1. YBO.Q

Comments

Transcription

1. YBO.Q
1. YBO.Q 30KOH
0
POAY
npeACTOBJbO
TeMeJbHVI
nponVlc
pOAHor
30KOHOAOBCTBO.
n pOBHO npVlpoAo POAHVlX OAHOCO Y nOTnYTHocTVI je Vl3MVljel-beHo. 30KOHOAOBOU
:e onpoBAoHO onpeAjeJ1V10, AO TeMeJb pOAHor OAHOCO 4V1HVI yroBop 0 POAY. Ho
oj H04V1H POAHVI OAHOC ce TpOHCCPOpMVlCOO y 060Be3HVI yroBopHVI OAHOC Vl3Meljy
30nOCJ1eHVlKO VI nOCJ10AOBUO. YroBop 0 POAY HO TeMeJbY Kojer ce 30CHVlBO pO,li\HVI
AH OC
30KJbY4Yjy
yroBopHe
cTpoHe
-
nOCJ10AOBOU
VI
30nOCJ1eHVlK.
30KOH
:>6e36jeljyje BVICOK CTeneH I-bVlXOBe aYToHoMHOCTVI npVl ypeljel-by OAHOCO. HOVlMe,
::QKOHOAOBOU je npenycTVlo nOCJ10AOBUVlMO VI 30nOCJ1eHVlUVlMO AO y BeneM 6pojy
:J1Y40jeBo 6J1V1>Ke ypeljyjy cBoje OAHoce nponVlcVlMo pOAHor 30KOHOAOBCTBO, KOO
TO cy KOJ1eKTVlBHVI yroBopVl, npOBVlJ1HVlUVI 0 POAY VI yroBopVl 0 POAY . npVl TOMe,
-< eonXOAHO je VlCTOnVl Aa OBVI
nponVlcVI KOjVlMO ce 6J1V1>Ke ypeljyjy OAHOCVI
1
3 il\eljy 30nOCJ1eHVlKO VI nOCJ10AOBOUO MOpOjy 6V1TVI Y CKJ10AY co 30KOHOM .
POAHVI OAHOC npeACTOJ8JbO ueHTpOJ1HO nVlTOl-be pOAHor npOBO VI P03J1V14V1TO
2
c AecpVlHVlCOH, 0 VI COAO ce P03J1V14V1TO AecpVlHVlwe y TeopVljVl . 30HVlMJbVlBO je
~ - JnVl AO je VI KOA HOC 6V1J11o nVlcouo KOjVl cy TBPAVlJ1V1 AO ce nojoM pOAHor
: :: oco CBOAVI HO nojoM yroBopo 0 POAY . npBVI nVlcou KOjVl je n04eo AO ce 60BVI
• . VlKOM Vl3Meljy yroBopa 0 paAY VI pOAHor OAHOCO 6V10 je XojHU nOTXOcp. OH je
- - -eo AO p03BVljO TeopVljy 0 paAHOM OAHOCY y KOjOj je AOK03V1BOO AO Y paAHOM
: .::- cy HVlje 6V1THO p03MjeHo POAO 30 HOKHOAY, Ben pOC nopeljVlBOl-be, OAHOCHO
~al-be
POAHVlKO
HO
POAHO
MjecTO.
n OpeA
Toro
nOCTOJe
P03J1V14V1Te
_ - ..., VI UVlje pOAHor OAHOCO y KOnVllTOJ1V1CTVl4Koj VI COUVlj0J1V1CTVl4KOj TeopVljVl
3
-=-or npOBO, 0 3H040jHO oAcTynol-bo nocToje VI y HowOj TeopVljVl .
Y HojonwTVljeM 3H04e1-bY, POAHVI OAHOC , Kao BPCTO ApYWTBeHVlX OAHoca y
~.
