PANGASINAN PANGASINAN - Philippine Rice Research Institute

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PANGASINAN PANGASINAN - Philippine Rice Research Institute
PANGASINAN
PANGASINAN
This guidebook belongs to:
Name: _____________________________
Address: ___________________________
Contact number: ____________________
Authors
PhilRice®
Wilfredo B. Collado
Reynilda M. Monteza
Rona T. Dollentas
Jovino L. De Dios
Judith Carla P. Dela Torre
Jesiree Elena Ann D. Bibar
UP Los Baños
Rodrigo B. Badayos
Armando E. Soliman
Managing Editor / Layout Artist
Rodolfo V. Bermudez, Jr
Editorial Adviser
Eufemio T. Rasco, Jr
Philippine Rice Research Institute
Maligaya, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija
Copyright © 2013
i SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
PANGASINAN
This guidebook was funded by the project
“Identification, Biophysical Characterization and
Mapping of the Rice Areas of the Philippines” of
PhilRice® (ISD -002-001).
Pangasinan ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword………………………………………..
iv
The Simplified Keys to Soil Series……………. 1
Guide to Soil Series Identification..................
2
Color Groups..................................................
5
Gray/Dark Gray......................................
7
Olive Gray………..……………................
8
Yellowish/Grayish Brown...….................
9
Reddish Brown……………….................
11
Yellowish Red………………………………..
12
Soil Profile & Characteristics..........................
13
Soil Productivity ………………………….........
24
Crop Suitability Analysis..……........................
26
Soil Management Recommendations............
31
Appendices……………………………….…….
37
Steps to Identify Soil Series……...............
38
Soil Sampling.......................................
38
Color Determination.............................
39
Texture Determination..........................
40
pH Determination.................................
41
The PalayCheck® System……………..……..
42
Glossary…………………………………………
44
References……………………………………..
45
iii SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
FOREWORD
This guidebook on “Simplified Keys to Soil Series” was
developed for easier field identification of soils.
Soil identification is an important component in rice farming.
When the soil is properly analyzed and identified, the risks of
incompatible management recommendations will be lessened
and selection of knowledge and technologies to apply will be
efficient.
This is a good guide for effective nutrient management, which
is one of the components of the PalayCheck® System, a
dynamic rice crop management system that presents
easy-to-follow practices to achieve respective Key Checks
and improve crop yield and input-use efficiency.
It features the different colors, textures, pH, and other
observable properties of the most common soils of
Pangasinan and contains four simple steps in identifying the
soil series right in the field. It also includes the soil productivity index, soil properties that affect crop growth, soil taxonomic
classification, crop suitability analysis, and soil management
recommendations. The concept of simplified keys to soil
series was first used in Thailand. In the Philippines, the project “Simplification of the Philippine Soil Series for Rice and
Corn” started in 2005 under the Nutrient Management Support System (NuMASS) to provide management
recommendations for soils identified in the field.
We thank the farmers, agricultural technologists, and municipal and provincial agriculturists for helping us validate the soil
series. We also acknowledge the Bureau of Soils and Water
Management (BSWM) for providing the secondary data of the
soils used in this guidebook.
EUFEMIO T. RASCO, JR
Executive Director
Pangasinan
iv
The Simplified Keys
to Soil Series
The “Simplified Keys to Soil Series” is a tool to
identify soil series in the field following simple steps
for the use of farmers, extension workers, agricultural
technologists, researchers, and other stakeholders.
Using this guidebook, identification of soil will be
more accurate reducing the risk of incompatible
management and technology recommendations.
Selection of knowledge and technologies could also
be easy and efficient with the identification of soil
series. For instance, because some soil series
behave similarly, the management practices and
technology suitable in known soil names are
expected to be adaptable in the same soil series of a
different regions.
This guidebook is easy to use. Using only five basic
soil properties (color, texture, pH, coarse fragments,
and mottles) at 30-50cm soil depth and following the
simple steps provided, the soil series in the field
could be identified. Once the soil is known, a
compilation of thematic information related to the use
of soils especially in crop production such as
selection of suitable crops, crop productivity ratings,
soil properties that limit production, and soil
management recommendations can be determined.
Ten soil series found in the province of Pangasinan
were included in this guidebook. These are Alaminos,
Annam, Bani, Bolinao, La Paz, Pangasinan, San
Fabian, San Manuel, Tarlac and Umingan series.
1 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
GUIDE TO SOIL SERIES IDENTIFICATION
1. Conduct preliminary interview on the historical
background of your sampling site. Gather
information on cultivation practices, natural
occurrences such as
flood, erosion, and
human activities that
affect the condition and
structure of the soil.
Check whether the soil
was disturbed or
scraped.
2. From a vacant area of
your identified site, dig a
pit or use an auger to get
the soil samples needed.
3. Soil samples should be taken from a
recommended soil
depth to make sure
that the condition
and structure of the
soil is well preserved
and free from any
kind of cultivation
(see page 38).
Pangasinan
2
4. Know the color of the soil. Color is one of the most
important physical properties of
the soil as indicative to series
recognition. Each soil series
has its distinct inherent color
which makes it different from
the other series (see page 39).
5. Identify the texture of the
soil. Texture is a unique
property used as qualitative
classification tool to determine classes of soil
(see page 40).
6. Determine the soil pH.
The measure of acidity
or alkalinity in soils is
known as soil pH. This
measurement corresponds to specific soil
series (see page 41).
7. Take note of other observable soil properties
such as polished surfaces (cutans/slickensides),
softness, hardness, stickiness, etc.
slickenside
3 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
mottles
8. Take note of the presence or absence of coarse
fragments such as limestone, rock fragments,
lateritic nodules, black manganese (Mn) and red
iron (Fe) concretions, sand materials, and other
observable properties of the soil taken from
surfaces up to 50 cm depth.
