March 2006 - International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts
Table of Contents
Table of Contents ……………….…………………………………………..………
IABPA 2006 Officers ………………………………………………..………...……
President’s Message ………………………………….……………………………..
RESEARCH ARTICLE: Another Treatment of Three-Dimensional Bloodstain
Alexei Pace, A.L. Carter, Craig Moore, and Brian Yamashita ……………………….
RESEARCH ARTICLE: Experimental Detection of Blood Under Painted Surfaces
Thomas W. Adair …………………………………………………………………...
Proof-Reading Service for IABPA Presentations and Articles
Carolyn Gannett ……………………………………………………………………
Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference
in Middelburg, Zeeland, the Netherlands, 13-15 February 2006 …………………..
2006 International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts
Annual Training Conference ……………………………………………………….
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in the News
Alexei Pace …………………………………………….……………………...……
Abstracts of Recent BPA Related Articles Published in the Scientific Literature …
Organizational Notices ………………………………………………………....…...
Training Opportunities ……………………………………………….......................
Editor’s Corner ………………………………………………………………..…….
Past Presidents / Associate Editors …………………………...………………….….
2006 I.A.B.P.A. Officers
Vice President, Region I
Vice President, Region II
Vice President, Region III
Vice President, Region IV
Vice President, Region V
Leif S. Petersen
Secretary / Treasurer
Sergeant at Arms
17 February 2006
Goeden Morgen, Damas en heren. Greetings from the Netherlands. On the dates of February 1517, I attended the first European IABPA conference, held in the picturesque city of Middleburg,
Zeeland, a sea town in the Netherlands. Since much of the early research in bloodstain pattern
analysis was done in Europe, it seems only fitting to hold a conference here. I was encouraged and
pleased to see one hundred forty participants, representing twenty different countries, at this
memorable occasion. I would like to extend my thanks to Chief Fup Goudswaard and to his staff, the
Zeeland Police Force, for hosting this historical event. Also, a very special thanks to Andre Hendrix
for all of his time and effort. Dank U Wel!
Since arriving in the Netherlands on February 12th I have enjoyed many unique adventures, and
plan to experience several more. The people here are truly remarkable. From the moment we
landed, we have been treated like family members of a slightly different accent, rather than tourists
from a distant land. On behalf of the North American IABPA attendees, I wish to extend warm
thanks to Andre and all of our Polite hosts for their hospitality.
Well, in a stimulating week of peer review, that is all I have time to offer, for now. I promise to
update you in the next issue of the IABPA news. Until then, take care of yourselves, and be good to
William (Bill) Basso
Attendees of the First European IABPA Conference held in Middelburg, Zeeland, The Netherlands
Another Treatment of Three-Dimensional Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
Alexei Pace1, A.L. Carter2, Craig Moore3, and Brian Yamashita4
In computerized bloodstain pattern analysis, the BackTrack™ suite of programs has been shown to
give an accurate estimate of a blood source location. In a previous paper, virtual strings, a concept
developed in BackTrack™, were superimposed on a computer-aided design (CAD) model of the
crime scene in order to give the semblance of a three-dimensional analysis. The virtual string
directions are given by the impact velocities of each blood drop. These virtual strings play an
important role in the analysis because the laws of physics dictate that they must pass directly over
the blood source. In the present work, the BackTrack™ calculations have been incorporated directly
into a CAD program in order to produce a three-dimensional treatment of bloodstain pattern
The reconstruction of spatter patterns, in bloodstain pattern analysis, can be carried out in a
number of ways. In the stringing method, the analyst affixes strings at the leading edges of
bloodstains, and then pulls them away from the wall in such a way as to maintain the correct impact
(α) and glancing (γ) angles. In effect, this method treats the flight paths of the blood drops as
straight lines represented by the strings. The approximate location of the blood source is estimated
to be where the majority of strings intersect . In the tangent method, the flight path of the blood
drop is assumed to be the hypotenuse of a right triangle. One leg of the triangle is drawn on the wall
along the long axis of the elliptical stain towards the approximate point of origin in the plane of the
wall. The second leg of the triangle comes out as a perpendicular line from the wall, at the point of
origin in the plane of the wall. The average location of the ends of the hypotenuses will result in an
approximate location for the blood source . It should be pointed out here that the tangent method
can introduce unknown systematic errors in the horizontal value of the location of the blood source
due to the unknown curvatures of the individual flight paths. It should be used only with stains that
are the result of fast-moving blood drops (i.e. fast enough to produce string-like trajectories). This
weakness of the tangent method is discussed in detail in reference .
