System and FSC Chain of Custody Certification.
Chairman’s Foreword
Regius Keeper’s Introduction
Global Partnerships
The Latin American Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest Floristic Network (DRYFLOR)
European collaborations
Centre for Middle Eastern Plants 12
The Science of Biodiversity
Begonia research
Boom and bust in little lichens
New biodiversity scientists
Caring for the Collections
North East Corner Masterplan: an overview
Developments – recent and planned activities at Benmore, Logan and Dawyck
4 Conservation in Policy and Practice
An update on the global conservation status of conifers 29
Setting best practice in conservation translocations 30
Engaging the Public
Membership and Development
Exhibitions and Events
Inverleith House Marketing and Communication
Education for the Future
PropaGate Learning
Diplomas and Garden History
A new curriculum
MSc course
PhD students
Also this year ...
Income to RBGE
Facts and figures
Environmental report
Publications issued by staff,
associates and students
Staff, students and Volunteers
Sir Muir Russell
n the foreword to last year’s Annual Report I stated
that I was looking forward to tackling the exciting
challenges on the horizon. What I did not know
then was how close that horizon was! Thanks to the
generosity of the Scottish Government additional
resources of £1.5 million were made available during
the year to make a start on the planning and enabling
works for the Nursery as a precursor to the major
project on our main site. This project is the largest and
most complex that we have undertaken for over 40
years. My Board, the Senior Management Team and
Scottish Government officials are all working with the
Design Team to ensure a successful outcome in a few
years’ time. Other exciting projects are also under way
for Benmore (a new Visitor Centre), Dawyck (a hydro
scheme) and Logan (a new conservatory to better
display our exotic plants).
Of course, the Botanics is not all about building
projects. During the past year our staff have been
engaged in making significant contributions to
conservation and climate change policies. This builds
on our accumulated expertise garnered over a long
period of time but using our young scientists who are
employing modern scientific methodologies and tools
that we have in recent times invested in. In addition
Clockwise from top left: The front range of the Glasshouses at the Edinburgh Garden;
we have staged a number of exciting exhibitions in our
Inverleith House at the Edinburgh Garden; Martin Gardner MBE; detail of the John Hope
gallery in Inverleith House and also in the John Hope
Gateway building, Edinburgh Garden; Benmore Botanic Garden. Photo: Derek Black; Gateway, which have attracted wide acclaim from our
the Azalea Terrace, Dawyck Botanic Garden. Photo: Gavin Harris; plantings at Logan Botanic
Garden. Photo: Chris Johnstone; Sir Muir Russell; the Edinburgh Garden was awarded a visitors and the press. I was very excited to hear in
5 star rating from VisitScotland this year.
November that the Edinburgh Garden was awarded a
his 14-year tenure and I am personally enormously
5 star rating from VisitScotland and my congratulations
grateful for all of his hard work.
go to the staff in all the divisions involved in obtaining this
Of particular note was
highly sought-after accolade.
award of the MBE to
This means that in Scotland
I was very excited to hear
Martin Gardner, our scientist
we have the only two Gardens
in November that the
who leads on conifer
with that rating (Edinburgh and
conservation research.
Dawyck). It is my intention,
Edinburgh Garden was
In conclusion, I would like to
resources permitting, to achieve
thank the Trustees, all staff, the
similar accolades for the
Scottish Government and, in
Gardens at Benmore and Logan,
from VisitScotland.
particular, our many supporters
which would fully justify such an
(Members, Volunteers, donors and partner organisations)
award with further infrastructure investments.
who work so closely together and without whom our
During the year Dennis Dick’s term of office came great ambitions could not be realised: their support will to an end, and Frank Kirwan stood down. I wish to be essential in the even more challenging times ahead.
record the gratitude of all of us for their contribution
to the work of the Trustees. At the end of the financial
year our Regius Keeper, Professor Stephen Blackmore,
intimated his intention to retire at the end of this
calendar year. Professor Blackmore has provided
Sir Muir Russell, Chairman
outstanding leadership and vision to the Garden during
Professor Stephen Blackmore CBE FRSE, Regius Keeper and Queen’s Botanist
experience in line with ministerial priorities to attract
his has been an exciting year. Thanks to the
more visitors and increase our educational outreach
provision of an additional £1.5 million in capital
and engagement. They were followed in 2006 by the
funding by Scottish ministers, plans are moving
extension of the Herbarium Building to accommodate
forward for the most dramatic developments since
the burgeoning collection of preserved plants which we moved to Inverleith in the 1820s. Our ambition is
are housed here and underpin so much of our research. to create the facilities needed for this great Scottish
The herbarium collection,
institution to remain
one of the world’s most
at the forefront of the
I am confident that support
historically important,
world’s scientific botanic
continues to grow
gardens for many years
from the Scottish Government
with the addition of
to come. We are seizing
and from our charitable
new material from our
the opportunity provided
active collaborations in
by the inevitable need
fundraising activities will see
over 40 countries. The
to replace our ageing
this transformation through in
collections are steadily
research glasshouses to
being made available
deliver a multitude of
the years ahead.
online as high-resolution
interconnected benefits.
images which are The last decade
now being downloaded by users around the world. has seen the restoration and renewal of many of the
The opening of the John Hope Gateway in 2009 created
historic and listed buildings at the Edinburgh Garden.
an entrance worthy of what lies within, provided new
The revitalisation began with disabled access to the
spaces for communication and engagement, and a
Exhibition Hall and public Glasshouses, followed by the
shop and restaurant that contribute valuable income
restoration of the Temperate Palm House and Inverleith
streams, vital during challenging economic times. Since
House between 2004 and 2005. These projects began
the Caledonian Hall was modernised in 2010 its use, for
to transform and enhance the quality of the visitor
everything from weddings to exhibitions and Scottish
Government launches, has increased. In 2010 the
previously private East Gate Lodge, designed by William
Playfair, was converted to provide a welcome to visitors
arriving on that side of the Garden. A new Alpine House
completed in 2013 will keep us at the forefront of
the cultivation and display of alpine plants. All this has
taken place against the backdrop of our world-famous
Gardens which are, of course, the main reason why
people love to visit in the first place. I was delighted
when the combined impact of this investment, totalling
around £40 million over the years, and the hard work of
many people resulted in the recent award of 5 stars by
VisitScotland for the Edinburgh Garden.
The future will see even greater changes, with yet
more of the Garden becoming accessible to visitors as
we replace the research glasshouses, now at the end
of their working life, and open them up for the very
first time. A significant increase in energy efficiency will
result in savings across the entire site, helping Scotland
move towards a low-carbon economy. Our educational
offer will undergo a step change, gaining space for us to
offer new courses and receive more school visits. Space
liberated within the existing Balfour Building will enable
us to expand and remodel our scientific laboratories to
Clockwise from top left: A class in the Rock Garden at the Edinburgh Garden. Photo: Brenda White; enjoying the sun on the Azalea Lawn of the Edinburgh Garden; the newly completed Alpine House at the Edinburgh Garden; an aerial view of the research glasshouses; Professor Stephen Blackmore.
stay at the forefront of research in our field. The first
enabling steps in this extended programme involve
investment in our Nursery, creating the glasshouse
space essential for our Living Collections to be decanted
when the current research glasshouses are demolished.
Despite the scale of investment needed, some £40–50
million to complete the entire programme, I am confident
that support from the Scottish Government and from our charitable fundraising activities will see this transformation through in the years ahead.
I will retire from RBGE in December 2013. It has
been a privilege to work for 14 years with so many
talented and dedicated people and to play a part in the life of such a great institution.
Professor Stephen Blackmore CBE FRSE, Regius Keeper and Queen’s Botanist
RBGE has a long history
of working in biodiversity
hotspots and continues to
initiate and develop projects in different countries around
the world.
Clockwise from left: A botanist consulting a pressed specimen in the Herbarium, Edinburgh Garden. Herbarium specimens were digitised for inclusion in the OpenUp! initiative; Tecoma rosifolia; a RBGE botanist delivers the RBGE Certificate in Practical Field Botany in the
field to colleagues in Oman. Photo: Asad Alzkwani.
The Latin American
Seasonally Dry Tropical
Forest Floristic Network
Professor Toby Pennington, Head of Tropical Diversity
ith the support of a three-year grant from
the Leverhulme Trust, RBGE is coordinating
a network of scientists from across Latin
America with the aim of improving the understanding and conservation of seasonally dry tropical forests.
Seasonally dry tropical forests occur as fragments of
varying size throughout Latin America from Mexico to
Argentina and Brazil. International conservation interest in this
neglected formation is increasing as it represents the world’s
most threatened tropical forest type thanks to its frequently
fertile soils being suitable for agriculture. In comparison to
rain forest, fewer areas of dry forest are protected. The
DRYFLOR network facilitates the building of the international
partnerships required to develop the first comprehensive
dataset of the flora of neotropical dry forests across their full
range. Subsequent biogeographic analyses will pinpoint areas
of high diversity and endemism that are an essential basis to
coherent international and national conservation strategies.
RBGE has a 50-year history of working in seasonally dry
ecosystems in Latin America and has contributed considerably
to their scientific understanding and conservation. Led by Dr Jim Ratter, who is a still an active Research Associate, this
work originally focused on tropical savannahs, but recently
more attention has been given to dry forest. The DRYFLOR
project grew out of more recent research, led by Prof.
Clockwise from left: The distribution of seasonally dry tropical forests in Latin America and the
Caribbean; seasonally dry tropical forest, Mantaro Valley, Peru; cactus-rich seasonally dry tropical
forest, Mantaro Valley, Peru; opening project workshop involving Network Partners from Brazil,
Peru, Argentina, Mexico and Colombia. Barranquilla, Colombia, May 2012. Photo: Julia Weintritt;
Peruvian collaborator Ariceto Daza with endemic cactus Browningia altissima, Mantaro Valley, Peru;
Hoffmannseggia glauca; Poissonia orbicularis.
Toby Pennington, the aim of which has been to understand
the floristic composition and historical biogeography of dry
forests, and has involved extensive fieldwork in Latin America.
This field experience has reinforced awareness of the terrible
plight of dry forest and the poorly known nature of the flora
of many areas. A strong motivation to improve the floristic
knowledge of these forests and to contribute to their
conservation led Toby to propose this network.
The Network Partner institutions are from five Latin
American countries that support significant areas of dry forest:
Brazil (Dr Ary Oliveira Filho: Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais), Argentina (Dr Darién Prado: Universidad Nacional de
Rosario), Peru (Dr Reynaldo Linares-Palomino: Universidad
Nacional Agraria La Molina), Colombia (Karina Banda Rodríguez:
Ecosistemas Secos de Colombia) and Mexico (Dr Alfonso
Delgado Salinas: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
The representative of each institution is well connected to
floristic research in dry forest in their respective countries. In
addition, each has good links to relevant actors in conservation
in their regions and will ensure that the outputs of the
DRYFLOR network are communicated to them. In this way,
the ultimate aim of the network is to improve communication
and collaboration between research organisations studying
dry forest and organisations responsible for the protection
and management of these endangered forests.
During the first year of the project, Julia Weintritt was
contracted as network facilitator and is based at RBGE.
Together with the Network Partner for Colombia, Karina
Banda Rodríguez, Julia was instrumental in organising
an opening project workshop and mini-conference in
Barranquilla, Colombia, which was a great success. Julia also
assisted Dr Martin Pullan in developing a trilingual project
website and a single central database, hosted at RBGE, into
which all Network Partners can enter floristic data directly.
At the project workshop in Barranquilla, a main topic
of discussion was where more data are required to ensure
good coverage of all areas. Priority areas identified were
the Caribbean islands, Colombia and Venezuela. To address
these data deficiencies, new Partners have agreed to
join the Network and will strengthen it considerably:
Dr Pedro Acevedo (Smithsonian Institution, USA) has
agreed to advise on data entry for the Caribbean and
Dr Ricarda Riina (Royal Botanic Garden, Madrid) has
offered to coordinate data entry for Venezuela. Finally,
Karina Banda Rodríguez has been awarded a grant from
the Colombian National Science Agency (Colciencias),
and has successfully applied to study for a PhD at the
University of Edinburgh and RBGE. Her research will focus
on biogeographic analyses of the DRYFLOR data, with
particular emphasis on Colombia.
Dr Peter Wilkie, Tropical Forest Botanist
uropean taxonomic institutes hold about half
the world’s natural history collections and
specimens of more than 80 per cent of the
described species on Earth. They also host a wide range
of taxonomic experts. Bringing together these experts
and sharing collection information is essential if we are
to effectively document and protect the world’s plant
diversity and understand the role it has to play in helping
mitigate climate change and providing food security.
RBGE’s involvement in several European funded initiatives
is helping make this happen.
Dr David Harris has been representing RBGE in the
Consortium of European Taxonomic Facilities (CETAF).
Consisting of 29 taxonomic institutes, CETAF acts
as a forum for the exchange of information and
policies and is working towards coordinated activities.
At present it provides a powerful voice on behalf of
the systematic community within the European
Parliament regarding current European legislation
on Access and Benefit Sharing. Dr Martin Pullan and
Dr Roger Hyam have been active on the Information
Systems Technical Committee of CETAF and this has
led to RBGE’s approach on persistent identifiers for
herbarium specimens being adopted by five leading
European natural history collections.
The Synthesys II project (Synthesis of Systematic
Resources) has been running since 2009 and involves
20 institutes across 10 European countries. Due for
completion in 2013, it has brought plant researchers
from across Europe to RBGE to access our collections
and collaborate with our scientists. It has also
supported RBGE scientists in visiting other European
collections and has facilitated new collaborations.
As part of this initiative Dr Peter Wilkie, Adele Smith
and Dr Elspeth Haston have been involved with the
development of an online self-assessment tool to help
improve standards of care and management of natural
history collections across Europe. Dr Tiina Särkinen
and Dr James Richardson have optimised protocols
for the extraction of DNA from ancient collections.
This substantially increases the value of herbarium
collections for studies of plant evolution and rapid
identification systems using DNA barcode data.
Dr Roger Hyam and Cristina Rosique have also written
a review of the use and storage of metadata on
European natural history collections. Increasing access
and facilitating collaborations within Europe is set to
continue with the Synthesys consortium having secured
significant EU funding for Synthesys III which will start
in autumn 2013.
Europeana ( is a major EU-funded
initiative to provide unified online access to items of
cultural heritage housed in European galleries, institutes
and museums. RBGE is involved in two projects which
are contributing content to this initiative. OpenUp!
( has been established as a single
natural history collection data provider to Europeana.
The initiative involves 22 European partners, and RBGE’s contribution is being coordinated by Rob Cubey,
Dr Martin Pullan and Dr Elspeth Haston. To date over
190,000 high-quality images of herbarium specimens
and 4,000 digital photographs and scans of living plants
and artwork have been made available. RBGE is currently
listed second out of 18 in the list of data providers
to OpenUp! In addition to providing data Dr Martin
Pullan is performing an impact analysis of the OpenUp!
contribution to Europeana, in particular the effect
the increased content has had on the usage and user
demographics of the Europeana data portal.
The Biodiversity Heritage Library for Europe (BHLEurope) ( has been established by
28 institutes from 13 EU countries. This is a multilingual
online resource for access to Europe’s biodiversity library
collections. RBGE librarian Graham Hardy has coordinated
the supply of digital versions of Notes from the Royal
Clockwise from top left: The Scottish lichen Nephroma laevigatum; plate from RBGE’s Flora of
Bhutan volumes, digitised for inclusion in the Biodiversity Heritage Library for Europe initiative;
many RBGE Herbarium specimens were digitised for inclusion on the Europeana website; a botanist working in the Herbarium at the Edinburgh Garden; the Europeana website; the virtual exhibition on spices hosted by RBGE in collaboration with the BHL-Europe project.
Botanic Garden Edinburgh and all volumes of the Flora of
Bhutan (except the Orchids of Bhutan volume) and these
are currently waiting to be uploaded to the BHL-Europe site.
RBGE also hosted a virtual exhibition entitled Biodiversity
Library Exhibition Spices, designed by the National Museums
Prague, which provided a topical access point to BHL-Europe
content (
Dr Rebecca Yahr and Dr Chris Ellis have been successful
in securing funding from the EU Marie Curie scheme which
is designed to support the career development of the
most promising young researchers in Europe through their
placement at institutes of research excellence. The award
has allowed Dr Rocío Belinchón to begin a 24-month
research project to investigate the way in which species
interactions might modify the biodiversity response to
climate change. Focusing on two common Scottish lichens
(Nephroma laevigatum and N. parile), the study is designed
to disentangle the complex relationships between climatic
effects on species distributions and the interactions
between symbiotic organisms.
Centre for
Middle Eastern
Dr Sabina Knees, Head of Floristic Research, CMEP
Global partnerships
Throughout the year staff and associates from the Centre
for Middle Eastern Plants (CMEP) have been developing
partnerships with countries in the region. The scope is
broad, ranging from Afghanistan in the east to Oman and
Yemen in the southern Arabian Peninsula. Our three-year
Darwin Initiative programme in Iraq also began this year
and preparations for the 8th Plant Life of South West Asia
symposium to be held in Edinburgh in July 2013 are also
well underway.
In 2012, we started a three-year project in Iraq funded by
the Darwin Initiative and partnered with Nature Iraq and
BirdLife International. Led by Dr Sophie Neale, RBGE have
been working with the Iraqi NGO Nature Iraq for several
years, delivering training to Iraqi scientists. These activities
have involved staff, students and personnel from all major
Iraqi organisations with an interest in the environment,
including the major universities and ministries.
Now with this project we aim to make serious
progress addressing the challenges of conservation
resulting from nearly 30 years of scientific isolation.
It will generate new data for conservation as well
as resources for protected area management and
environmental education. We will be delivering capacity
building for in situ conservation at a variety of levels.
This includes an online course in the fundamentals of
conservation for university students and practical field
training as well as the development of an environmental
education programme for schools.
Capacity development in Afghanistan has been delivered
through partnership with Kabul University through
the British Council administered DelPHE (Developing
Partnerships in Higher Education) programme. A group
of 20 selected students participated in a detailed online
course and a series of in-country lectures and practical
workshops designed to introduce the concepts of botanical
study and conservation delivered by Tony Miller and
Dr Alan Forrest. This included producing identification keys
to the woody plants on the extensive Kabul University
campus. Feedback from the students was extremely
positive, and it was clear that the programme increased
their awareness of Afghan biodiversity and introduced them
to a programme of topics not previously available to them
at Kabul University. Hadia Banwal, the student coordinator,
commented: “The British Council DelPHE training course
changed my idea about nature. It is the beginning of a
better future for Afghanistan’s threatened biodiversity.”
The highlight of the programme featured a week-long
field trip to Bamyan Province in the central highlands of
Afghanistan, where ten Kabul University students joined
nineteen students from Bamyan University to learn about
field identification and vegetation mapping, and also
conducted a survey for the rare Iris porphyrochrysa, funded
by the Mohamed Bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund.
This was the first fieldwork undertaken in Afghanistan
for more than 30 years. Feedback from the fieldwork
programme, jointly organised with Afghan NGO Conservation
Action for Afghan Mountains (COAM), was extremely
positive. Asadullah Hussainy (field trip coordinator for COAM)
commented: “The idea was to get participants observing
their surroundings and understanding the processes that are
really affecting the vegetation – you can’t learn this from
books. What we really want is for Afghans to be providing
this high-level training.”
Previous page, clockwise from top left: Centre for Middle Eastern Plants (CMEP) staff delivering
RBGE Certificate in Practical Field Botany at Jabal Akhdar, Oman; CMEP staff member training
EarthWatch students on Practical Field Botany course in Oman; students and CMEP staff in Oman
in a Certicate in Practical Field Botany class and in the field; EarthWatch students in Oman with
Certificates in Practical Field Botany delivered by CMEP staff. Photos: Asad Alzkwani.
Arabian Peninsula
Our capacity building in the Arabian Peninsula has increased
during the current year and has included the delivery
of three tailor-made training courses for EarthWatch
Oman. These courses are based on the RBGE Certificate
in Practical Field Botany and were designed to increase
the botanical knowledge of project staff and members of
partner organisations such as the National Field Research
Centre for Environmental Conservation (NFRCEC). The Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs (MECA), the Ministry of Water and the Environment, the University
of Nizwa, Sultan Qaboos University and Oman Botanic
Garden also participated in the courses. These were field-based in three of the most botanically rich sites in
the country: Jabal Samhan, Wadi Sareen and Jabal Akhdar.
As well as participating in classes on basic surveying
techniques, students attended a series of lectures on plant identification, biodiversity and conservation delivered
by Tony Miller, Dr Sabina Knees, Chris Minty and Dr Stuart Lindsay. Participants also developed their
photographic skills by taking geo-referenced plant profiles.
This specialised training will enhance their contribution to
future vegetation studies and involvement in the identification
of priority conservation research that is required to
maintain or restore Oman’s fragile mountain ecosystems.
Oman’s mountains are also the focus of another
project which we are leading: to survey 15 mountains for
the Department of Economic Planning. This also involves
partnerships with other organisations – staff from the
Oman Botanic Garden accompanied us on the helicopter
flights needed to access the remotest field survey sites.
The accurate identification and
classification of the world’s
plant life is a crucial part of
plant conservation. Without a
clear understanding of what a
species is, how it relates to and
differs from other members
of its family, and what factors
delineate its growth and
distribution, it is difficult to
develop a strategy to protect it.
Clockwise from left: Dr Catherine Kidner measuring photosynthesis in the Begonia research
collection at RBGE; lichens Lecanora chlarotera and Parmelia sulcata; a new species of Begonia
from the coast of Palawan, the Philippines.
Dr Mark Hughes, Tropical Botanist
he genus Begonia has been a core research
interest of RBGE since 1998, initially due to
PhD scholarships funded by the M.L. MacIntyre
Begonia Trust. Over the past 15 years, our work
on Begonia has expanded into a dynamic research
programme which covers many different aspects of plant
science from the classical to the cutting edge. The genus
is pantropical in distribution and has an estimated 2,000
species, which makes it an ideal subject for contributing
to our knowledge of the evolution of tropical plant
diversity. RBGE has built up an outstanding collection
of herbarium specimens, living plants and genetic data
resources which underpin this research, coordinated by Dr Catherine Kidner and Dr Mark Hughes.
The genetic data resources now held at RBGE used to
be the preserve of those working on model plants such
as Arabidopsis. The recent evolution of DNA sequencing
technology has allowed us to move into this territory
using non-model plants like Begonia, which makes it
possible to look at evolution in the field rather than in
the laboratory. We have sequenced over 15,000 genes
from four different species and are using this data to
identify which types of genes evolve fastest. This will
help us understand what drives speciation in Begonia;
for example, many of the genes that show an unusual
amount of change in sequence between Begonia
species are involved in photosynthesis. This may be
because Begonia grows in heavily shaded environments
and different species have evolved different ways of
optimising photosynthesis in poor light. The nuclear DNA
marker data we have amassed has been used to make
the first genetic map for Begonia. We are using this to
determine the number and strength of genetic changes
that cause variation between species. In addition, we
have sequenced the chloroplast genome of 16 species
of Begonia, from which genetic markers have been
Left to right: Begonia sublobata, recently rediscovered in West Sumatra; a new species of Begonia endemic to the Puerto Princesa Underground River World Heritage Site in Palawan; (left to right) Dr Sangeeta Rajbhandry, Dr Mark Hughes and Prof. Ching-I Peng with Begonia pinglinensis in Taiwan.
developed, to look at patterns of hybridisation and gene exchange between species in the wild in Mexico.
Despite many species being highly interfertile in the
greenhouse, in the field they manage to maintain their
genetic identity, possibly due to having evolved different
flowering times or different ecological requirements.
A more traditional approach is used in the herbarium,
where work is under way to name the hundreds of
species not yet described, including many from our recent
expeditions to Indonesia and the Philippines. We have
also been searching for known taxa thought to be long
lost, and have brought into cultivation several interesting
rarities. A number of these (such as Begonia sublobata)
have not been seen for nearly two centuries following
their description by Scottish botanist William Jack in
1822. The painstaking work in building up the unique
Living Collection we now enjoy has paid off in terms
of facilitating the biogeographic strand of our Begonia
research. This has been carried out in collaboration with
institutions across Asia, including Academia Sinica and the
Cecilia Koo Botanic Conservation Center in Taiwan, and
Herbarium Bogoriense and Kebun Raya Bogor in Indonesia.
We now know a great deal about how the genus spread
across the tropics, and how factors such as mountain
building and tectonic drift have influenced the generation
of the huge number of species we see today.
We are now in the process of attempting to tie all
these research strands and resources together, trying to link the changes we see at the nucleotide level to
changes in plant morphology, physiology and distribution.
This is an extremely exciting and busy time for the staff
and students in the Begonia research group at RBGE.