Lateritic nodules
Manganese concretions
Quartz
9. Use the Simplified
Keys to Soil Series
Guidebook and compare all soil properties
starting from the color
until the soil name is
identified.
Pangasinan
4
SOIL
Yellowish Red
(go to page 12)
Gray/Dark Gray
(go to page 7)
Olive Gray
(go to page 8)
5 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
SOIL
Reddish Brown
Yellowish/Grayish Brown
(go to page 11)
(go to pages 9-10)
Pangasinan
6
Gray/Dark Gray
Texture: Sand
La Paz
(figure on page 18)
Coarse fragments
None
pH
5.5-7.5
Other features
Nodules; red and black
mottles; structureless
Texture: Clay loam/Silt Loam
Tarlac
(figure on page 22)
Coarse fragments
Presence of quartz
pH
6.7-7.2
Other features
Mottles
7 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
Olive Gray
Texture: Loam/Sandy Loam
Bani
(figure on page 16)
Coarse fragments
None
pH
6.5-7.0
Other features
Greenish-gray and strong
brown mottles; sticky and
waxy when wet; cracking of
the topsoil when dry
Texture: Sandy loam
Pangasinan
(figure on page 19)
Coarse fragments
None
pH
6.5-7.0
Other features
Reddish and black mottles
Pangasinan
8
Yellowish/Grayish Brown
Texture: Clay
San Fabian
(figure on page 20)
Coarse fragments
Gravels
pH
6.5-7.0
Other features
Massive structure
Texture: Silty clay/Silty clay loam/Clay
loam/Clay
San Manuel
(figure on page 21)
Coarse fragments
None
pH
5.2-7.5
Other features
Grayish and brownish mottles;
clay cutans; compact
9 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
Yellowish/Grayish Brown
Texture: Silt loam/Sandy loam/Silty clay
loam/Clay loam to Loam
Umingan
(figure on page 23)
Coarse fragments
Gravels and stones; Fe and
Mn concretions
pH
5.6-7.9
Other features
Mottles; clay skins and gleying
Pangasinan
10
Reddish Brown
Texture: Silty clay Loam/Clay loam/Clay
Annam
(figure on page 15)
Coarse fragments
Partially and highly weathered
rock fragments and gravels;
Fe and Mn concretions
pH
4.0-6.5
Other features
None
Texture: Clay
Bolinao
(figure on page 17)
Coarse fragments
Limestone fragments; Fe and
Mn concretions
pH
6.0-7.5
Other features
Brownish mottles
11 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
Yellowish Red
Texture: Silty clay/Clay loam
Alaminos
(figure on page 14)
Coarse fragments
Gravels; soft weathered basalt;
Fe concretions
pH
4.5-5.5
Other features
None
Pangasinan
12
SOIL Profile and
Characteristics
13 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
Alaminos
00 cm
Ap
26
Soil Fertility Indicators
Inherent fertility
Low
Soil pH
Acidic (4.5-5.5)
Organic matter
Moderate
Phosphorus (P)
Low
Potassium (K)
Low
Nutrient retention (CEC)
Low
Base saturation
Low
Salinity hazard
Low
Bw1
42
Bw2
Physical Soil Qualities
Relief
Slightly rolling to mountainous
Water retention
Moderate
Drainage
Good
Permeability
Moderate to rapid
Workability/tilth
Moderate
Stoniness
Boulders of basalt, diorite, andesite, conglomerates and serpetine
rocks are present; gravels and iron concretions
Root depth
Deep (>1 m)
Erosion
Moderate to severe
70
BC
Soil Type: Loam/Sandy loam
Area: 86,561.4
Family: Fine-clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic, Typic Kandiustox
This is a fine textured soil with clay content of 35-60% and has
an isohyperthermic temperature regime (>22°C). It is an Oxisol
(-ox), which is an intensely weathered soil predominated by
oxides from iron and aluminum due to repeated high precipitation
and high temperature (-ust). It is a typical representative of the
great group Kandiustox which has low base saturation (kandi-).
Pangasinan
14
Annam
00 cm
Ap
18
Soil Fertility Indicators
Inherent fertility
Low to moderate
Soil pH
Acid (4.2-6.2)
Organic matter
Low to moderate
Phosphorus (P)
Low
Potassium (K)
Low
Nutrient retention
Moderate
(CEC)
Bw1
Base saturation
Low to moderate
Salinity hazard
Low
Physical Soil Qualities
52
Bw2
74
BC1
94
BC2
Relief
Rolling to hilly and
mountainous
Water retention
High
Drainage
Moderate
Permeability
Moderate
Workability/tilth
Moderate
Stoniness
Concretions and gravels
scattered in the subsoil
Root depth
Deep (>1 m)
Erosion
Severe
Soil Type: Clay loam
Area: 52,051.58 ha
Family: Fine clayey, isohyperthermic, Typic Eutrustox
This soil has a fine texture and isohyperthermic temperature
regime (>22°C). It is an Oxisol (-ox), which is an intensely
weathered soil predominated by oxides from iron and aluminum
due to repeated high precipitation and high temperature (-ust). It
is a typical representative of the great group Eutrustox which has
35% high base saturation (eutr-).
15 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
Bani
00 cm
Apg
16
Soil Fertility Indicators
Inherent fertility
Moderate
Soil pH
Slightly acid to
neutral(5.5-7.0)
Organic matter
Low
Phosphorus (P)
Moderate
Potassium (K)
Moderate
Nutrient retention (CEC)
AB
Base saturation
Salinity hazard
Physical Soil Qualities
34
Relief
Bg1
47
Bg2
63
BCg
Soil Type: Clay
Rolling upland, hilly and
mountainous
Water retention Moderate to high
Drainage
Poor
Permeability
Moderate
Workability/tilth
Moderate
Stoniness
None
Root depth
Deep (1 m)
Erosion
Moderate
Area: 45,295.64 ha
Family: fine loamy, isohyperthermic, Aeric Endoaquert
A fine loamy-textured soil dominated by minerals with high shrink
and swell capacity creating wide cracks; very sticky when wet
and compacted when dry (-ert, Vertisol). It is saturated with
water repeatedly (aqu-) but not as wet as the typical, meaning it
is better aerated, usually because either groundwater is deep or
the period of saturation is shorter (aeric). It has an annual soil
temperature higher than 22°C (isohyperthermic).
