Late Classic III

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Late Classic III
Altun Ha
 Located
Late Classic III
Palenque, Copan, and Quirigua
in northern Belize, near
Caribbean coast.
 Occupied since Early Preclassic, but
most visible remains from Classic
when population about 3,000.
 Relatively small site, but great wealth.
Altun Ha
Altun Ha
Temple of Green Tomb
Altun Ha
Temple of the Masonry Altars
1
Xunantunich
 Small
site
 Palace site – elite family from larger
place?
 Glyphs: connection with Naranjo.
Altun Ha
Carved Masks
Xunantunich
El Castillo
Xunantunich
stucco frieze
Xunantunich
Detail, stucco frieze
Sun God
2
Palenque
 Western
edge of Maya region
 History through stucco panels – no
stelae.
 Glyphs plus images.
 Distinctive style of architecture.
Palenque
Dynasty at Palenque
 First
ruler: Bahlum-Kuk I
7 rulers were men, either father –
son or brother-brother succession.
 8th ruler: Lady Kanal-Ikal.
 Father, Chan-Bahlum I had no sons.
 1st
3
Dynasty at Palenque
 Lady
Kanal-Ikal had 2 sons, Ac-Kan and
Pacal I.
 Ac-Kan became ahau but had no
children.
 Pacal I never became ahau, but had one
daughter, Lady Zac-Kuk.
 Lady Zac-Kuk, mother of Pacal the
Great, became ahau after Ac-Kan.
Pacal at Palenque
 Pacal
the Great major ruler at
Palenque
 Ruled from A.D. 615-683.
 Born A.D. 603, so became ahau at 12.
 Temple of Inscriptions: Pacal’s
temple.
Palenque Temple of the Inscriptions
Pacal
Palenque
Temple of the Inscriptions
4
Chan Bahlum II at Palenque
 Succeeded
Pacal’s Tomb and
Sarcophagus Lid
Palace at Palenque
Figures on Palace, stucco
Palenque
his father, Pacal, to the
throne 132 days after Pacal’s death.
 He finished the Temple of the
Inscriptions, his father’s tomb, and
also embarked on massive building
projects of his own.
Hieroglyphic Stairs, Palace, Palenque
Pacal and
Lady Zac-Kuk
5
Group of the Cross
 Chan
Bahlum built a group of 3
temples:
 Temples of the Cross, Foliated
Cross, and Sun.
 Arrangement recalls triadic forms from
Late Preclassic.
Group of the Cross, Palenque
Temple of the Cross
Temple of the Sun
Temple of the Sun
6
Group of
the Cross
Temple
Plan
Temple of the Sun, central tablet
Central
tablets:
Cross
Foliated
Cross
Group of the Cross Text
 Each
temple has lengthy text.
 Cross: text refers to the First Mother,
initiating creation in 3114 B.C.
 He (and Pacal) made direct
connections between First Mother and
the women in their dynasty.
Chan Bahlum II to Kan Xul II
 Chan
Bahlum became ahau at age 48
(A.D. 684) but died at age 66 in A.D.
702.
 His brother, Kan Xul II, succeeded him
in 702.
 Kan Xul added to palace (tower).
Palace Tower
7
Palenque Declines
Tonina
 Kan
 Small
Xul needed captives to dedicate the
palace renovations.
 Led raid on Tonina in A.D. 711.
 Captured in raid and held there for more
than 10 years.
 Next ahau at Palenque succeeded in A.D.
722, but power in decline by that time.
 Last recorded accession: A.D. 799, 6 Cimi
Pacal.
Tonina Palace
center
event: capture of Kan Xul in 711.
 Monuments at Tonina carved in 3-D style,
similar to Quirigua, but unlike most that
were in 2-D.
 Only monument at Tonina in 2-D was
the one about Kan Xul’s capture, carved
in Palenque’s flat style.
 Main
Tonina Figure
Copan
 Located
near Rio Copan, surrounded
by mountains.
 Began in Early Preclassic period.
 Population increased through Middle
Preclassic, declined, then increased
again in Early Classic.