Boom and bust
in little lichens
Dr Rebecca Yahr, Lichenologist
he stump lichen is an enigmatic little thing. Most Cladonia species are conspicuous: think of
the vast swards of reindeer lichens that cloak
the ground in taiga forests: these are perhaps the bestknown members of the genus Cladonia, with their richly
branched thalli, often entangled with their neighbours into
mats that can stretch over kilometres. It is precisely their
abundance that makes them good fodder for reindeer
in northern ecosystems. Or think of the rich variety of
colours and textures of the lichens that clothe the tops
of old walls: Cladonia species are often abundant here in
Scotland too – the brownish-green graceful needles of C. gracilis or the funny little grey matchsticks topped with red spore-bodies of C. floerkeana. Many Cladonia
species such as these are known for their roles in
relatively long ecological succession, with one suite of
species arriving a few years after disturbance and hanging
around for another five to ten years before they are
succeeded by the long-lived reindeer lichens that can
persist and dominate for decades or longer.
Consider then the stump lichen, Cladonia botrytes;
it rarely reaches 1cm in height and is dwarfed by its
neighbours. New research from RBGE shows that most
individuals of this enigmatic Biological Action Plan species
don’t even persist year to year, and that populations
come and go relatively quickly. This little lichen is so rare
in Britain that it is listed on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife
and Countryside Act and is therefore accorded high
conservation status. Modern populations have only been
recorded in and around the Scottish Highlands, from a total
of 16 10km grid squares, and visits to historic localities
usually result in the discovery of yet another disappearance.
However, by targeting likely localities with stumps of
the correct age – 5–35 years, depending on the local
conditions – new populations can be found. A resurvey in
2006 relocated only one of five known historic populations,
Left to right: In Britain, the diminutive Cladonia botrytes grows to only about the size of the tip
of a pencil (up to about 0.5 cm) and is even smaller than the juvenile reindeer lichen beside it
(to its right); individuals of Cladonia botrytes (above and just left of pencil tip) usually do not
persist year to year; a more typical size for Cladonia: C. squamosa (up to 5 cm) can be found on
old tree stumps in later stages of decay than C. botrytes.
all of which were known from fewer than ten years prior,
but reported another five new ones. This is a remarkably
short time span for the life of a population.
Interestingly, the one population that persisted for the
whole period was the largest known in Britain, where a
total of 25 stumps had been colonised over the life of the
population. It was here that Dr Brian Coppins and Sandy
Coppins began a citizen science project to record the
demography of individual lichens. A reliable method was
devised to map individual patches of the lichen and track
them year to year. Through error-checking, assembling
and analysing the data, we discovered that most of these
tiny individual patches – covering less than 1cm2 of a cut
stump – arrive and disappear in the same year. Less than
10 per cent of all individuals live three or more years!
In many cases, we tend to think of iconic
conservation priority species as long-lived, reproducing
slowly and growing slowly to maturity – think of
whales or elephants, for example – but some threatened
species depend on the availability of a suitable habitat
to support their ephemeral life strategies, and so we
can learn better how to conserve these types of species
by studying some home-grown examples, including the
tiny Cladonia botrytes.
Its short life span and rapid population turnover mean that this little lichen really seems to get around –
and it needs to, as in Britain its primary habitat is the cut
surface of stumps. Here, it must arrive and reproduce
quickly before it is overgrown by larger-statured
competitors. So, spare a thought for the boom and bust
little lichens next time you sit on a stump for your picnic!
New biodiversity
Professor Peter Hollingsworth, Director of Science
n 2013, RBGE recruited two new biodiversity
scientists to permanent positions in the Science
Division. More than 100 applications from around the
world were received for the posts, and the overall calibre
of applicants was very high. We appointed two earlycareer researchers with an excellent track record and
future potential – Dr Aline Finger and Dr Tiina Särkinen.
Dr Aline Finger is a molecular ecologist who undertook
her PhD with the Ecosystem Management Group at the
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich
(2008–2011). Aline’s PhD was in the fields of conservation
and ecological genetics, focusing on rare, threatened and
endemic tree species of the Seychelles. She combined
ecological (pollination and germination experiments) and
genetic approaches (measuring gene flow, parentage,
genetic diversity and differentiation) to assess how
reductions in population size and habitat fragmentation
impact on the reproductive success of rare tree species
and the extent to which human-assisted pollination can
provide ‘genetic rescue’. Following her PhD she did a oneyear postdoctoral project at RBGE within the Genetics and
Conservation Group, where she worked on the evolution
and population dynamics of threatened and endemic New Caledonian Araucaria tree species.
Aline intends to further develop her research at
RBGE in establishing how species are threatened by
habitat fragmentation and climate change, and using
this information to devise evidence-based conservation
management strategies. She is particularly excited by
the opportunities presented by massive technological
advances in DNA analysis, and linking this to her research,
and RBGE’s existing programme of taxonomic and
ecological projects in the UK and the tropics.
Clockwise from top left: Dr Aline Finger in the field on Mahé, Seychelles. Photo: Prof. Jaboury Ghazoul;
Dr Tiina Särkinen at Ollantaytambo, Cusco, Peru; Araucaria scopulorum, New Caledonia, an area of
study for Dr Aline Finger; the tropical Andes, Dr Tiina Särkinen’s main research area.
Dr Tiina Särkinen is a tropical plant taxonomist and molecular biologist who studies species diversity
through time. Her work aims to understand how
climate has affected, and continues to affect, species’
distributions. Her current projects include broad-scale
analyses of tropical ecosystems, addressing several
questions: what are the main ecosystems, how are
they defined, where do they occur and how can we
map them? In addition she aims to understand how
and when tropical ecosytems arose and their potential
responses to future climate change.
Tiina started her postgraduate studies here at
RBGE on the MSc in Biodiversity and Taxonomy of
Plants course in 2004. Since then, she has worked
on tropical Andean plant groups. During her PhD
research, she discovered that the tropical Andean
diversity hotspot consists of several ecosystem
‘islands’ that all host their unique diversity in terms of
evolutionary history. Plant lineages within each of the
Andean ecosystems have evolved in relative isolation
despite their physical proximity. The fact that the
broad-scale evolution of plant lineages has been
strongly affected by climate has inspired Tiina to explore
further questions, such as the relationship between plant
extinction risk and climatic specialisation. An ongoing
project, funded by National Geographic, aims to see
whether plants currently listed as threatened are also
climatically specialised, or whether some of these species
show more potential for adapting to changing climates
than previously thought.
As human pressures on the environment increase,
the need has never been greater for excellent relevant
science on plant biodiversity to support its conservation.
The recruitment of these two first-rate early-career
scientists at RBGE further strengthens our science team
and increases our capacity to meet this challenge.
Our collections are the basis
for the work at RBGE; the
Living Collection of plant
species, the Herbarium and
the Library and Archives are of international repute,
invaluable resources for our
staff, partners, peers and the
visiting public.
Clockwise from left: Restoration work in progress on the Golden Gates, which will hang once
again at Benmore Botanic Garden when completed; the Glasshouses, Edinburgh Garden;
clearing storm damage at Dawyck Botanic Garden.
North East Corner
Masterplan: an overview
Dr David Rae, Director of Horticulture and Learning
ll organisations need to innovate and invest
We have known for some time that our research
in order to progress and improve, and botanic
glasshouses (which are ‘off-the-shelf’ structures as
gardens are no exception. RBGE is considered opposed to our architecturally designed Victorian and
to be in the top five of the 2,500 botanic gardens in
1960s glasshouses) were nearing the end of their lifespan
the world based on the quality of our Gardens,
and required replacement. This was brought home to us
collections, research and
after the gale of 3 January 2012
education, but to retain
when we lost over 600 panes of
If designed creatively,
that position requires
glass. The glasshouses are also
new research glasshouses too small to accommodate our
innovation and investment.
We have been doing that
would also give the public expanding research programmes
ever since RBGE was founded
and are very energy-inefficient,
an opportunity to see,
in 1670. We have moved
having been built before the
three times since the
1970s oil crisis. If designed
and therefore better
establishment of our first site
creatively, new research
understand, the use of
near Holyrood Palace and
glasshouses would also give the
since coming to Inverleith
public an opportunity to see,
the Living Collections in
we have expanded our site
and therefore better understand,
supporting research.
four further times, built new
the use of the Living Collections
glasshouses, buildings and
in supporting research. At the
facilities, and acquired three additional Gardens. What we
same time we are recognising the need to make the 1960s
plan to do now is a continuation of this innovation and
display glasshouses more energy-efficient and restore some
investment, not merely for the sake of it, but to improve
of the stone and metalwork on the Victorian Palm Houses.
our plant science, conservation and education so that we
Our education courses are expanding greatly as
can fulfil our mission to explore and explain the world of
fewer universities and colleges are offering botany and
plants for a better future.
horticulture courses and our certificate, diploma and
recreational courses are becoming ever more popular.
Additionally, our research is diversifying to include not
just herbarium-based work but also laboratory-based
research. As a consequence both the laboratories and the classrooms have expanded in an organic, rather than planned, way in the main (Balfour) building over the last 20 years and now require rationalisation.
In summary, the main reasons for this project are
to replace our ageing research glasshouses and expand
them slightly, improve our energy efficiency, restore
the fabric of our Victorian Palm Houses and create a
new, purpose-built and enlarged education facility to
house all of our education from primary school, through
recreational courses and diplomas to PhD level. This, in
turn, will liberate space in the main building to allow a
rationalisation and expansion of our laboratory facilities to complement the recently expanded Herbarium.
In 2009, senior staff met to consider how we could
tackle these problems and, following meetings and
workshops, an outline feasibility study known as the
North East Corner Masterplan was published in 2010.
The title refers to the fact that all these buildings are
grouped together in the north east corner of the Garden,
behind the display glasshouses and Victorian Palm Houses.
In order to complete this work in the north east corner we
Clockwise from far left: Havoc wreaked to the interior of an Edinburgh glasshouse by the
storms of January 2012; a RBGE archival view of the Edinburgh glasshouses; an aerial view of the ageing research glasshouses of the Edinburgh Garden; RBGE Horticulture staff receiving
plants into the Edinburgh Garden Nursery; a class on plant biology takes place at the Fletcher Building. Photo: Brenda White.
would need to decant plants out of the area to allow the
existing facilities to be demolished and rebuilt, possibly in
phases. The Nursery facilities are themselves rather old
and inadequate and we are regarding this new work as an
opportunity to modernise and slightly expand the Nursery
facilities, thereby leaving a useful and needed legacy
while providing the necessary space to hold the research
collections while the new facilities are being built.
With welcome start-up funding provided by the
Scottish Government’s Rural and Environment Science
and Analytical Services Division (RESAS) during the year,
a Design Team and a Project Board have been established.
Workshops have taken place with Horticulture, Education
and Science staff to establish ideal accommodation
requirements and this has subsequently been refined
by further workshops to include only those facilities
that are essential, affordable and can fit into the space.
Initial designs for both the north east corner site and
the Nursery have been developed but require further
refinement which will take place next year.
Developments – recent and planned
activities at Benmore,
Logan and Dawyck
David Knott, Associate Director of Horticulture (Living Collection, Edinburgh)
Pavilion has been constructed by local craftsmen using
here has been a tremendous amount of activity at
oak which will also provide shelter if required. Current
all three Regional Gardens during the period covered
plans include the construction of several Bhutanese-style
by this Annual Report. Important work carried out
chortens which should be completed before autumn
in the past year has included the continuing clearance
2013. All these structures will add considerably to the
work required after the 2011/12 storms. The scale of
interest and plantings in this area of the Garden.
these storms can be measured by the fact that clear-up
An original feature at Benmore dating from the 1870s
work is still being undertaken almost 18 months after the
are the Golden Gates. This marked the original entrance
first storm. This has been particularly the case at Benmore
to Benmore House. The gates and pillars are Grade A
and Dawyck, where the scale of the devastation and the
listed and were unfortunately in a state of considerable
complexity of the work due to the terrain has considerably
disrepair. Plans by Curator Peter Baxter, supported
slowed progress. It is a tribute to the hard work of the
by the Younger (Benmore) Trust, to restore the gates
staff that the end is almost in sight, although the sobering
and enhance the surrounding landscape are now well
thought remains of what the future might hold.
advanced, with the gates scheduled to be refurbished
Perhaps the most notable new project has been the
by summer 2013 and the surrounding landscape works
landscape works required in preparation for the construction
completed by spring 2014, weather permitting.
of the new Conservatory at Logan. Sandwiched between
the unplanned but very necessary
At Logan the most
clearance work and the planned
notable development has
An important element
development work is the routine
seen the centre of the Garden
of RBGE’s work is in
garden maintenance, both minor
transformed, with a glasshouse,
and large-scale, required to
supporting polytunnels and
improving the quality of
keep the Gardens in excellent
work yard being relocated
the visitor experience
condition. Included in this work is
adjacent to existing glasshouses
the planting of many exciting new
where and when possible. near the Garden entrance to
plants that will add considerably
create an expanded and more
to the Living Collection and enhance the landscapes at
centralised and efficient Garden Nursery and service area
each Garden. Larger-scale planting projects have included,
with storage bays. The space thus created has been used
at Benmore, the final element of the landscape works
to allow the centre of the Garden to be opened to visitors
associated with the Fernery reconstruction in the gulley
and has included the construction of a new Victorian-style
area below the Fernery with a large planting of ArgyllConservatory that will further extend the range of southern
provenance Osmunda regalis (royal fern).
hemisphere plants, particularly those from South Africa,
that can be grown at Logan. As part of RBGE’s commitment
At Benmore much work has also been carried out in
to sustainability this new glasshouse will be powered by
recent years to further reduce the threat to the Living
newly installed solar panels and air source heat pumps.
Collection by Phytophthora ramorum (sudden oak death)
by removing large areas of Rhododendron ponticum,
An important element of RBGE’s work is in improving
a known host of the disease. It is currently difficult to
the quality of the visitor experience where and when
quantify the long-term potential threat to the Living
possible. At all three Regional Gardens this has included
Collections that ‘new’ pests and diseases pose.
improvements to the signage and interpretation, and
One of the earliest phytogeographical plantings in
upgrades to the visitor toilets and shop at Logan. In recent
any botanic garden in the UK was the creation of the
years Dawyck has, in a sense, led the way by achieving
Bhutanese Hillside at Benmore. This hillside planting in
a VisitScotland 5 star visitor attraction accreditation. the 1980s, primarily of plants collected during fieldwork
If this standard can be achieved in a more environmentally
carried out in Bhutan by RBGE staff, was linked with
sustainable way, all the better, and currently Dawyck has
RBGE’s work at that time in writing the Flora of Bhutan.
achieved a silver award in the Green Business Tourism
The plants were grouped in altitudinal and ecological
Scheme. It is hoped that this emphasis on sustainability association to represent the major vegetation zones
at Dawyck can be continued by the reinstatement of a
found in this Himalayan kingdom. Now, to further enhance
micro hydro scheme which has the potential to reduce
and add interest to this area of the Garden, a Bhutanese
Dawyck’s carbon footprint quite significantly.
Staff at Benmore and Logan are also actively working on plans and proposals to further improve Previous page, clockwise from top: Restoration work on the Golden Gates, Benmore Botanic Garden;
clearing up after the storms of January 2012 at Dawyck Botanic Garden; the relocated glasshouse in the work
and enhance the visitor entrance and offer at each yard at Logan Botanic Garden; maintenance work on the sedum roof of the Visitor Centre, Dawyck Botanic
Garden to complement the quality of the landscape Garden; new paths being constructed for the approach to the new Bhutanese Pavilion, Benmore Botanic
Garden; new plantings of Osmunda regalis (royal fern) below the Fernery, Benmore Botanic Garden.
and Living Collection at each Garden.
On both local and international
levels, conservation is a key
concern for RBGE. From our
own Garden to the world stage
we are working to improve
facilities, skills and awareness.
Clockwise from left: RBGE staff member collecting cones from old-growth tree of
Prumnopitys andina; forest fires, New Caledonia; solar panels and the wind turbine at the John Hope Gateway, Edinburgh Garden.
Above and left: Climate uncertainty is leading to more frequent phenomena
such as flooding and high winds, like those experienced at Dawyck Botanic Garden and Benmore Botanic Garden.
limateXChange is Scotland’s centre of expertise
in climate change. It is a relatively new and
evolving consortium of approximately 16
partners drawn mostly from the Scottish Government’s
research providers and the university sector. The aim
of ClimateXChange is to translate the very best peerreviewed science in ways that support policy making.
This scientific evidence base is critically important for
effective policy making in order to ensure Scotland is
prepared to cope with climate change and uncertainty.
For example, the landmark Climate Change (Scotland) Act
(2009) led to the development of a Land Use Strategy
which incorporates climate change resilience, and exciting
new policy developments are on the horizon, including
Scotland’s first Climate Change Adaptation Programme.
The work of ClimateXChange is achieved through a
‘call-down’ service, by which Scottish Government teams
can commission rapid-response workshops or reports on
specific policy questions. This response-mode activity is
complemented by a planned programme of work which
provides short- and medium-term policy support. Both the response mode and planned work are delivered
through parallel programmes addressing climate change
mitigation and adaptation, each of which is supported by expertise in cross-cutting issues such as the statistics
of uncertainty and human behavioural change.
RBGE contributes to the success of ClimateXChange
through the employment of Dr Suzanne Martin as our
Climate Change Policy Officer. The scale of the climate
change challenge – to ensure a well-adapted society
and natural environment – requires an understanding of
complex inter-relationships among many different sectors
of society. Suzanne’s work involves liaising with a diverse
range of partners, from the Fire and Rescue Services
through to Historic Scotland; she has also contributed to
written reports to the Scottish Government including an
Dr Christopher Ellis, Head of Cryptogamic Botany
international comparison of National Adaptation Strategies
which will help inform Scotland’s landmark Climate Change
Adaptation Programme, due for publication in late 2013.
As part of the planned programme of work, Suzanne is
collaborating closely with colleagues from the University of
Dundee to develop a suite of indicators which will provide
understanding about the extent to which Scotland is
prepared to cope with climate change. The indicators will
help to inform climate change adaptation policy making.
RBGE will also play a role as a Demonstration Site
within ClimateXChange. It will form a key location in a series of sites where – through raw experience – the process of adapting to climate change is being learned at a practical level. RBGE has an important role to play in this regard, as our work covers multiple sectors,
such as business, tourism, horticulture, education and
science. The aim is to ensure that the lessons learned at RBGE during day-to-day operations are captured and fed into a climate-proof strategy for the Garden, while also informing policy development.
We already see our horticultural and visitor
services staff adapting to climate uncertainty including
floods, prolonged periods of low rainfall, unseasonable
temperatures and high winds. Additionally, RBGE hosts
around 10–15 international delegations annually, with
recent visits from Malaysia, including the Minister of
Tourism, and study tours involving staff from Nanjing
Botanical Garden in China and a scoping group establishing a
new garden project in Turkey. RBGE can therefore share its
experience in coping with climate change and uncertainty,
while providing ClimateXChange with an international
profile. Suzanne has been working closely with David Knott
and colleagues to ensure that the wealth of experience
which is already brought to bear in developing climate
resilience will be captured and that RBGE makes an effective
contribution as a ClimateXChange Demonstration Site.
An update on the
global conservation
status of conifers
Philip Thomas, ICCP Research Officer and the
Coordinator for the IUCN Conifer Redlist Authority
Left to right: Taxus sp.; conifer forest environment threatened by mining, New Caledonia.
he International Union for Conservation of
Nature (IUCN) Global Redlist is a key source of
information on the conservation status of the
However, it is apparent that there has also been a
world’s plants and animals. It currently contains global
genuine decline in the conservation status of many species.
assessments for more than 30,000 species and is
One of the principal threats is the continuing loss of
updated twice a year. The most recent update included
forests due to their conversion for agriculture, especially
a reassessment of all 606 conifer species currently
for oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia. Many species
recognised by the IUCN: the previous assessment was
are also overexploited for timber and, in the case of the
carried out in 1998. These new assessments were
Himalayan and Chinese yews, for medicinal uses. Droughts,
undertaken by members of the Conifer Specialist
pests, disease outbreaks and an increase in wildfires are
Group and the Conifer Redlist
also contributing to the
Authority in association
decline, not only for species
The ICCP field programme
with many regional and
that have relatively small
national experts. Staff from
populations or restricted
contributed significantly
RBGE’s International Conifer
distributions but also for
to these revised
Conservation Programme
those that were previously
(ICCP), Martin Gardner, the
too widespread or numerous
conservation assessments.
Programme’s Coordinator
to be considered threatened.
and the Specialist Group’s
This is strongly reflected
Secretary, and Philip Thomas, ICCP Research Officer and
in the increased number of species assessed as Near
the Coordinator for the IUCN Conifer Redlist Authority,
Threatened: 98 in this round of assessments compared
played a pivotal role in this work.
to 64 in the previous round. Many of these species will
The results of the reassessment indicated that a
qualify for Threatened status by the time the next round third of all conifers are now either Critically Endangered,
of assessments is due in 2020.
Endangered or Vulnerable. This is an overall increase of
In response to this continuing decline, the ICCP will
almost 6 per cent from the first round of assessments.
continue its work with the IUCN’s Conifer Specialist
To an extent, this is a reflection of the tremendous
Group and Redlist Authority producing accurate and
increase in the quantity and quality of information
informative conservation assessments that can be
regarding many species’ past and current distributions,
used for setting conservation priorities and monitoring
which has allowed more accurate assessments to be
progress towards global conservation goals of the
undertaken. The ICCP field programme contributed
Convention on Biological Diversity and the Global
significantly to these revised conservation assessments,
Plant Conservation Strategy. It will also continue its
having gathered data from species-rich and poorly
programme of fieldwork in poorly known areas such documented areas such as the Caribbean, the tropical
as Myanmar, Malesiana and the tropical Andes as well Andes, mainland Southeast Asia and the Southwest as expanding its ex situ programme that provides a Pacific since the last decade.
back-up for in situ conservation.
Setting best practice
in conservation
Professor Peter Hollingsworth, Director of Science
uman pressures on the Earth’s natural
other extreme, translocations can involve moving
resources are leading to widescale
individuals between countries, aiming to restore species
habitat destruction, with many species
to sites from which they have been absent for decades,
becoming restricted to small and isolated pockets
centuries or longer.
of suitable habitat in the landscape. This creates
The best-practice principles of conservation
a series of conservation challenges: to increase
translocations were laid out in guidelines produced
the size of small
by the International Union
populations; to replace
for Conservation of
In Scotland translocations
populations when
Nature (IUCN) in 1998,
they become extinct;
and these have been
are an important strand of
and to facilitate their
highly influential in shaping
conservation and RBGE has
migration if climate
conservation policy and
change renders their
practice. However, in recent
previously been involved
current locations
years, the knowledge
in many successful plant
unsuitable for survival.
base on translocations has
improved, requiring an
reintroduction projects.
translocations –
update of the guidelines.
the human movement
More profoundly, of organisms for conservation purposes – is a
concern about climate change has led to a new wave commonly used approach to address these issues.
of more radical translocations known as ‘assisted
Typically this has involved moving individuals or
colonisation’. This involves translocations of organisms
propagules from one part of a species’ range to
beyond the boundaries of their contemporary ranges
another. In simple cases this may involve moving
typically to areas to which their ‘climate space’ has
organisms a few kilometres to return a species to a
moved (or is predicted to move). Although this may
site from which it has recently been lost. At the bring clear conservation benefits, there is also a
concern that as translocation moves species greater
and greater distances, there is an increasing risk that
the translocated organisms may be invasive in their
new range and simply be ‘too successful’, thus doing
more harm than good.
This changing landscape of translocations has
necessitated the production of new best-practice
guidelines. This process was chaired by Dr Mark Stanley
Price, from the University of Oxford, and involved
an international team including RBGE’s Director of
Science, Professor Peter Hollingsworth, and scientists
from the UK, USA, South Africa, Canada, France, Italy,
New Zealand, India and Australia. An important element of the new guidelines was the provision
of guidance on maximising the likelihood of success
while at the same time minimising the risk of
negative outcomes. This included incorporating
thinking from invasive species biology, consideration
of the socio-economic impacts of translocations and
more detailed discussions of topics such as genetics.
The new guidelines were officially published
in 2013, and have had an immediate impact on
conservation policy. They underpinned the Council
of Europe recommendation entitled ‘Conservation
translocations under changing climatic conditions’
Clockwise from left: Sticky catchfly; a RBGE staff member assessing the health of reintroduced
woolly willows at a location in the Scottish Highlands; members of the working group who
produced the new IUCN guidelines on conservation translocations, Al Ain Zoo, Abu Dhabi; woodsia
oblong fern; woolly willow habitat in Scotland; Prof. Peter Hollingsworth, Director of Science.
(November 2012), which is now formal policy for the 50 signatory governments to the Bern
Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife
and Natural Habitats.
In Scotland translocations are an important strand of
conservation and RBGE has previously been involved in
many successful plant reintroduction projects including
the woolly willow, the sticky catchfly and the oblong
woodsia fern. Animal reintroductions are also widely
undertaken, and one of the best publicised examples
of this is the recent experimental reintroduction of
beavers to Knapdale in Argyll. Together with colleagues
at Scottish Natural Heritage (Dr Martin Gaywood),
the University of Aberdeen (Prof. Steve Redpath),
Liverpool John Moores University (Dr Sarah Dalrymple)
and the National Species Reintroduction Forum, RBGE
scientists are now producing a Code of Practice to
guide translation of the new IUCN guidelines into
national practice. This Code of Practice will play an
important future role in the active conservation of
plants, animals and fungi in Scotland.