Pangasinan
16
Bolinao
00 cm
Ap
13
Soil Fertility Indicators
Inherent fertility
Moderate
Soil pH
Slightly acid to
neutral (5.5-7.2)
Organic matter
Low
Phosphorus (P)
Low to moderate
Potassium (K)
Low
Nutrient retention (CEC) High
Base saturation
Moderate
Salinity hazard
Moderate
Physical Soil Qualities
Bt
35
C
Relief
Highly rolling upland
Water retention
High
Drainage
Moderate to good
Permeability
Moderate
Workability/tilth
Moderate
Stoniness
Gravels ; limestone ; FeMn concretions
Root depth
Moderate to deep
(0.8->1 m)
Erosion
Moderate
Soil Type: Clay loam
Area: 25,143.72 ha
Family: Fine clayey, mixed, isohyperthermic, Ultic Paleustalf
An old soil which has undergone extensive weathering but has retained a high base status in its horizon (-alf, Alfisol). This is a representative of the great group Paleustalf (paleu– red soils) that has
base saturation of <75% (ultic). This can be found in areas with pronounced wet and dry seasons (-ust). The mean annual soil temperature is higher than 22°C (isohyperthermic).
17 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
La Paz
00 cm
Apg
16
Bwg1
32
Soil Fertility Indicators
Inherent fertility
Low
Soil pH
Slightly acid to
neutral (6.0-7.5)
Organic matter
Low
Phosphorus (P)
Low
Potassium (K)
Low
Nutrient retention (CEC)
Low
Base saturation
Moderate
Salinity hazard
Low
Physical Soil Qualities
Relief
Level to slightly rolling
Water retention Low
Bwg2
Drainage
Good
Permeability
Moderate to rapid
Workability/tilth Easy to moderate
107
BCg
Stoniness
None
Root depth
Deep (>1 m)
Erosion
None
Flooding
None to seasonal
Soil Type: Fine Sand/ Silt loam
Area: 1,558.53
Family: Sandy, mixed, isohyperthermic, Typic PsammaThis is a sandy-textured soil (psamm-) with isohyperthermic temperature regime (>22°C). It is a young soil with only slight development, properties are determined largely by the parent materials (Entisol, -ent). It is a typical representative of the great
group Psammaquent. This soil is saturated with water for repeated periods (aqu-).
Pangasinan
18
Pangasinan
00 cm
Ap
15
Bwg1
31
Soil Fertility Indicators
Inherent fertility
Low
Soil pH
Slightly acid to
neutral (6.5-7.0)
Organic matter
Low
Phosphorus (P)
High
Potassium (K)
Low
Nutrient retention
(CEC)
-
Base saturation
-
Salinity hazard
-
Physical Soil Qualities
Bwg2
56
Bwg3
Relief
Flat
Water retention
Low
Drainage
Good
Permeability
Rapid
Workability/tilth
Easy
Stoniness
None
Root depth
Deep (>1 m)
Flooding
Seasonal
Soil Type: Fine Sand
Area: 13,781
Family: Fine loamy, isohyperthermic, Aeric Endoaquept
This soil has a fine loamy texture and isohyperthermic temperature regime (>22°C). It is a soil that is in the incipient development toward a mature soil (-ept, Inceptisol) that is saturated
with water repeatedly (aqu-) but not as wet as the typical, meaning it is better aerated (aeric).
19 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
San Fabian
00 cm
Ap
10
AB
29
Soil Fertility Indicators
Inherent fertility
Moderate
Soil pH
Slightly acid to
neutral (6.0-7.0)
Organic matter
Moderate
Phosphorus (P)
High
Potassium (K)
Moderate
Nutrient retention (CEC)
Moderate
Base saturation
Moderate
Salinity hazard
-
Bt1
Physical Soil Qualities
Relief
49
Rolling to hilly with some
level areas
Water retention High
Bt2
Drainage
Moderate
Permeability
Moderate
Workability/tilth Moderate
84
BC
Stoniness
Gravels; highly weathered chalk-white soft rock
Root depth
Deep (>1 m)
Erosion
Moderate
Flooding
None
Soil Type: Clay loam
Area: 17,063.72 ha
Family: Fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic, Vertic HaplusAn old soil which has undergone extensive weathering but has
retained a high base status in its horizon (-alf, Alfisol), and
exhibits minimum complexity in its horizonation (hapl-). It has a
fine-textured soil having 35 – 60% clay but has clays that shrink
and swell producing wide cracks (vertic). This can be found in
areas with pronounced wet and dry seasons (-ust). The mean
annual soil temperature is higher than 22°C (isohyperthermic).
Pangasinan
20
San Manuel
00 cm
Ap1
5
Ap2
Soil Fertility Indicators
Inherent fertility
High
Soil pH
Slightly acid to
neutral (5.5-7.2)
Organic matter
Low
Phosphorus (P)
High
Potassium (K)
Moderate
Nutrient retention (CEC) High
35
Bw1
Base saturation
High
Salinity hazard
Low
Physical Soil Qualities
69
Bw2
89
Bw3
Relief
Flat areas to gently
sloping
Water retention
Moderate
Drainage
Moderate
Permeability
Moderate
Workability/tilth
Easy
Stoniness
None
Root depth
Deep
Erosion
None
Flooding
Seasonal
Soil Type: Silt loam/Silty clay loam/
Sandy loam/Sand
Area: 154,862.95 ha
Family: Fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic, Typic HaplusAn old soil which has undergone extensive weathering but has
retained a high base status in its horizon (-alf, Alfisol), and
exhibits minimum complexity in its horizonation (hapl-). This can
be found in areas with pronounced wet and dry seasons (-ust).