Reference 4 describes the theory used to create BackTrack™, and introduces the concept of
Directional Analysis, that is, the calculation of the point of convergence of virtual strings viewed
from above [4,5]. Virtual strings can be considered as being the equivalent of the traditional
stringing method transposed onto the computer. BackTrack™ is capable of accepting data on the
stains entered directly in the program by the analyst after careful photographic documentation and
coordinate measurements at the scene of a crime.
Independent forensic consultant, Marsaxlokk, Malta. To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forensic Computing of Ottawa and Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada
Forensic Services Unit, Niagara Regional Police Service, St. Catharines, ON, Canada
Forensic Identification Research Services, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, ON Canada
The BackTrack™ suite of programs uses Directional Analysis to calculate the approximate blood
source location in the plane of the floor by looking for the average intersection of flight paths
observed from above. The flight path of a blood drop, even under the effects of gravity, will remain
in a plane, and the edges of these planes will look like straight lines when seen from above . The
side view will allow the analyst to approximate the height of the blood source.
The conventional BackTrack program offers accurate 3D representation of the data with three
separate 2-D views, the top, side, and end views. Better for demonstration purposes, a threedimensional rendering is possible by superimposing the BackTrack™ string data on a threedimensional computer-aided design (CAD) depiction of the crime scene [6,7]. In court, if there is a
computer set-up available, the image of the crime scene can be rotated in any direction, to give the
judge and jury a better view of the flight paths of the blood drops in relation to the scene. A more
convenient treatment would be to combine the BackTrack™ calculations with CAD software to
produce a program that will determine the approximate blood source location within a threedimensional environment. The introduction of CAD software has been beneficial to forensic science
in general. Widely used to produce two-dimensional views from crime scene sketches, forensic
scientists can now use the 3D capabilities of such software for the modelling and rendering of spatter
trajectories in three-dimensional space.
In the present case, bloodstains on a table in a room where a beating took place were first analysed
with the conventional BackTrack™ suite of programs. The scene was then re-analyzed using the
combined BackTrack™/AutoCAD program.
Case History 
A homicide victim was found in the bathtub of his house. Based on the bloody drag marks on the
floor, it appeared that the fatal beating occurred in the dining room. A great deal of bloodstain
evidence was recovered near one wall, indicating that the majority of blows were delivered while the
victim was lying on the floor at that location (Figure 1). An overturned dining room table in the
middle of the room was also stained with blood. This table was righted and placed back in
approximately its original location in the room, based on the markings on the floor. Stains on the top
of the table and along the edge indicated that two separate blows were struck in the vicinity of the
Materials and Methods
The crime scene was photographed extensively and measurements for a plan drawing were taken.
Bloodstains on the top and on the edge of the table were examined for selection for a BackTrack™
analysis. A total of 24 stains were eventually chosen, 11 from the edge of the table and 13 from the
tabletop (Figure 2). Each stain was photographed, along with a scale and a plumb line, with a Nikon
FE2 SLR camera on Kodak colour print film, and its (X, Y, Z) location was measured. The
BackTrack™ program is able to incorporate 12 different surfaces in its calculations, with the main
(front) wall given status 0. The tabletop was considered an offset from the floor and was, therefore,
status 9, while the edge of the table was an offset of the back wall and was, therefore, status 5 in the
Figure 1. Photograph of the crime scene. Note the large area
of blood beneath the window and the overturned table.
Figure 2. Table in the upright position showing the
bloodstains on the top and along one edge.
Each stain from the tabletop was downloaded into the BackTrack™/Images program (Forensic
Computing of Ottawa), in which the α and γ angles were calculated. This data was then transferred
to BackTrack™/Win (Forensic Computing of Ottawa) for analysis and determination of X-, Y-, and
Z-values for the blood source location. A similar procedure was carried out for the stains along the
edge of the table.
A similar result was obtained after introducing the images directly into the AutoCAD Architectural
Desktop 2005 program (AutoDesk, San Rafael, California). This is a CAD program which can
illustrate all the surfaces inside a room and at any angle. This includes all the walls, ceiling, floor, as
well as any furniture items.
Ellipses were drawn on each bloodstain and the stain’s angle of impact was calculated on a
spreadsheet using the measurements of the stain’s width and length obtained from the scaled images.
The UCS (universal coordinate system), which is the basis of all the coordinate references inside the
program, was set so as to be exactly like the coordinate referencing system used to measure the stain
locations at the crime scene.