Over the past year RBGE has
offered visitors, Members and
Volunteers a hugely varied
programme of creative and
inspiring events and facilities,
to increase public engagement
with the Garden and its work.
Left to right: RBGE staff and Volunteers serve food to visitors at the Edible Edinburgh Breakfast event at the Edinburgh Garden; a performance of A Midsummer Night’s Dream by the Scottish Youth Theatre. Photo: © Douglas Robertson; Lee Borthwick, Mirrored Logs on the Oak Lawn, part of the Roots to Shoots exhibition with the Dewar Arts Award.
Membership and
Inger Kristiansen-Bragg, Membership Manager
Caroline McKay, Development Manager
ey to the success of the achievement of
RBGE’s strategies is the need to generate
income from a range of sources. In addition
to grant-in-aid, scientific grants and commercial
activities, the Enterprise Division fulfils the vital role
of raising funds through membership and fundraising
activity. This year saw the development of a new
strategy for both Membership and Development
that formalises each department’s income generation
activities for the period 2013–2017. The departments
also experienced several staff changes throughout the
year. Caroline McKay, former Development Officer,
was promoted to Development Manager in May
2012, whilst James Salomons, former Membership
and Development Administrator, was promoted to
Development Officer in September 2012 to boost
capacity for fundraising activities. The team also
welcomed Peter Traynor as new Membership and
Development Administrator in September 2012.
Peter’s work is split between both areas and he has
proved a fantastic addition to the team, which,
Clockwise from top left: New bench at the Edinburgh Garden; winning image from the Friends’ Photography Competition by Mikuni Uehara; Friends’ Palm House Jazz Evening, July 2012; Peter Traynor, Membership and Development Administrator; James Salomons
became Development Officer this year.
following these changes, is now well established and
the Nursery and interpretation panels highlighting
working in close collaboration to achieve interlinked goals.
biodiversity hotspots in the Edinburgh Garden.
As the core fundraising department of RBGE,
The Membership Department works to
Development plays a crucial role in increasing the
encourage supporters to continue and extend their
total funding available for our internationally important
positive contributions to RBGE whether financial,
science and education work. The new Fundraising
as Volunteers or as advocates. In return for their
Strategy was drafted in 2012 and outlines a framework
support, Members are offered greater engagement
for fundraising activity at RBGE, with a particular focus
with the organisation, its work, staff and Gardens.
on formalising and growing the commemorative, legacy
A new Membership Strategy was written this year
and projects fundraising programmes which are led by
to formalise membership activities and provide a
the Development department. The commemorative
context for decision making. It places at its core a
programme, Celebrate Life, was further refined and
focus on philanthropy and engagement, whilst outlining
unsuccessful schemes were removed, whilst detailed
a vision for the membership programme of building
promotional plans were instigated for the remaining
a substantial supporter base to be stewarded for the
offer. In addition, a new Bench Adoption scheme was
mutual benefit of RBGE and the supporters themselves.
launched, which has proved immensely popular in the
A review of current and historic membership
short time it has been available.
performance was also carried
out this year to gain an insight
Key to the success of Twenty-three benches were
adopted in the first few weeks
into trends and opportunities,
the achievement of
of launch before 31 March 2013,
and this has informed the
boosting the total Celebrate Life
planned activities in the Strategy.
RBGE’s strategies is
income for 2012/13 to over
Each of these activities will
the need to generate
£69,000. The period 2012/13
contribute to achieving three
also saw the continued promotion
key objectives: generating
income from a range
of the relaunched legacy
unrestricted income to sustain
of sources.
programme, A Living Legacy,
the core work of RBGE;
and associated marketing
encouraging loyalty and valueliterature. This vital funding source typically fluctuates
added sales; and increasing public awareness of RBGE
from year to year, but this year was the strongest
as a cause for charitable and commercial support.
yet for legacy income, with a return of over £350,000
Throughout 2012/13, Members continued
in bequests.
to provide vital support to RBGE through subscriptions,
The year brought with it extensive ambitions to
donations and events. Income from the membership
plan and undertake a wide variety of capital initiatives,
programme amounted to over £222,000, an increase
and considerable resource from the Development
of 6.5 per cent on the previous financial year.
Department was directed towards the highest-priority
Over 1,200 new Friends were recruited this year,
projects, with some notable fundraising successes
and 33 new Patrons were attracted through the
achieved. The major priority for Development was
newly established Patron Introduction Programme,
the Botanic Cottage Project, which intends to rebuild
equating to 18 per cent and 22 per cent of the
the 18th-century Botanic Cottage – the centrepiece
Friend Programme and Patron Programme respectively.
of the previous RBGE site on Leith Walk – from its
The amount claimed through Gift Aid across the
original materials as a new educational hub for the
three categories of membership totalled over
Demonstration Garden area of the Edinburgh Garden.
£40,000, representing an increase of 7 per cent on
By the end of 2012/13, over £900,000 was
the previous year.
secured from external sources, primarily through
Membership events organised by Volunteer-led
a Heritage Grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund
committees of the four Gardens raised over £22,000
but also through valued trusts and foundations including
this year, which will be disbursed to support sixteen
the MacRobert Trust, the Wellcome Trust, the Dunard
RBGE projects via the Small Project Fund. These
Fund, the Ernest Cook Trust and the Mushroom Trust.
projects complement the work of both the Science
Over £37,000 was generously donated by Friends,
and Horticulture Divisions and benefit all four Gardens.
Companions and Patrons, making the Botanic Cottage
Projects supported by this year’s fund include a
Project RBGE’s most successful Membership appeal to
‘Terrific Trees Trail’ in Dawyck, recuration of the
date. Fundraising will continue into 2013/14, ahead of
Rosaceae Herbarium collections, interpretation panels
the proposed rebuild date of spring 2014.
for the new glasshouse in Logan, a seed dryer for
Exhibitions and Events
Dr Ian Edwards, Head of Exhibitions and Events
he Science on a Plate project that began in
February 2012 continued during the Edinburgh
International Science Festival with events every
day in the Real Life Science Kitchen. Some of Scotland’s
leading chefs, including Tom Kitchin, Nick Nairn and
project ambassador and Scottish Chef of the Year 2012
Neil Forbes, along with celebrities and international
chefs Norman Musa, James Wong and Nadia Ellingham,
prepared dishes from fresh, seasonal and local ingredients,
while scientists from the Rowett Institute of Nutrition
and Health, the James Hutton Institute, the Scottish
Agricultural College (now Scotland’s Rural College),
Marine Science Scotland and RBGE provided a scientific
commentary on the food.
The events, which were supported by Tourism
Malaysia and Seafood Scotland, proved immensely
popular, bringing a new audience of food lovers to RBGE and prompting some lively discussion on issues
ranging from the long-term sustainability of fish stocks to the physical and chemical changes that take place
to food when it is cooked and how different cooking
processes can affect the flavour, texture and nutritional
value of our food.
Other food events during the Science Festival
included a sell-out Forager’s Breakfast with Miles Irving
(author of The Forager Handbook) and John Wright
(author and River Cottage presenter) organised in the
Gateway Restaurant, with Prestige Scotland providing
the meal. The breakfast was followed by a Wild Foods
session in the Real Life Science Kitchen and a live video
link with René Redzepi, owner and chef of Copenhagen’s
Noma restaurant which was voted number one restaurant
in the world. René, who featured on the front cover of
Time magazine the week before the event, offered his
own intelligent and amusing perspective on eating locally
and seasonally as he explained the philosophy behind his
New Nordic cuisine. The idea of a Forager’s Breakfast
proved so popular that Miles Irving was brought back
later in the year to run an autumn event with local
restaurant Earthy.
Other successful Science Festival events included
demonstrations on home-grown produce from the Edible
Gardening Project team, a Junior Chef challenge and Food Bus for the under 12s, a Fairtrade Treasure Hunt
and Tea Party event for families in the Glasshouses and an Aphrodisiac Cocktails and Canapés evening for the grown-ups, with author Mark Douglas Hill and the
Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health.
Top to bottom: Locating the Nest – Lizzie Farey, nest made from contorted hazel from January 2012 storm damage. Photo: © Shannon Tofts; RBGE staff member advising attendees
at the Forager’s Breakfast. Photo: Amy Fokinther; participants in the Junior Chef challenge, part of Science on a Plate. Photo: Amy Fokinther; John Wright taking part in the Forager’s
Breakfast event. Photo: Samantha Mooney.
encouraging to see young adults with a troubled past
All the Scottish Government’s Major Research
making the important transition from project participant Providers (MRPs) and Marine Science Scotland
to enthusiastic volunteer.
contributed to the Science on a Plate exhibition that
began life in the John Hope Gateway and then toured
There were some notable partnerships with various
Scotland for six months, visiting Satrosphere and the
art organisations over the course of the year. The Scottish
British Science Association festival in Aberdeen, Sensation
Youth Theatre ran drama workshops for children at RBGE
as part of Dundee Science Festival, the Orkney Science
and in August put on an enchanting performance of Festival, the Royal Highland Show, MacDuff Aquarium A Midsummer Night’s Dream with a cast of young actors.
as part of Fish Fest and the Scottish Seabird Centre.
During the Edinburgh Festival, Albert and Friends joined us
again for their tenth annual children’s circus show and the
The Science on a Plate project reached an estimated
Frozen Charlotte theatre company presented their play
50,000 people across Scotland during the course of
Paperbelle to sell-out audiences of very young children
nine months and was widely reported in the media, with
and their carers in the Fletcher Building. Take One Action
substantial articles in The Scotsman and The Herald as
ran more empowering films with their bicycle-powered
well as a piece with Sheila Dillon on BBC Radio 4’s Food
outdoor cinema in September, and in October/November
Programme. The project was supported by two Talking
the dance company La Nua presented enso, an indoor and
Science awards from the Scottish Government’s Office of
outdoor performance.
the Chief Scientific Adviser.
also collaborated
The Edible Gardening
All the Scottish Government’s withWe
the Dewar Arts
Project, supported by
Major Research Providers
Awards to present an
players of the People’s
exhibition of visual art in
Postcode Lottery, went
and Marine Science Scotland
the John Hope Gateway,
from strength to strength,
celebrating ten years of
recruiting new volunteers,
contributed to the Science
support for artists who
holding a series of
on a Plate exhibition.
show exceptional talent
successful events and dropbut have limited means.
in sessions, doubling the
Other exhibitions in the John Hope Gateway during the
size of the growing area, publishing a new illustrated and
year included Locating the Nest, an exhibition of craft,
informative guide entitled Growing Your Own Vegetables
printmaking and words focusing on the nest as reality
and reaching an unprecedented number of people.
and metaphor by artists Hugh Bryden, Lizzie Farey and
Highlights of the year included the Edible Edinburgh
Tom Pow. This included some random-weave nest-like
Breakfast, which was part of the Festival of Dangerous
structures by Lizzie Farey located in trees in the Garden,
Ideas, and the Harvest Festival with its community
which proved to be frustratingly difficult to find once the
garden produce show and an amazingly rumbustious
leaves had appeared on the branches.
performance from the Barrow Band featuring Malcolm
Le Maistre (formerly of 1960s folk rock legends the
The OneOak exhibition was a collaboration with the
Incredible String Band). The Edible Gardening Project
Sylva Foundation and presented examples of drawing,
polytunnel with its year-round display of vegetables
photography, furniture, sculpture and craft objects
and salads proved to be a big success with visitors who
inspired by or made from a single oak tree. An astonishing
came to ask questions or simply to admire the range of
variety of objects was accompanied by interpretation on
delicious-looking produce. There was even a surplus that
dendrochronology, ecology and reflections on the oak.
was passed on to the Gateway Restaurant so we were
The summer exhibition in the John Hope Gateway was
able to add ‘grown in RBGE’ to the menu.
Paradise Restored which focused on projects of hope and
rehabilitation in countries of the Middle East where RBGE
With support from Botanic Gardens Conservation
has been active in the past 50 years. We hear plenty of bad
International, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation’s Natural
news stories from Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan but
Communities award and the Edinburgh and Lothians Health
this exhibition was an opportunity to show people positive
Foundation, we were able to expand the number of schools
actions that have helped to record, document and conserve
and community groups that could take part in the Edible
plants and habitats in the region, respecting traditional
Gardening Project. This included the Rock Trust, for young
relationships with the land that go back many generations.
people at risk of homelessness, teenagers who have a poor
The exhibition included a mural called Trees of Life by attendance record at school and local families from the
the very talented Iranian artist Haleh Jamali and a display Pilton Community Health Project. All these groups took
of traditional crafts and textiles within the setting of a
part in cooking, eating and sharing healthy food events
Bedouin goat-hair tent curated by the Nomads Tent.
centred on fresh produce from the plots. It was particularly
Inverleith House
Paul Nesbitt, Curator
nverleith House originated and presented a worldGarden for the first time. Paul Nesbitt and Linsey Young
class programme of temporary exhibitions featuring
submitted a major application funding to Creative Scotland,
contemporary art and botanical science during a
prepared in consultation with the Regius Keeper and remarkably successful year. Underpinned by investment
senior managers. This was successful and at the end of the
from Creative Scotland of £90,000, it attracted significant
year, the Garden signed an Investment Agreement with additional income, in cash and in kind, from individuals,
Creative Scotland in support of a programme of exhibitions
trusts and commercial sources
and public engagement based in the UK and overseas.
activities (to October 2015),
Inverleith House originated
Our summer exhibition, Philip
totalling £235,000.
and presented a world-class
Guston: Late Paintings, received
More than 20 years ago the
widespread critical and popular
Garden received a donation of
programme of temporary
acclaim and in 2012 was voted
over 650 glass plate negatives
exhibitions featuring
one of the Top 100 Exhibitions
from Ian Marshall, a descendant
in the World by Artforum
of the Scottish brewer, and
magazine, whilst Luke Fowler
amateur photographer George
botanical science during a
was shortlisted for the 2012
Paxton. Extensive research
Turner Prize. The Edinburgh
on the collection by Dr Helen
Garden was also the venue for
Bennett in the Library Archive
the first major exhibition of outdoor sculpture in the UK by
made it possible for Inverleith House to originate and
Thomas Houseago (b. 1972), made possible with support
present the first exhibition of Paxton’s photographs,
from Michael Werner, New York. On view throughout the
Remarkable Trees: Photographs from the Collection
year at 13 locations, it survived the storm of 3 January
of George Paxton (1850–1904) as part of its spring
2012 and was seen by an estimated 400,000 visitors
programme of exhibitions, which continued the gallery’s
from July 2011, attracting many international museum
unique exploration of the links between contemporary art
professionals and international art collectors visiting the
and the natural world. Featuring over 60 black and white
prints (made from scans of the negatives), the exhibition
was visited by Paxton’s family, based in North America,
and this has led to additional material being donated to
the Garden’s Library Archive, where it will be conserved
and made available for further study. Shown on the
ground floor, the exhibition was accompanied upstairs by
the first posthumous exhibition of paintings by the great
Irish artist William McKeown (1962–2011), who lived
and worked in Edinburgh and visited Inverleith House
frequently. The centenary of one of McKeown’s favourite
artists, Agnes Martin (1912–2004), was also marked by
the simultaneous showing of her only feature-length film,
Gabriel (1976).
Consisting of nine major paintings on loan from the artist’s estate and the Tate Gallery, London, Philip Guston: Late Paintings was a major highlight of
the 2012 Edinburgh Art Festival, attracting a record
level of critical and popular acclaim and media coverage.
Curated by Paul Nesbitt and organised with the support
of the McKee Gallery, New York, the exhibition will be
celebrated by a fully illustrated publication made possible
through a generous donation from the artist’s estate.
In the autumn, Inverleith House originated and presented
the first exhibition in Scotland by the German artist Andy Hope
1930. Kindly supported by Hauser & Wirth, the exhibition
Clockwise from top left: Thomas Houseago, Large Owl (For B), Bronze, 2011. Photo: Paul Nesbitt. Courtesy of the artist; installation view, Philip Guston: Late Paintings,
Inverleith House. Photo: Paul Nesbitt. Courtesy of the Estate of Philip Guston and McKee Gallery; William McKeown, Untitled, Oil on linen, 2007. Courtesy of the Estate of
William McKeown and the Kerlin Gallery. © The Estate of William McKeown; Andy Hope 1930,
When Dinosaurs Become Modernists, Installation view (detail). Photo: Michael Wolchover.
Courtesy of the artist; George Paxton, Apple (Malus domestica), Gelatin dry plate, 1895 (detail).
Collection of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh Library Archive.
featured five new works made at the Garden, including The Educational Dinosaur Movie Hall (2012).
Our winter exhibition, Derek Roberts: Northern
Paintings, was the first by the Edinburgh-based artist to be held in 15 years and it was accompanied by Threads That Bind (lower ground floor gallery), presented in association with Dovecot Studios.
Each exhibition was accompanied by a programme
of public engagement activities (including a Patrons’
Event), and over 50 volunteer information assistants,
including interns, contributed to the delivery of the
programme. The Garden’s association with artists who
have subsequently been shortlisted for the Turner Prize
continued; Luke Fowler was shortlisted for the 2012
Prize specifically for his exhibition at Inverleith House and
through his presentation at Tate Britain (attended by over
70,000 visitors) the Garden again reached significant
new audiences.
Marketing and
Paula Bushell, Head of Marketing and Communication
BGE has worked its way into the hearts of many visitors, from local neighbours and
day trippers to overseas tourists. This year,
its four Gardens attracted 773,713 visitors, a great
achievement given the challenges that frequent
inclement weather presented.
As part of the new Marketing and Communication
Strategy, RBGE took the decision to try to develop
a closer working relationship with the Scottish
Government’s marketing agency VisitScotland. The ambition was to maximise on visitor opportunities
and create a warmer welcome and a higher-quality
customer experience overall.
At the Edinburgh Garden, procedures were put into
place to help the Visitor Welcome team and retail and
catering staff increase their product knowledge and their engagement with the public. As a result of these
efforts, the Garden achieved a 5 star Quality Tourism
Award from VisitScotland for the first time.
Across the Regional Gardens, Dawyck retained its
coveted 5 star grade while both Benmore and Logan
retained 4 stars. Feedback from VisitScotland’s quality
tourism assessments is vital in monitoring how we are
perceived externally and how we can keep improving our customer service in the future.
Visitor feedback is also crucial to understanding
customer needs, and this year RBGE invested in a new
customer satisfaction survey presented to visitors on
iPad at the Edinburgh Garden. It is conducted by the
Clockwise from top left: The Edinburgh Garden achieved 5 star status from VisitScotland this year; the Palm House at the Edinburgh Garden; an RBGE staff member and visitors
complete a customer satisfaction survey on an iPad at the Edinburgh Garden; visitors using the interpretation at the Edinburgh Garden. Photo: Peter Clarke; the reception desk of the John Hope Gateway where visitors can now buy tickets as well as receiving information; the John Hope Gateway restaurant. Photo: Amy Fokinther; visitors at Logan Botanic Garden;
RBGE took part in a large range of events for the Year of Natural Scotland 2013.
Visitor Welcome team and is another innovation that has
led to increased engagement with and feedback from
customers. It is hoped that the iPad survey will be rolled
out to the Regional Gardens next year. RBGE measures
success by listening to customer feedback and monitoring
visitor numbers, ticket sales, donations, Membership
levels, and Shop and Restaurant incomes.
In 2012, the Visitor Welcome team began selling
tickets to the Glasshouse Experience at the West and East
Gate entrances. Following staff training, familiarisation
tours and internal communication about why the Garden
needed to sell tickets at the front entrances to raise
income, the Visitor Welcome team became increasingly
confident in its marketing skills, leading to a huge increase
in donations and Gift Aided ticket sales. In 2012, 7,961
tickets were Gift Aided compared to 931 in 2011, and 60 per cent of visitors offered a donation compared
to just 2 per cent in 2011. The ambition over the next
few years is to increase revenue streams such as this to
achieve more than would be possible with grant-in-aid
alone, by concentrating on the Garden’s natural assets.
Throughout 2013, RBGE will be heavily involved in
the Year of Natural Scotland, a Scottish Governmentsupported initiative led by VisitScotland. A host of events
and collaborative projects will take place across all four
Gardens to highlight the organisation’s key science
and environmental messages. The Marketing team is a
member of the Year of Natural Scotland working party.
This year and beyond, digital marketing will be front
of mind. The RBGE website and social media offer the
most immediate forms of communication with visitors.
RBGE currently receives 11,000 website visitors per
week, has 8,500 Facebook fans and 8,000 Twitter
followers. These figures are set to increase significantly
over the coming years.
Volunteers are a vital part
of the workforce at RBGE
and are involved across all
areas. We are grateful for the
commitment of those who
dedicate their time and skills to the Garden.
Clockwise from left: Lichens at Logan Botanic Garden by Volunteer photographer Chris Johnston; detail of Nootka cypress by Dawyck Botanic Garden Volunteer photographer
Mike Allport; Locating the Nest – installation on the Gateway pond by Lizzie Farey.
With contributions from Peter Baxter, Richard Baines,
Graham Stewart, Tony Garn, Lorna Mitchell,
Amy McDonald, Inger Kristiansen-Bragg, Jenny Foulkes,
Susie Kelpie, Dr Stephan Helfer, Hamish Adamson,
Sally Rae, Dr Elspeth Haston and Lynsey Wilson
There are three main groups of people who give up some of
their spare time to help support Benmore Botanic Garden.
They comprise the Younger (Benmore) Trustees (YBT), the Benmore Membership Committee and the Benmore
Garden Guides. The members of these groups bring a broad
range of skills and expertise to Benmore. There is also a
synergy between the three groups which gives added
benefit. A YBT Trustee is also a Garden Guide, the Convener
of the Membership Committee is frequently invited to
attend the YBT meetings and some of the Garden Guides
form part of the Membership Committee.
The YBT has financially supported many initiatives
including education programmes, feasibility studies,
fieldwork, interpretation the renovation of the Benmore
Fernery and the renovation of the Golden Gates. The
Membership Committee helps arrange and support special
events such as illustrated talks and the Benmore Open
Day. They amass a large group of additional supporters to
help make the open day a success. The Garden Guides take
tours four days a week throughout the season. Seven of
the Guides also drive the popular Benmore Explorer.
There is no doubt Benmore is a more stimulating place
to visit as a result of the input from our Volunteers.
During this past year Logan has greatly benefited
from the hard work and enthusiasm demonstrated by
Volunteers working in the Garden and on associated
tasks. Over 16 students have spent varied amounts of
time working in the Garden with the aim of accumulating
practical knowledge and skills.
Strong partnerships have been developed with a range
of partner education organisations throughout Europe
including Slovenia, France, Hungary and Austria, all of which
send students to Logan on a regular basis. Volunteers from
both English and Scottish horticultural organisations have
also gained practical experience in the Garden. The student
accommodation on offer continues to improve, with PV solar
panels recently fitted to the roof to reduce its carbon footprint.
Logan’s first two Volunteer photographers have
been very busy snapping away and have produced some
excellent new material that will be very useful.
Volunteers continue to help out at a range of family
activities that are held in the Garden which is greatly
appreciated. In recent months Logan’s first Volunteer
Guide has also helped give guided tours to visitors.
Logan is indebted to the goodwill and generosity of all
Volunteers who give us their time so willingly. Thank you.
Dawyck has the invaluable support of its network of
Volunteers, whose contribution helps greatly with the
maintenance of the Garden and its collections. The Garden’s
longest-serving Volunteer, Debbie Kelso from Peebles,
continues to help out a day a week with all manner of tasks ranging from cutting grass to raking paths.
Other Volunteers include Bill Jeffrey from Edinburgh, a former engineer, Maureen Brazier from Peebles, a retired
local authority gardener, and Morven McLean, a former vet
looking for work experience to help with a change of career.
The Volunteers work along with the Garden staff, and their help makes a huge difference, never more
so than during times of increased pressure such as
storm damage remedial works, annual grass-cutting or
stocktaking of the Garden’s entire collection!
The Garden also has a network of Volunteer Garden
Guides who help the Garden staff meet the needs of
those groups requiring Garden tours, whether as a
one-off or as part of our busy yearly events schedule.
The Volunteer Garden Guides are Lesley Jenkins, Jane
Buchanan Dunlop, Trisha Kennedy and Geraldine Davie.
Horticulture is a weather-dependent profession; many
activities are easier and distinctly more pleasant to
undertake on a dry day. The summer of 2012 was
the coolest and wettest for many years, yet our team
of horticultural Volunteers joined in and put the poor
seasonal weather to the back of their minds.
The stunning colour combinations within the
replanted Herbaceous Border has given much pleasure
to visitors and it is a credit to the work of the Volunteer
team that this feature is so well admired. Through the
archway of the Beech Hedge is the Demonstration
Garden and it is here that Volunteers have helped to
lift plants for relocation to other areas of the Garden in
preparation for the Botanic Cottage development on the
north boundary.
In the Nursery, Volunteers assist in the sowing, pricking
out and potting on of plants. This is the fundamental start
to our planting schemes and consequently the help given to
progress new work at Edinburgh and the Regional Gardens
is greatly appreciated.