The mean annual soil temperature is higher than 22°C
(isohyperthermic).
21 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
Tarlac
00 cm
Apg
20
AB
40
Soil Fertility Indicators
Inherent fertility
Moderate
Soil pH
Slightly acid to
neutral (6.5-7.0)
Organic matter
Low
Phosphorus (P)
High
Potassium (K)
Low
Nutrient retention (CEC)
Moderate
Base saturation
-
Salinity hazard
-
Bg1
50
Physical Soil Qualities
Relief
Roughly rolling to hilly /
mountainous
Water retention Moderate
Bg2
Drainage
Good
Permeability
Moderate
Workability/tilth Moderate
89
BCg
Stoniness
Quartz; reddish-brown
concretions
Root depth
Deep (>1 m)
Erosion
Surface soil extremely
susceptible to erosion
Soil Type: Clay loam
Area: 6,706.25 ha
Family: Fine loamy, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic, Vertic Epiaquept
A soil that is in the incipient development towards a mature soil (ept, Inceptisol) formed from older alluvial deposits. It is a
representative of the great group Epiaquept which has vertic
properties that shrink and swell repeatedly (vertic). It is saturated
with water repeatedly (aqu-) manifested by its gray color with or
without mottles. It has an annual soil temperature higher than 22°
C (isohyperthermic).
Pangasinan
22
Umingan
00 cm
Apg
16
ABg
27
Bwg1
Soil Fertility Indicators
Inherent fertility
High
Soil pH
Slightly acid to
neutral (5.5-7.5)
Organic matter
Low
Phosphorus (P)
Moderate
Potassium (K)
Low to moderate
Nutrient retention
(CEC)
High
Base saturation
Moderate
Salinity hazard
Low
Physical Soil Qualities
Relief
70
Level to nearly level
found along rivers
Water retention Moderate
Bwg2
Drainage
Good
Permeability
Rapid
Workability/tilth Easy
99
BCg
Stoniness
Gravels and stones
Root depth
Deep (>1 m)
Flooding
Seasonal
Soil Type: Sandy loam/Silt loam/fine Sand
Area: 31,586.23
Family: Loamy skeletal, mixed, isohyperthermic, Fluventic Haplustept
A loamy-textured soil with many gravels and pebbles (skeletal)
occurring along the banks of rivers. Hence, it is subject to flooding (fluventic) receiving yearly depositions of alluvial soil materials from rivers. It is in the incipient development toward a mature
soil (-ept, Inceptisol) but has not yet fully developed its diagnostic horizons (Hapl-). It is found in areas with pronounced wet
and dry seasons (-ust, Ustic Moisture Regime) and annual
soil temperature higher than 22°C (isohyperthermic).
23 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
SOILproductivity
Soil productivity is the quality of a soil that
summarizes its potential in producing plants or
sequences of plants under defined sets of
management practices. It is also a synthesis of
conditions of soil fertility, water control, plant species,
soil tilth, pest control and physical environment
(Bainroth, 1978: Badayos, 1990). In economic terms,
it is a measure of amount of inputs of production
factors required to correct soil limitation(s) to attain a
certain level of production. It is expressed as average
crop yield under defined sets of management classes
(Badayos, 1990).
Soil productivity index is used for making comparisons among soils; categorized into inherent and
potential. The inherent productivity is the natural
capacity of the soil to produce a given yield while the
potential refers to the capacity of the soil to produce
yield after correctible soil constraints had been remedied. In economics, the predicted inherent yield is
calculated by multiplying the inherent index by the
maximum potential yield of rice; predicted maximum
possible yield is computed by multiplying the
potential index by the maximum potential yield. For
instance, the maximum potential yield in the dry season is 8 tons/hectare, and the inherent and potential
productivity ratings for Annam series is 0.76 and
0.90, respectively. Then, the predicted inherent and
potential yields of rice in Annam soils are 6.08 and
7.2 tons/hectare, respectively.
Pangasinan
24
Table 1. Soil productivity index for rice.
Inherent
Productivity
Potential
Productivity
Alaminos
0.46
0.70
Annam
0.76
0.90
Bani
0.78
0.88
Bolinao
0.62
0.72
La Paz
0.48
0.58
Pangasinan
0.77
0.87
San Fabian
0.39
0.56
San Manuel
0.65
0.75
Tarlac
0.24
0.51
Umingan
0.59
0.69
Soil Series
25 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
CROP
Suitability Analysis
Soil suitability classification refers to the use of a piece of
land on a sustainable basis based on physical and chemical properties and environmental factors. It is the ultimate
aim of soil survey and may come up through a good judgment and thorough evaluation of soil properties and qualities such as soil depth, soil texture, slope, soil drainage,
erosion, flooding, and fertility. Based on these properties,
the suitability of a certain tract of land for crop production
was determined.
Suitability ratings denote qualitative analysis of the
potential of the soil to different crops. It implies what
crop(s) would give the highest benefit in terms of productivity and profitability from a given soil type, indicated by
S1 as the most suitable down to S3 as marginally suitable.
The symbol N implies that the crop is either currently not
suitable (N1) where the effect of limitation is so severe as
greatly to reduce the yield or to require costly inputs, or
permanently not suitable (N2) where the limitations cannot
be corrected permanently. Crop suitability analysis also
provides information on soil properties that limit the
production of specified crop(s).
When using a parametric system, the soil index can be
equated into percentages shown below. It means that you
can attain 75% of the potential crop yield when the soil
index is highly suitable while less than 25% of the potential
yield when the soil index is not suitable.
