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Presentation
Ricardo Rüther & Priscila Braun
LABSOLAR - Laboratório de Energia Solar
&
LabEEE - Laboratório de Eficiência Energética em Edificações
Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Florianópolis - SC, Brasil
INTRODUCTION: Airports & Photovoltaics
ƒ Airport buildings: low-density, large-area, horizontal, free of
shading;
ƒ Ideal for integrating and showcasing photovoltaics;
ƒ Public: includes decision-makers and world-leaders;
ƒ Permanent expansion and upgrade - continuous growth in
passenger numbers;
ƒ Air travel accounts for 3.5% of global GHG emissions expected to double in the next 15 years (Kyoto
Protocol).
Large and
unshaded areas
“Half of the world”
goes through an
airport every year
Potential source
for large-scale
PV financing
Annual
growth > 5%
Project: New Florianópolis International Airport (Brazil)
Source: INFRAERO
Is there room to accommodate so much PV?
Crescimento de
5% ao ano
Project: New Florianópolis International Airport (Brazil)
Source: INFRAERO
Annual electricity consumption: 2 GWh/year; 1.4 million passengers/year
Is there room to accommodate so much PV?
Frankfurt
Annual electricity consumption: 580 GWh/year; 50.9 million passengers/year
Is there room to accommodate so much PV?
Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Is there room to accommodate so much PV?
Atlanta
Rio de Janeiro
Airports in Brazil (2005 - Airports Council International)
ƒ
66 ACI-registered, public airports (INFRAERO);
ƒ
Total passenger/year: 96 million (< 3% of world);
Freigth: 1.3 million tons;
Total energy consumption: 419 GWh/year;
ƒ PV = 275 MWp “solarises” 100% all airports in Brazil;
ƒ Area = 2,5 km² (c-Si) ; 5,1 km² (a-Si);
ƒ Cost = 1, 65 billion
(@
6/Wp);
ƒ Over one year ~ 17/passenger “solarises” 100% all
Brazilian airports in just one year: too much to ask?
World top 30 airports (ACI-Airports Council Intl) - 1530 airports
Rank
City (Airport)
Total Passengers
2005
% Change
from 2004
1
ATLANTA, GA (ATL)
85 907 423
2.8
2
CHICAGO, IL (ORD)
76 510 003
1.3
3
LONDON (LHR)
67 915 403
0.8
4
TOKYO (HND)
63 282 219
1.6
5
LOS ANGELES, CA (LAX)
61 489 398
1.3
6
DALLAS, TX (DFW)
59 176 265
( 0.4)
7
PARIS (CDG)
53 798 308
5.0
8
FRANKFURT (FRA)
52 219 412
2.2
9
AMSTERDAM (AMS)
44 163 098
3.8
10
LAS VEGAS, NV (LAS)
43 989 982
6.0
11
DENVER, COLORADO (DEN)
43 387 513
2.6
12
MADRID (MAD)
41 940 059
8.4
13
NEW YORK, NY (JFK)
41 885 104
8.9
14
PHOENIX, ARIZONA (PHX)
41 213 754
4.3
15
BEIJING (PEK)
41 004 008
17.5
16
HONG KONG, CHINA (HKG)
40 269 847
9.7
17
HOUSTON, TX (IAH)
39 684 640
8.7
18
BANGKOK (BKK)
38 985 043
2.7
19
(MSP)
37 604 373
2.4
20
DETROIT, MICHIGAN (DTW)
36 389 294
3.2
21
ORLANDO, FL (MCO)
34 128 048
8.4
22
NEWARK, NJ (EWR)
33 999 990
3.3
23
SAN FRANCISCO, CA (SFO)
32 802 363
2.0
24
LONDON (LGW)
32 784 330
4.2
25
SINGAPORE (SIN)
32 430 856
6.8
26
PHILADELPHIA, PA (PHL)
31 495 385
10.5
27
TOKYO (NRT)
31 451 274
1.3
28
MIAMI, FL (MIA)
31 008 453
2.8
29
30
TORONTO (YYZ)
SEATTLE, WA (SEA)
29 914 750
29 289 026
4.5
1.7
“Half-of-the-world” flies
from an airport every
year: 4.2 billion
passengers in 2005 !!!
Annual growth > 5%
Who pays the bill? Polluter-pays principle based on CO2 emissions
How much CO2 Ricardo Rüther was responsible for to
attend this meeting ?