The Garden Guides continue to lead tours with a
confident air, ensuring our mission statement – to explore
and explain the world of plants for a better future – is upheld and supported. These tours are a prime means of successfully explaining to a diverse audience the history
and science that underpin the living plant collection.
Clockwise from top left: Dawyck Volunteer Debbie Kelso strimming; the Benmore Explorer being
driven by Elisabeth Aldam, Benmore; Eszter Agnes Danyi, intern student, helping out with path work
at Dawyck Botanic Garden; the Garden Guides share knowledge in the Palm House, Edinburgh Garden;
Kate Barnard, Volunteer, edging at Logan; Meghan Ritchie, Volunteer, tending plantings at Logan;
Volunteer Maureen Brazier undertaking Rhododendron maintenance at Dawyck.
Library and Archives
The Library and Archives have continued to benefit from
the contributions of our Volunteers during 2012/13.
The wonderful team of Volunteers from the Edinburgh
Decorative and Fine Art Society has continued with
the mammoth task of cleaning items from the Library
collections. In 2012/13 the focus for these Volunteers
shifted to working on the Periodicals Collection and this
was accompanied by a relocation to the Bookstack in
order to provide them with a better working environment.
Dr Helen Bennett has continued the work, begun
in 2011/12, of curating the collection of glass plate
negatives that was created by Scottish amateur
photographer George Paxton (1850–1904). Helen’s
work resulted in the exhibition Remarkable Trees –
Photographs from the Collection of George Paxton which ran from 12 May to 8 July 2012. Thanks to Helen, Paxton’s family and financial support from the
Sibbald Trust, more photographs and artefacts have been added to the collection and work has now begun to digitise the negatives.
For two days a week from April to November 2012
Georgia Rogers continued to create online catalogue
records for economic botany books. Georgia is a regular
Volunteer with the Library and her excellent work has
enabled us to complete many projects that would
otherwise not have been possible.
Exhibitions & Events Volunteers
The Talking Trees Storytellers continued to treat visitors to tales from around the world this year. The talented
group hosted regular monthly storytelling sessions in the John Hope Gateway’s Patrick Geddes Room, featuring
themes ranging from Christmas to birds. Representatives
from the group also participated in a special Enchanted
Wood storytelling day in October organised by the Scottish
International Storytelling Festival, alongside storytellers
from Norway, Italy, Germany and Poland.
Special tales of exploration, based on anecdotes
recounted in meetings with members of RBGE’s own
Science team, were offered to Edinburgh International
Science Festival visitors in March. Our small group of
events, exhibitions and science communication Volunteers
and interns were as helpful as ever – providing a friendly
public face at events and exhibitions as diverse as
stargazing evenings, choir performances, talks, our Locating
the Nest exhibition and Science Festival activities. Particular
thanks go to Volunteer Alison Hillhouse, intern Lauren Bick
and student intern Fiona Holm for giving RBGE a huge
amount of their time, resourcefulness and good cheer!
Top to bottom: One of the glass plate negative prints by George Paxton curated by Library
Volunteer Dr Helen Bennett; Locating the Nest – exhibition opening event; Enchanted Forest
Storytelling Day, Scottish International Storytelling Festival. Photo: © Solen Collet.
Membership and
Development Volunteers
The Membership and Development team would like to
acknowledge the vital contributions of Maida Fotheringham,
Janette Dobson, Joan Wilcox and Jean Doyle over the
last 12 months. Their commitment to the office over the
years has been truly remarkable, each of them having been
volunteering with us for more than a decade. Once again
their experience, good spirit and sheer determination has
helped us through a busy and successful year.
The thirty Volunteers who make up the Membership
committees of the four Gardens continue to show great spirit
and creativity. In 2012/13, their events have raised £22,300
and, as always, every penny is directed to the Small Project
Fund to support worthy RBGE projects. The key fundraising
event of the Friends’ calendar, the Annual Plant Sale, raised
over £12,000 this year, thanks largely to support from more
than 50 volunteer potters who work tirelessly throughout the
year to bring on a tremendous collection of plants.
Edible Garden
Top to bottom: The plant sale at the Members’ Jazz evening helped raise funds for RBGE;
the School Gardening Project at the Edinburgh Garden staffed by Education Volunteers.
Photo: Brenda White; the Edible Garden’s Harvest Festival event. Photo: Amy Fokinther.
The Edible Gardening Volunteers have ensured the continued
success of the project beyond its first year. Initially only
funded until May 2012, the hard work of the Volunteer team
helped to secure further funding for the project. The team
keep the productive garden looking wonderful and spend the majority of their time engaging with our visitors.
In addition to the weekly gardening drop-in sessions,
Volunteers also help out with special events. Breakfast at the
Botanics in June and the September Harvest Festival have
become annual events and are both very popular with the
public; neither event would be the same without our Volunteers.
Edible Gardening Project Volunteers have also been
an integral part of the Science Festival in both 2012
and 2013. The team ran gardening drop-in sessions
throughout Science on a Plate in 2012 and staffed the
final station at 2013’s Expedition Botanics.
Volunteers in Education
The past year has been very successful with our School
Gardening Project working with four primary schools, one secondary and a special school class. Our hardworking
teams of Volunteers have risen to the challenge, building meaningful relationships and enabling the learning of the children and young people with patience,
humour and understanding. Volunteers have also been
supporting our regular schools programmes at all levels.
The ‘Wee Green People’ early years programme was
developed with the amazing support of our very talented
Volunteer, Alison Littleboy. Scientific knowledge and
a sense of humour go a long way for our dedicated
secondary school Volunteer Donald Mason. Our Adult
Botanical Art classes are ably supported by an enormous
amount of help from Lyn Campbell. The Education
Department relies on the support from all our wonderful
Volunteers; we couldn’t manage without them.
The phenology Volunteers have continued to monitor around
250 taxa and 800 accessions in four distinct projects in
the Edinburgh Garden and one each at Benmore, Dawyck
and Logan. In the Daily Project, which is now in its second
decade, 419 accessions are observed for flowering and
leafing phenology. The Weekly Project was started in 2005
and monitors 179 accessions, and in the Rhododendron
Project 151 accessions are observed for leafing, flowering
and fruiting events. A smaller weekly project is also run at
Benmore. Finally, the International Phenological Gardens
(IPG) Project monitors 21 taxa in Edinburgh, Dawyck and
Logan (new in 2012/13) for a standard set of events,
applied internationally in some 89 gardens over a wide
geographical and climatic range (see
ipg). An average of around 3,500 data entries are made
each week (including the observations of non-events).
Results have been published in Sibbaldia and at conferences
and workshops, and interesting research questions have
been raised. The team has regular update meetings and is
supervised by a member of the Science staff.
Top to bottom previous page: The work undertaken by the phenology Volunteers
focuses on species of Rhododendron throughout
the year; Rosemary Carthy, Publications Volunteer,
processes book orders; Herbarium Volunteer Margaret Johnson.
Publications have been very lucky to have the continued
support of Volunteer Rosemary Carthy again this year. As well as ably capturing the website’s statistics on a
weekly basis, in order to help us plot trends and patterns
of usage, Rosemary also fulfils book orders to all of
RBGE’s Shops from the book trade and the general public.
In the early part of 2012 we were fortunate to
have significant success with our title Wildflowers: A Sketchbook by Charles and John Raven. With orders
flooding in, Rosemary managed to ensure that all who
ordered received their books on time and that all the
associated paperwork and stock management was
processed in a very efficient way.
The Volunteers in the Herbarium have worked hard over
the last year continuing to help with the routine but
essential tasks which help the Herbarium run smoothly.
Volunteers have also started the Herculean job
of accessioning the collection of nearly 40,000 fern
specimens received from Christopher Fraser Jenkins. This
collection includes specimens collected from many parts
of the world with a particularly large number from Nepal,
linking in with the Flora of Nepal project led by RBGE.
The Herbarium Volunteers have also been working
to help update the Index of Collectors in the Edinburgh
Herbarium, and work is continuing on the collections
of George Forrest, both Herbarium specimens and
correspondence held in the Archives.
The Photography Department has undergone a long
overdue major refurbishment and upgrade this year.
The photography Volunteers at RBGE were very patient
and continued to function in temporary accommodation
whilst the work took place. The resulting working
environment has been well worth the wait, making a
substantial improvement to the photographic studio
facility and workspace.
Brenda White has continued with her long-term
project to scan and database the slide collection held
in the photography studio containing archival/historical
images of views and plants from the Regional Gardens.
Brenda has also continued to be involved in photographing
a number of the education courses and schools classes
that run at RBGE.
Alex Wilson has continued his project working with
Rob Cubey, Plant Records Officer, to record and map all
trees in the Living Collection at RBGE and also helped
collate images for RBGE’s Big 5 initiative .
Amy Fokinther has continued to make herself available
for event photography and has produced some fantastic
images of events taking place during 2012 and 2013.
Amy’s contribution as a Volunteer has led to some paid
freelance photography work scanning and databasing some
of our important image collections at RBGE.
Louise Olley, staff member and newly recruited
photography Volunteer, has taken up photography this
year and has proven a valuable asset for the photographic
department, covering a number of PR events.
A recruitment drive for Volunteer photographers
based near the Regional Gardens has been very successful and has led to the recruitment of 16 new
photography Volunteers:
Top to bottom this page: The work of the photography Volunteers has led to the
creation of some wonderful images this year: Amy Fokinther; Chris Johnston (left);
Ruth and James MacLellan (right); Mikuni Uehara; Dorothy Ainslie (left); Gavin Harris (right).
n Gavin Harris is based near Dawyck Botanic Garden. He combines his enthusiasm for Dawyck with his passion
for photography, resulting in some beautiful seasonal
plant images and Garden views.
n Dorothy Ainslie, Mike Allport, Ruth MacLellan, Brian Mahler, John Roberts, Alan Swan, Stephen Talas,
Robert Thomson and Mikuni Uehara have also been
instrumental in providing seasonal Garden images of
Dawyck throughout this year.
n Chris Johnston and Jackie and John Paddison have
begun volunteering at Logan and have bravely undertaken
a number of projects. Jackie and John Paddison have
continuously been recording views and beautiful plants as and when they come into flower at Logan.
n Mike Allport, Sue Furness and Derek Black are all
Benmore Botanic Garden Volunteers and have endured
the midges to produce some fine images of the Garden
this year!
From inspiring adult education
courses and school visits to
professional qualifications,
RBGE offers a diverse range
of educational opportunities
in many areas and is respected
as a centre of learning
excellence internationally.
Clockwise from left: MSc students Adele Julier and Daniel Borg collecting field data in the
rain forest. Tropical field trip to Belize, January 2013. Photo: James Clugston; botanical artistry.
Photo: Brenda White; a class for the Diploma in Botanical Illustration. Photo: Brenda White.
ne of the key projects in education has been the
further development of PropaGate Learning.
PropaGate Learning is RBGE’s virtual learning
environment (VLE). Designed as an online space for learning
all aspects of botany, horticulture and associated disciplines,
it supports our existing taught courses, allows for online
distance learning worldwide and also gives students the
best of both worlds through ‘blended’ learning programmes.
The first programmes to open this year included support
for our taught versions of the RBGE Certificate in Practical
Horticulture and RHS Level 2 Certificate in the Principles
of Horticulture, as well as the distance learning version of
the latter. More recently, the blended learning version of
our Diploma in Botanical Illustration saw ten students in
the Garden for two intensive weeks of workshops, practice
sessions and invaluable time spent with the Garden’s superb
living, preserved and library collections, and its experts.
Following this, the students returned home to produce some
excellent pieces as they worked through activities online.
Throughout the home sessions, it is great to see the
students keeping in touch, encouraging and critiquing one
another through the lively discussion forums. Indeed, this
course illustrates some of the strengths of PropaGate
Learning and what RBGE can offer in this new approach to
education. First, online learning can be a surprisingly sociable
experience, drawing in all manner of social media; second, this
blended learning format, combining distance learning from
home with rich, immersive study visits to RBGE, is a sterling
combination. Over the next two years we plan to develop
more of our existing courses, particularly our in-house
diplomas and certificates, into blended versions, extending
the reach of many courses beyond the typical one-hour travel
time that limits most attendees to our solely taught courses.
Blended options typically offer intensive fortnights,
weeks or weekends of study at RBGE, depending on
the level and structure of the course. For example, the
perennially popular RHS Level 2 Certificate allows blended
learners to visit RBGE for up to four weekends throughout
the course of the year. This qualification is taught by several
distance learning providers across the UK, but RBGE is
the only one that offers this taught component, allowing
students to visit and study at a world-class botanic garden.
Indeed, students studying with any online provider can
join in with ours to really enhance their learning. This course is
a particularly valuable one to develop early on, as it is highly
versatile and at a good baseline level for students, which
means that resources developed for online teaching can be
used for allied disciplines in many of our other courses.
Support from the Botanics Foundation and the
appointment of a temporary VLE officer have made this
development possible. It makes for some challenging new
ways of teaching, but PropaGate Learning offers enormous
potential, with scope for capacity building, in-house
training and enhancing the learning experience for existing
students, together with generating revenue while helping a huge range of people to explore the world of plants.
Dr Gregory Kenicer, Head of Education
Clockwise from top left: It is hoped that PropaGate will help with capacity
building for students abroad; the Diploma in Herbology. Photo: Brenda White;
the Diploma in Botanical Illustration and the RBGE Certificate in Practical Horticulture
were the first programmes to open this year on PropaGate. Photos: Brenda White; accessing the PropaGate site at home and also visiting RBGE for classes has led to a blended learning experience.
Diplomas and
Garden History
Phil Lusby, Head of School of Horticulture
aught diplomas continue to be popular among
students in the local area. These qualifications,
awarded and validated by RBGE, are twoyear part-time courses designed for professionals in
allied disciplines and for career-changers or dedicated
amateurs. At present we offer taught Diplomas in
Herbology (traditional plant use and ethnobotany),
Botanical Illustration and Garden History, with the return
of our Diploma in Garden Design in September 2013.
This year’s taught Diploma in Botanical Illustration
had twelve students on the first year, with six graduating
through the second year, resulting in a wonderful display
of plant illustrations when it came time to mark the
students’ work. The quality of the illustrations is superb
to see, with alumni from the course now having chalked
up three RHS gold medals. This year’s topics for secondyear portfolios included plants of the Caucasus; the
Ranunculaceae; lilies; the plants of Rosslyn Chapel; and an
intimate look at the life of a hellebore. Each of these is a
stunning, professional-quality collection of illustrations.
The Diploma in Garden History began in October
2012 with an intake of nine students. It had long been
an intention within education to provide courses on the
history of gardens and gardening, and this course provides
a solid foundation in the subject. After a general unit that
traces the progress and changes of gardening styles in
Britain, further units explore in more detail such important
aspects as the fundamental influence of Italian gardens
in Britain and the progress and development of garden
features such as knot gardens and parterres as well as the
cultivation of exotic flowers and fruit, including pineapples
and orchids. A unit on Victorian horticulture provides scope
for the study of the incredibly diverse and rapidly changing
horticultural tastes of the 19th century whilst the final
unit integrates the knowledge from across the course to
address the challenges of the evaluation and conservation
of our historic garden heritage. The diploma is formally
supported by the highly respected Garden History Society
and all students receive membership of the society for the
duration of the course.
Highlights this year have been trips to local gardens
such as Penicuik Estate, Belsay Hall, Lindisfarne,
Mellerstain House and Gardens, and a weekend study
tour to Arley Hall, Tatton Park and Biddulph Grange.
The blended learning version of the Diploma in Garden
History will be available on PropaGate Learning from
November 2013 and will include four study weekends
over the two-year duration of the course. Again, these
will provide opportunities for specialist lectures, visits to
key organisations, such as the Royal Commission on the
Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland, and, of
course, some wonderful gardens.
A new
Susie Kelpie, Education Officer
he teaching RBGE offers to school groups has
undergone some significant changes in the last two
years – the new requirements of the Curriculum for
Excellence and the increase in outdoor growing spaces we
have available for schools have allowed us to change our
schools programme. Scotland’s Curriculum for Excellence
marks a major shift in approaches to teaching and learning
patterns in schools. In response, our teaching staff,
Susie Kelpie and Cath Evans, have developed a new suite of
options for schools classes and adapted existing programmes
to better reflect the requirements of the new system.
The space opened up in the Demonstration Garden
shared by the undergraduate students, the Edible
Gardening Project and community gardening makes for
a superb new area for pupils to get involved in planting
and growing. This fits very well with the major tenets of
the Curriculum for Excellence, which encourages learning
through practical experience and exploration.
Continuous professional development for teachers
continues to develop with courses in science, horticulture and
expressive arts. We have run two annual schools gardening
conferences with a hundred teachers attending each year.
Schools gardening has grown so that we have six schools
with their own long-term vegetable plots in the Garden. This includes two secondary schools with special needs
pupils, three primary classes and one secondary school. These
programmes have been very well received as they allow whole
classes to work practically in the Garden. Even single-visit
classes benefit from being able to access outdoor green space in
a structured, investigative way. Learning outside the classroom
is a Scottish Government initiative and this programme
facilitates learning across the curriculum, promoting health
and well-being as well as science, numeracy and literacy.
We are extremely fortunate to have PhD student
Teresa Griffiths beginning this year; she will be looking at
horticultural learning with schools, focusing particularly
on growing plants for food. Teresa is one of our HND
Horticulture with Plantsmanship graduates and a retired
psychologist, so is ideally placed to develop a fascinating
and much-needed project. This PhD, based at the University
of Edinburgh, draws in Edinburgh School of Architecture and
Landscape Architecture, and the OPENspace programme as
partners. Along with Leigh Morris’s PhD, looking at wider
horticultural learning, this study will help to feed back into
the horticultural offering of the curriculum at a national
policy level. Indeed, these research projects mark the start
of some very interesting possibilities for further research
projects across the Horticulture Division.
Photos: Learning through engagement: children at classes at RBGE or in the School Gardening Project. Photos: Brenda White.
MSc course
Dr Louis Ronse de Craene, MSc Course Tutor
BGE has the privilege to organise and host an
international Masters course of high quality. This is
made possible by the combination of a dedicated
teaching staff with strong expertise in their field, extensive
collections of living plants, one of the largest herbaria in the
world and an excellent library. This cocktail provides an ideal
learning environment for our postgraduate students.
This year sixteen MSc students from all over the world
and from very different backgrounds started the course in
September; ten were from the EU (UK and Malta) and seven
from further afield (USA, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore,
Mexico and Sri Lanka). Compared to previous years, there was an increase in the number of international
students, which highlights the increasing demand worldwide. The number of applications is also on a steep rise, reaching
70 this year, although final acceptance onto the course is
driven by academic merit, a sufficiently high level of English
and, most of all, available financial opportunities.
The course incorporates novel techniques and
approaches, striking a delicate balance between teaching
basic botany and enabling the students to acquire
identification skills and to gain an understanding of
advances in botanical research. In the future, the role
of the taxonomist will become increasingly important
in helping to conserve plant diversity, and the course
gives students fundamental support in this area. Another important element is teaching the students how to identify plants in the field, using both vegetative
and floral characters. The course is continuously evaluated
and adapted as necessary, according to feedback from
students and changing emphases in science.
The field trip to Belize in January is one of the
highlights of the course and is the culmination of several
weeks of practicals and popular lunchtime walks to
learn about families of plants. The trip this year was a
great success and included the exploration of savannah
vegetation on the Mountain Pine Ridge and dry tropical
Left to right: Prof. David Mann explaining the growth of Laminaria seaweed to the MSc students.
Excursion in East Lothian in November 2012. Photo: Isuru Kirawasam; collecting herbarium
specimens in the field. Tropical field trip to Belize January 2013. Photo: James Clugston.
forest in a field station of the Program for Belize, an important conservation organisation in Belize.
In general, this year was highly successful, with all
students passing their exams in April. One student decided
to finish with a postgraduate diploma and, at the time of
writing, the remainder are busy working on their summer
dissertations. The summer dissertations cover aspects
of research at RBGE, often with wider ramifications, or
are instigated by the interests of the individual student.
Project work this year has included a diversity of research
activity, involving RBGE, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
and the University of Cambridge, with projects ranging
from morphological investigations of the petal epidermis
in Gesneriaceae to molecular systematics of Sapotaceae
and investigations of the biogeography of dry tropical
forests. A number of students had the opportunity to travel
internationally this year as part of their project, either
attending a conference in Brunei as part of a Sapotaceae
conservation survey of Sulawesi; collecting grasses in
Malta to contribute to the writing of an identification key; performing molecular work on Begonia in Taiwan; or collecting valuable data for conservation initiatives in
Iraqi Kurdistan. Other projects were based more in house,
with a good balance between molecular-oriented work and morphological investigations.
MSc students’ research is usually well integrated with
current RBGE research plans and students contribute to
peer-reviewed publications in collaboration with members
of staff. In the current economic environment it is highly
important for the students to build up a network of
contacts; this is made possible by RBGE’s wide-ranging
scientific collaborations. Employment opportunities for
students after the course are very healthy, with several
students lined up to undertake PhD or other research.
The relationship of the Masters course with the
Garden may be described as symbiotic, and I can only see this trend expanding in the future.
Clockwise from left: Carmen Puglisi continued her collection of Paraboea this year.
Unknown species; PhD students helped out at Expedition Botanics during the Science Festival; Karina Banda Rodríguez working in the field.
his year six students graduated. Jane Droop continues
at RBGE on a Sibbald fellowship, Rhiannon Crichton
went on to postdoctoral work in Montpellier and
Harriet Stone is working in Luxembourg. Alex Twyford took
up a postdoctoral place working on Mimulus with Jannice
Friedman at Syracuse University, New York. Nikki BurtonHarrison has a post at East Malling Research, Kent working
on root biology and apple genomics. Mobina Shaukat Ali is
lecturing at the Centre of Biotechnology and Microbiology in the University of Peshawar.
Five new PhD students started this year. Lakmini
Kumarage has come from Sri Lanka to work on the
biogeography of the region using Gesneriacae, gingers
and begonias. Javier Luna Castro is from Colombia (via the
Natural History Museum) and is working on Gesneriaceae
diversity. Karina Banda Rodríguez is also from Colombia and
working on the dry forests of the region. Katie Emelianova
joins the Begonia group to work on patterns of gene
duplication. Based at the Kunming Institute of Botany in
China, Chen Wen-Hong started work with Michael Moeller
on the conservation biology of Oreocharis mileensis.
Many of the PhD students have been out on fieldwork
this year. Mansour Abdullah made two visits to Kuwait,
aiming to collect the whole flora. Carmen Puglisi has been
continuing her collection of Paraboea in the Philippines and
Lakmini Kumarage began her collections in Sri Lanka.
Several students have published papers on their PhD
research (see Staff publications, p. 72). They have also
presented their research at conferences and seminars. Faten Filimban talked at both the Legume systemic meeting
in Aberystwyth and at the 6th Saudi Scientific International
Conference, where she was awarded the prize for the best
scientific poster. Carmen gave a presentation during her visit
to the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur.
Students have also been involved in outreach beyond the
academic world, with, for example, Carmen Puglisi presenting
Expedition Botanics during the Science Festival in Edinburgh.
PhD students
Dr Catherine Kidner, Lecturer, Plant Evolution
Photo, this page: Astrantia major.
1 The Duke of Rothesay confirmed he will
remain as Patron of RBGE until 2017. The news
comes after His Royal Highness visited the
Garden in 2012 to meet staff and Volunteers
undertaking massive clean-up and planting
operations following the devastating gales of
early January. The Regius Keeper commented
after his visit, “His Royal Highness has provided
tremendous support to the Garden, both in the
wake of this year’s storm damage and on his
many other visits to our flagship site in Edinburgh
and to our Regional Gardens. We benefit
enormously from his support and engagement.”
His Royal Highness has been Patron of RBGE
since 2002, when he succeeded Her Majesty
Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother.
2 Professor Peter Hollingsworth, Head of
the Genetics and Conservation Section at
RBGE, was appointed to the role of Director
of Science. Peter Hollingsworth is a pioneer
in the international drive to develop genetic
tools for the advancement of study into plant
biodiversity. He took up the post in June
after Professor Mary Gibby retired at the
end of March. Peter Hollingsworth has been
based at RBGE since 1997 and his research
work primarily aims to gain an increased
understanding of the processes governing
the evolution of plant biodiversity, to develop
effective mechanisms for rapid characterisation
of plant species diversity, such as DNA
barcoding, and to enhance the integration
of genetic information into conservation
programmes. On taking up the post, he
commented, “I look forward to building on the
excellent foundations laid by my predecessor,
Mary Gibby. As the 21st century advances,
my aim will be to empower my colleagues to
operate at the forefront of plant biodiversity
science and attain even greater prominence for RBGE’s research.”
3 An ambitious commitment by RBGE –
working with like-minded institutes around the
world – to deliver an online catalogue of the
world’s type specimens for all plants received
a significant boost of $227,000. The generous
funding, from the New York-based Trustees of
the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, supported
the RBGE element of a digital database of
images and information on plants of the world.