S1: soil index >75
S2: soil index 50-75
S3: soil index 25-50
N: soil index <25
Pangasinan
26
27 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
Marginally suitable
Currently not suitable
Permanently not suitable
N1 -
N2 -
c-
f-
s-
S3wsfc
S3tfc
S3wfc
S3tfc
S3wsfc
Climate
Soil fertility
Texture; coarse fragments; soil depth
Drainage; flooding
Topography; slope
S3 -
w-
t-
N1wsfc
Moderately suitable
<3%
La Paz
N2tsfc
S2 -
8-15%
Bolinao
S3tsfc
Limitations due to:
>2%
Bani
N2tfc
Highly suitable
5-10%
Annam
S3twsfc
N1wsfc
S3tfcsw
S3fcw
N1tfcsw
N1wsfc
Rice Rainfed Rice Rainfed
Upland
Lowland
S1 -
>3%
Alaminos
Rice Irrigated
Lowland
Suitability Ratings:
Slope
Soil Series
S3scw
S3cfst
N1wc
N1fct
N1fcs
Maize
Table 2a. The crop suitability ratings for different soil series of Pangasinan.
N2cwsf
N2ctf
N2cwf
N2ctf
N2cf
Onion
N2wfsc
S2wcf
N1wfc
S3wtfc
N1fc
Papaya
Pangasinan
28
Marginally suitable
Currently not suitable
Permanently not suitable
S3 -
N1 -
N2 -
c-
f-
s-
w-
S3wsfc
S3twfc
S2fc
S2tfc
S3wsfc
Climate
Soil fertility
Texture; coarse fragments; soil depth
Drainage; flooding
Topography; slope
t-
S2wsfc
Moderately suitable
0-2%
Umingan
N2twfc
Highly suitable
8-15%
Tarlac
S3ftsc
S2 -
0-5%
San Manuel
N2tsc
S1 -
8-15%
San Fabian
N2wsfc
N1wsfc
S3twfcs
S3fwsc
S3tfcsw
N1wsfc
Rice Rainfed Rice Rainfed
Upland
Lowland
Limitations due to:
0-2%
Pangasinan
Rice Irrigated
Lowland
Suitability Ratings:
Slope
Soil Series
S3wsc
S3wc
S3wc
S2ct
S3wsc
Maize
N2wcf
N2wctf
N2wcf
N2ctf
N2cwsf
Onion
N2wfc
N2wftc
N2wfc
S3wtfc
N2wsfc
Papaya
Table 2a. The crop suitability ratings for different soil series of Pangasinan (continuation).
29 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
Marginally suitable
Currently not suitable
Permanently not suitable
N1 -
N2 -
c-
f-
s-
S3wcsf
S2ctsf
N1wcf
S3ctf
S3fsc
Camote
Climate
Soil fertility
Texture; coarse fragments; soil depth
Drainage; flooding
Topography; slope
S3 -
w-
t-
N1wcf
Moderately suitable
<3%
La Paz
S3cts
Highly suitable
8-15%
Bolinao
N1wcf
S2 -
>2%
Bani
S2ctf
S1 -
5-10%
Annam
N1fsc
Limitations due to:
>3%
Alaminos
Tobacco
Suitability Ratings:
Slope
Soil Series
S3wscf
S2tcs
N1wcf
N1tcf
N1cf
Tomato
N2csf
N2ctsf
N2cwf
N2cwtf
N2csf
Peanut
Table 2b. The crop suitability ratings for different soil series of Pangasinan.
N1wsf
S3tf
N1w
S2fwt
S2fs
S3fscw
S3stcf
N1wcf
N1fct
N1fsc
Cassava Mango
Marginally suitable
Currently not suitable
Permanently not suitable
S3 -
N1 -
N2 -
c-
f-
s-
w-
S3wcf
S3wctf
S3wcf
S2ctf
S3wcsf
Camote
Climate
Soil fertility
Texture; coarse fragments; soil depth
Drainage; flooding
Topography; slope
t-
N2wcf
Moderately suitable
0-2%
Umingan
N2wctf
Highly suitable
8-15%
Tarlac
N2wcf
S2 -
0-5%
San Manuel
N1tcf
S1 -
8-15%
San Fabian
N2wcf
Limitations due to:
0-2%
Pangasinan
Tobacco
Suitability Ratings:
Slope
Soil Series
S3wcf
S3wtcf
S3wcf
S2tcf
S3wscf
Tomato
N2cwf
N2cws
N2cwf
N2cs
N2cws
Peanut
N2wf
N2wtf
N2wf
S2wt
N2wsf
S3wcsf
S3wtc
S3wfc
S2ct
S3wsc
Cassava Mango
Table 2b. The crop suitability ratings for different soil series of Pangasinan (continuation).
Pangasinan
30
SOILManagement
recommendations
Soil management aims to protect soil and enhance
its performance to increase farm profitably and
preserve environmental quality. It is the combination
of soil factors to maximize crop production at the
lowest possible cost while maintaining the soil’s
productive state. It involves maintaining the soil in
good physical condition and fertility status, and
influencing the biological aspect of the soil to attain
maximum benefits (Harpstead, et al. 1997).
Soil management recommendations suitable for each
soil identified were enumerated in the succeeding
pages. Soil factors such as slope, texture, and
climate cannot be changed. However, control tillage,
crop rotations, soil amendments, and other
management choices can be done. Through these
choices, the structure, biological activity, and
chemical content of soil can be altered and later on
influence erosion rates, pest population, and nutrient
availability and crop production.