ƒ Single passenger CO2 emissions in flights FLN-SDU-FLN
0,4 ton
ƒ International CO2 market price (per passenger)
4 (@
10 / ton CO2 )
Over 95% of the CO2 emissions related to this meeting
are due to air travel
Justification: CO2 emissions
CO2 emissions and equivalent carbon-trading market price of singlepassanger travel to Rio de Janeiro, BRA (SDU)
From - City (Airport)
Tokyo, JPN (NRT)
Shangai, CHN (SHA)
Hong Kong, CHN (HKG)
Beijing, CHN (PEK)
Bangkok, THA (BKK)
Singapore, SGP (SIN)
New Dehli, IND (DEL)
Sydney, AUS (SYD)
Toronto, CSN (YBZ)
Seattle, USA (SEA)
Stockolm, SWE (ARN)
San Francisco, USA (SFO)
Oslo, NOR (TRF)
Tel Aviv, ISR (TLV)
Copenhagen, DNK (CPH)
Los Angels, USA (LAX)
Budapest, HUN (BUD)
Prague, CZE (PRG)
Cairo, EGY (CAI)
Vienna, AUT (VIE)
Athenas, GRC (ATH)
Phonix, USA (PHX)
Frankfurt, DEU (FRA)
Amsterdam, DEU (AMS)
Denver, USA (DEN)
tCO2
€
6,75
6,64
6,45
6,31
5,85
5,72
5,11
4,91
4,17
4,02
3,88
3,86
3,75
3,73
3,69
3,67
3,62
3,58
3,58
3,57
3,52
3,47
3,46
3,46
3,42
63,79
62,75
60,95
59,63
55,28
54,05
48,29
46,40
39,41
37,99
36,67
36,48
35,44
35,25
34,87
34,68
34,21
33,83
33,83
33,74
33,26
32,79
32,70
32,70
32,32
From - City (Airport)
Brussels, BEL (BRU)
Zurich, CHE (ZRH)
London, GBR (LHR)
Rome, ITA (FCO)
Paris, FRA (ORY)
Minneapolis, USA (MSP)
Chicago, USA (ORD)
Dallas, USA (DFW)
Detroit, USA (DET)
México, MEX (NLD)
Madrid, ESP (MAD)
Houston, USA (IAH)
Washington, USA (WSG)
New York, USA (EWR)
Philadelphia, USA (PHL)
Harare, ZWE (HRE)
Atlanta, USA (ATL)
Joahnnesburg, ZAF (JNB)
Miami, USA (MIA)
Santiago, CHL (SCL)
Buenos Aires, ARG (EZE)
Salvador, BRA (SSA)
Brasília, BRA (BSB)
Florianópolis, BRA (FLN)
São Paulo, BRA (GRU)
Sources: Atmosfair Emissions Calculator and Point Carbon (Nov 08, 2006)
tCO2
€
3,41
3,39
3,35
3,32
3,31
3,28
3,09
3,03
3,01
2,97
2,94
2,92
2,88
2,65
2,64
2,63
2,62
2,44
2,30
0,66
0,44
0,30
0,22
0,20
0,07
32,22
32,04
31,66
31,37
31,28
31,00
29,20
28,63
28,44
28,07
27,78
27,59
27,22
25,04
24,95
24,85
24,76
23,06
21,74
6,24
4,16
2,84
2,08
1,89
0,66
To attend this
meeting,
how much CO2
emissions has
each one of us
been
responsible for?
How should we face this reality ?
Aviation emissions were left out of Kyoto until 2012
How should we face this reality ?
How about facing it?! Might be a good alternative!
Requirements and Consequences of solar airports worldwide
ƒ Timeframe: Certainly not 1 year! Better 10 or 20?
ƒ Induce feed-in law in participating countries (ISES White Paper);
ƒ Induce local PV manufacturing spread worldwide:
e.g. Brazil: 275 MWp in 10 years = 27.5 MWp/year
= cost reductions = benefit rural electrification programs,
establish new industry, create jobs
ƒ
2/passenger-flight = 8 billion/year > 1 GWp/year:
Doubles PV world market instantly: maybe go slower?
But to get such a program going takes some time anyway
ƒ Everyone will see PV = mainstream clean energy technology.
IMAGE BENEFITS: aviation x Kyoto Protocol
No mandatory measures before 2012 = act (freiwillig!)
NOW, profit from good image associated with PV, and get
part (or all) of your energy needs from PV.
BUT,
is it OK to put
PV on airport
grounds?