Straight lines were then drawn on each stain, representing its calculated trajectory in threedimensional space. Each line was angled according to the stain’s individual angle of impact. A
number of lines were thus obtained, originating at a height directly above the area of convergence.
Switching to the top view, in order to view the true straight-line trajectories, the coordinates of the
point of origin were then calculated by averaging the coordinates of the multiple points of origin for
each pair of lines.
Additionally, the table upon which the stains were found was modelled into the program, using the
actual dimensions measured at the crime scene. Some thickness was given to the stain trajectories in
order to increase their clarity in the images shown.
The top view of the first blow (tabletop) is shown in Figure 3, while the side view, used to
calculate the approximate height of the blood source, is shown in Figure 4. For the stains along the
edge of the table, the top view is also shown in Figure 3, while the side view is shown in Figures 5.
The X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates for each blow are given in Table 1. These data indicate that the
victim was likely standing near the table when one blow was struck, resulting in staining on the top
of the table. A second blow was struck while the victim was likely on his hands and knees, resulting
in the stains along the edge of the table.
Figure 3. Top view from BackTrack™, showing the three blood source locations in the X-Y plane.
A 3D view of the crime scene is shown in Figures 6 and 7. Figure 6 shows only the first blow, and
includes a plan view and a side view, which would correspond to the top view and side view,
respectively, from BackTrack™. Note that for clarity not all virtual flight paths are depicted in
Figure 7. The advantage with this technique is that a true physical model can be built inside the
program using the data obtained at the scene of the crime itself. Such a three-dimensional model can
then be rotated in any desired axis and viewed from any viewpoint in order to enable a lay jury to
fully understand its morphology. The X-, Y-, and Z- coordinates obtained by both programs for the
points of origin are given in Table 1.
Figure 4. Side view from BackTrack™ for the first blow, used to estimate the height of the blood source.
Note that the virtual strings end on the tabletop.
Figure 5. Side view from BackTrack™ for the second blow, used to estimate the height of the second blood
source. Note that the virtual strings end at the edge of the table.
Side of table
Table 1. The X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates for each of the two blows.
Figure 6. Plan view, side view, and perspective view of the first blow resulting in staining on the tabletop.
Figure 7. Three-dimensional depiction of the bloodstains on the table. If the light source is directly
overhead as shown here, the shadows of the flight paths will correspond to the top view in BackTrack™.
The BackTrack™ suite of programs has previously been shown to produce an accurate estimation
of the location of a blood source [9-11]. The program is able to accommodate data from 12 plane
surfaces corresponding to the four walls, the ceiling, and the floor, plus surfaces parallel to these six.
In the current analysis, the top of the table was processed as a surface parallel to the floor, while the
flat face on the side of the table was processed as a surface parallel to the rear wall. As shown here,
BackTrack™ was able to carry out the calculation for all of these stains and was able to produce two
reasonable blood source locations near the table. As with any crime scene reconstruction, it is
difficult to know how well the program performed unless the suspect confesses and describes the
events that took place.
At the same time a three-dimensional image of the crime scene was produced. Unlike the previous
study [6,7], where the flight paths calculated by BackTrack™ were simply superimposed on a CAD
drawing, this time the whole analysis, including processing of the bloodstain images and calculation
of the X-, Y- and Z- coordinates of the origin of each spatter pattern, was carried out inside the
program. Further software details will be provided in a subsequent publication. The end result was
the coordinate locations for each alleged impact together with the three-dimensional model of the
crime scene. This form of representation is useful as it not only permits the forensic scientist to
create a realistic three-dimensional computer model of the spatter trajectories, but also allows such a
model to be integrated together with the sketch of the crime scene.
The three-dimensional CAD program produced very similar results to the BackTrack™
calculation, with the maximum coordinate difference between both methods being less than 2
centimetres. It should be noted that for the purposes of the CAD reconstruction, only five stains
from each pattern on the table were utilised. Use of more stains would yield a better average and
perhaps identical results to the BackTrack™ results, if the same parameters for averaging were used,
and assuming minor differences in ellipse-fitting and angle determination.
There was some question as to whether or not the table had been in the upright position when the
blood had been spattered. However, the symmetric pattern of staining on the top of the table
indicated downward-moving droplets from a source above and to the side of the table. This pattern
would be inconsistent with a scenario with the table on its side.
Further validation studies will look at patterns created in the laboratory such that the blood source
location will be known. The CAD program will be compared to the conventional BackTrack™
program to determine if comparable results are being generated by the two programs. Similar
research is currently being carried out in other laboratories [12,13].