31 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
Pangasinan
32
Annam
Alaminos
Soil Series
Rice
Diversified crops
Root crops
Soil Management Recommendations
Tree/Forest/
Plantation crops
Suited for coconut and
fruit trees
Upland rice farm- Contour farming and/ Suitable for root
ing; liming; appli- or strip cropping; addi- crops; practice
cation of fertilizers tion of organic matter contour cropping
and animal manure;
application of phosphate fertilizers
Cropping Pattern: rice-corn/root crops/vegetables
rice-fallow
fruit trees/coconut
Aluminum (Al) and Iron Poorly drained
Green manuring: lim- Liming; contour
Suited for coconut and
(Fe) Toxicity(acidic soil); soils on the alluvial ing; large initial appli- terracing; buffer
fruit trees
run-off; sloping topogra- basin are moder- cation of phosphate
strip cropping;
phy causes excessive
ately suitable for
fertilizers; suitable for addition of organic
erosion
paddy; fertilization; diversified crops; strip matter and animal
maintain properly cropping
manure to improve
the paddy dikes;
soil fertility and
suitable for upland
water holding carice during wet
pacity
season
Cropping Pattern: rice-maize/sorghum/vegetables/root crops
Acid soil; low fertility;
excessive erosion
Limitation
for crop production
Table 3. Limitations to crop production and recommended management strategies for different
crops when grown in a given soil series.
33 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
Bolinao
Bani
Soil Series
Construction of
dikes; fertilizers
application; deep
plowing during
land preparation
Rice
Root crops
Tree/Forest/
Plantation crops
Establish proper drain- Not suitable due to Fruit trees like citrus
age and irrigation
texture constraint
system; contour farming; addition of fertilizers; suited for annual
cash crops; application of fertilizers and
liming; contour farming
and/or strip cropping
Diversified crops
Soil Management Recommendations
Cropping Pattern: rice-rice
rice-diversified crops/vegetables/root crops
Cropping Pattern: rice-rice
rice-diversified crops/vegetables
Rolling topography in
Suitable for rice
Contour terracing;
Contour terracing; Suited for fruit trees like
some areas which caus- but needs terrac- proper fertilization;
use of cover crops mango, caimito
es risk of erosion; shal- ing and use of
proper timing of culti- like Ipil-ipil for soil
low rooting depth; low
limestone outcrops vation and planting;
rehabilitation and
available P
for re-enforcing
addition of organic
source of firewood
dikes; application matter and animal
at the same time;
of phosphate ferti- manure to improve soil addition of organic
lizers; upland rice fertility and application matter
of phosphate fertilizers
Poor drainage; rolling
topography causes risk
of erosion; surface
cracking when dry
Limitation
for crop production
Table 3. Limitations to crop production and recommended management strategies for different
crops when grown in a given soil series (continuation).
Pangasinan
34
Limitation
for crop production
Rice
Diversified crops
Root crops
High water table and
local flooding in wet
season preclude dry
land crops, rapid permeability precludes
gravity irrigation except
when water table is
seasonally high, low
fertility
Tree/Forest/
Plantation crops
Not suited; for mangrove areas
Plant locally adapted
tree species; suitable
for citrus
Soil Management Recommendations
Suitable for rice Application of organ- Suitable for root
during wet seaic matter; practice
crops due to
son but needs
timing of planting;
sandy texture
ample amount of deep plowing; phosfertilizers to adphorus application
dress the fertility
La Paz
problem; phosphorus application
Cropping Pattern: rice-rice
rice-diversified crops
Sandy texture; exces- Suitable for rice Proper irrigation sys- Adequate irrigasive drainage; season- during the rainy
tem; addition of ortion and flood
al flooding
season and ade- ganic matter; deep
control system;
quate irrigation
plowing; practice
addition of organduring dry seatiming of planting;
ic matter
son: addition of
use of broad beds
Pangasinan
organic matter
and ridges; best be
planted during dry
season due to river
flooding
Cropping Pattern: rice-rice
rice-vegetables
Soil Series
Table 3. Limitations to crop production and recommended management strategies for different
crops when grown in a given soil series (continuation).
35 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
Umingan
San Fabian
Soil Series
River flooding; gravelly
subsoil layer causes
drought
During dry season, the
unplowed soil is compact and hard, and
cracks into big clods;
sloping topography;
irrigation problems
Limitation
for crop production
Practice contour farming; conservation tillage such as mulching
and ground cover help
conserve moisture;
practice green manuring to improve soil
fertility and structure;
suited for vegetables
and other cash crops
Diversified crops
Construction of adeGravelly subsoil
quate irrigation and
may cause lower
flood control system; yield of rootcrops
application of fertilizer
and organic matter;
suited for diversified
crops
Cropping Pattern: rice-rice
rice-diversified crops/vegetables
Application of
fertilizer; clearing
of large gravels
and rock
Root crops
Establishment of flood
control and irrigation
systems; proper fertilization
Tree/Forest/
Plantation crops
Subsoiling; addiSubsoiling; cover croption of organic
ping with legumes; use
matter and animal of locally adapted highmanure to improve yielding varieties of tree
soil fertility and
crops
water holding capacity
Cropping Pattern: rice-rice
rice-vegetables/rootcrops
Not suitable for
irrigated lowland
rice production
due to irrigation
problem otherwise
terracing could be
done to support
rice farming; suited
for rainfed rice
Rice
Soil Management Recommendations
Table 3. Limitations to crop production and recommended management strategies for different
crops when grown in a given soil series (continuation).
Pangasinan
36
Tarlac
San Manuel
Soil Series
Suited for paddy
rice during wet
season and with
adequate irrigation
during dry season;
OM addition thru
animal or green
manuring
Rice
Diversified crops
Root crops
Tree/Forest/
Plantation crops
Use of locally adapted
high-yielding varieties is
recommended to improve
the growth and yield of
tree crops; ipil-ipil thrives
best in this soil
Adequate drainage and
irrigation system; cover
cropping with legumes;
proper fertilization, timing
of cultivation and planting;
use of locally adapted
high-yielding varieties is
recommended to improve
the growth and yield of
tree crops
Soil Management Recommendations
Construction of adeEstablishment of
quate drainage, irriga- adequate drainage
tion and flood control
and irrigation syssystem due to seasonal tem; regular addiflood hazard and high
tion of organic matseasonal water table;
ter and animal mause broad beds and
nure to improve soil
ridges; suited for diver- fertility
sified crops such as
corn, vegetables and
watermelon during dry
season with supplemental irrigation
Cropping Pattern: rice-rice
rice-vegetables/rootcrops
When dry, hard and com- Timing of planting; Timing of planting;
Not suitable for root
pact and forms into big
construction of
construction of adecrops due to texture
clods; roughly rolling to
adequate drainage, quate drainage, irriga- constraints
hilly topography
irrigation and flood tion, and flood control
control system due system due to seasonal
to seasonal flooding flooding hazard; mulchhazard; fertilization ing, construction of
broad beds and ridges
for vegetables;
application of fertilizers
Cropping Pattern: rice-rice
rice-diversified crops/vegetables
Excessively wet and
annual flooding for short
periods and excessive
drought during dry season; low OM
Limitation
for crop production
Table 3. Limitations to crop production and recommended management strategies for different
crops when grown in a given soil series (continuation).