4 A taste of Southeast Asia was unveiled in
October when RBGE went public with new plant
treasures from its research and conservation
collections for the launch of a Malaysian
Glasshouse Trail. Realised thanks to support
from Tourism Malaysia, the Glasshouse Trail
showcases species not previously seen on
display. Dato’ Sri Dr Ng Yen Yen, Malaysia’s
Minister of Tourism (right, with the Malaysian
High Commissioner Dato’ Sri Zakaria Sulong,
far left), who was central to the inception of
the trail and conducted the official opening,
commented that it was “a uniquely special
way” of providing a clearer insight into the
magnificent natural resources of the country
and strengthening relationships and reciprocal
tourism between Scotland and Malaysia.
5 The Chartered Institute of
Management Accountants (CIMA),
the world’s largest professional body
of management accountants, hosted
an evening reception at the John
Hope Gateway on 5 November 2012
to celebrate the 20th anniversary of
The Balanced Scorecard, the widely
used performance management
tool. Two of the world’s top business
thinkers, Professor Robert Kaplan
and Dr David Norton, creators of
The Balanced Scorecard, were guests
of honour at the event attended
by 200 of Scotland’s finance
professionals. Photo: Amy Fokinther.
6 RBGE scientist Martin Gardner
was named on the Queen’s New Year
Honours list. He received an MBE for
services to horticultural conservation.
Martin is an expert in conifer
conservation and part of the iCONic
Project which brings together RBGE
and Perthshire Big Tree Country in a
mission to save conifers around the
world. The team travelled to Chile this
year to help save three endangered
species. Martin said, “I’m absolutely
delighted, for myself but also for the
Royal Botanic Garden, where I have
worked for 22 years. I was surprised
and shocked to receive it. The award is
as much for the institution.”
7 RBGE Research Associate
Dr Richard Pankhurst died on 26 March 2013. Richard was a
noted taxonomist and systematist.
He held positions at Cambridge
University and the Natural History
Museum, London before arriving
at RBGE in 1991. Richard retired in
2000, but carried on research work
and was a Botanical Society of the
British Isles Vice County Recorder.
In 2012 a species of dandelion
(Taraxacum pankhurstianum) found on St Kilda was named after him.
8 As well as publishing the full range
of RBGE magazines, brochures,
leaflets, papers and journals, RBGE
Publications were also involved in
publishing three successful books
throughout the year, either in
collaboration with other publishers or
under the RBGE imprint: Wildflowers:
A Sketchbook by Charles and John
Raven by Dr Henry Noltie (RBGE)
was published in April 2012; Green
Universe: A Microscopic Voyage into
the Plant Cell by Professor Stephen
Blackmore (Papadakis Publisher with
RBGE) in May 2012; and Growing
your own Vegetables by Ben Dell,
Jenny Foulkes and Erica Randall, edited
by Alice Jacobs (RBGE), was published
in July 2012.
9 On 31 October 2012, the Friends
of RBGE celebrated their 21st
birthday. Following the lecture on
ferns on 1 November, delivered
by Professor Wardlaw, a cake was
provided for the audience, which the
Convener and Peter Tothill (at 90, the oldest ex-Committee member)
duly did the honours of cutting and
blowing out the candles!
10 RBGE’s Associate Director
of Horticulture (Learning),
Leigh Morris, was elected in October
2012 to the role of President of
the Institute of Horticulture (IoH),
the body representing professional
horticulturists in the UK and Ireland.
Leigh has been a member of the
IoH since 1990 and he will lead this
organisation for a two-year period
alongside his RBGE role. A landmark
was achieved in July 2013 when the
IoH was awarded Royal Chartership
from Her Majesty the Queen. Photo: Institute of Horticulture.
11 Mark Edwards (left), Director
of the Hard Rain Project, Annemiek
Hoogenboom, Country Director,
People’s Postcode Lottery, and
Stewart Stevenson MSP, Scottish
Government Minister for Environment
& Climate Change, at the opening
of the Whole Earth exhibition beside
the Palm House at RBGE. From spring
to autumn 2012, RBGE hosted the
provocative outdoor exhibition
Whole Earth – Aligning Human
Systems and Natural Systems, in
the dramatic setting of the Fossil
Courtyard. The sequel to Hard Rain,
which had illustrated every line of Bob Dylan’s song, this new exhibition
was a response to sustained requests
by thousands of visitors and curators
for a display that presented solutions
to the problems illustrated in Hard
Rain. Thanks to sponsorship from the Scottish Government and the
People’s Postcode Lottery, the show
will be seen not only in Edinburgh, but in each of the Regional Gardens
throughout 2013. Photo: Chris Watt.
Photo, this page: Allium christophii.
BGE is both a Non Departmental Public Body and a registered Scottish Charity. As such it receives a substantial amount of its income from the Scottish Government, both in
the form of revenue funding (£9,812k, 2011/12/
£8,908k, 2012/13) and Capital Funding (£1,325k,
2011/12/£2,291k, 2012/13). The Board of Trustees and
the Senior Management Team are enormously grateful for
this continuing support as without it RBGE simply could not
function. In addition to the Scottish Government’s award of
grant-in-aid RBGE is permitted to raise income by a variety
of other means and these include commercial (retail and
catering) activities; applying for and receiving grants that
directly support our research activities, primarily carried out
by the Science Division but also by staff in our Horticulture
Division. A more recent practice has been to seek out
consultancy commissions which we are confident will make a
return on our investments in the medium term. Importantly,
we have also been successful in obtaining support from a
variety of sponsors for our arts and exhibitions portfolio
which helps bring in additional audiences.
Many of our activities require additional support to
come to fruition and these will range from capital building
works to sponsoring a specific type of work programme
at RBGE. These activities require the active support
of our Members and we are very grateful for their
amazing loyalty and generosity towards us. Additionally,
considerable efforts are made by staff to apply for funding
from a large number of bodies that are set up to donate
funds to worthwhile causes (usually charities) and we
have been very fortunate to have received considerable
support in this area. We receive income from research
grants (£932k, 2011/12/£1,330k, 2012/13), from
the Botanics Trading Company which runs the shops
and catering franchises at Edinburgh and at the three
Regional Gardens (£1,200k, 2011/12/£1,046k,
2012/13), from education courses (£564k,
2011/12/£691k, 2012/13) and from admission
charges at the Glasshouses and Regional Gardens (£334k,
2011/12/£347k, 2012/13). In 2011/12 we also
received membership income of £155k, donations of
£200k and £281k from other sources. In 2012/13
membership income of £213k, donations of £392k and
£378k from other sources was received.
This mix of funding (governmental and selfgenerated) allows us to build on the grant-in-aid and
achieve very much more for Scotland than we could with government funding alone. Further details of the funding categories can be found on our website in our published Annual Report and Consolidated Accounts for the year ended 31 March 2013
We wish to take this opportunity to thank everyone
who invests in RBGE – the Scottish Government, other
government departments, Members, donors, funding
bodies and all our customers and visitors – we could not
do our work without your much needed support!
Investment Income
Income Generating Activities
Investment Income
Income Generating Activities
Charitable Activities
Charitable Activities
Voluntary Income
Voluntary Income
Grant in Aid
Photo, this page: Gentiana ‘Inverleith’.
HERBARIUM STATISTICS 2012/13 2011/12 2010/11
2012/13 2011/12 2010/11
Specimen transactions
The Glasshouses
Incoming loans
Specimens borrowed
Specimens lent by RBGE
Specimens received as
gifts or exchanges
Outgoing loans
Total acquisitions Mounting
Specimens mounted
Backlog of unmounted specimens
Images online
Specialist visitor days
Public visitor days
From the Living Collection
2012/13 2011/12 2010/11
Books purchased
Books & reprints donated
Non-book orders
Principal items catalogued including retrospective
Journal articles
Current journals held
Lapsed journals held
Total journals held
Grand Total
Plant records
% Wild origin
% Verified
Commemorative fundraising
Project fundraising
Over £69,000 was raised through our Celebrate Life
commemorative programme in 2012/13, representing an
increase of 90 per cent from last year, and over £350,000 was
donated in bequests to the legacy programme, A Living Legacy.
The Development Department raised over £233,000 in cash
and £827,000 in pledges towards priority projects, namely
the Botanic Cottage Project, as well as other projects including
the Storm Damage Appeal, Logan Conservatory and new
Alpine House.
Over £28,000 of other unrestricted income was also secured
through core funding charitable trusts, general donations
and Gift Aid.
Patron donations
Enquiries (estimated)
Membership subscriptions and donations
2012/13 2011/12 2010/11
New accessions
Specimens barcoded
and data entered
From the general public
The Botanics Trading Company attained income of £1,044,925
from retail and licensing activities, restaurant, café and private events fees and commissions. Profit of £315,567 is gifted to RBGE.
Photo, this page: Araucaria araucana.
Each year we measure our energy and water use
and waste and convert the figures into carbon
emissions. We are taking action to reduce these
and some of these activities are described in this
report. Most of our emissions are attributable
to the energy required to maintain our Living,
Herbarium and Archive Collections; however we
are continuing to put measures in place which will
make all four of our Gardens more sustainable.
Carbon emissions
tCO2 2012
Cost (£)
Carbon emissions for all four sites are 3,778 tonnes CO2 emitted. This is a 17 per cent increase in emissions since
2011/12. The increase is mainly attributed to the energy used to run the buildings and glasshouses on the Edinburgh
and Benmore sites. While the emissions have increased as a whole, there are some areas where they have gone down.
For example, emissions from business travel have reduced by 7 per cent thanks to staff taking fewer flights overseas.
Waste to landfill has also reduced by 36 per cent thanks to increased use of the recycling facilities and staff awareness.
Solar panels at Logan Botanic Garden
Photovoltaic panels, known as solar pvs, were fitted to the student
accommodation cottage at Logan Botanic Garden in January 2013. This is a
4kW system which has generated 1,050kW to date. An average three-bedroom
family home requires 7kW per day so this is enough to provide a house with
electricity for five months. Electricity generated which is not required by the
cottage residents is exported to the national grid and Logan receives payment
for each kW received. In addition, a feed-in tariff of approximately 25p per unit
is received for every kW generated. This has been a successful investment,
the value of which will increase when a new conservatory has been constructed and air source heat pumps installed. These will be run by the electricity generated by the solar pvs to maintain a frost-free environment heated to 6°C in
which warm temperate region plants from the southern hemisphere will be cultivated.
Rainwater harvesting for the new Alpine House
Construction of a brand new structure, the Alpine House, started in March
2013. This new plant display house has a clear roof and open sides to allow
ventilation for the permanent plantings of alpines which naturally grow in
mountainous areas and are adapted to high light levels and windy conditions.
This is the first display house of its kind in Britain.
A rainwater harvesting system has been installed which will collect water
for the plants. The system is a Graf Carat 4800 litre with an internal filter to
keep the water clean and prevent pests and diseases from incubating. The
water is pumped from the tank to a hose where it is used for watering plants.
Alpine plants also benefit from the quality of rainwater in contrast to tap water
which contains chlorine and other chemicals which are not good for plant roots.
Rainwater harvesting is a sustainable feature and should be installed wherever
possible because it reduces the need to use mains water. The cleansing, processing
and transportation of mains water requires electricity and other resources which
should be used wisely.
Reducing waste to landfill and compliance with new
waste regulations
New regulations governing the disposal of waste are coming into force in 2014. The Waste Regulations (Scotland) will be active from 1 January 2014 and all businesses and organisations in Scotland are expected to comply with them.
These regulations require that all recyclable waste be segregated, including food waste for businesses which generate
more than 50kg per week. RBGE has been working to ensure compliance with these regulations ahead of time. We have recycling streams for paper, cardboard, glass, plastics, cans and batteries, and this year, in collaboration with the catering franchise at the Edinburgh Garden, the food waste from the staff canteen is being collected and taken off site to an anaerobic digester. The resulting compost is then used as fertiliser on farmland.
It is important that all businesses and organisations are aware of the new waste regulations. Further information is
available from
Scottish native plants planted at the Scottish Parliament
In March 2013, two RBGE staff members, Heather McHaffie and Natacha Frachon, took native grassland species
grown in the RBGE Nursery to be planted in the sculptured ridges outside the Scottish Parliament. They were met by
a group of seven staff there who planted the species, which included the near threatened Silene viscaria, to improve
the biodiversity of the grounds around their buildings. They also sowed 1kg of Rhinanthus minor (yellow rattle) seed to
reduce the ‘richness’ of the soil and encourage native plants which will establish in poorer soils. More seed collections
have been made and more plantings are projected for 2014.
Activities of the Environmental Management Groups
Waste Group
Continue with three annual bin audits
Zero plastic bottles in general waste
Promote waste monitoring to the Area Champions
Waste audits carried out in May and November 2012 and February 2013, with results
disseminated to all staff
No plastic bottles were found in the wrong bins
Area Champions invited to audits to find out more about waste monitoring
Reduction in printer paper use at Edinburgh: 13 per cent
In 2011, printer software was purchased to monitor paper use for printing and copying. ICT staff have calculated that
paper usage at the Edinburgh Garden for 2012/13 has gone down by 13 per cent from 2011/12. The Waste Group
set a target reduction of 10 per cent which has been exceeded.
The reduction is due to people ‘thinking before they print’. Staff are advised to reduce printouts in a number of
ways: projecting minutes and reports on the screens in meeting rooms; printing double-sided; and fitting more print on
one sheet. Other measures introduced include exchanging paper mailouts for electronic ones and asking students to
submit their work electronically. In addition, many departments have made changes to their specific working practices.
All printer paper used at RBGE is 100 per cent recycled.
To promote initiatives that support RBGE’s commitment to reduce emissions from commuter and
business travel
Participation in the Cycle to Work programme in 2013/14: 39 bicycles purchased
Continue to encourage the use of trains for UK travel
Continue to offer staff season ticket loans as a means to reduce car travel and use public
transport links
Reduction in travel: 7 per cent
When staff submit a claim for travel costs incurred they are required to fill in how many miles were travelled. This means
we can measure our overall travel accurately, and this year it was calculated that we covered 7 per cent fewer miles
than last year. This was mainly by making fewer long-haul flights overseas.
Offer guidance to increase the sustainability of procurement choices
New members appointed to Group from across all divisions
Fairtrade organic cotton clothing purchased for staff
Compostable food containers used in staff canteen
Sustainable procurement is good procurement. It is the consideration of more than just the financial implications of
purchasing decisions. It involves thinking about the whole lifetime cost of the goods and services and the effects they
may have on the economy, the environment and society.
Following a period without a chairperson, the Procurement Group was re-established with a new collection of staff
spanning all four divisions of RBGE. The Group will set targets and offer guidance to increase the sustainability of the
procurement choices made by RBGE.
Record and conserve biodiversity on RBGE sites
BioBlitz event organised for 22 June 2013
Advisory report on management of garden areas for wildlife produced
Dr Robert Mill’s paper on the biodiversity of the Edinburgh Garden was published in Sibbaldia 10: 149–170. An internal report entitled Recommended Wildlife Conservation Areas within RBGE
Inverleith, compiled by Dr Robert Mill, was also circulated during the year. This recommends that
certain areas of the Edinburgh site that are particularly rich in wildlife, such as the Ecological
Meadow, Chinese Hillside and Scottish Heath Garden, should be managed wherever possible to
conserve and enhance the biodiversity that is present.
A total of 63 bird species were recorded at the Edinburgh Garden during the period of this report. The cumulative bird list for Edinburgh since current records began in 1997 now stands at 87 species. The most notable record of the year was a drake shoveler which paid a brief weekend visit to the Pond on 20 October 2012 and was the only new bird species added to the Garden’s list in 2012/13. Our breeding sparrowhawks were monitored by the Lothian
and Borders Raptor Study Group, with webcam footage in the John Hope Gateway and Scottish Seabird Centre at North Berwick.
Butterflies, bees and wasps, and hoverflies continued to be recorded during the year, as well as any other insects
and other invertebrates that could be identified. Sixty-one species (17 moths, 9 Hymenoptera, 7 hoverflies,
22 other insects, 2 spiders, 1 slug and 3 woodlice and millipedes) were recorded for the first time during 2012/13.
Starting from the baseline figure of 383 these 61 additional invertebrate records plus the shoveler duck and
some other species mean that the Garden’s species list of animals now numbers 463. The very wet summer of
2012 meant that only seven butterfly species were recorded. Wool carder bees, first recorded at RBGE in 2011,
reappeared in 2012. Forty hymenopteran species (bees, wasps, ants and sawflies), only 1 damselfly, 45 hoverfly
species, 51 other insects (including 3 ladybird species new to the Garden’s list) and at least 7 spiders were recorded.
Other activities
The Biodiversity Group spent much of its time planning the BioBlitz to be held at the Edinburgh Garden over the
midsummer weekend in June 2013. A full account of this will appear in next year’s report. As part of the preparations,
Dr Robert Mill gave talks to staff and the public on the BioBlitz and recording wildlife at the Garden.
Carbon Management Team (CMT)
Reduce carbon emissions, in particular energy and water use
Solar panels installed at Logan Botanic Garden
Rainwater harvesting at Edinburgh
New boiler system installed in main building at Edinburgh
Our carbon emissions are described at the beginning of this report. In addition to the features described there, funding
was given by the Scottish Government’s Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS) to
install a new boiler system in our main building at Edinburgh. This building is responsible for a large part of our energy
and water use. The new boilers are sited in optimum positions for efficiency and are expected to result in a 25 per cent
reduction in energy used for heating the building.
Area Champions
There are 17 Area Champions over the Edinburgh site who meet quarterly. They help us to meet the Group targets, as well as suggesting and making improvements such as the new tea and coffee bin in the canteen.
Looking forward to 2013/14
Continue auditing waste and ensuring full use is made of recycling systems
Investigate and seek funding to increase cycle parking at Edinburgh
Develop a Sustainable Procurement Policy to be distributed to all staff
Monitor new equipment and ensure optimum functioning of all sustainability features
Run BioBlitz in June 2013 and encourage the Regional Gardens to become involved with local
Biodiversity Action Plans
1 April 2012 – 31 March 2013
Authors associated with RBGE are noted in upper case.
The medium of publication is noted by a code after each reference:
Photo, this page: Osteospermum ‘Cannington John’.
Publications in peer-reviewed journals
Books, book chapters, edited books
Reports, commissioned work, abstracts
Book reviews
Unpublished theses
Online resources and publications
Abbott, R., Albach, D.,
Ansell, S., Arntzen, J. W.,
Baird, S. J. E., Bierne, N.,
Boughman, J., Brelsford, A.,
Buerkle, C. A., Buggs, R.,
Butlin, R. K., Dieckmann, U.,
Eroukhmanoff, F., Grill, A.,
Cahan, S. H., Hermansen,
J. S., Hewitt, G., Hudson,
A. G., Jiggins, C., Jones, J.,
T., Mallet, J., MartinezRodríguez, P., Most, M.,
Mullen, S., Nichols, R.,
Nolte, A. W., Parisod, C.,
Pfennig, K., Rice, A. M.,
Ritchie, M. G., Seifert, B.,
Smadja, C. M., Stelkens,
R., Szymura, J. M., Vainola,
R., Wolf, J. B. W., & Zinner,
D. (2013). Hybridization
and speciation. Journal of
Evolutionary Biology, 26: 229-246. A
R.I. (2012). A revision of
Berberis, s.s. (Berberidaceae)
in Nepal. Edinburgh Journal of
Botany, 69: 447–522. A
AHRENDS, A. (2012). Case
study: Wood fuel impacts on
biodiversity. In: Grooten, M.,
Almond, R., McLellan, R., Dudley,
N., Duncan, E., Oerlemans, N.
& Stolton, S. (eds). WWF –
Living Planet Report 2012.
Biodiversity, Capacity and Better
Choices. Gland, Switzerland, pp. 78–79. C
AHRENDS See Brooker,
Poudel, Willcock
MIDDLETON, D.J. (2013).
A revision of Rhynchotechum
Blume (Gesneriaceae).
Edinburgh Journal of Botany,
70: 121–176. A
Anglin, R., Best, J.,
Figueiredo, R., Gilbert,
E., Gnanasambandam, N.,
Gottschalk, S., HASTON,
E., Heidorn, P.B., Lafferty,
D., Lang, P., Nelson, G.,
Paul, D., Ulate, W., Watson,
K. & Zhang, Q. (2013).
Improving the character of
optical character recognition
(OCR): iDigBio augmenting
OCR working group seeks
collaborators and strategies
to improve OCR parsing of
OCR output for faster, more
efficient, cheaper natural
history collections specimen
label digitization. In: Abstracts
of iConference 2013, College
of Information, University of North Texas, Fort Worth, pp. 957–964. C
Antonelli, A., Hughes, C.E.,
M. (eds) (2013). Neotropical
plant evolution – assembling the big picture. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society,
171: 1–300 (contains 17
papers). C
ARGENT, G. (2012). Current
Taxonomy: Rhododendron
seranicum J.J.Sm. ssp.
sparsihirtus Argent subsp. nova.
Rhododendrons, Camellias and
Magnolias, 2013: 126–127. C
Arias, M.C., Arnoux, E., Bell,
J.J., Bernadou, A., Bino, G.,
Blatrix, R., Bourguet, D.,
Carrea, C., Clamens, A.L.,
Cunha, H.A., d’Alençon, E.,
Ding, Y., Djieto-Lordon,
C., Dubois, M.P., Dumas,
P., Eraud, C., Faivre, B.,
Francisco, F.O., Francoso,
E., Garcia, M., Gardner,
J.P.A., Garnier, S., Gimenez,
S., Gold, J.R., HARRIS, D.J.,
He, G.C., Hellemans, B.,
Hollenbeck, C.M., Jing,
S.L., Kergoat, G.J., Liu, B.F.,
Lohan, K.M.P., McDowell,
J.R., McKey, D., Miller, T.L.,
Newton, E., Papetti, C.,
Paterson, I., Peccoud, J.,
Peng, X.X., Piatscheck, F.,
Ponsard, S., Reece, K.S.,
Reisser, C.M.O., Renshaw,
M.A., Ruzzante, D.E., Sauve,
M., Shields, J.D., Sole-Cava,
A., Souche, E.L., Van Houdt,
J.K.J., Vasconcellos, A.,
Volckaert, F.A.M., Wang,
S.Z., Xiao, J., Yu, H.J., Zane,
L., Zannato, B., Zemlak,
T.S., Zhang, C.X., Zhao, Y.,
Zhou, X. & Zhu, L.L. (2012).
Permanent genetic resources
added to Molecular Ecology
Resources Database 1
December 2011–31 January
2012. Molecular Ecology
Resources, 12: 570–572. A
ARMSTRONG, K.E. (2013).
A revision of the AsianPacific species of Manilkara
(Sapotaceae). Edinburgh Journal
of Botany, 70: 7–56. A
BAINES, R. (2012). Education
at Logan. Botanics, 50: 17. C
BAINES, R.A. (2012). In the
garden: June’s gardening hints
and tips. Scottish Field, 109 (6):
123. C
BAINES, R.A. (2012). Garden
tips for August. Scottish Field,
109 (8): 105. C
Bardon, L., Chamagne, J.,
DEXTER, K.G., Sothers,
C.A., Prance, G.T., Chave,
J. (2013). Origin and evolution
of Chrysobalanaceae: insights
into the evolution of plants
in the Neotropics. Botanical
Journal of the Linnean Society,
171: 19–37. A
BARNARD, K. (2013).
Postcard from Creag Meagaidh.
Botanics, 53: 17. C
BAXTER, P. (2012). Benmore’s
Golden Gates get restored.
Botanics, 50: 16–17. C
BAXTER, P. (2013). Winter at
Benmore. Botanics, 52: 8–9. C
Bebber, D.P., Carine, M.A.,
Davidse, G., HARRIS, D.J.,
HASTON, E.M., Penn, M.G.,
Cafferty, S., Wood, J.R.I.
& Scotland, R.W. (2012).
Big hitting collectors make
massive and disproportionate
contribution to the discovery
of plant species. Proceedings of
the Royal Society B-Biological
Sciences, 279 (1736): 2269–
2274. A
BELINCHÓN, R., Martinez,
I., Aragon, G. & Escudero,
A. (2012). Lichen species
co-occurrence patterns along
an edge-interior Mediterranean
forest gradient. Acta
Oecologica – International
Journal of Ecology, 43: 150–157. A
BELINCHÓN See Martinez
P.M. (2013). The use of DNA
barcoding to address major
taxonomic problems for rare
British Bryophytes. Final Report.
Unpublished report, Royal
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. C
BENNELL, A. (2013). Touching
wood. Botanics, 53: 16. C
BLACKMORE, S., Takahashi,
M., Uehara, K. & WORTLEY,
A.H. (2012). Development of
megaspores and microspores
in Isoetes japonica A. Br.
(Lycopodiophyta: Isoetaceae).