1st phase
January 2004
1.4 MWp
40,000m²
9,200 PV modules
1,100 ton CO2 / year
6.5 mi €
166 private investors
2nd phase
August 2005
2.6 MWp
50,000m²
13,860 modules
2,100 ton CO2 / year
10 mi €
Saarbrücken, Germany
Airports that already benefit from PV
kW
Munich Airport (Germany)
San Francisco International Airport (USA)
Saarbrücken Airport (Germany)
Narita International Airport (Japan)
Salzburg (Austria)
Sacramento International Airport (USA)
Jacksonville International Airport (USA)
Inyokern Airport (USA)
Eleftherios Venizelos Airport (Greece)
Austin Bergstrom International Airport (USA)
Baltimore/Washington Airport (USA)
Zurich (Switzerland)
500
20
4000
120
237
128
50
NA
5
15
20
283
Next steps
ƒ Legal issues associated; country-specific;
ƒ Financing options:
ƒInclude CO2 levy via increase in airport departure tax
(relatively large % impact on existing tax)
ƒInclude CO2 levy via increase in airline ticket price
(relatively small % impact on ticket price - more
“pallatable) for passenger
ƒIn any case: positive cash flow from day one - install
PV while collecting passenger surcharge.
ƒ Renewable Energy Law (EEG) in Germany?
The German Example
Feed–in–Tariff and Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG):
Key aspects of the mechanism include:
• Guarantee of acess to grid to feed in ALL the energy produced
•
Guarantee of payment at premium tariff for ALL of the energy produced
•
Generator SELLS ALL of the energy produced at PREMIUM TARIFF and
BUYS ALL of its energy needs from utility at its respective TARIFF CLASS
AND SO THE
Utility will not perceive private PV generators as loss of income and can benefit
from the (still) unaccounted for benefits of distributed generation (peak shaving)
•
•
Contrast to net metering + rebate schemes, which require financial mechanism
not adequate to developing countries (a pile of $ needs to be set up)
How do Germany and Brazil Compare?
Brazil
•
Average residential tariff
(15,1 Eurocent/kWh).
Source: ABRADEE – Asssociacao Brasileira de Distribuidores de Energia Elétrica
Germany
• Average residential tariff
(19,6 Eurocent/ kWh)
Source: Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, 2005.
Residential tariffs in Brazil are relatively higher than in Germany (% of GDP)
The German Example
Grid-connected PV induces volumes that bring professional market,
with little impact on tariff
-Tariff increase € 1,40/month (R$ 3,88) on typical household utility bill
(from 1998 to 2005)
-Tariff increase of 0,1 to 0,6 Eurocents/kWh (from 1998 to 2005)
ANOS
PROGRAMA
100 MWp
32.200
INVESTIMENTO
DESPESAS
Reais
1%
RECEITAS
4632,90
TMA
VPL
Reais
R$ 0,00
TIR
12%
12,00%
sem fator aprendizagem
0,050
Custo (R$/kWh)
20
0,040
0,030
0,020
0,010
0,000
1
* sistema FV de →
2
→
US$
** preço do sistema
***
dólar =
****aumento do consumo →
→
kWp
7000
2,3
1,05
com fator aprendizagem
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39
Produtividade
1300 Wh/kWp
Anos
10
sem fator aprendizagem
com fator aprendizagem de 5% ao ano
9
50.000
Montante em Tarifa Prêmio
R$
Tarifa Prêmio
R$
Consumo
Custo por kWh
Custo por
200
231.644.835,86
1,78 /kWh
86342000000
kWh
Redução do Custo FV
R$
0,0026828755
R$
0,5365750987
8
unidades
kWh
7
Custo R$/ 200 kWh
Número de Sistemas
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
0,95
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39
Anos
Redução da Tarifa Prêmio
em função da redução do custo do sistema FV
5%
BRASIL – 100MWp – 20 anos
12%
Residencial (s/ B.R) + 10% Industrial + 10%
Comercial + 10% Outros
Consumo: 62.113 + 14.606+ 4.968+ 4.655 GWh
Tarifa Prêmio (R$)
2,10
1,80
5%
1,50
1,20
0,90
0,60
0,30
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39
Anos
The Brazilian PV potential: PV x Large Hydro
1. ITAIPU hydropower plant:
1. 1350 km2 (Itaipu lake) = 12.6 GW = 80 to 90 TWh / year =
< 25% of Brazilian electricity consumption
2. Shall we cover the ITAIPU lake with PV?
(@ 8% system efficiency and assuming local solar radiation levels)