1. James, S.H.; Kish, P.E.; and Sutton, T.P.: Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Theory and Practice, CRC
Taylor & Francis: Boca Raton FL, 2005; 226-232.
2. Ibid., 233-234.
3. Carter, A.L. The Physics of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, Lecture Notes, Forensic Computing of Ottawa: Ottawa, ON,
2005; Chapter 11.
4. Carter, A.L. The Directional Analysis of Bloodstain Patterns. Theory and Experimental Validation, Can. Soc.
Forensic Sci. J., 2001, 34(4), 173-189.
5. Carter, A.L.; Podworny, E.J. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with a Scientific Calculator. Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J.
1991, 24 (1), 37-42.
6. Maloney, K.; Carter, A.L.; Jory, S.; and Yamashita, B. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis,
J. Forensic Ident., 2005, 55(6), 711-725.
7. Maloney, K. 3-Dimensional Representation of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Presented at: International Association
of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Santa Barbara, CA, October 2005.
8. Carter, A.L. in: James, S.H.; Kish, P.E.; and Sutton, T.P.: Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Theory and
Practice, CRC Taylor & Francis: Boca Raton FL, 2005; 254-257.
9. Wright, J.C. The Validation of BackTrack for Use in Casework in the UK. Presented at: International Association of
Bloodstain Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Harrisburg, PA, October 2002.
10. Carter, A.L.; Forsythe-Erman, J.; Hawkes, V.; Illes, M.; Laturnus, P.; Lefebvre, G.; Stewart, C.; Yamashita, B.
Validation of the BackTrack Suite of Programs for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, J. Forensic Ident., accepted for
11. Carter, A.L.; Illes, M.; Maloney, K.; Yamashita, A.B.; Allen, B.; Brown, B.; Davidson, L.; Ellis, G.; Gallant, J.;
Gradkowski, A.; Hignell, J.; Jory, S.; Laturnus, P.L.; Moore, C.C.; Pembroke, R.; Richard, A.; Spenard, R.; Stewart, C.
Further Validation of the BackTrack™ Computer Program for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis – Precision and Accuracy,
IABPA News, 2005, 21(3), 15-22.
12. Esperanca, P.; Schuliar, Y.; Chaudeyrac, P.; Piranda, B.; Arques, D. ESCRIME: A New Software for Bloodstain
Pattern Analysis in 3-Dimensions. Presented at: American Academy of Forensic Sciences 57th Annual Meeting, New
Orleans, LA, February 2005.
13. Esperanca, P. ESCrime - 3-Dimensional Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Software. Presented at: International
Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Santa Barbara, CA, October 2005.
Experimental Detection of Blood Under Painted Surfaces
Thomas W. Adair
In August of 2005 the author was contacted by an investigator with the State Attorney General’s
office in Denver regarding a three year old homicide case. The suspect(s) were believed to have
painted over the bloodstained walls in the crime scene shortly after the murder. The author was
asked to investigate the possibility of detecting blood under painted surfaces and recommend a
method of searching for and detecting blood under these conditions. To assist with this experiment
the investigator was able to search the crime scene residence and recover the original paint buckets
utilized for the paint on the walls at the time of the homicide. The investigators went to a local paint
store where a fresh gallon of similar paint and color formula was obtained.
A search of the forensic literature resulted in few references describing this type of research.
Vandenberg and van Oorschot (1) reported on finding blood under paint using the Polilight™
PL500 at about 415nm. In their experiments it appears that blood was deposited directly on wood,
plaster, brick, and metal and then painted over with various colors of light colored water based paint
and white acrylic paint. Blood was visible under three coats of paint. From the photographs it
appeared that the blood absorbed the ultraviolet light giving it a dark appearance. The authors also
reported that blood could be detected under wallpaper using the Polilight™. The authors reported
that a full DNA profile was obtained from blood samples under paint. Samples were subjected to
Chelex™ DNA extraction and then amplified using Profiler Plus™. No attempt was made to scrape
or separate the blood from the paint samples. Ray (2) also reported limited success in visualizing
blood under painted surfaces (2). In her experiment the author placed both single blood drops and
blood swipes on wood and then painted over the stains with up to three coats of a latex paint. An
Omniprint™ 1000 and Polilight™ (150 watt model) were used to examine the stains under paint.
Both units were set at 530nm. No statement was made regarding the type of filter used. The author
reported that the bloodstains were “visible” to “barely visible” with the use of an alternate light
source after two coats of paint were applied. The third coat of paint made the bloodstains either not
visible or “questionable” in appearance with the light sources. None of the authors discussed
methods for paint removal.