Grana, 51: 84–96. A
BLACKMORE See Lomax, Song,
Blockeel, T. & LONG,
D.G. (2012) The B.B.S.
meeting in the Algarve in 1989:
a retrospective view. Field
Bryology, 108: 8–17. C
C.J. (2012). Bioclimatic
equilibrium for lichen
distributions on disjunct
continental landmasses. BotanyBotanique, 90: 1316–1325. A
Brennan, A.C., Bridgett,
S., Ali, M.S., Harrison, N.,
Matthews, A., Pellicer, J.,
C.A. (2012). Genomic
resources for evolutionary
studies in the large, diverse,
tropical genus Begonia. Tropical
Plant Biology, 5: 261–276. A
Brooker, R., Aalders, I.,
Ballingall, K., Begg, G., Nick,
A., Birch, E., Elliott, G.,
ELLIS, C., Freitag, T., Hawes,
C., Holland, J., Holmes,
B., Hough, R., Karley, A.,
McCracken, D., Mitchell,
R., Stockan, J., Zadoks,
R., Albon, S., Hester, A. &
Pakeman, R. (2013). Biotic
and biophysical underpinning
of ecosystem services in the
Scottish context: a review.
RESAS Work Programmes
Theme 1 Report. Edinburgh:
Brooker, R., AHRENDS, A.,
Bailey, D., Brewer, M., Brown,
I., Castellazzi, M., Gimona,
A., ELLIS, C., Harding, A.,
Harrison, P., Hopkins, C.,
Moss, A., Muir, M. & Poggio,
L. (2013) Climate change
risk-based assessment for
notifiable features in Scotland.
ClimateXChange Interim Report
to SNH. C
BLACKMORE, S. (2012).
Green Universe: a Microscopic
Voyage into the Plant Cell.
Winterbourne & Edinburgh:
Papadakis & Royal Botanic
Garden Edinburgh. 256pp. B
aetano, S., Currat, M.,
Prado, D., Excoffier, L. &
Naciri, Y. (2012). Recent
colonization of the Galapagos
by the tree Geoffroea spinosa
Jacq. (Leguminosae). Molecular
Ecology, 21: 2743–2760. A
BLACKMORE, S. & Skvarla,
J.J. (2012). In memoriam,
John Rowley (1926–2010),
palynologist extraordinaire.
Grana, 51: 77–83. C
M.J. (2012). Evolution of the
nectaries in the Primuloid clade
(Ericales). MSc, University of
Edinburgh/RBGE. E
Cardoso, D., de Lima, H.C.,
Rodrigues, R.S., de Queiroz,
& Lavin, M. (2012) The
realignment of Acosmium
sensu stricto with the
Dalbergioid clade (Leguminosae:
Papilionoideae) reveals a
proneness for independent
evolution of radial floral
symmetry among earlybranching papilionoid legumes.
Taxon, 61: 1057–1073. A
Cardoso, D., de Lima, H.C.,
Rodrigues, R.S., de Queiroz,
& Lavin, M. (2012) The
Bowdichia clade of Genistoid
legumes: phylogenetic analysis
of combined molecular and
morphological data and a
recircumscription of Diplotropis.
Taxon, 61: 1074–1087. A
Cardoso, D., de Queiroz,
de Lima, H.C., Fonty, E.,
Wojciechowski, M.F. &
Lavin, M. (2012). Revisiting
the phylogeny of papilionoid
legumes: new insights from
comprehensively sampled earlybranching lineages. American
Journal of Botany, 99: 1991–
2013. A
Naming the Rhododendron
collection at Corrour – an
assessment of the task. 1–2. C
Chatrou, L.W., Erkens,
Saunders, R.M.K. & Fay,
M.F. (2012). The natural
history of Annonaceae. Botanical
Journal of the Linnean Society,
169: 1–4. A
Chen, W.H., MÖLLER,
M., Zhang, M.D. & Shui,
Y.M. (2012). Paraboea
hekouensis and P. manhaoensis,
two new species of
Gesneriaceae from China.
Annales Botanici Fennici, 49: 179–187. A
MÖLLER, M. (2012). New
chromosome counts in Old
World Gesneriaceae: numbers
for species hitherto regarded
as Chirita, and their systematic
and evolutionary significance.
Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 69: 323–345. A
CLIFFORD, P. (2012). Short
Note: How to make fertiliser
balls for aquatic plants.
Sibbaldia, 10: 197–201. C
CLUGSTON, J.A. R. (2012).
Phenology of Zamia L. and
biogeographical insights.
BSc SAC, Edinburgh/RBGE/
University of Glasgow. E
COHEN, L. (2013). Getting
Scotland gardening. Botanics,
52: 15. C
L. (2013). Building capacity
through teaching essential
skills. Roots – Botanic Garden
Conservation International
(BGCI), 10: 21–24. C
COLANTUONI, L. (2012).
Diversity and specificity of
rhizobia in Lathyrus odoratus
(L.) and selected cultivars.
BSc SAC, Edinburgh/RBGE/
University of Glasgow. E
CONLON, T. (2012).
Dimorphanthera (F. Muell. ex
Drude) F. Muell. – Ericaceous
gems from New Guinea at the
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
Sibbaldia, 10: 133–147. C
COPPINS, B.J. (2012).
Literature pertaining to British
lichens – 50. British Lichen
Society Bulletin, 110: 60–62. C
COPPINS, B.J. (2012).
Literature pertaining to British
lichens – 51. British Lichen
Society Bulletin, 111: 69–72. C
COPPINS, B.J. & Coppins,
S.[A.M.] (2012). Shields, or ‘Lost in translation?’ British Lichen Society Bulletin,
111: 37–40. C
COPPINS, B.J., Douglass, J.D.
& Price, S. (2012). Report of
BLS Summer meeting 2012.
The Isle of Muck. British Lichen
Society Bulletin, 111: 84–105.
COPPINS, B.J., Seaward,
M.R.D. & Simkin, J. (2012).
British Isles list of lichens and
lichenicolous fungi. September
2012 update to list. British
Lichen Society Bulletin, 111: 67–69. C
COPPINS See Douglass, ELLIS,
Fryday, Price, Schoch, Sérusiaux,
Woods, YAHR
CRICHTON, R.J., Dalrymple,
P.M. (2012). Horticultural
protocols to aid the
conservation of Melampyrum
sylvaticum, Orobanchaceae
(small cow-wheat), an
endangered hemiparasitic plant.
Sibbaldia, 10: 57–69. C
CRICHTON, R.J., Squirrell,
J., Woodin, S.J., Dalrymple,
P.M. (2012). Isolation of
microsatellite primers for
Melampyrum sylvaticum
(Orobanchaceae), an endangered
plant in the United Kingdom.
American Journal of Botany, 99 (11): E457–E459. A
amerval, C., Citerne,
H., Le Guilloux, M.,
Domenichini, S., Dutheil,
Nadot, S. (2013). Asymmetric
morphogenetic clues along the
transverse plane: shift from
disymmetry to zygomorphy
in the flower of Fumarioideae.
American Journal of Botany,
100: 391–402. A
Daniels, A.E.D., LONG, D.G.,
Kariyappa, K.C. & Daniel,
P. (2012). Anastrophyllum
aristatum (Herzog ex N.Kitag.)
A.E.D. Daniels et al., comb. et
stat. nov. (Marchantiophyta:
Anastrophyllaceae) from India
and China. Journal of Bryology,
34: 146–149. A
RANDALL, E. (2012). Growing
your own vegetables. Edinburgh:
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
94pp. B
DEXTER See Bardon
DONALD, F. (2012). A taxonomic review of the
yellow-flowered species of
Rhododendron L. subsection
Maddenia (Hutch) Sleumer.
MSc, University of Edinburgh/
Dong, L.-N., Wang, H.,
WORTLEY, A.H., Lu, L. & Li,
D.-Z. (2013). Phylogenetic
relationships in the Pterygiella
complex (Orobanchaceae)
inferred from molecular and
morphological evidence.
Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society, 171: 491–507. A
DONNELLY, S. (2012). New dandelion species found on remote Scottish island.
Botanics, 50: 7. C
Douglass, J.D. & COPPINS,
B.J. (2012). Re-monitoring
of selected lichen sites at Ben
Lawers National Nature Reserve.
Report to National Trust for
Scotland. C
Douglass, J.D. & COPPINS,
B.J. (2013). Common
Standards Monitoring for lichens
at Braunton Burrows SSSI.
Report to Natural England. C
Douglass, J.D. & COPPINS,
B.J. (2013). Common
Standards Monitoring for lichens
at Saunton to Baggy Point SSSI.
Report to Natural England. C
ATON See Milne
Ebihara, A., FRASERJENKINS, C.R., Parris, B.S.,
Zhang, X.C., Yang, Y.H.,
Chiou, W.L., Chang, H.M.,
S. et al. (2012). Rare and
threatened pteridophytes
of Asia 1. An enumeration
of narrowly distributed taxa.
Bulletin of the National Museum
of Nature and Science, Series B
(Botany), 38: 93–119. A
EDWARDS, I. (2013)
Foreword. In: Jalan Jati (Teak Road). Edinburgh: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh,
pp. 15–17. B
EDWARDS, I.D. (2012). After
the Storm. Smallwoods, 47:
18–19 C
EDWARDS, I.D. (2013). After
the Storm. Reforesting Scotland
Journal, 47: 10–11. C
ELLIOTT, A. (2012). Clematis
in Edinburgh and Nepal. Clematis
International, 2012: 27–34. C
ELLIOTT, A. (2013). A founder
member: Roland Edgar Cooper.
The Rock Garden, 33: 18–29. C
ELLIOTT, A. (2013). Botanical
exploration of Darchula District,
Far West Nepal, 2012: Report
for the Scottish Rock Garden
Club [Published online at
ReportAElliott.pdf]. F
ELLIS, C.J. (2012). Lichen
epiphyte diversity: a species,
community and trait-based
review. Perspectives in
Plant Ecology, Evolution and
Systematics, 14: 131–152. A
ELLIS, C.J. (2013). A riskbased model of climate change
threat: hazard, exposure and
vulnerability in the ecology
of lichen epiphytes. BotanyBotanique, 91: 1–11. A
ELLIS, C.J. (2012). Lichens link European biodiversity
science to climate change policy.
The Parliament Magazine, 359: 22. C
ELLIS, C.J. (2012). Scotland’s
rainforest epiphytes receive
international attention. British Lichen Society Bulletin,
111: 61–64. C
P.M. (2012). Lichens under
threat from ash dieback. Nature, 491 (7426): 672. A
Brooker, Mitchell
Enroth, J., Olsson, S., LONG,
D.G. & Quandt, D. (2012).
A century later – Pinnatella
gollanii is still alive! Tropical
Bryology, 34: 15–16. A
G. (2012). Desert ferns at
RBGE. Botanics, 49: 8–9. C
EVANS See Vanormelingen
azekas, A.J., Kuzmina,
M.L., Newmaster,
P.M. (2012). DNA barcoding
methods for land plants. In:
Kress, W.J. & Erickson, D.L.
DNA Bar Codes: Methods and
Protocols. New York: Humana
Press. pp. 223–252. B
Fryday, A.M. & COPPINS,
B.J. (2012). New taxa, reports,
and names of lichenized and
lichenicolous fungi, mainly
from the Scottish Highlands.
Lichenologist, 44: 723–737. A
ALLANT, E. (2012).
Roots to shoots. Botanics,
51: 14. C
Gao, L.M., Zhang, Z.R.,
Zhou, P., MÖLLER, M. & Li,
D.Z. (2012). Microsatellite
markers developed for
Corallodiscus lanuginosus
(Gesneriaceae) and their cross-species transferability.
American Journal of Botany, 99: E490–E492. A
GARN, T. (2012). In the
garden: Time to get creative
for the new growing season.
Scottish Field, 109 (4): 95. C
GARN, T. (2012). In the
garden: time for an autumnal
gardening clean-up. Scottish
Field, 109 (10): 105. C
GARN, T. (2013). Garden tips for March. Scottish Field,
110 (3): 93. C
GIBBY See Weng
Gower, D.J., Johnson, K.G.,
B.R., Rüber, L. & Williams, S.T.
(eds) (2012). Biotic Evolution
and Environmental Change in
Southeast Asia. Systematics
Association Special Volume
82. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. 496pp. B
Gower, D.J., Johnson, K.G.,
B.R., Rüber, L. & Williams,
S.T. (2012). Introduction.
In: Gower, D.J., Johnson, K.G.,
B.R., Rüber, L., & Williams,
S.T. (eds). Biotic Evolution
and Environmental Change in
Southeast Asia. Systematics
Association Special Volume
82. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, pp. 1–15. B
ARDY, G. (2012). Digital portal opens.
Botanics, 50: 10. C
K.E., Walters, G.M., Wilks, C.,
Mouandza Mbembo, J.-C.,
Niangadouma, R., Wieringa,
J.J. & Breteler, F.J. (2012).
Phytogeographical analysis and
checklist of the vascular plants
of Loango National Park, Gabon.
Plant Ecology and Evolution,
145: 242–257. A
HARRIS See Arias, Bebber,
HASTON, HYAM, Laurance,
HARROLD See Schoch
HARRIS, D.J. (2012). Data
concepts and their relevance
for data capture in large
scale digitisation of biological
collections. International
Journal of Humanities and Arts
Computing, 6: 111–119. A
& HARRIS, D.J. (2012).
Developing integrated
workflows for the digitisation
of herbarium specimens using a
modular and scalable approach.
ZooKeys, 209: 93–102. A
HASTON See Anglin, Bebber
Hawksworth, D.L., McNEILL,
J., de Beer, Z.W. & Wingfield,
M.J. (2013). Names of fungal
species with the same epithet
applied to different morphs: how to treat them. IMA Fungus,
4: 53–56. A
HELFER See Milne
Milne, Schoch, Wulff
R.T. & Antonelli, A. (2013).
Neotropical plant evolution:
assembling the big picture.
Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society, 171: 1–18. A
HUGHES, M. (2012). Species
old and new: the remarkable
Begonia diversity of Sumatra.
Begonian, 79 (6): 209–214. C
HUGHES, M., Girmansyah, D.,
Handoyo, W.A. & PUGLISI,
C. (2012). The limestone flora of Sumatra. Gardenwise,
39: 18–21. C
KNOTT, D. (2013). Storm
damage at the Royal Botanic
Garden Edinburgh in January
2012. Caledonian Gardener,
2013: 56–61. C
HUGHES, M. See Phutthai,
Rajbhandary, Wijedasa
R.E. & HARRIS, D.J. (2012).
Stable citations for herbarium
specimens on the internet: an
illustration from a taxonomic
revision of Duboscia
(Malvaceae). Phytotaxa, 73: 17–30. A
dei, M., Osada, K., SATO,
S., Toyoda, K., Nagumo,
T. & MANN, D.G. (2012).
Gametogenesis and auxospore
development in Actinocyclus
(Bacillariophyta). PloS One, 7 (8). A
Idei, M., SATO, S., Toyoda,
K., Nagumo, T. & MANN,
D.G. (2012). A new species,
a new combination and related
species in Hydrosera. In: Sabbe,
K., Van de Vijver, B. & Vyverman,
W. (eds) Abstracts of the
Twenty-second International
Diatom Symposium, Aula
Academica, Ghent, 26–31
August 2012. VLIZ Special
Publication, 58: 174. C
Ikeda, H., Amano, M.,
Yamamoto, N., PENDRY, C.A.
& Bhattarai, A.P. (2012).
Korthalsella japonica (Thunb.)
Engl. (Santalaceae), a new
locality in western Nepal.
Newsletter of Himalayan
Botany, 46: 13–15. C
ones, K., Anderberg, A.A.,
Wanntorp, L. (2012). Origin,
diversification, and evolution of
Samolus valerandi (Samolaceae,
Ericales). Plant Systematics and
Evolution, 298: 1523–1531. A
Paik, J.H., SCOTT, S.M.
& MÖLLER, M. (2012).
Unusual morphological and
anatomical features of two
woody Madagascan endemics,
Streptocarpus papangae and S. suffruticosus (Gesneriaceae),
and their potential taxonomic
value. South African Journal of
Botany, 80: 44–56. A
ENICER, G. (2012). Learn
online. Botanics, 50: 11. C
KIDNER See Brennan,
KNOTT, D. (2012).
Horticulture at the Royal Botanic
Garden Edinburgh. Horticulturist,
21 (2): 2–5. C
KUNGU, E. (2012). Journal
of the Month review. Field
Bryology, 107: 76. C
aurance, W.F., Useche,
D.C., Rendeiro, J.,
Kalka, M., Bradshaw, C.J.A.,
Sloan, S.P., Laurance, S.G.,
Campbell, M., Abernethy,
K., Alvarez, P., ArroyoRodriguez, V., Ashton, P.,
Benitez-Malvido, J., Blom,
A., Bobo, K.S., Cannon,
C.H., Cao, M., Carroll, R.,
Chapman, C., Coates, R.,
Cords, M., Danielsen, F.,
De Dijn, B., Dinerstein, E.,
Donnelly, M.A., Edwards,
D., Edwards, F., Farwig,
N., Fashing, P., Forget,
P.M., Foster, M., Gale, G.,
HARRIS, D., Harrison, R.,
Hart, J., Karpanty, S., Kress,
W.J., Krishnaswamy, J.,
Logsdon, W., Lovett, J.,
Magnusson, W., Maisels, F.,
Marshall, A.R., McClearn, D.,
Mudappa, D., Nielsen, M.R.,
Pearson, R., Pitman, N.,
van der Ploeg, J., Plumptre,
A., Poulsen, J., Quesada,
M., Rainey, H., Robinson,
D., Roetgers, C., Rovero,
F., Scatena, F., Schulze,
C., Sheil, D., Struhsaker,
T., Terborgh, J., Thomas,
D., Timm, R., UrbinaCardona, J.N., Vasudevan,
K., Wright, S.J., Arias-G.,
J.C., Arroyo, L., Ashton,
M., Auzel, P., Babaasa, D.,
Babweteera, F., Baker, P.,
Banki, O., Bass, M., Bila-Isia,
I., Blake, S., Brockelman,
W., Brokaw, N., Bruhl, C.A.,
Bunyavejchewin, S., Chao,
J.T., Chave, J., Chellam,
R., Clark, C.J., Clavijo, J.,
Congdon, R., Corlett, R.,
Dattaraja, H.S., Dave, C.,
Davies, G., Beisiegel, B.D.,
da Silva, R.D., Di Fiore,
A., Diesmos, A., Dirzo, R.,
Doran-Sheehy, D., Eaton,
M., Emmons, L., Estrada,
A., Ewango, C., Fedigan,
L., Feer, F., Fruth, B., Willis,
J.G., Goodale, U., Goodman,
S., Guix, J.C., Guthiga,
P., Haber, W., Hamer, K.,
Herbinger, I., Hill, J., Huang,
Z.L., Sun, I.F., Ickes, K., Itoh,
A., Ivanauskas, N., Jackes,
B., Janovec, J., Janzen, D.,
Jiangming, M., Jin, C., Jones,
T., Justiniano, H., Kalko, E.,
Kasangaki, A., Killeen, T.,
King, H.B., Klop, E., Knott,
C., Kone, I., Kudavidanage,
E., Ribeiro, J.L.D., Lattke,
J., Laval, R., Lawton, R.,
Leal, M., Leighton, M.,
Lentino, M., Leonel, C.,
Lindsell, J., Ling-Ling, L.,
Linsenmair, K.E., Losos, E.,
Lugo, A., Lwanga, J., Mack,
A.L., Martins, M., McGraw,
W.S., McNab, R., Montag,
L., Thompson, J.M., NabeNielsen, J., Nakagawa, M.,
Nepal, S., Norconk, M.,
Novotny, V., O’Donnell, S.,
Opiang, M., Ouboter, P.,
Parker, K., Parthasarathy,
N., Pisciotta, K.,
Prawiradilaga, D., Pringle,
C., Rajathurai, S., Reichard,
U., Reinartz, G., Renton,
K., Reynolds, G., Reynolds,
V., Riley, E., Rodel, M.O.,
Rothman, J., Round, P.,
Sakai, S., Sanaiotti, T.,
Savini, T., Schaab, G.,
Seidensticker, J., Siaka, A.,
Silman, M.R., Smith, T.B.,
de Almeida, S.S., Sodhi, N.,
Stanford, C., Stewart, K.,
Stokes, E., Stoner, K.E.,
Sukumar, R., Surbeck, M.,
Tobler, M., Tscharntke, T.,
Turkalo, A., Umapathy, G.,
van Weerd, M., Rivera, J.V.,
Venkataraman, M., Venn,
L., Verea, C., de Castilho,
C.V., Waltert, M., Wang, B.,
Watts, D., Weber, W., West,
P., Whitacre, D., Whitney,
K., Wilkie, D., Williams, S.,
Wright, D.D., Wright, P.,
Xiankai, L., Yonzon, P. &
Zamzani, F. (2012). Averting
biodiversity collapse in tropical
forest protected areas. Nature,
489 (7415): 290–294. A
‘All the gold a miser desires’: A
new reading for the iconography
of the Grotto of the Animals at
Villa Castello. Garden History,
40: 253–267. A
LI, Q. (2012). Development of
a pictorial guide to the common
plants of the Yulong xueshan.
MSc, University of Edinburgh/
D.J. (2012). Cyclosorus
procerus comb. nov.
(Thelypteridaceae) from
Thailand. Nordic Journal of
Botany, 30: 308–309. A
D.J. & Suksathan, P. (2012).
A new species of Rhachidosorus
(Woodsiaceae), a genus new
to Thailand. Thai Forest Bulletin
(Botany), 40: 102–104. A
LINDSAY, S., Phutthai,
T., Sridith, K.,
Chanthanaotrapint, S. &
MIDDLETON, D.J. (2012).
Actinostachys wagneri
(Schizaeaceae), a new record
for Thailand. Thai Forest Bulletin
(Botany), 40: 14–16. A
LINDSAY See Ebihara
Liu, Y., FORREST, L.L.,
Bainard, J.D., Budke, J.M.
& Goffinet, B. (2013).
Organellar genome, nuclear
ribosomal DNA repeat unit, and
microsatellites isolated from
a small-scale of 454 GS FLX
sequencing on two mosses.
Molecular Phylogenetics and
Evolution, 66: 1089–1094. A
Lomax, B.H., Fraser, W.T.,
Harrington, G., BLACKMORE,
S., Sephton, M.A. & Harris,
N.B.W. (2012). A novel
palaeoaltimetry proxy based on
spore and pollen wall chemistry.
Earth and Planetary Science
Letters, 353: 22–28. A
LONG, D.G. (2012). Eric
Watson’s Algarve diary 1989.
Field Bryology, 108: 3–7. C
D. (2012). Two
lectotypifications in British and
Irish Herbertus Gray. Journal of
Bryology, 34: 145–146. A
LONG, D.G., BELL, D. & Ma,
W.-Z (2012). Bryophytes
abroad – in search of the
Yulong pincushion and Delavay’s
prongwort. Field Bryology, 108: 30–39. C
LONG, D.G. & Braithwaite,
M.E. (2012). Field notes
and records – 2011 botanical
records. History of the
Berwickshire Naturalists Club,
52: 68–74. C
LONG See BELL, Blockeel,
Daniels, Enroth, Mander, Sérgio, Vana
McKAY, C. (2012). Project
funding successes in 2012.
Botanics, 49: 18. C
MACKINDER, B.A. & Clark,
R. (2012). Baphia rosa
(Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a
new species from the Kabompo
District of Zambia and a review
of the classification of B.
chrysophylla, B. claessensii and
B. gilletii from the Democratic
Republic of the Congo. Kew
Bulletin, 67: 413–420. A
MACKINTOSH, E. (2012).
Plant hunting in Bhutan. The Plantsman, New Series, 11: 160–167. C
MACKINTOSH, E. (2013). Altai
2012. RHS Blaxall Valentine
Award Expedition. Unpublished
report, Edinburgh: Royal Botanic
Garden Edinburgh. 84pp. C
MACKINTOSH, E. (2013).
Arunachal Pradesh 2012.
Scottish Rock Garden Club
Exploration Fund Expedition.
Unpublished report, Edinburgh:
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
35pp. C
MACNAB, A. (2012). The
adapted balanced scorecard and
strategic objective costing – a
solution for improved corporate
governance. Journal of
Management Account Studies,
3: 63–77. A
MACNAB, A.J. & Mitchell,
F. (2012). CGMA Report.
Strategic objective costing –
supporting the balanced
scorecard. London: Chartered
Institute of Management
Accountants. C
McNAUGHTON, J.R. (2012).
Generating user friendly
identification tools from high
resolution images of herbarium
specimens. MSc, University of
Edinburgh/RBGE. E
McNEILL, J. (2012) Guidelines
for requests for binding
decisions on application of the
Code. Taxon, 61: 477–478. A
McNEILL, J. (2012). Changes
to the Code in Melbourne.
Tela Botanica: Le réseau de
la botanique francophone
[Published online at
html]. F
McNEILL, J. (2012). The type method: an
introduction. Tela Botanica:
Le réseau de la botanique
francophone [Published online
Types_API.pdf]. F
McNEILL, J., Barrie, F.R.,
Buck, W.R., Demoulin, V.,
Greuter, W., Hawksworth,
D.L., Herendeen, P.S., Knapp,
S., Marhold, K., Prado, J.,
Prud’homme Van Reine, W.F.,
Smith, G.F., Wiersema, J.H.
& Turland, N.J. (eds) (2012).
International Code of
Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi,
and Plants (Melbourne Code)
adopted by the Eighteenth
International Botanical Congress
Melbourne, Australia, July 2011.