2. 1350 km2 PV system = 108 GWp = 183 TWh / year =
> 50% of Brazilian electricity consumption
3. Lets cover urban building roofs with PV instead!!!!
4. Lets get started with airports!!!!
Florianópolis island surface area = 424,4 km2
R$ 0,25 (0.09 Euros) per passenger solarises Florianópolis in 1 year (P = 1,43 MWp)
Crescimento de
5% ao ano
New Florianópolis International Airport
Source: INFRAERO
Ricardo Rüther & Priscila Braun
LABSOLAR - Laboratório de Energia Solar
&
LabEEE - Laboratório de Eficiência Energética em Edificações
Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Florianópolis - SC, Brasil
Os 30 maiores aeroportos do Brasil (passageiros)
PASSAGEIROS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
13.611.227
12.940.193
9.926.786
6.024.930
4.887.306
4.145.371
3.215.545
3.194.715
3.173.672
2.840.349
2.317.869
1.382.577
1.368.968
1.330.965
1.246.222
1.127.952
991.607
717.362
704.567
656.104
598.711
516.494
514.972
414.706
392.775
388.580
387.151
332.934
322.491
281.020
Aeroporto Internacional de São Paulo - Congonhas-SP
Aeroporto Internacional de Guarulhos - SP
Aeroporto Internacional de Brasília-DF
Aeroporto Internacional do Rio de Janeiro-Galeão-RJ
Aeroporto Santos Dumont - RJ
Aeroporto Internacional de Salvador - BA
Aeroporto Internacional Salgado Filho - Porto Alegre-PA
Aeroporto Internacional de Belo Horizonte-Pampulha-MG
Aeroporto Internacional Guararapes-Recife-PE
Aeroporto Internacional Afonso Pena-Curitiba-PR
Aeroporto Internacional Pinto Martins - FZ
Aeroporto Internacional de Florianópolis-SC
Aeroporto Internacional Eduardo gomes - AM
Aeroporto Internacional de Belém - PA
Aeroporto de Vitória - ES
Aeroporto Internacional Augusto Severo - Natal - RN
Aeroporto Goiânia - GO
Aeroporto Internacional de Viracopos - Campinas-SP
Aeroporto Internacional Marechal Rodon - MT
Aeroporto Campo dos Palmares - Maceió - AL
Aeroporto Internacional de Foz do Iguaçú - PR
Aeroporto Internacional de Campo Grande - MS
Aeroporto Marechal Cunha Machado - MA
Aeroporto de Londrina - PR
Aeroporto Internacional de Macapá - AP
Aeroporto Internacional Tancredo Neves-Confins-MG
Aeroporto de Navegantes - SC
Aeroporto Uberlândia - MG
Aeroporto de Aracajú - SE
Aeroporto de Macaé - RJ
Aeroporto
Aeroporto Internacional Salgado Filho - Porto Alegre-PA
Aeroporto Internacional Afonso Pena-Curitiba-PR
Aeroporto Internacional de Florianópolis-SC
Aeroporto Gustavo Kraemer - Bagé - RS
Aeroporto de Bacacheri - Curitiba -PR
Aeroporto Joinville - SC
Aeroporto Internacional de Foz do Iguaçú - PR
Aeroporto de Londrina - PR
Aeroporto de Navegantes - SC
Aeroporto de Pelotas - RS
Aeroporto Internacional Rubem Berta - Uruguaiana - RS
Aeroporto Internacional de Guarulhos - SP
Aeroporto Internacional de Viracopos - Campinas-SP
Aeroporto Internacional de Campo Grande - MS
Aeroporto Internacional de Corumbá - MS
Aeroporto Campo de Marte - SP
Aeroporto Internacional de Ponta Porã - MS
Aeroporto de São José dos Campos SP
Aeroporto Internacional de São Paulo - Congonhas-SP
Aeroporto Internacional do Rio de Janeiro-Galeão-RJ
Aeroporto Internacional de Belo Horizonte-Pampulha-MG