HocTaje C nojoBoM KanVlT0J1V1CTVl4Ke npOVl3BOAl-be, MOAO je VI npVlje Tora
- : :- j oo Vl3BjecToH OAHOC POAO Y CJ1Y>K6V1 ApyrVlx J1V1UO, 0J1V1
ce,
no CBVlM
:.· .:.e>KjVlMo, Toj OAHOC He MO>Ke nOABeCTVI nOA nojoM POAHVI OAHOC.
Y
- =--e
-= _ _
KOnVlT0J1V1CTVl4KOM
eHUVlpojy
ce
OA
H04V1HY
OCTQJ1V1X
npOVl3BOAl-be
OAHOCO,
ApYWTBeHO
npVlje
CBero,
POAHVI
OA
OAHOCVI
CBOjVlHCKVlX.
seHo-poAHVI OAHOCVI y KOnVlT0J1V13MY Mory ce nOAVljenVlTVI HO ABVlje rpyne
.: - : 0: yroBopHVI OAHOC VI POAHVI OAHOC. YrOBopHVI OAHOC je 3H040jaH 30 nepVlOA
- : . Vl THe oKyMynoUVlje, MOHycpoKType VI J1V16ep0J1HOr KOnVlT0J1V13MO VI pe3YJ1TOT
~ "',;' MjeHe pVlMcKe KOHuenUVlje yroBopo 0 HojMy. EBVlAeHTHO je AO je npeMo
o HojMy 30nOCTOBJbeHO nVl4HOCT POAHVlKO KOjVl Y yroBOpy Y4ecTByje KOO
yroBop04
KOjVl
CBOjy
pOAHy
CHOry
Aoje
y
HojOM
30
p03J1V1Ky
OA
2005 rOAV1He
- :~ _ po MJlaljeH MaHAVln , PaAHo npaBo, 6af-ba IlyKa 2007 rOAV1He
- -:e.Apa r JOBaHoBVln, PaAHo npaBo, 6eorpaA 2000 rOAV1He
--:_ ::. .5pKoBVln PaAoje, PaAHo npaBo , 6eorpaA
4
KOnIllTOJlIIICTe,
KOjlll
30XBOJbyjynlll
CBOM
KOnlllTOJlY
AOJe
COMO
CTBOPIII
4111jOM
OnJlOAt-bOM AOJl03111 AO npOqJIIITO .
MeljYTIIIM,
PIIIMCKO
KOHuenUllljo
POAHIIIX
OAHOCa
je
6111JlO
1113JlO>KeHO
KpIIITIIIUIII . npOTIIIBHIIIUIII plIIMCKe KOHuenUlllje POAHIIIX OAHOCO IIICTIIIUOJlIII cy AO ce
KOA POAHIIIX OAHOCO He POAIII 0 yroBOpy 0 HojMy pOAHe CHore, jep ce OH Hlllje
Moroo nOABeCTIII
nOA 06JllllrOUIIIOHe yroBope, Ben ce POAIII 0 yroBoplIIMO cylll
reHeplIIC, Tj. noce6Hoj BpCTIII yroBOpo .
XX
n04eTKOM
~pOHUyCKOj je HOCTOJlO Teopllljo KOjO je pOAHe
BllljeKo y
OAHoce nOlllcToBjenlllBOJlO co 0PTOKJlYKOM, OAHOCHO yroBop 0 POAY 1113jeAH040BOH
je
co
yroBopoM
qJlII 3111 4 Kill X
0
OpTOKJlyKy .
OKTIIIBHOCTIII
no
POAHIIIKO
OBOj
co
Teopllljlll,
AOJl03111
OKTIIIBHOCTIIIMO
AO
cjeAIII,t-bOBOt-bO
BJlOCHIIIKO
cpeACTOBO.
npOlll3BOA KOjlll je pe3YJlTOT 30jeAHIII4KIIIX OKTIIIBHOCTIII, 61110 6111 cBOjlllHo Y4ecHIIIKo
npoueco npOIll3BOAt-be.
nOlllcToBjeTIIITIII,
jep
V1 nOK,
KOA
OBO ABO yroBopo co npOBHor ocneKTO ce He MOry
yroBopo
0
0PTOKJlYKY
nOTnlllCHIIIUIII
Y4eCTBYjy
y
ynpOBJbOt-by OPT04KIIIM nOCJlOBIIIMO III CBIII CHoce pIII3111K nOCJlOBOt-bO, AOK y POAHOM
:JAHOCY
POAHIIIUIII
He
CHoce
plll3111K
nOCJlOBOt-bO
4
OnlllTOJlIIICTO nplllcBojo COB BIIIWOK BpllljeAHoCT1II .