Appendices
37 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
APPENDIX 1. STEPS TO IDENTIFY SOIL SERIES
1
Soil sampling
Choose a vacant area in
your field. Using a spade
or soil auger to dig up to
50 centimeters from the
soil surface.
The depth of the soil is
important. The soil surface
is not a good source of the
samples since it is always
disturbed and cultivated.
Get a bulk of soil (0.5
kilogram) from 30 to 50
centimeter-depth
and
place it in a container.
This sample will be used
in soil series identification.
Pangasinan
38
2
Color determination
Soil color is an indirect measure
of other characteristics such as
drainage, aeration, and organic
matter content. Black-colored
soils may indicate high fertility
and productivity. Gray indicates
a
fairly
constant
watersaturated
condition.
Bright
brown and red colors are indicative of good aeration and
drainage.
Get an ample amount of soil
from the sample. Note that the
soil surface should be freshly
exposed and not pressed. Record the moisture condition (dry,
wet, or moist). If dry, have a
moist color determination by
adding ample amount of water
to the soil.
Compare the color of the soil
sample with the soil color group
found in the guidebook. Take
note of the classification of the
color.
39 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
3
Texture determination
Take a half handful of the same soil sample.
Add water (not too wet). Soil is at proper
consistency when moldable, like moist putty.
Add dry soil
to absorb water.
Y
Does soil remain
in a ball when
squeezed?
N
N
Is soil too dry?
Sand
Is soil too wet?
Y
Place ball of soil between thumb and forefinger, gently pushing the
soil with the thumb, squeezing it upward into a ribbon. Form a ribbon
of uniform thickness and width. Allow the ribbon to emerge and
extend over the forefinger, breaking under its own weight.
N
Loamy
sand
Does soil form a ribbon?
Y
Does soil make a weak
ribbon less than 1 inch
long before breaking?
N
Y
Does soil make a
medium ribbon 1 to
2 inches long before
breaking?
N
Y
Does soil make a
strong ribbon 2
inches or longer
before breaking?
Y
Excessively wet a small pinch of soil in palm of hand and rub with forefinger.
Does soil feel Y Sandy
loam
very gritty?
N
Y Sandy
clay
loam
N
Does soil feel Y
very smooth?
Silt
loam
N
Neither
grittiness nor
smoothness
predominates
Does soil feel
very gritty?
Does soil feel
very smooth?
Loam
Neither
grittiness nor
smoothness
predominates
Y Sandy
clay
N
Y
Silty
clay
loam
N
Y
Does soil feel
very gritty?
Does soil feel
very smooth?
Y
Silty
clay
N
Y
Clay
loam
Neither
grittiness nor
smoothness
predominates
Y
Clay
Pangasinan
40
4
pH determination (UPLB) procedure
Get soil sample from
30 to 50 centimeter depth. Fill the test tube
with soil sample up to
the scratch mark.
Add seven drops of
CPR (chloropenol
red). Mix by gently
swirling the test tube.
If pH is six or greater,
repeat the steps using
BTB (bromthymol
blue).
If soil pH is five or
less, repeat the steps
using BCG
(bromcresol green).
Match the color of the
solution on top of the
soil with the corresponding color chart of
the pH indicator dye
used.
41 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
APPENDIX 2. THE PALAYCHECK® SYSTEM
The PalayCheck® System is a rice integrated crop
management that combines the technologies and learning processes to
identify strengths and weaknesses of
current crop management practices,
make improvements in the next season to increase grain yield, input-use
efficiency, and profit with environmental concerns.
The PalayCheck® System describes the crop management practices (input) to achieve the following Key
Checks (output):
1) Used high-quality seeds
of a recommended
variety.
2) No high and low soil
spots after final leveling.
3) Practiced synchronous
planting after a fallow
period.
Pangasinan
42
4) Sufficient number of
healthy seedlings.
5) Sufficient nutrients at
tillering to early panicle
initiation and flowering.
6) Avoided excessive water or drought stress
that could affect the
growth and the yield of
the crop.
7) No significant yield loss
due to pests.
8) Cut and threshed the
crop at the right time.
43 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
Glossary
Base saturation – the amount of positively charged ions (Ca, Mg, K, and
Na), excluding hydrogen and aluminum ions, that are absorbed on the surface of soil particles, and measured and
reported as a percentage.
Boulder – rocks with grain size of usually no less than 256 mm
(10 inches) diameter.
Clay skins – clay coatings on ped or pore surfaces.
Coarse fragments – significant proportions of fragments coarser than
very coarse sand and less than 10 inches, if rounded, or 15
inches along the longer axis, if flat. It influences the nutrient
status, water movement, use and management of the soil. It
also reflects the origin and stage of development of the soil.
Cobblestone – naturally rounded stones larger than a pebble and smaller than a boulder.
Concretions – cemented bodies similar to nodules, except for the presence of visible, concentric layers of material around a point,
line, or plane.
Cutans – modification of the soil texture, or soil structure, at natural
surfaces (particle, pore, or ped) in soil materials due
to illuviation. Cutans are oriented deposits which can be
composed of any of the component substances of the soil
material.