Aeroporto Internacional Tancredo Neves-Confins-MG
Aeroporto Carlos Prates - MG
Aeroporto Bartolomeu Lisandro Campos - RJ
Aeroporto de Jacarepaguá - RJ
Aeroporto de Juiz de Fora - MG
Aeroporto de Macaé - RJ
Aeroporto de Montes Claros - MG
Aeroporto Santos Dumont - RJ
Aeroporto de Vitória - ES
Aeroporto Internacional Guararapes-Recife-PE
Aeroporto Internacional Pinto Martins - FZ
Aeroporto de Juazeiro do Norte - CE
Aeroporto Presidente Castro Pinto -João Pessoa- PB
Consumo
(kWh)
16.767.217
7.381.695
1.960.899
113.081
58.050
764.109
2.972.753
1.581.146
654.610
149.087
121.457
82.053.104
12.066.350
2.102.463
407.280
120.650
19.993.895
118.782.056
1.747.816
9.903.546
40.348
192.240
2.043.107
129.054
919.597
198.960
5.672.754
2.404.711
23.269.987
10.458.972
583.034
Passageiros
RADIAÇÂO
latitude
(kWh/m²)
3.521.204
3.392.986
1.548.833
3.560
49.692
309.105
818.512
524.164
496.860
1.169
716
15.827.708
816.599
652.150
39.879
166.894
3.105
45.030
17.147.628
8.657.139
1.281.078
2.892.393
13.648
10.720
68.326
29.552
341.559
81.304
3.562.297
1.517.578
3.604.652
2.774.240
62.022
339.155
4,95
4,832
4,686
5,141
4,808
4,476
4,886
5,549
4,682
4,796
5,299
5,327
5,645
5,718
5,580
4,961
5,611
5,286
4,961
5,132
5,651
5,697
5,651
5,151
5,132
5,049
5,036
5,806
5,132
4,939
5,249
5,671
5,692
5,535
Pcc
(MWp)
CUSTO PV
milhões €
11,60
5,23
1,43
0,08
0,04
0,58
2,08
0,98
0,48
0,11
0,08
52,75
7,32
1,26
0,25
0,00
0,07
69,60
31,39
8,60
0,45
0,25
3,51
12,50
5,85
2,87
0,64
0,47
316,51
43,92
7,56
1,50
0,44
82,81
475,59
6,36
35,72
0,15
0,77
8,18
0,53
3,75
0,70
22,71
10,00
91,09
37,90
2,16
13,80
79,26
1,06
5,95
0,02
0,13
1,36
0,09
0,63
0,12
3,79
1,67
15,18
6,32
0,36
CUSTO PV / pass
€/pass
0,72
0,33
0,09
0,00
0,00
0,04
0,13
0,06
0,03
0,01
0,00
3,29
0,46
0,08
0,02
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,86
4,95
0,07
0,37
0,00
0,01
0,09
0,01
0,04
0,01
0,24
0,10
0,95
0,39
0,00
0,02
Aeroporto
Aeroporto Pre. João Suassuna - Campina Grande - PB
Aeroporto Campo dos Palmares - Maceió - AL
Aeroporto Internacional Augusto Severo - Natal - RN
Aeroporto de Petrolina - PE
Aeroporto deTeresina - PI
Aeroporto de Parnaíba - PI
Aeroporto de Aracajú - SE
Aeroporto de Ilhéus - BA
Aeroporto Internacional de Salvador - BA
Aeroporto de Paulo Afonso - BA
Aeroporto Internacional de Belém - PA
Aeroporto de Carajás - PA
Aeroporto de Altamira - PA
Aeroporto de Imperatriz - MA
Aeroporto Júlio César - PA
Aeroporto de Marabá - PA
Aeroporto Internacional de Macapá - AP
Aeroporto Marechal Cunha Machado - MA
Aeroporto de Santarém
Aeroporto Internacional de Boa Vista - RR
Aeroporto Internacional de Cruzeiro do Sul - AC
Aeroporto Internacional Eduardo gomes - AM
Aeroporto de Porto Velho - RO
Aeroporto Internacional de Rio Branco - AC
Aeroporto de Tefé - AM
Aeroporto Internacional de Tabatinga - AM
Aeroporto Internacional de Brasília-DF
Aeroporto Internacional Marechal Rodon - MT
Aeroporto Goiânia - GO
Aeroporto Palmas - TO
Aeroporto de Uberaba - MG
Aeroporto Uberlândia - MG
Total
Consumo
(kWh)
154.591
2.492.335
6.415.327
1.069.379
1.709.338
2.395.295
472.080
16.313.903
134.657
9.648.404
230.110
404.905
342.354
1.369.440