Ben
KOnlllTOJlIIICTO
III
rAje
nOCToje III CXBOTOt-bO KOjo yroBop 0 POAY nOlllcToBjenyjy co yroBopoM no
nplIICTyny. COAP>KIIIHO yroBopo no nplllcTyny je YHonpllljeA oApeljeHQ OA jeAHe
r OBopHe CTpOHe, KOjO OCJlOt-bojynlll
ce HO CBOjy eKOHOMCKY IIIJlIII
COUllljOJlHy
HOAMonHOCT AIIIKTlllpO YCJlOBe KOjlll cy 30 APYry CTPOHY 060Be3HIII . To 3H04111 AO
Apyroj CTPOHIII Hlllje AOTO MorynHocT AO 1113MjeHIII npeAJlO>KeHe YCJlOBe yroBopo.
reopllljlll
pOAHor
npoBo yroBop no nplllcTyny
.
1113MJeHe nplIICTOHKO POAHIIIKO y
COrJlOCHOCT
Hlllje yroBop,
nOrJleAY
jep
He
npeAMeTo
Y
nocTojlll
5
yroBopo.
P03BojeM 30WTIIITHor 30KOHOAoBCTBO, y Teopllljlll ce nopeA IIIMOBIIIHCKIIIX IIICTIII4Y III
HeIllMoBIIIHCKIII,
JlIll4HO-npoBHIII
COUllljOJlIIICTIII4KO
nlll4Ho-npoBHIII
Teopllljo
OAHOC
pOAHor
30CHOBOH
eJleMeHTIII
OAHOCO
HO
pOAHor
oApeljlllBOJlO
POAHOj
30jeAHlllUIII
OAHOCO.
HOUIIIOHOJl­
je
POAHIII
OAHOC
npeAY3eno
1113
KOO
Kojer
POIIICTIII4Y CBO npOBO III AY>KHOCTIII, OA KOjlllX je HojBO>KHllljO AY>KHOCT - BjepHocT
n peMO nOCJlOAOBUY, 0 nOCJlOAOB4eBO 060Be30 ce OAHOCIII HO CTOpOt-be 0 Jllll4HOCTIII
Y TOKBOj 30jeAHlllUIII
UIIIJbO. J eAIIIHO A06po
OOAHIIIKO.
cjeAIllt-beHIII cy POAHIIIUIII III nOCJlOAOBOU y qJyHKUllljlll
8111wer
CTPOHO OBe Teoplllje je WTO je IIICTOKJlO AO POAHIII
:JAHOC Hlllje BlIIwe nplII'BOTHO CTBOP yroBopHIIIX CTPOHO III CBe Blllwe ce y
nojoM
OOAHor OAHOCO YBJl04e pOAHonpOBHIII eJleMeHTIII.
KplIITIIIKOM
HOUIIIOHOJl-COUllljOJlIIICTIII4Ke
Teoplllje,
y
~pOHUyCKOj
HocToje
-eo pllljo IIIHCTIIITYUlllje KOjO je oApeljlllBOJlO POAHIII OAHOC KOO npoBHy Be3Y KOjO
: . eAIllt-byje,
-
y
IIIHCTIIITYUllljlll,
weqJo
npeAY3eno
co
CBOKIIIM
4JlOHOM
t-berOBOr
ocp .AneKCOHAop 6onTL"n , npocp.ML;lnOH .QecnoToBL;ln , OCHOBL;I pOAHor npoBo JyrocnoBL;lje,
:eo rpoA
1978
r
:..:" .QYLUOH nOpOBL;lHO, POAHO npoBo , 6eorpoA
1998
roAL;lHe
5
nepCOHono. Yno>t<et-be - nplI1CTynOt-be npeAY3eny je jeAoH OKT - YCJ10B HO OCHOBY
Kojer jeAHo J1111 we nocToje POAHII1K 111 YCJ10B 30 KOplI1Wnet-be CBII1X npOBO Koje 30KOH
Aoje POAHII1 WIl1MO.