Königstein: Koeltz Scientific
Books [Regnum Vegetabile
154]. xxx + 208pp. B
McNEILL, J., Barrie, F.R.,
Buck, W.R., Demoulin, V.,
Greuter, W., Hawksworth,
D.L., Herendeen, P.S., Knapp,
S., Marhold, K., Prado, J.,
Prud’homme Van Reine, W.F.,
Smith, G.F., Wiersema, J.H.
& Turland, N.J. (eds) (2012).
Código Internacional de
Nomenclatura para algas, hongos
y plantas (Código de Melbourne)
adoptado por el decimoctavo
Congreso Internacional de
Botánica Melbourne, Australia,
julio de 2011. Edición en español
a cargo de Werner Greuter y
Rosa Rankin Rodríguez. Madrid:
Real Jardín Botánico & Consejo
Superior de Investigaciones
Cientificas (CSIC). 248pp. B
McNEILL See Hawskworth,
Mander, L., Collinson, M.E.,
Chaloner, W.G., Brain, A.P.R.
& LONG, D.G. (2012). The
ultrastructure and botanical
affinity of the problematic
mid-Mesozoic palynomorph
Ricciisporites tuberculatus
Lundbland. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 173: 429–440. A
MANN, D.G. (2012). The
limits to rarity in diatoms and
the interpretation of absence.
In: Sabbe, K., Van de Vijver,
B. & Vyverman, W. (eds)
Abstracts of the Twentysecond International Diatom
Symposium, Aula Academica,
Ghent, 26–31 August 2012.
VLIZ Special Publication, 58: 74. C
MANN, D.G. & Vanormelingen,
P. (2012). Has there been
an ‘inordinate fondness for
diatoms’ and if so why? Insights
into diatom speciation and
diversification from genetic,
mating, and morphological data.
In: Abstracts of papers delivered
at Protist 2012, 29 July–3
August 2012, University of Oslo,
pp. 28–29. C
MANN See Idei, Pawlowski,
SATO, Vanormelingen
Mao, K., MILNE, R.I., Zhang,
L., Peng, Y., Liu, J., THOMAS,
P., MILL, R.R. & Renner,
S.S. (2012). Distribution of
living Cupressaceae reflects the
breakup of Pangea. Proceedings
of the National Academy of
Sciences, 109: 7793–7798. A
A.H. & Furness, C.A. (2012).
Not a shrinking violet: Pollen
morphology of Violaceae
(Malpighiales). Grana, 51:
181–193. A
Martinez, I., Flores,
T., Otalora, M.A.G.,
BELINCHON, R., Prieto,
M., Aragon, G. & Escudero,
A. (2012). Multiple-scale
environmental modulation of
lichen reproduction. Fungal
Biology, 116: 1192–1201. A
MILL, R.R. & Whiting,
M. (2012). Podocarpus orarius
(Podocarpaceae), a new species
from the Solomon Islands and
a taxonomic clarification of the
Podocarpus spathoides from
Malaysia. Gardens’ Bulletin
Singapore, 64: 171–193. A
Maycock, C.R., Khoo,
E., Kettle, C.J., Pereira,
J.T., Sugau, J.B., Nilus,
R., Ong, R.C., Amaludin,
N.A., NEWMAN, M.F. &
Burslem, D.F.R.P. (2012).
A conservation assessment
of Dipterocarps in Sabah: A
comparison of methods and
future prospects. Biotropica,
44: 649–657. A
MILL See Mao
Medlin, L., Yang, I. & SATO,
S. (2012). Evolution of
the Diatoms. VII. Four gene
phylogeny assesses the validity
of selected araphid genera.
Beiheft Nova Hedwigia, 141: 505–514. A
Meng, A., Zhang, Z., Li,
& Wang, H. (2012). Floral
development of Stephania
(Menispermaceae): impact of
organ reduction on symmetry.
International Journal of Plant
Sciences, 173: 861–874. A
Mews, H.A., Marimon, B.S.
& RATTER, J.A. (2012).
Observations on the vegetation
of Mato Grosso, Brazil, V.
Changes in the woody species
diversity of a forest in the
Cerrado-Amazonian forest
transition zone and notes
on the forests of the region.
Edinburgh Journal of Botany,
69: 239–253. A
Livshultz, T. (2012).
Streptoechites, a new genus of
Asian Apocynaceae. Adansonia,
3 (34): 365–373. A
MÖLLER, M. (2012).
Tribounia, a new genus of
Gesneriaceae from Thailand.
Taxon, 61:1286–1295. A
MIDDLETON, D.J. & Triboun,
T. (2012). Somrania, a new
genus of Gesneriaceae from
Thailand. Thai Forest Bulletin
(Botany), 40: 9–13. A
H. (2012). Establishing ex
situ conservation methods
for Dactylorhiza ebudensis
and D. traunsteinerioides,
a combination of in situ
turf removal and in vitro
germinations. Sibbaldia, 10: 71–84. C
Milne, J.M., HELFER, S., Kirk,
Ennos, R.A. (2012). Molecular
evidence indicates that
subarctic willow communities
in Scotland support a diversity
of host-associated Melampsora
rust taxa. Fungal Biology, 116: 603–612. A
R. (2012). Rebuilding the walls.
Botanics, 50: 8–9. C
Mitchell, R.J., Bailey, S.,
Beaton, J.K., Bellamy, P.E.,
Brooker, R.W., Broome,
A., Chetcuti, J., EATON,
S., ELLIS, C.J., Farren, J.,
Gimona, A., Goldberg,
E., Hall, J., Harmer, R.,
Hester, A.J., Hewison, R.L.,
Hodgetts, N.G., Hooper,
R.J., Howe, L., Iason, G.R.,
Kerr, G., Littlewood, N.A.,
Morgan, V., Newey, S.,
Potts, J.M., Pozsgai, G.,
Ray, D., Sim, D.A., Stockan,
J.A., Taylor, A.F.S., Taylor,
P. & Woodward, S. (2013).
Ash dieback: impacts on other
species and understanding the
ecology of ash. Joint Nature
Conservation Committee,
Commissioned Report No. 483. C
Gao, JONG, MIDDLETON, Nishii, Poudel
Ebihara, LINDSAY, Triboun
MORIARTY, C. (2012).
Integration of GIS and genetic
data to study differentiation
and diversification in New
Caledonian Araucaria Juss. MSc,
University of Edinburgh/RBGE. E
MILL, R.R. (2012)
Biodiversity recording at Royal
Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
Sibbaldia, 10: 149–170. C
MORRIS, L. (2012). Growing
from the rubble: a National
Botanical Garden for Haiti. Public Garden, 27: 7–9. C
MORRIS, L. (2013). The IoH:
leading on growing horticultural
careers. Horticulturist – The Journal of the Institute of Horticulture, 22: 4–7. C
MORRIS, L. (2012). Grow a
career in horticulture. Career
Guidance Today, 20 (4 October
2012): 20–21. C
MORRIS, L. & Bentley,
C. (2013). Horticulture:
building an industry for the
future. Horticulturist – The
Journal of the Institute of
Horticulture, 22: 20–23. C
EALE, S. (2012).
Restoring the green carpet.
Botanics, 49: 16–17. C
NEAVES, L.E., Zenger, K.R.,
Prince, R.I.T. & Eldridge,
M.D.B. (2012). Impact of
Pleistocene aridity oscillations
on the population history of a
widespread, vagile Australian
mammal, Macropus fuliginosus.
Journal of Biogeography, 39: 1545–1563. A
NESBITT, P. (2012). When
dinosaurs become Modernists.
Botanics, 51: 15. C
Nishii, K., Nagata, T., Wang,
C.N. & MÖLLER, M. (2012).
Light as environmental regulator for germination and macrocotyledon
development in Streptocarpus
rexii (Gesneriaceae). South
African Journal of Botany, 81: 50–60. A
Nishii, K., Wang, C.N., Spada,
A., Nagata, T. & MÖLLER,
M. (2012). Gibberellin as a
suppressor of lateral dominance
and inducer of apical growth
in the unifoliate Streptocarpus
wendlandii (Gesneriaceae). New Zealand Journal of Botany,
50: 267–287. A
NOLTIE, H.J. (2012). Plant spines as paper clips.
Linnean, 28: 10. C
NOLTIE, H.J. (2012). [Book review] Steggles, M.A. and Barnes, R. British
Sculpture in India: New Views
and Old Memories. 380pp. The Sculpture Journal, 21: 189–190. D
NOLTIE, H.J. (2012). [Book
review] John Ray’s Cambridge
Catalogue (1660). Translated
and edited by P.H. Oswald
& C.D. Preston. Ray Society
publication no. 173. London:
The Ray Society. ix, 612pp.
Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 69: 363–366. D
LLEY, L. & Sharma,
L.R. (2013). A provisional
checklist of the lichens of Nepal.
Journal of the Department of Plant Resources [Nepal], 35: 18–21. A
ATERSON, L. (2012).
Joseph Rock – Impressions
of China. Botanics, 51: 12–13. C
Pawlowski, J., Audic, S.,
Adl, S., Bass, D., Belbahri,
L., Berney, C., Bowser,
S.S., Cepicka, I., Decelle,
J., Dunthorn, M., FioreDonno, A.M., Gile, G.H.,
Holzmann, M., Jahn, R., Jirku,
M., Keeling, P.J., Kostka,
M., Kudryavtsev, A., Lara,
E., Lukes, J., MANN, D.G.,
Mitchell, E.A.D., Nitsche,
F., Romeralo, M., Saunders,
G.W., Simpson, A.G.B.,
Smirnov, A.V., Spouge,
J.L., Stern, R.F., Stoeck, T.,
Zimmermann, J., Schindel,
D., & de Vargas, C. (2012).
CBOL Protist Working Group:
Barcoding eukaryotic richness
beyond the animal, plant, and
fungal kingdoms. PLoS Biology,
10 (11). e1001419. A
NOLTIE, H.J. (2012).
The generic name Scalesia
(Compositae) – an etymological
blunder. Archives of Natural
History, 39: 167–169. A
Peccoud, J., Piatscheck, F.,
Yockteng, R., Garcia, M.,
Sauve, M., Djieto-Lordon,
C., HARRIS, D.J., Wieringa,
J.J., Breteler, F.J., Born, C.,
McKey, D., Blatrix, R. (2013).
Multi-locus phylogenies of the
genus Barteria (Passifloraceae)
portray complex patterns in the
evolution of myrmecophytism.
Molecular Phylogenetics and
Evolution, 66: 824–832. A
NOLTIE, H.J. (ed.) (2012).
Wild Flowers: a Sketch Bookby
Charles and John Raven: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
216pp. B
M. (2012). Report on the
fourth editorial meeting of the
Flora of Nepal. Newsletter of
Himalayan Botany, 46: 16–23. C
NOLTIE, H.J. (2012). (2079)
Proposal to conserve the name
Carex foliosa D. Don against
Carex foliosa All. (Cyperaceae).
Taxon, 61: 880. A
PENDRY See ADHIKARI, Ikeda, Saslis-Lagoudakisa
Antonelli, Caetano, Cardoso, Hughes, Särkinen, Schaefer, Simon
Phosri, C., Martin, M.P.,
Suwannasi, N., Sinanonth,
P. & WATLING, R. (2012).
Pisolithus: a new species from
southeast Asia and a new
combination. Mycotaxon, 120: 195–208. A
Phutthai, T., HUGHES,
M. & Sridith, K. (2012).
A new species of Begonia
(Begoniaceae) from Peninsular
Thailand. Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 69: 287–292. A
PLAISIER, H. (2012).
Pteridophytes of Nepal: the
genus Onychium Kaulf. MSc,
University of Edinburgh/RBGE. E
Poudel, R.C., MÖLLER, M.,
Gao, L.M., AHRENDS, A.,
Baral, S.R., Liu, J., THOMAS,
P. & Li, D.Z. (2012). Using
morphological, molecular and
climatic data to delimitate yews
along the Hindu Kush-Himalaya
and adjacent regions. PLoS One,
7 (10). e46873. A
Price, S. & COPPINS,
B.J. (2012). Report of BLS
Field meeting, Derbyshire,
6–10 October 2011. British
Lichen Society Bulletin, 110:
139–149. C
C., E.N., BABA, Y., BADEN,
H.M., Alvez V, C.M. &
Quesda, C.A. (2012). Floristic inventory of one
hectare of palm-dominated
creek forest in Jenaro Herrera,
Peru. Edinburgh Journal of
Botany, 69: 259–280. A
PURVIS, D.A. (2012).
Generating user-friendly
identification tools from high
resolution images of herbarium
specimens of Sapotaceae from
the Sangha Trinational. MSc,
University of Edinburgh/RBGE. E
& KNOTT, D. (eds) (2012).
Catalogue of plants 2012, Royal
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
Edinburgh: Royal Botanic Garden
Edinburgh. 771pp. B
Rajbhandary, S., HUGHES,
M. & Shrestha, K.K. (2012).
Pollen morphology of Begonia
L. (Begoniaceae) in Nepal.
Bangladesh Journal of Plant
Taxonomy, 19: 191–200. A
Costion, C.M. & Muellner,
A.N. (2012). The Malesian
floristic interchange: plant
migration patterns across
Wallace’s Line. In: Gower, D.J.,
Johnson, K.G., RICHARDSON,
J.E., Rosen, B.R., Rüber, L.
& Williams, S.T. (eds) Biotic
Evolution and Environmental
Change in Southeast Asia.
Systematics Association
Special Volume 82. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, pp.
138–163. B
Gower, Särkinen
ROBERTSON, M. (2012).
The taxonomy, phylogeny and
biogeography of Quercus L. in Nepal. BSc SAC, Edinburgh/
RBGE/University of Glasgow. E
RODTASSANA, C. (2012).
Early evolution of the cuticle:
a major land plant innovation.
MSc, University of Edinburgh/
L.P. (2012). Eudicots. In: eLS
2012, John Wiley & Sons,
Ltd: Chichester [Published
online at, doi:
a0003684.pub2]. F
L.P. (2013). How flowers
excel in their hospitality: the
evolution of papillate conical
cells in petals is linked with
accommodating the right
visitors [Published online at
org]. F
abeler, R.K., Reznicek,
J. (2012). Edward Groesbeck
Voss (1929–2012). Taxon, 61: 423. C
Brockington, S.F. (2013).
Origin and evolution of petals in angiosperms. Plant Ecology
and Evolution, 146: 5–25. A
RAE, D. (2012). Edinburgh’s
Masterplan. Botanics, 51: 4–5. C
Damerval, Jones, Meng,
Wanntorp, Xu
ROSIQUE, C. (2012). Using
genetic markers to follow acorn
dispersal across the landscape.
MSc, University of Edinburgh/
ALES, F. (2012).
Revamping COI-WILLK: a collection online. Taxon, 62: 193–197. A
SALES, F. (2012). The cost of
the Mediterranean collections.
Bocconea, 24: 159–167. A
Särkinen, T., PENNINGTON,
R.T., Lavin, M., Simon, M.F.
& Hughes, C.E. (2012).
Evolutionary islands in the
Andes: persistence and isolation
explain high endemism in
Andean dry tropical forests.
Journal of Biogeography, 39:
884–900. A
Särkinen, T., Staats, M.,
R.S. & Bakker, F.T. (2012).
How to open the treasure
chest? Optimising DNA
extraction from herbarium
specimens. Plos One 7(8). A
Saslis-Lagoudakisa, C.H.,
Savolainen, V., Williamson,
E.M., Forest, F., Wagstaff,
S.J., Baral, S.R., WATSON,
M.F., PENDRY, C.A. &
Hawkins, J. (2012).
Phylogenies reveal predictive
power of traditional medicine in bioprospecting. Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences, 109: 15835–
15840. A
D.G. (2012). An astonishing
cell expansion during
auxosporulation in the
araphid pennate diatom
Pseudostaurosira trainorii. In:
Sabbe, K., Van de Vijver, B. &
Vyverman, W. (eds) Abstracts of
the Twenty-second International
Diatom Symposium, Aula
Academica, Ghent, 26–31
August 2012. VLIZ Special
Publication, 58: 97. C
SATO See Idei, Medlin, Suzuki,
Tanimoto, Vanormelingen,
Schaefer, H., Hechenleitner,
P., Santos-Guerra, A.,
de Sequeira, M.M.,
G. & Carine, M.A. (2012).
Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with
special focus on the middleAtlantic island lineages. BMC Evolutionary Biology,
12: 250. doi:10.1186/14712148-12-250. A
Schoch, C. L., Seifert,
K. A., Huhndorf, S.,
Robert, V., Spouge, J. L.,
Levesque, C. A., Chen,
W., and Fungal Barcoding
Consortium (including,
YAHR, R.) (2012). Nuclear
ribosomal internal transcribed
spacer (ITS) region as a
universal DNA barcode marker
for fungi. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences,
109: 6241-6246. A
Sérgio, C., Garcia, C.A.,
Hespanhol, H., Vieira,
C., Stow, S., & LONG,
D.G. (2012). Bryophyte
diversity in the Peneda-Gerês
National Park (Portugal):
selecting Important Plant Areas
(IPA) based on a new survey
and past records. Botanica
Complutensis, 36: 39–50. A
Sérusiaux, E., Boom, P.P.G.
v. d., Brand, M.A., COPPINS,
B.J. & Magain, N. (2012).
Lecania falcata, a new species
from Spain, the Canary Islands
and the Azores, close to Lecania
cholorotiza. Lichenologist, 44: 577–590. A
Santika, Y., Gufrin & Poulsen,
A.D. (2012). The enigmatic
ginger Alpinia melichroa
rediscovered in southeast
Sulawesi. Nordic Journal of
Botany, 30: 163–167. A
R.T. (2012). Evidence for
adaptation to fire regimes in the tropical savannas of the
Brazilian cerrado. International
Journal of Plant Sciences, 173: 711–723. A
Song, X.Y., Yao, Y.F.,
WORTLEY, A.H., Paudayal,
K.N., Yang, S.H., Li, C.S. &
BLACKMORE, S. (2012).
Holocene vegetation and climate
history at Haligu on the Jade
Dragon Snow Mountain, Yunnan,
SW China. Climatic Change,
113: 841–866. A
SPAANS, F. (2012). Just
scratching the surface – the
evolution of the plant cuticle.
MSc, University of Edinburgh/
STEWART, G. (2012). Fun in
the Borders. Botanics, 50: 16. C
STEWART, G. (2012). In the
garden: Tasks and treats in store
for July. Scottish Field, 109 (7):
103. C
STEWART, G. (2012). Garden
tips for September. Scottish
Field, 109 (9): 85. C
STODDART, L. (2012).
Estimating the realised
ecological niche for difficult to
identify species: a case study for
the lichen genus Lepraria Ach.
MSc, University of Edinburgh/
STRIDE, G. (2012).
Biogeography and generic
delimitation in Arabian
Sapotaceae. MSc, University of
Edinburgh/RBGE. E
Suzuki, T., Watanabe, R.,
Uchida, H., Matsushima,
R., Nagai, H., Yasumoto, T.,
Yoshimatsu, T., SATO, S. &
Adachi, M. (2012). LC-MS/
MS analysis of novel ovatoxin
isomers in several Ostreopsis
strains collected in Japan.
Harmful Algae, 20: 81–91. A
animoto, Y., Yamaguchi,
H., Yoshimatsu, T., SATO,
S. & Adachi, M. (2013).
Effects of temperature, salinity
and their interaction on growth
of toxic Ostreopsis sp 1 and
Ostreopsis sp 6 (Dinophyceae)
isolated from Japanese coastal
waters. Fisheries Science, 79: 285–291. A
TAYLOR, K. (2012). Student
Project: Prairie gardening:
popular style, ambiguous
terminology? Sibbaldia, 10: 21–43. C
TESH, J.P. (2012). A survey of
floral structure in Drypetes Vahl
(Putranjivaceae) and related
genera. MSc, University of
Edinburgh/RBGE. E
THOMAS See Mao, Poudel
TWYFORD, A. & Ennos,
R.A. (2012). Next-generation
sequencing as a tool for plant ecology and evolution.
Plant Ecology and Diversity, 5: 411–413. A
C.A., Harrison, N. & Ennos,
R.A. (2013). Population
history and seed dispersal in
widespread Central American
Begonia species (Begoniaceae)
inferred from plastome-derived
microsatellite markers. Botanical
Journal of the Linnean Society,
171: 260–276. A
TWYFORD See Brennan
ana, J., Grolle, R. &
LONG, D.G. (2012).
Taxonomic realignments and
new records of Gongylanthus
and Southbya (Marchantiophyta:
Southbyaceae) from the
Sino-Himalayan region. Nova
Hedwigia, 95: 183–196. A
Vanormelingen, P.,
Vanelslander, B., SATO,
S., Gillard, J., Trobajo, R.,
Sabbe, K. & Vyverman,
W. (2013). Heterothallic sexual
reproduction in the model
diatom Cylindrotheca. European
Journal of Phycology, 48:
93–105. A
Vanormelingen, P., EVANS,
K.M., MANN, D.G., D’Hondt,
S., Verstraete, T., Debeer,
A.-E., Sabbe, K. & Vyverman,
W. (2012). Genotypic diversity
and differentiation among
benthic freshwater diatom
populations as revealed by
microsatellite analysis. In: Sabbe,
K., Van de Vijver, B. & Vyverman,
W. (eds) Abstracts of the
Twenty-second International
Diatom Symposium, Aula
Academica, Ghent, 26–31
August 2012. VLIZ Special
Publication, 58: 112. C
Tremetsberger, K.,
Gemeinholzer, B., Zetzsche,
H., BLACKMORE, S., Kilian,
N. & Talavera, S. (2013).
Divergence time estimation in
Cichorieae (Asteraceae) using
a fossil-calibrated relaxed
molecular clock. Organisms
Diversity & Evolution, 13: 1–13. A
Triboun, P. & MIDDLETON,
D.J. (2012). Twenty
new species of Paraboea
(Gesneriaceae) from Thailand.
Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore, 64: 333–370. A
WATLING, R. (2012).
Ectomycorrhizal fungi and
non-agaricoid basidiomycetous
macromycetes of the Falklands.
Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 69: 219–238. A
anntorp, L., RONSE
Peng, C.-I. & Anderberg,
A.A. (2012). Floral ontogeny
and morphology of Stimpsonia
and Ardisiandra, two aberrant
genera of the primuloid clade
of Ericales. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 173: 1023–1035. A
WATLING See Phosri, Yomyart
WATSON, M. (2012).
Buchanan-Hamilton, inspiration
in Kathmandu. Pulse, News from
the Linnean Society of London,
14: 1–2. C
WATSON See PENDRY, Saslis-Lagoudakisa, Yano
Weng, M.-L., Ruhlman,
T.A., GIBBY, M. & Jansen,
R.K. (2012). Phylogeny,
rate variation, and genome
size evolution of Pelargonium
(Geraniaceae). Molecular
Phylogenetics and Evolution, 64: 654–670. A
WHITTET, R.R. (2012). Error
rates in the Ancient Woodland
Inventory and methods for
the assessment of ecological
continuity. MSc, University of
Edinburgh/RBGE. E
Wijedasa, L.S. & HUGHES,
M. (2012). A new species
and new combinations of
Memecylon in Thailand and
Peninsular Malaysia. Phytotaxa,
66: 6–12. A
WILKIE, P. (2012). Postcard
from China. Botanics, 51: 17. C
Willcock, S., Phillips, O.L.,
Platts, P.J., Balmford, A.,
Burgess, N.D., Lovett, J.C.,
AHRENDS, A., Bayliss, J.,
Doggart, N., Doody, K.,
Fanning, E., Green, J., Hall,
J., Howell, K.L., Marchant,
R., Marshall, A.R., Mbilinyi,
B., Munishi, P.K.T., Owen,
N., Swetnam, R.D., ToppJorgensen, E.J. & Lewis,
S.L. (2012). Towards regional,
error-bounded landscape
carbon storage estimates for
data-deficient areas of the
world. PloS One, 7(9). A
Woods, R.G. & COPPINS,
B.J. (2012). A conservation
evaluation of British lichens
and lichenicolous fungi. Species
Status 13. Joint Nature
Conservation Committee,
Peterborough. C
Dong, MARK, Song
P.M., Haugstetter, J.,
Piquet, M., L’Huillier, L.
& Fogliani, B. (2012). Ten
nuclear microsatellites markers
cross-amplifying in Scaevola
montana and S. coccinea
(Goodeniaceae), a locally
common and a narrow endemic
plant species of ultramafic
scrublands in New Caledonia.
Conservation Genetics
Resources, 4: 725–728. A
u, F.X. & RONSE DE
CRAENE, L.P.R. (2013).
Pollen morphology and
ultrastructure of selected
species from Annonaceae. Plant Systematics and
Evolution, 299: 11–24. A
AHR, R. (2013).
Confirmation of the
taxonomic status of the
Schedule 8 lichen Calicium
corynellum. Scottish Natural
Heritage Commissioned
Report. C
YAHR, R. (2012). Mapping a
kingdom. Botanics, 49: 7. C
& Coppins, A.M. (2013).
Transient populations in the
British conservation priority
lichen, Cladonia botrytes.