4.155.608
631.119
707.880
330.829
16.722.402
2.452.320
1.717.200
289.384
135.849
14.905.391
2.604.066
1.977.249
2.775.355
273.798
729.311
419.173.907,00
Passageiros
44.147
765.582
1.299.144
156.626
315.796
3.258
490.300
239.193
4.554.096
14.851
1.523.714
30.051
54.532
69.908
37.357,00
87.153
414.481
569.442
174.627
144.486
60.910
1.508.022
293.895
206.637
23.282
28.720
9.481.983
880.256
1.236.466
215.333
60.443
532.024
96.118.172,00
RADIAÇÂO
latitude
(kWh/m²)
5,346
5,336
5,495
5,657
5,767
5,706
5,522
5,169
5,495
5,408
5,482
5,466
5,145
5,466
5,482
5,336
5,332
5,359
5,375
5,347
5,203
5,153
5,256
5,263
5,265
5,504
5,696
5,630
5,813
5,591
5,745
5,745
352,27
Pcc
(MWp)
CUSTO PV
milhões €
0,10
1,60
4,00
0,65
1,02
0,59
9,60
23,99
3,88
6,09
0,01
0,10
0,25
0,04
0,06
1,49
0,31
10,17
0,09
6,03
0,00
0,15
0,25
8,91
1,88
61,00
0,51
36,16
0,92
1,52
1,32
5,28
15,93
2,41
2,72
1,31
66,68
9,59
6,70
1,13
0,51
53,77
9,50
6,99
10,20
0,98
2,61
1.637,19
0,09
0,02
0,63
0,01
0,38
0,00
0,01
0,02
0,00
0,01
0,05
0,17
0,03
0,03
0,01
0,69
0,10
0,07
0,01
0,01
0,56
0,10
0,07
0,11
0,01
0,03
0,22
0,88
2,66
0,40
0,45
0,22
11,11
1,60
1,12
0,19
0,08
8,96
1,58
1,16
1,70
0,16
0,43
272,86
CUSTO PV / pass
€/pass
17,03
O mercado de carbono
Aeroporto
Emissão CO2
Pcc/ano
MWh/ano
MIX
gCO2/kWh
Aeroporto Internacional Salgado Filho - Porto Alegre-PA
Aeroporto Internacional Afonso Pena-Curitiba-PR
Aeroporto Internacional de Florianópolis-SC
Aeroporto Gustavo Kraemer - Bagé - RS
Aeroporto de Bacacheri - Curitiba -PR
Aeroporto Joinville - SC
Aeroporto Internacional de Foz do Iguaçú - PR
Aeroporto de Londrina - PR
Aeroporto de Navegantes - SC
Aeroporto de Pelotas - RS
Aeroporto Internacional Rubem Berta - Uruguaiana - RS
Aeroporto Internacional de Guarulhos - SP
Aeroporto Internacional de Viracopos - Campinas-SP
Aeroporto Internacional de Campo Grande - MS
Aeroporto Internacional de Corumbá - MS
Aeroporto Campo de Marte - SP
Aeroporto Internacional de Ponta Porã - MS
Aeroporto de São José dos Campos SP
Aeroporto Internacional de São Paulo - Congonhas-SP
Aeroporto Internacional do Rio de Janeiro-Galeão-RJ
Aeroporto Internacional de Belo Horizonte-Pampulha-MG
Aeroporto Internacional Tancredo Neves-Confins-MG
Aeroporto Carlos Prates - MG
Aeroporto Bartolomeu Lisandro Campos - RJ
Aeroporto de Jacarepaguá - RJ
Aeroporto de Juiz de Fora - MG
Aeroporto de Macaé - RJ
Aeroporto de Montes Claros - MG
Aeroporto Santos Dumont - RJ
Aeroporto de Vitória - ES
Aeroporto Internacional Guararapes-Recife-PE
Aeroporto Internacional Pinto Martins - FZ
Aeroporto de Juazeiro do Norte - CE
Aeroporto Presidente Castro Pinto -João Pessoa- PB
16.767,22
7.381,70
1.960,90
113,08
58,05
764,11
2.972,75
1.581,15
654,61
149,09
121,46
82.053,10
12.066,35
2.102,46
407,28
120,65
19.993,90
118.782,06
1.747,82
9.903,55
40,35
192,24
2.043,11
129,05
919,60
198,96
5.672,75
2.404,71
23.269,99
10.458,97
583,03
564,47
9.464,59
4.166,75
1.106,87
63,83
32,77
431,32
1.678,03
892,51
369,51
84,16
68,56
46.316,52
6.811,09
1.186,78
229,90
68,10
11.285,95
67.048,91
986,59
5.590,25
22,78
108,51
1.153,27
72,85
519,08
112,31
3.202,10
1.357,39
13.135,21
5.903,78