J eAOH
AII10 qJPOHLWCKe TeoplI1je CMOTPO AO HlI1je A06po TOKO
jeAHocTpOHO OA60WII1BOt-be yroBopo 0
POAY, jep ce 60w t-bIl1Me CTBOPO npOBHII1
OCHOB y J1o>t<et-bo y II1HCTII1TY Llll1jy .
BpeMeHOM npeAY3ene nocToje CpeAII1W Te y KOMe ce II1cnOIbOBO POAHII1KOBO
J11114HOCT, TOKO AO Y t-beMY A0J103111 AO 1I13pO>t<OjO J11114HO- npOBHO 30jeAHII1Llo Y KOjOj
cy TlI1jecHo nOBe30HII1 POAHII1Wi-'I 111 nOCJ10AOBLlIl1 Y Meljyc06HII1M OAHOCII1MO. Y OBY
30jeAHII1LlY POAHII1K cTyno HO OCHOBY pOAHor OAHOCO Te ce POAHII1 OAHOC BII1We He
,o\o>t<e
30CHII1BOTII1
,,;opOKTepII1CTII1Ke
l10CT0J1e
HO
yroBOpy
06J1l11rOLlIl10HOr
KBOJ1I11TOTII1BHe
y rOCJ10BlI1jll1
ce
0
OAHOCO,
npOMeHe .
nojoBIbYjy
p03MjeHII1
pOAHe
4111Me
YBoljet-beM
P03J11114111TO
CHore
cy
y
COMOM
POAHII14KOr
CXBOTOt-bO
30
0
HOBOLl
POAHOM
111
ry6111
OAHOCY
cOMoynpoBIbOt-bO
nojMy
pOAHor
y
OAHOCO.
X BOTOt-bO cy II1WJ10 TOJ1I11KO AOJ1eKO AO ce Herll1p0J10 nocTojOt-be pOAHor OAHOCO ­
6
.' _0 npeB03111ljeHor OAHOCO y ApYWTBeHoj CTBOPHOCTII1 .
OCHOBHII1 30KOH 0 POAHII1M OAHOCII1MO 1113 1965. rOAII1He YMjecTo TepMII1HO
A HII1 OAHOC n04eo je co ynoTpe60M TepMII1HO Meljyc06HII1 POAHII1 OAHOC. 30KOH 0
:
• eljyco6HII1M OAHOCII1MO POAHII1KO Y YA'Py>t<eHoM POAY 1113 1973.rOAII1He y COMOM
-
CJ10BY
ynoTpe6IboBo
TepMII1H
IIMeljyc06HII1
OAHOC" .
OBII1M
30KOHOM
OCTOBIb0J1111 cy ce Meljyc06HII1 OAHOCII1 POAHII1KO Y YApy>t<eHoM POAY 111 KOjll1 cy
_ery J1I11COHII1
:
cOMoynpoBHII1M OnWTII1M OKTII1MO. POAHII1
OAHOC Y OBOM
neplI10AY
3BOjo cOMoynpoBIbOt-bO nocToje npll1je CBero, ApywTBeHo - eKOHOMCKII1 OAHOC, 0
-e npOBHII1 OAHOC 1I13Meljy POAHII1KO 111 pOAHe oproHlI130Llll1je.