Gravels – composed of unconsolidated rock fragments that have a
general particle size range and include size classes from
granule- to boulder-sized fragments.
Inherent fertility – the natural ability of the soil to supply plant nutrients.
Mottles– appearance of uneven spots with spherical or irregular shape.
The color differs from the soil matrix color.
Nodules – cemented bodies of various shapes that can be removed as
discrete units from soil.
Nutrient retention – referred to as Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) or
the maximum quantity of total cations, of any class, that
a soil is capable of holding, at a given pH value, available
for exchange with the soil solution.
Pebble – small usually rounded stones especially when worn by the
action of water.
Permeability – property of the soil to transmit water and air. It affects
irrigation, and leaching of salts and fertilizers.
Quartz – a mineral consisting of silicon dioxide occurring in colorless
and transparent or colored hexagonal crystals or in crystalline
masses.
Relief – refers to the elevation or inequality of the land surface considered collectively.
Rock – naturally occurring solid aggregates of one or
more minerals or mineraloids.
Rooting depth – the ability of plant’s roots to penetrate through the soil.
It can be limited by soil compaction, absence of nutrients,
waterlogged layer or cemented layers.
Pangasinan
44
Salinity – the saltiness or dissolved salt content (such as sodium chloride, magnesium and calcium sulfates, and bicarbonates) in soil.
Slickenside – polished and grooved surface produced by one mass
sliding past another.
Soil compaction – described according to its nature, continuity, structure, agent, and degree. Compacted material has a firm or
stronger consistence when moist and a close packing of particles.
Soil drainage –refers to the frequency and duration of periods of saturation in the soil.
Soil family – a group of soils within a subgroup having similar physical
and chemical properties that affect their responses to management and manipulation for use.
Soil pH –measure of acidity and basicity of soils. It affects availability or
release of soil nutrients.
Soil profile – includes the collection of all the genetic horizons, the natural organic layers on the surface, and the parent material or
other layers beneath the solum that influence the genesis and
behavior of the soil.
Soil series – a group of soils with similar profiles developed from similar
parent materials under comparable climatic and vegetational
conditions.
Soil taxonomy – hierarchies of classes that permits one to understand
the relationships between soils and also between soils and the
factors responsible for their character. A systematic distinguishing, ordering, and naming of type groups within a subject field.
Soil texture- refers to the relative proportions of the various size groups
of individual soil grains in a mass of soil. Specifically, it refers to
the proportions of clay, silt, and sand below 2 millimeters in
diameter.
Soil type – the lowest category in classification systems. It is distinguished within series on the basis of texture, a single characteristic.
Soil water retention – the ability of soil to retain water to provide an
ongoing supply of water to plants between periods of replenishment (infiltration) to allow their continued growth and survival.
Stoniness – the relative proportion of stones over 10 inches in diameter
or on the soil.
Surface cracking – develops in shrink–swell clay-rich soils after they dry
out. The width (average, or average width and maximum width)
of the cracks at the surface is indicated in centimeters. The
average distance between cracks may also be indicated in centimeters.
Tuff – a rock composed of the finer kinds of volcanic detritus usually
fused together by heat.
Workability/tilth – the ease of cultivating the soil with regards to its structure, texture, presence of coarse fragments, and relief.
45 SIMPLIFIED KEYS TO SOIL SERIES
References
Badayos, R.B. 1990. Lowland rice soils in the Philippines, their
characteristics and classification in relation to
productivity. Inaugural Professorial Lecture. SEARCA,
UPLB.
Beinroth, F.H. 1978. Some fundamentals of soil classification. In:
Soil-resource data for agricultural development. Ed.
Leslie D. Swindale. Hawaii Ag. Expt. Sra., College of
Trop. Agric., University of Hawaii. p. 12-19.
Hampstead, M.I., TJ Sauer, and WF Bennet. 1997. Soil Science
Simplified. 3rd Edition. Iowa State University Press,
Ames Iowa 500014.
“Simplified Keys to Soil Series (29 Soil Series for Maize
Production), Lop Buri Province” The International
Training Workshop on “Applying Information Technology
for Site-Specific Agriculture in Small Farms of Tropics.”
August 4-10, 2003. Bangkok, Thailand.
Soil Survey of Pangasinan Province. Department of Agriculture
and Natural Resources, Bureau of Soils, Manila, Philippines. Bureau of Printing Manila.
Soil Survey Manual. US Department of Agricultural Handbook
No. 18. August 1951. Soil Survey Staff, Bureau of Plant
and Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering.
Agricultural Research Administration, US Department of
Agriculture.
Keys to Soil Taxonomy. US Department of Agriculture 10 th
Edition. 2006. Soil Survey Staff, Natural Resource
Conservation Service, US Department of Agriculture.
Soil Taxonomy: A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making
and Interpreting Soil Surveys. Soil Survey Staff, Soil
Conservation Service, US Department of Agriculture.
Sys, I.C., et al. Land Evaluation Part III: Crop Requirements.
Agricultural Publications. N°7, 1993.
Pangasinan
46
We thank the Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM) for the secondary data of the soils
used in this guidebook.
For more information
write, visit, or call:
Agronomy, Soils, and Plant Physiology Division or
Information Systems Division
Philippine Rice Research Institute
Maligaya, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija
Tel. No. (044) 456-0285; -0113; -0651 local 217,
215, 212, 233
or text:
The PhilRice Text Center - (0920) 911-1398
For published material:
contact:
Development Communication Division or
Business Development Division
Philippine Rice Research Institute
Maligaya, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija 3119
Tel. No. (044) 456-0285; -0113; -0651 local 511,
509, 520
Readers are encouraged to quote the content of this
guidebook with acknowledgement. Suggested citation:
PhilRice, “Simplified Keys to Soil Series of Pangasinan”.
Soil Series Guidebook ISBN 978-971-9081-81-4 :46p.,
August 2013.
ISBN 978-971-9081-81-4

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