329,11
tonCO2/ano
Carvão
$ Euros
154.746,06
68.126,29
18.097,30
1.043,63
535,75
7.052,03
27.435,79
14.592,53
6.041,45
1.375,94
1.120,94
757.275,03
111.361,36
19.403,81
3.758,82
1.113,49
184.525,35
1.096.249,63
16.130,74
91.400,66
372,38
1.774,20
18.856,01
1.191,05
8.487,04
1.836,22
52.354,33
22.193,28
214.760,68
96.526,74
5.380,87
915,80
15.355,42
6.760,16
1.795,79
103,56
53,16
699,77
2.722,45
1.448,01
599,49
136,53
111,23
75.144,23
11.050,36
1.925,44
372,99
110,49
18.310,41
108.780,61
1.600,65
9.069,67
36,95
176,05
1.871,08
118,19
842,17
182,21
5.195,11
2.202,23
21.310,65
9.578,33
533,94
Óleo
$ Euros
251.061,07
110.528,56
29.361,19
1.693,20
869,20
11.441,26
44.512,01
23.675,02
9.801,69
2.232,33
1.818,62
1.228.608,20
180.673,44
31.480,87
6.098,34
1.806,53
299.375,19
1.778.562,92
26.170,63
148.289,06
604,14
2.878,47
30.592,12
1.932,37
13.769,43
2.979,09
84.940,02
36.006,53
348.429,19
156.605,64
8.729,96
755,60
12.669,31
5.577,61
1.481,66
85,44
43,86
577,36
2.246,21
1.194,71
494,62
112,65
91,77
61.999,33
9.117,33
1.588,62
307,74
91,16
15.107,39
89.751,72
1.320,65
7.483,12
30,49
145,26
1.543,77
97,51
694,85
150,33
4.286,33
1.817,00
17.582,80
7.902,80
440,54
Gás Natural
$ Euros
207.143,20
91.193,90
24.225,06
1.397,01
717,15
9.439,85
36.725,57
19.533,57
8.087,09
1.841,83
1.500,49
1.013.688,97
149.068,41
25.973,95
5.031,56
1.490,52
247.005,78
1.467.440,65
21.592,62
122.349,00
498,46
2.374,94
25.240,67
1.594,34
11.360,76
2.457,96
70.081,54
29.707,94
287.478,82
129.210,77
7.202,84
420,10
7.043,91
3.101,05
823,77
47,51
24,39
321,00
1.248,85
664,24
275,00
62,63
51,02
34.470,51
5.069,07
883,24
171,10
50,69
8.399,44
49.900,34
734,26
4.160,48
16,95
80,76
858,31
54,22
386,32
83,58
2.383,12
1.010,22
9.775,72
4.393,81
244,93
$ Euros
115.167,89
50.702,17
13.468,70
776,71
398,72
5.248,39
20.418,76
10.860,31
4.496,28
1.024,02
834,24
563.592,82
82.879,35
14.441,05
2.797,46
828,70
137.330,77
815.870,59
12.005,11
68.023,84
277,14
1.320,43
14.033,36
886,42
6.316,38
1.366,58
38.964,08
16.517,08
159.833,05
71.838,86
4.004,65
O mercado de carbono
Aeroporto
Emissão CO2
Pcc/ano
MWh/ano
MIX
gCO2/kWh
Aeroporto Pre. João Suassuna - Campina Grande - PB
Aeroporto Campo dos Palmares - Maceió - AL
Aeroporto Internacional Augusto Severo - Natal - RN
Aeroporto de Petrolina - PE
Aeroporto deTeresina - PI
Aeroporto de Parnaíba - PI
Aeroporto de Aracajú - SE
Aeroporto de Ilhéus - BA
Aeroporto Internacional de Salvador - BA
Aeroporto de Paulo Afonso - BA
Aeroporto Internacional de Belém - PA
Aeroporto de Carajás - PA
Aeroporto de Altamira - PA
Aeroporto de Imperatriz - MA
Aeroporto Júlio César - PA
Aeroporto de Marabá - PA
Aeroporto Internacional de Macapá - AP
Aeroporto Marechal Cunha Machado - MA
Aeroporto de Santarém
Aeroporto Internacional de Boa Vista - RR
Aeroporto Internacional de Cruzeiro do Sul - AC
Aeroporto Internacional Eduardo gomes - AM
Aeroporto de Porto Velho - RO
Aeroporto Internacional de Rio Branco - AC
Aeroporto de Tefé - AM
Aeroporto Internacional de Tabatinga - AM
Aeroporto Internacional de Brasília-DF
Aeroporto Internacional Marechal Rodon - MT
Aeroporto Goiânia - GO