Ho KPOjy, KOHLlenLlll1jo pOAHor OAHOCO KOO Meljyc06Hor OAHOCO POAHII1KO HII1
- aC J1e
AOHOWet-bO
30KOHO
0
YApy>t<eHoM
POAY
HlI1je
HonYWTeHO,
Ben
je
y
-
rnYHOCTII1 nOTBpljeHO. KOHLlenLlll1jo 0 Meljyc06HOM OAHOCY POAHII1KO je peJ1I11KT
-
OWJ10CTII1 KOjO Mo>t<e II1MOTII1 COMO COWII10J10WKY BplI1jeAHocT, OKO ce nOBe>t<e co
-~O plI1jOM 0 OAYMII1POt-bY Ap>t<OBe 111 npOBO .
POAHII1 OAHOC je npOBHII1 OAHOC 1I13Meljy npOBHII1X cy6jeKoT07 . To 3H04111 AO
e npOBHII1 OAHOC OHoj ApywTBeHII1 OAHOC KOjll1 je perYJ1I11COH npoBoM, npOBHII1M
- M OMO 111 Y KOMe cy IbYAII1 Ay>t<HII1 AO ce nOHowojy no npOBHII1M HOpMOMO. POAHII1
""" oc
je
noce6Ho
KOTeropll1jo
ApywTBeHlI1x
OAHOCO y
POAY.
n oce6HOCT
Tor
: .: OCO ce OrJ1eAO y t-berOBII1M CBOjCTBII1MO 111 t-berOBOM 6l11ny. CBOjCTBO cy 30npOBO
.: - nll1 Ke pOAHor OAHOCO KOO onWTer nojMo Te BpCTe ApYWTBeHII1X OAHOCO y POAY.
cy A06p OBOIbHOCT, J11114HO Be30, OprOHII130BOHOCT 111 OHep03HOCT . OBO CBOjCTBO
oojy nocTojoTII1 3ajeAHo 111 II1cTOBpeMeHO 111 HenocTojOt-be 6111J10 Kor OA OBII1X
-::
CTOBO OAY3111MO TOM ApYWTBeHOM OAHOCY KopOKTep pOAHor OAHOCO .
-::-qJ.Ap .6pKOBlfln PaAoje, PaAHo npaBo, 6eorpaA
-: ='1'.Ap. MnaljeH MaHAlfln, PaAHo npaBo, npaBHIfI <paKymer CapcjeBo 2009roAIfIHc
6
6V1ne paAHOr OAHOCa npeAcTaBIbajy eIleMeHTV1 KOJV1 4V1He Aa ce OBaJ
ApYWTBeHV1 OAHOC V1CnOIbaBa KaO noce6Ha KaTeropV1ja ApYWTBeHOr OAHOCa y
paAY. TV1 eIleMeHTV1 cy cy6j'eKTV1, CaAp>KV1Ha V1 06IlV1K. Cy6jeKTV1 cy IlV1L\a V13Meljy
KOjV1X ce ycnocTaBIba npaBHV1 OAHOC. CaAp>KV1HY paAHOr OAHOca 4V1He Meljyco6Ha
npaBa V1 06aBe3e cy6jeKaTa TOr OAHoca. 06J1V1K je cpopMa y KOjOj ce 3aCHV1Ba V1 Ha
OCHOBY Koje Tpaje paAHV1 OAHOC. ,QpyrV1M pV1je4V1Ma TO je aKT KOjV1M ce
ycnocTaBIba paAHV1 OAHOC V1 KOjV1M ce YTBpljyje t-berOBa CaAp>KV1Ha (yroBop,
OAIlYKa V1IlV1 ApyrV1 npaBHV1 aKT) .
HajKpane pe4eHO, Y3eBWV1 y 063V1p 3ajeAHV14Ke eIleMeHTe paAHor OAHoca
KOjV1 nocToje y CBV1M TeopV1jaMa, paAHV1 OAHOC npeACTaBIba 06nV1K IlV14Hor,
3aBV1CHor, opraHV130BaHor V1 nIlaneHor paAa jeAHor IlV1L\a (paAHV1Ka) KOA Apyror
IlV1L\a (nOCIlOAaBL\a) BIlaCHV1Ka cpeACTaBa 3a paA .