 Late Classic population: 18 -25,000.
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Yax Kuk Mo’ Begins a Dynasty
 First
ruler, Yax Kuk Mo’, began major
building campaign
 Later rulers continued
 One early building: Rosalila, built by
Moon Jaguar, A.D. 571, preserved
intact.
Copan
Rosalila
reconstruction
Rosalila stucco figure
Smoke Imix at Copan
 Ruled
from A.D. 628-695.
 Influence extended far into region;
included Quirigua.
 Stelae and monuments throughout
region mark territory ruled by Copan.
Rosalila Sun God figure
9
18 Rabbit at Copan
 Succeeded
Smoke Imix in A.D. 695.
 Massive architectural program at
acropolis.
 References to witz mountain.
 Innovation: carved stone with added
plaster - - more dramatic 3-D effect.
 Erected many stelae on great plaza.
Stela A –
18 Rabbit
Stela B and
Turtle –
18 Rabbit
Stela C –
18 Rabbit
Copan and Quirigua
 Connected
closely for long period of time.
center, north of Copan.
 Strategic resources: jade, obsidian, and
river access for trade.
 Founded by elite lineage from Tikal in
Early Classic, but under Copan’s control
from about A.D. 493 to A.D. 725.
 Small
Copan ballcourt and plaza
10
Quirigua
Cauac Sky at Quirigua
 In
A.D. 725, 18 Rabbit permitted
Cauac Sky to become ahau at
Quirigua.
 Cauac Sky adopted his own emblem
glyph and pursued an aggressive
building campaign, especially in
freestanding sculptures.
Left: Stela E
Right: Stela C
Quirigua after Cauac Sky
 Successors,
Sky Xul and Jade Sky,
constructed enormous carved
boulders, placed near the ballcourt.
 Known as Zoomorphs B and P.
Copan after 18 Rabbit
 Smoke
Monkey succeeded 18 Rabbit
time in monument and architecture
building.
 Council system now in full use
 9 elite lineages represented.
 Smoke Shell succeeded Smoke Monkey
and added to the hieroglyphic stairway
begun by 18 Rabbit.
 Quiet
Zoomorph P
11
Hieroglyphic Stairway
Hieroglyphic
Stairway
Stela at
bottom:
Smoke Shell
Smoke Shell at Copan
Yax Pac’s architecture
 Worked
 Temple
hard to capture faded glory of
Copan.
 Married noblewoman from Palneque,
establishing an alliance.
 Son: Yax Pac, last ruler of Copan.
 Massive building program of Yax Pac.
tallest at Copan; Altar Q
placed directly in front of stairs.
 May have been bench from which he
conducted business.
 Memorializes 15 previous ahaus - and 15 jaguars sacrificed at
dedication.
Yax Pac’s Temple and Altar Q
Altar Q North
12
Altar Q East
Altar Q South
Altar Q West
Altar Q – Kinich Yax Kuk Mo passes scepter to Yax Pac
Yax Pac’s Ruling Council
 Yax
Pac ruled with elite council.
residences also had benches for doing
business.
 Also had portraits and sculptures of elite
– reproduced veneration of ahau in
smaller way.
 Yax Pac’s brothers governed territories
under Copan’s control.
 Elite
Altar G
13
Yax Pac’s Reign Ends
U Cit Tok and the end at Copan
 Yax
U
Pac celebrated the katun ending
in A.D. 810 at Quirigua with their last
ruler, Jade Sky - - not at home.
 Possibly a refugee from Copan.
 Tomb never found at Copan.
Cit Tok attempted to establish
kingship but seems to have failed
 Monument: Altar L intended to
replicate Altar Q, but never finished.
 Partly finished side showed U Cit
Tok taking scepter from Yax Pac;
three sides blank.
End at Quirigua coincides
 Last
recorded date at Quirigua A.D.
810, in the monument
commemorating Jade Sky and Yax
Pac’s katun ending celebration.
 People lived at Quirigua until about
A.D. 900, but no classic-style
monuments or buildings constructed.
14

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