Aeroporto Palmas - TO
Aeroporto de Uberaba - MG
Aeroporto Uberlândia - MG
Total
154,59
2.492,34
6.415,33
1.069,38
1.709,34
2.395,30
472,08
16.313,90
134,66
9.648,40
230,11
404,91
342,35
1.369,44
4.155,61
631,12
707,88
330,83
16.722,40
2.452,32
1.717,20
289,38
135,85
14.905,39
2.604,07
1.977,25
2.775,36
273,80
729,31
419.173,91
564,47
87,26
1.406,85
3.621,26
603,63
964,87
1.352,07
266,47
9.208,71
76,01
5.446,23
129,89
228,56
193,25
773,01
2.345,72
356,25
399,58
186,74
9.439,29
1.384,26
969,31
163,35
76,68
8.413,65
1.469,92
1.116,10
1.566,60
154,55
411,67
236.611,10
tonCO2/ano
Carvão
$ Euros
1.426,73
23.001,97
59.207,59
9.869,39
15.775,62
22.106,38
4.356,87
150.562,39
1.242,76
89.045,94
2.123,70
3.736,90
3.159,61
12.638,68
38.352,46
5.824,65
6.533,08
3.053,25
154.332,46
22.632,67
15.848,18
2.670,75
1.253,76
137.563,11
24.033,15
18.248,20
25.613,99
2.526,90
6.730,87
3.868.591,41
915,80
141,57
2.282,48
5.875,16
979,34
1.565,41
2.193,61
432,33
14.940,27
123,32
8.836,01
210,73
370,81
313,53
1.254,13
3.805,71
577,98
648,28
302,97
15.314,38
2.245,83
1.572,61
265,02
124,41
13.650,36
2.384,80
1.810,76
2.541,67
250,74
667,90
383.879,46
Óleo
$ Euros
2.314,74
37.318,55
96.058,81
16.012,16
25.594,48
35.865,54
7.068,61
244.273,45
2.016,26
144.468,74
3.445,51
6.062,78
5.126,18
20.505,08
62.223,29
9.449,95
10.599,32
4.953,61
250.390,04
36.719,40
25.712,20
4.333,04
2.034,11
223.183,34
38.991,54
29.606,00
41.556,31
4.099,67
10.920,21
6.276.429,24
755,60
116,81
1.883,21
4.847,42
808,02
1.291,58
1.809,88
356,70
12.326,79
101,75
7.290,33
173,87
305,95
258,68
1.034,75
3.139,98
476,87
534,87
249,97
12.635,45
1.852,97
1.297,52
218,66
102,65
11.262,51
1.967,63
1.494,01
2.097,06
206,88
551,07
316.727,80
Gás Natural
$ Euros
1.909,83
30.790,46
79.255,33
13.211,17
21.117,26
29.591,62
5.832,10
201.542,94
1.663,56
119.196,96
2.842,79
5.002,22
4.229,46
16.918,14
51.338,63
7.796,88
8.745,19
4.087,08
206.589,56
30.296,11
21.214,39
3.575,07
1.678,29
184.142,09
32.170,79
24.427,05
34.286,90
3.382,52
9.009,95
5.178.499,60
420,10
64,94
1.047,03
2.695,08
449,25
718,09
1.006,26
198,32
6.853,47
56,57
4.053,29
96,67
170,10
143,82
575,30
1.745,77
265,13
297,38
138,98
7.025,08
1.030,22
721,40
121,57
57,07
6.261,75
1.093,97
830,64
1.165,93
115,02
306,38
176.094,96
$ Euros
1.061,83
17.118,94
44.064,54
7.345,17
11.740,82
16.452,41
3.242,55
112.054,25
924,91
66.271,37
1.580,54
2.781,14
2.351,50
9.406,18
28.543,35
4.334,93
4.862,17
2.272,34
114.860,08
16.844,09
11.794,82
1.987,67
933,10
102.379,69
17.886,38
13.581,00
19.062,90
1.880,62
5.009,37
2.879.152,57
Who pays the bill?
Polluter-pays principle: increase in airport departure tax !
Study-case Brazil: 10 years @ 2
/passenger-flight
100
90
% of grid power
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
2
8
14
20
26
32
38
Departure tax
44
50
56
62
68
(€)
Only the liable, wealthy fraction of society is
invited to pick up the tab
Galeão
Guarulhos
Recife
Salvador
Congonhas
Eduardo Gomes
Salgado Filho
Brasília
Viracopos
Pinto Martins
Belém
Confins
Curitiba
Natal
Santos Dumont
ORLANDO
Florianópolis

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