V1 naK, YKOIlV1KO >KeIlV1MO Aa AecpV1HV1weMO paAHV1 OAHOC ca CBV1M 6V1THV1M
eIleMeHTV1Ma KOjV1 4V1He t-berOBO 6V1ne MO>KeMO penV1
Ao6pOBOIbaH,
npaBHO
peryIlV1caH
paA
KOjV1
3anOCIleHV1
Aa je paAHV1 OAHOC
06aBIba
J1V14HO
Ha
opraHV130BaH Ha4V1H, npV1MajynV1 3a Taj paA nIlaTy8.
CY6JEKT~
2.
PA,QHOr O.QHOCA
6V1TV1 cy6jeKT npaBa 3Ha4V1 6V1TV1 HOCV1IlaL\ npaBa V1 AY>KHOCTV1 . Cy6jeKTV1
npaBa MOry 6V1TV1 cpV13V14Ka V1 npaBHa IlV1L\a KojV1Ma npaBo CTaBIba HeWTO y KOPV1CT
V1IlV1 Ha TepeT, 6e3 o63V1pa Ha t-bV1XOBY cBV1jecT V1 BOIb/ . AKO ce nolje OA
KOHCTaTaL\V1je Aa je paAHV1 OAHOC npaBHV1 OAHOC TO Y t-beMY Hy>KHO Y4ecTByjy ABe
CTpaHe, Koje cy cy6jeKTV1 paAHor OAHoca. KOA V1HAV1BV1AyaIlHor paAHor OAHoca
j eAaH cy6jeKT paAHor OAHoca jecTe CTpaHa Koja Aaje nocao. Taj cy6jeKT paAHor
OAHoca je nOCIlOAaBaL\. ,QpyrV1 cy6jeKT paAHor OAHoca jecTe CTpaHa Koja npV1Ma
n ocao. Taj cy6jeKT paAHor OAHoca Morao 6V1 ce Ha3BaTV1 nOCIlOnpV1MaL\ V1IlV1
n OCIleHV1K. 3aKOHV1 0 paAY y BenV1HV1 3eMaIba y cBV1jeTY ynoTpe6IbaBajy TepMV1H
paAHV1K, a y HeKV1M 3eMJbaMa ce ynoTpe6IbaBajy TepMV1HV1 V1 paAHV1K V1 cIlY>K6eHV1K.
OCIlOAaBaL\, y 3aBV1CHOCTV1 OA 06J1V1Ka cBojV1 He MO>Ke 6V1TV1 CPV13V14KO V1IlV1 npaBHO
.lV1L\e. npeMa 3aKOHY 0 paAY 3anOCIleHV1 jecTe CPV13V14KO IlV1L\e Koje je y paAHOM
.JAHOCY KOA nOCIlOAaBL\a, a nocIlOAaBaL\ jecre AOMane, OAHOCHO CTpaHO npaBHO
v1IlV1 cpV1JV14KO IlV1L\e Koje 3anOWJbaBa, OAHOCHO paAHO aHra>Kyje, jeAHo V1IlV1 BV1we
• \11 L\a.
CBoja npaBa V1 06aBe3e paAHV1K V1 nOCIlOAaBaL\ y paAHOM OAHOCY peryIlV1wy
~a
OCHOBY npaBHV1X nponV1ca Koje AOHoce Ap>KaBHV1 opraHV1, C TV1M WTO ce
"'ApeljeHa nV1Tat-ba peryIlV1wy KOIleKTV1BHV1M yroBopoM V1 onWTV1M aKTOM.
-
P0qJ.,D,p.6pKOBllln PO,D,oje, PO,D,HO npoBo , 6eorpo,D, 2005 rO,D,IIIHe
-' p0qJ .,D,p. MIlo1jeH MOH,D,lIIn , PO,D,HO npoBo , 60t-bo flyKO 2007 rO,D,IIIHe
7

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