Lichenologist, 45: 265–276. A
YAHR See Schoch
Yamaguchi, H., Tanimoto,
Y., Yoshimatsu, T., SATO,
S., Nishimura, T., Uehara,
K. & Adachi, M. (2012).
Culture method and growth
characteristics of marine
benthic dinoflagellate
Ostreopsis spp. isolated from Japanese coastal waters. Fisheries Science, 78: 993–1000. A
Yamaguchi, H., Yoshimatsu,
T., Tanimoto, Y., SATO, S.,
Nishimura, T., Uehara, K. &
Adachi, M. (2012). Effects
of temperature, salinity and
their interaction on growth
of the benthic dinoflagellate
Ostreopsis cf. ovata
(Dinophyceae) from Japanese
coastal waters. Phycological
Research, 60: 297–304. A
Yano, O., Ikeda, H.,
WATSON, M.F., Rajbhandari,
K.R., Jin, X.-F., Hoshino,
T., Muasya, A.M. & Ohba,
H. (2012). Phylogenetic
position of the Himalayan
genus Erioscirpus (Cyperaceae)
inferred from DNA sequence
data. Botanical Journal of the
Linnean Society, 170: 1–11. A
Yomyart, S., WATLING,
R., Phosri, C., Piapukiew,
J. & Sinananthnmhonth,
P. (2012). Two interesting
cantharelloids from Nan
and Kanchanaburi Provinces
Thailand. Mycotaxon, 122:
413–420. A
HONGNAI, D. (2012).
Cultivation of threatened
medicinal plants: assessment of
priority species for production
at Nangchen Nursery, Qinghai
Province. BSc, SAC, Edinburgh/
RBGE/University of Glasgow. E
as at 31 March 2013
*Externally funded
Photo, this page: Telekia speciosa.
Sir Muir Russell KCB FRSE (Chairman)
Dennis Dick FRSE
Patricia Henton FRSE
Frank Kirwan
Angela McNaught BSc FCCA
Katrina Morrison MA MBA
Tim Rollinson
Prof. Janet Sprent OBE FRSE
Dr Ian Sword CBE FRSE
Prof. Stephen Blackmore CBE FRSE (Regius Keeper)
Prof. Stephen Blackmore CBE FRSE (Regius Keeper)
Prof. Peter Hollingsworth (Director of Science)
Jennifer Martin (Personal Assistant)
Heather Jackson (Director of Enterprise)
Dr Alexandra Davey
Prof. Peter Hollingsworth
(Director of Science)
Elizabeth Leith (Personal Assistant)
Sophie Williams
Tropical Diversity
Prof. Toby Pennington
(Head of Tropical Diversity)
Alexandra Clark*
Dr Jane Droop*
Dr Mark Hughes
Dr Catherine Kidner
Dr David Middleton
Dr Michael Möller
Dr Mark Newman
Dr James Richardson
Julia Weintritt*
Dr Peter Wilkie
Major Floras
Dr Mark Watson (Head of Major Floras)
Dr Bhaskar Adhikari*
Dr Roger Hyam
Dr Henry Noltie
Dr Colin Pendry
Dr Martin Pullan
Dr Alasdair Macnab (Director of Corporate Services)
Dr David Rae (Director of Horticulture)
Centre for Middle
Eastern Plants
Dr Rocío Belinchón
Anthony Miller (Director)
Dr Alan Forrest
Dr Sabina Knees
Dr Stuart Lindsay*
Dr Barbara Mackinder
Chris Minty MBE
Dr Sophie Neale
David Bell*
Genetics &
Dr Antje Ahrends
(Head of Genetics & Conservation)
Tom Christian*
Dr Aline Finger
Martin Gardner MBE
Dr Heather McHaffie
Dr Robert Mill
Dr Linda Neaves*
Dr Markus Ruhsam
Dr Joanne Taylor*
Phil Thomas
Sally Eaton*
Dr Stephan Helfer
Dr David Long
Sally Rae
Lesley Scott
Nicky Sharp*
Adele Smith
Scientific & Technical
Services (STS)
PhD Students
Mansour Abdullah
Karina Banda Rodríguez
Alison Jane Droop
Alan Elliott
Katie Emelianova
Dr Rebecca Yahr
Dr Michelle Hollingsworth
(Head of STS)
Frieda Christie
Dr Laura Forrest
Ruth Hollands
Maria Camila Gomez
Dr David Harris (Deputy Director of
Science and Curator)
Lorna Mitchell (Head of Library Services)
Lindsey Gibson*
Graham Hardy
Leonie Paterson
George Sherriffs
Deborah Vaile
Emma Goodyer
Publications & Imaging
and Photography
Danilo Rafael Mesquita
Prof. David Mann
Dr Suzanne Martin*
Louise Olley
Hannah Atkins
Esther Nieto Blasquez*
David Braidwood*
Rob Cubey
Suzanne Cubey
Robyn Drinkwater*
Cryptogamic Plants & Fungi
Lorna Glancy*
Hamish Adamson
Caroline Muir
Lynsey Wilson
Alice Young
Dr Christopher Ellis (Head of Cryptogamic
Plants & Fungi)
Erzsébet Gyöngy
Dr Elspeth Haston
Kate Eden
Muhammad Ghazali*
Faten Filimban
Maren Flagmeier
Roosevelt García-Villacorta
Nicola Harrison
Paulina Hechenleitner
Euridice Honorio
Lakmini Kumarage
Javier Luna
Carmen Puglisi
Mobina Shaukat Ali
Harriet Stone
Alex Twyford
Dorota Jaworska*
Dr Kerry Walter
Carl Berthold
Eugenio Valderrama
Peter Brownless
John Mitchell
Ed McCardy
Chris Coatham
Paul Mullany
Clare Morter
Edward Traynor
William Walsh
Dr David Rae (Director of Horticulture)
Anne Cormie
Gordon Schofield
Gunnar Øvstebø
Simon Crutchley
Cameron Tasker
Bruce Robertson
Jenna Ho (Personal Assistant)
Neil Davidson
Helen Thompson
David Tricker
Martyn Dickson
Andrew Towll
Neil Watherston
David Knott
(Associate Director of Horticulture, Living Collection
Thomas Duffy
Robert Unwin
Helen Yeats
John Dunn
Peter Wilson
Rowan Elvin
Benmore Botanic Garden
Ross Fleming
Indoor Department,
Kate Hughes
Natacha Frachon
Simon Allan
Peter Baxter (Curator)
David Mitchell
Laura Gallagher
Neil Bancroft
Benjamin Crisp
Outdoor Living
Collections, Edinburgh
Tony Garn
Sadie Barber
William Fowler
William Hinchliffe
Patrick Clifford
David Gray
Scott Ainslie
Paul Hughes
Anthony Conlon
Sybil Gray
Georgina Ankers
Ross Irvine
Andrew Ensoll
Sharon Johnstone
Philip Ashby
Elspeth Mackintosh
Louise Galloway
Donald Logan
Kate Barnard
Graeme McGillivray
Fiona Inches
Neil McCheyne
Tom Birrell
Andrew McGinn
Ian Potts
Richard Brown
Alistair McLean
Paulina MaciejewskaDaruk
Angela Smith
Dawyck Botanic Garden
Graham Stewart (Curator)
James Fraser
Harvey Geddes
Thomas Gifford
Mark McKenzie
Logan Botanic Garden
Richard Baines (Curator)
Colin Belton
Barbara Callan
Tracy Griffiths
Ian Hutton
Gordon Murdoch
Sheena Murdoch
Joanna NiemczewskaFleming
DIVISION continued
Leigh Morris (Associate Director of
Horticulture, Learning)
Adele Julier
Isuru Kariyawasam
Stephen Mifsud
Peter Moonlight
Ciaran Payne
HND/BSc Students
Year 2
Matthew Auns
Emma Clayton
Phillip Cormie
Calum Davidson
Malcolm Duff
Michael Dunn
Daniel Fisher
Heather Forbes
Katarzyna Goral
Callum Halstead
Claire Hardwick
Craig Hutton
Alan Keddie
Martina Metzger
Julie Muir
Roslyn Paris
Luke Park
Sara Perzley
Jessica Roberts
Kirsty Sutherland
Neil Woodcock
Anna Hunt
Alison Jack
Caroline James
Nathan Kelso
Beatrice Lee
Alan Maxwell
Michael Mead
Julie Parkin
Sophie Webb
Ryan Wormley
Keith Donnelly
RBGE Diploma in Herbology
Leigh Tindale
Stephen Scott
Dr Greg Kenicer (Head of Education)
Atsuko Shibata
Bryony Smart
Catherine Ashby
Simon Tan
Kirstin Corrie
Lorena Villanueva
Karolina Galera
BSc Students Year 4
Suzanne Harris
Sarah Carlton
Susie Kelpie
Katherine Colleran
Phil Lusby
Simon Mitchell
Robyn Macdonald
Caroline Murdoch
Jacqui Pestell
Kirsty Wilson
Katie Pool
BSc Students Year 3
Dr Louis Ronse de Craene
Cornelia Altgard
Jade Smith
Honor Askew
Andrew Stowell*
Louis Dinan
MSc Students
Anne Kerin
Felicity Anderson
Christopher Smart
Isobel Anderson
Timothy Stewart
Daniel Borg
Vanessa Thompson
James Clugston
Frances Tophill
Francesca Culverhouse
Una Treanor
Jonathan Davies-Coleman
Olivia Deparis
Matthew Edwards
Donald Gray
Craig Huggan
Caroline Mckay
Paul Eden
Colin McKenzie
James Salomons
Clare Fiennes
Drew McNaughton
David Simpson
Karlyn Finlayson
Betsy Ogilvie
Peter Traynor
William Gardiner
Visitor Welcome
Fiona Gordon
Moira Adam (Visitor Welcome Manager)
Reuben Guatelli
David Brash
Inger Kristiansen-Bragg
Tamar Duncan
Heather Jackson (Director of Enterprise)
Gillian Williamson (Personal Assistant)
Development &
Board of Directors
Geoffrey Brown
Eleanor Christopher
Ali Macleod
Nichola McCourty
Janne Richardson
Sarah Wyatt
RBGE Diploma in
Botanical Illustration
Year 1
Jeffrey Banks
Heather Christie
Kathleen Munro
Gloria Newlan
Rosemary Patchett
Sarah Roberts
Sarah Sherlock
Susan Stewart
Exhibitions & Events
Dr Ian Edwards (Head of Exhibitions & Events)
Dr Max Coleman
Benjamin Dell*
Simon Duffy*
Jenny Foulkes*
Elinor Gallant
Amy McDonald
Paul Nesbitt (Curator of Inverleith House)
Linsey Young
Alan Bennell (Head of Interpretation)
Vlasta Jamnický
Press, Marketing &
Kate Townsend
Sandra Donnelly
Donald James
Izzie Turley
Shauna Hay
Neil Martin
Heather Woof
Charlotte McDonald
David Hobbs
Sheena Elliott (Retail Manager)
Eileen Kennedy
Ann Hutton
Gillian Baillie
Amy Elliott
Jill McNaughton
RBGE Diploma in
Botanical Illustration
Year 2
Janet Miller
Julie Smith
Prof. Stephen Blackmore
Dr Alasdair Macnab
Rachel Chater (Personal Assistant)
HND/BSc Students
Year 1
Amy Hardie
Claudette Hudes
Hamish Martin
Jean-Phillip Sofocli Michael
Lesia Miller
Catherine Kellie
Paula Bushell (Head of Marketing and
Emma Beale
Dr Alasdair Macnab
(Director of Corporate Services)
Kimberley Fackler
James Cook
Kathryn Herschell
Jennifer Mill
Jacqueline Murray
Susan Peterson
Julie Ryan
Marie Johnson
Sheena Murdoch
Hazel Aitken
Christopher Berger-North
Vicky Brunt
Deirdre Cameron
Debra Kelso
Rebecca Wox
Geraldine Penikis
Jacqueline Powell
Gillian Cooper
James Henderson
Support Services
Keith Purnell (Head of Finance)
Rachel Andrew
Allison Hewitt
Steven Hunt
Kim Paterson
Louise Renton
Nicole Gilmour
Liam Hush
Sandra Gilmour
Ian Ross
Jane McCrorie
Colin Smith
Jim MacDonald (Support Services
Irene Morrice
Information and
Technology (ICT)
Ruth Pool
Human Resources
Estates Management
Ian Hardman (Head of Human
Graham Cochrane (Head of Estates
Ed Bain (Head of ICT)
Nicolas Gruter
Wioleta Kretschmann
Yvonne Lockhart
Lee Cooper
Jenny Macnab
Duncan Reddish
Scott McGregor
Alan Sneath
Agron Shehi
Prof. John Grace
Dr Liz Kungu
Dr Jin-Hyub Paik
Dr Crinan Alexander
Dr Geoffrey Harper
Dr Gao Lianming
Dr Chris Page
Paul Harrold
Dr John Lovett
Ian C. Hedge
Manzil V. Mathew
Dr Olive Hilliard
Douglas McKean
Prof. Wang Hong
Prof. John McNeil
Joseph Hope
Dr William Milliken
Prof. Xu Jianchu
Dr Richard Milne
Dr Kwiton Jong
Dr David Minter
Prof. Robert Spicer
Neville Kilkenny
Dr Miranda Morris
Dr Chris Walker
Dr Deborah Kohn
Dr Toby Musgrave
Prof. Roy Watling
Xu Kun
Dr Kanae Nishii
Jennifer M. Woods
Vicki Reid-Thomas
Dorothy McLennan
Fiona Smart
Sandy Smith
Margaret Stevenson
George Thorne
Dr Shiona Mackie
Dr Neena Stewart
Tish Alderson
David Binnie
Elisabeth Aldam
Ewan Crawford
Rosemary Benn
Kate Dick
Shian Carlow
Hilary Fleming
Anne Craig
Claire Fletcher
Janice Hampson
Nicky Lowe
Marion Kinns
Richard Baines (Convener)
Caroline Pearson
Richard Lawson
Ann Watson
Sir Charles Fraser
Dr George Argent
Prof. Mary Gibby OBE
Dr Sam Bridgewater
Prof. Vernon H. Heywood
Sir Peter Hutchison
Prof. David Ingram
Prof. De-Zhu Li
Prof. Sir Ghillean Prance
Dr David Chamberlain
Dr Brian Coppins
Jane Corrie
Dr Adrian Dyer
Dr Richard Ennos
Prof. Malcolm Wilkins
Christopher Roy Fraser Jenkins
Prof. Chang Qin Zhang
Dr Peter Gibbs
Lord Charles Howick
(Trustee, Chairman)
Prof. Stephen Blackmore
(Trustee/Regius Keeper)
Dennis Dick (Trustee)
Dr Alasdair Macnab
(Director of Corporate Services and
Honorary Secretary)
Angela McNaught
David Nicolson (Trustee)
Keith Purnell
(Head of Finance, RBGE, in attendance)
Lorna Stoddart (Trustee)
Dr Richard Pankhurst
Dr Jimmy Ratter
Dr Michael Richardson
Dr Fatima Sales
Dr Daniela Schill
Tricia Kennedy (Convener)
Caroline Adam
Fiona Lukas
Susan Morgan-Jones
Claudia Still
We are grateful for the external support we have received throughout 2012/13, which has helped to fund a valuable and extensive range of
core work and projects. We particularly wish to acknowledge the following:
The AEB Charitable Trust
Davis Expedition Fund
Heritage Lottery Fund
Alexander C Smith
Dewar Arts
The Kerlin Gallery
The Dunard Fund
L&M Arts
The Edina Trust
The Leverhulme Trust
The MacRobert Trust
Biffa Award
Edinburgh and Lothians
Health Foundation
The Binks Trust
The Ernest Cook Trust
Michael Werner Gallery
Biotechnology and
Biosciences Research
Council (BBSRC)
The Esmée Fairbairn
The Modern Institute/Toby
Webster Ltd
The Estate of Philip Guston
The Mushroom Trust
The Estate of William
National Botanic Garden
of Wales
Forestry Commission
National Geographic
The Andrew Mellon
Beltane Fellowship
Botanic Garden
International (BGCI)
Cairn Energy Ltd
Chinese Academy of
The Conservation
Creative Scotland
Darwin Initiative
Gagosian Gallery
Gulbenkian Foundation
Hauser & Wirth
The Henry Moore
McKee Gallery
National Science
Foundation (NSF)
Natural Environment
Research Council (NERC)
Ripple Studios, Los Angeles
Solway Heritage
The Royal Horticultural
South West
Environmental Action
Trust (SWEAT)
Scottish Environmental
Protection Agency (SEPA)
The Stanley Smith (UK)
Horticultural Trust
The Scottish Government’s
Office of the Chief
Scientific Adviser: Science
Engagement Grants
The Steel Charitable Trust
The Scottish Government’s
RESAS Division:
Sylva Foundation
The Scottish Government’s
Rural and Environment
Science and Analytical
Services Division (RESAS)
Scottish Natural Heritage
Nomads Tent
Scottish Power Green
Energy Trust
People’s Postcode Lottery
The Sibbald Trust
Stuart Paul
Technical University of Singapore
The Thistledown Trust
Tourism Malaysia
Water Gems
The Wellcome Trust
Xavier Hufkens
The Younger Benmore Trust
Kind thanks also to our Friends, Companions, Patrons and all individual donors to the Celebrate Life commemorative programme, whose support is vital to our ongoing work
Janette Dobson
Jean Doyle
Maida Fotheringham
Rebecca Thomas
Joan Wilcox
Alison Bacon
Richard Boyne
Yvonne Carr
Eleanora Di Cuffa
Margaret Johnson
Jean Keeling
Pauline McLean
Claire McNaught
Sheila Rennie
Melanie Sangwine
Jacqueline Stewart
Dr Neena Stewart
Aurea Amos
Catherine Andenberg
Margot Baird
Honey Ballantine
Margaret Baxendine
Dr Helen Bennett
Catherine Boyle
Janet Clark
Regina Davidson
Laura Gunstensen
Mary Jeffrey
Michal Kalandyk
Helen Kelly
Isobel Mackay
Sylvia Mackay
Dene McLeod
Iain Nelson
Hilary Oberlander
Joan Rees
Georgia Rogers
Nancy Steel
Jackie Sutherland
Meg Torphichen
Henia Whitely
Vivien Wilson
Sarah Adamson
Catherine Bell
Lyn Blades
Dr Geoff Harper
Dr Maria Luisa Lee
Maggie McKenzie
Dr Neena Stewart
Sandra Stewart
Christine Thompson
Dorothy Ainslie
Mike Allport
Derek Black
Hector Fernandez
Susan Furness
David Harper
Gavin Harris
Chris Johnston
Ruth MacLellan
Brian Mahler
Peter Middleton
Samantha Mooney
Louise Olley
Dr Jacqueline Paddison
John Paddison
John Roberts
Alan Swan
Stephen Tallas
Dr Robert Thomson
Mikuni Uehara
Brenda White
Alex Wilson
Mark Galloway
Beth Cross
David Gilmour
Fiona Cumming
Celia Harper-Gow
Anita Cutting
Lesley Kerr
Claire Druett
Karoline Kuprat
Ian Edwards
Morag Smith
Sandy Smith
George Thorne
Barry Waldapfel
John Widdowson
Zoe Langford
William Golding
Betty MacClory
Alison Hillhouse
Hamish Martin
Stephanie Ledger
Kate McLean
Colin Mackay
Lesia Miller
Anne O’Regan
Sam Murray
Mary Anne Robinson
Sarah Nicholson
Lea Taylor
Helen O’Brien
Daphne Van Den Ijssel
Kathy Parker
Katie Ward
Jane Paterson
Amy Waterson
Maureen Brazier
Jane Buchanan-Dunlop
Geraldine Davey
Gavin Harris
Bill Jeffrey
Lesley Jenkins
Debbie Kelso
Tricia Kennedy
Morven McLean
Vivian Ramsay
Alette Willis
Inverleith House
Janet Raymond
Liz Wilson
Nadia Russell
Emily Wood
Emily Stix
Elizabeth Alexander
Alison Bacon
Wendy Barron
Erica Bright
Rosemary Carthy
Susan Coley
Richard Cormack
Andy Crofts
Jacquelyn Dick
Harry Dunn
Elizabeth Ferro
Jeni Fulton
Morris Goodbrand
Alison Grannum
Mike Hicks
Ann Hughes
Janet Lumb
Liz Macpherson
Ross Marriott
Judy Miller
Hilary Neilson
Alistair Niven
Alistair Paxton
Monika Polak
Ian Pryde
Doreen Runciman
Duncan Silander
Kenton Smith
Ruairidh Thompson
Dr Margaret Walker
Morag Weston
Dr Eric Young
Jan Tapson
Edible Garden Project/
Herbology Garden
Timothea Armour
Helena Barrett
Cian Bell
Sinead Bracken
Hari Brooker
Amy Cameron
Hannah Carpenter
Alice Cathcart
Becca Clark
Catherine Cochran
Charlotte Cole
Heather Cunningham
Michael de Massey
Katherine Dilworth
Emily Fenna
Amy Firth
Nicola Herd
Rosie Ince
Daisy Lafarge
Murray Loup
Naoco Mabon
Rory Macleod
Katy Nolin
Yaz Norris
Sarah Phemster
Aniela Piasecka
Paloma Proudfoot
Katie Rice
Mathew Robinson
Marissa Stoffer
Julia Templeton
Marta Tycinska
Esther Walekin Stotten
Devin Wallace
Joanna Webb
Kirsty White
Soraya Bishop
Jack Borland
Malcolm Bruce
Katherine Buchanan
Deirdre Butterly
Moira Campbell
George Christofi
Christa Duncan
Lauren Bick
Fiona Taylor
Gemma Cornall
Mary Weldon
Katie Duncan
Angela Wells
Jenny Findlay
Apiary Project
Rie Fujimoto
Bron Wright
Laura Hope
Dr David Wright
Amy Nash
School Gardening
Jenny Salmean
Jan Bagnall
Marit Boot
Malcolm Bruce
Emma Socies
Rebecca Stewart
Garden Guides –
David Affleck
Diane Burn
Rosemary Anderson
Gillian Charles
Cathy Bell
Lesley Danzig
David Binnie
George Evans
Pamela Black
Hazel Fairbairn
Angela Chisholm
Miriam Fletcher
Jane Corrie
Valerie Gordon
Sylvia Cunningham
Bill Grant
Dr Jane Freshwater
Linde Hess
Constance Gilleghan
Angela Hunter
Sally Heron MBE
Margaret Kidd
Stephanie Ledger
Julie Kitchin
Maria Lee
Alison Littleboy
George Mackay
Donald Mason
Liz Richardson
Henry McKenzie
Margaret Stevenson
Laura Moss
Susan Watson
Zuleika Osman
Muriel Webb
Eric Oswald
Bronwen Wright
Sarah Slorach
Millicent Stoneham
Garden Guides –
Elisabeth Aldam
Bill Abernethy
Rosemary Benn
Georgia Abernethy
Shian Carlow
Catriona Andrews
Marion Kinns
Lauren Bick
Robert MacPherson
Anshu Bhattarai
Kathy Buckner
Ruth Frost
Lorna McKinnon
Lindsay Williams
Christina Buckton
Sheila MacPherson
Press and Publications
Koren Calder
Brian Madden
Barbara Clarke
Alan Neale
Kirstin Corrie
Audrey Reid
Rosemary Carthy
Coline Alméras-Vaillant
Sally Heron
Scientific Research
Photo, this page: Grey heron at the Edinburgh Garden. Photo: Peter Clarke.
Complaints to the Scottish Public Services Ombudsman
If you are unhappy with any of the services or facilities provided at
the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh or its Regional Gardens, you may
lay a complaint with the Scottish Public Services Ombudsman at:
Scottish Public Services Ombudsman
4 Melville Street, Edinburgh EH3 7NS
Freepost EH641, Edinburgh EH3 0BR
Tel 0800 377 7330 | Fax 0800 377 7330 | Email
Section 5 of the Act entitles the Ombudsman to investigate the following matters:
n maladministration in connection with any action taken by or on behalf of an authority in the exercise of administrative functions of that authority;
n any service failure.
The Ombudsman may investigate these matters only where there
is a claim that a member of the public has sustained injustice or
hardship in consequence of the maladministration, service or other
action as appropriate.
The Act provides that a complaint must be submitted within 12 months after the day on which the person aggrieved first had
notice of the matter complained of, unless the Ombudsman
is satisfied that there are special circumstances which make it
appropriate to consider a complaint made outwith that period.
While there is a presumption that complaints will be made in writing or by electronic communications, the Ombudsman will have discretion to accept oral complaints in special circumstances, eg where the complainant has difficulty reading or writing or there is exceptional urgency.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh
Inverleith Row
Edinburgh EH3 5LR
Tel 0131 552 7171 Email [email protected]
Benmore Botanic Garden
Dunoon, Argyll PA23 8QU
Tel 01369 706261 Email [email protected]
Dawyck Botanic Garden
Stobo, Scottish Borders EH45 9JU
Tel 01721 760254 Email [email protected]
Logan Botanic Garden
Port Logan, Stranraer
Dumfries and Galloway DG9 9ND
Tel 01776 860231 Email [email protected]

Similar documents