A 4 ft. by 4 ft. section of half inch drywall was obtained for the experiment. No texture was
applied to the wallboard. The wall was first painted with two coats of Glidden Speed-Wall interior
PVA Primer #GL 1050-1200 white. The coats were allowed to completely dry at least 12 hours.
After drying, two coats of Glidden Speed-Wall interior latex flat paint #GL 1251-0110 white paint
were applied. All paint was applied using a clean paint pad. The wall was then allowed to dry
overnight. Once dried, several different types of bloodstain patterns were produced on the wall
(Figure 1). Bloodstain patterns included those not likely to be seen on vertical surfaces (such as
blood dripping into blood). Blood droplets ranged in size from less than 1mm to over 12mm in
diameter. The wall also contained partial bloody shoe impressions and vertical blood flow. Horse
blood was used to create all bloodstains in the experiment. The blood was photographed and
allowed to dry approximately 12 hours.
Figure 1. Bloodstain patterns on wall prior to painting.
A fresh gallon of similar paint, Ace Royal Hi Gloss 100% acrylic latex paint #102A310 ultra white
base tint (ACE# 1961531) was purchased. This paint color is best described as a slate blue. A total
of four coats of paint were applied to the wall with at least a 12 hour drying time in between coats. In
some cases the paint dried for over a week between examinations and subsequent coats of paint.
After each coat of paint the wall was visually examined and photographed. Several alternate light
sources were used to examine the wall after the second, third, and fourth coats of paint. Yellow, red,
and orange filters were used at a variety of settings. Models used included the Omnichrome
Omniprint™ 1000, Polilight™ PL-10, and SPEX™ models MCS-400 and CS16-500. A Krimesite™
reflective ultraviolet viewer from the Sirchie company was also used in the experiment.
Results of Examinations
Faint patent blood was visible in areas up to two coats deep. Beneath two coats the blood appeared
as a very light brown color. After the application of the third coat of paint the blood was no longer
visible by color distinction. However, some blood patterns could be located with strong oblique
lighting (Figure 2). This proved to be an excellent search method for larger impact spatters (greater
than 4mm in diameter) but did not work well with swipe patterns and smaller blood droplets. By the
application of the fourth coat of paint the patterns were no longer distinguishable using strong
Figure 2. Bloodstain pattern viewed with oblique lighting.
The use of an alternate light source was advantageous in that it is a non-destructive method of
examination. The Omnichrome™, Polilight™, and reflective IR models yielded no usable results.
The SPEX units, however, performed considerably better. Typically, blood will absorb ultraviolet
light when viewed with an alternative light source. Unexplainably, the blood patterns in this
experiment actually fluoresced a yellow color when viewed with a deep yellow filter at 445nm using
both SPEX models (Figure 3). Blood was not detected with any other filters under any other
wavelengths. Figures 4 and 5 show the same area photographed with visible light and then
ultraviolet light under three coats of paint. Acceptable results were obtained under four coats of paint
but the reaction was not as strong. The fluorescence of the blood is possibly the result of a
combination of the blood and paint chemistry. Paint located in non-bloody areas as well as
bloodstains located on the unpainted edges of the wall did not fluoresce when examined with the
same filter and wavelength. Other paints may produce different results from absorption to varied
fluorescence. At the investigator’s request, luminol was sprayed over the fourth coat of paint to see if
a reaction occurred. The luminol did not react with the paint with underlying blood.
Figure 3. Overall patterns viewed at 445nm with deep yellow filter.
Figure 4. Partial shoe impression under three coats of paint.
Figure 5. Same shoe impression viewed at 445nm with deep yellow filter.
Once the bloodstains were visualized it became necessary to develop methods for removing the
paint. This would facilitate a restoration of the blood patterns as well as allowing for sample
collection. Since this is a destructive process three methods were tested. The wall was separated
into four equal surfaces or units. Chemical aerosol paint strippers were applied to surfaces three and
four (bottom half). As the strippers were applied, the other surfaces were protected from overspray
by plastic sheeting. Citri-Strip™ #ECG73807 paint and varnish remover from the Barr corporation
was used on surface #4 Several strippers from the Klean-Strip corporation and the Jasco Corporation
were tried on surface #3. The Citri-Strip™ product produced acceptable results with a single
application (Figure 6). Once the product reacted, a plastic hand scraper was used to remove the
paint. Care should be observed when using this technique to insure that the underlying layer of paint
containing the bloodstains is not removed as well. This product was also advantageous in that it
could be applied indoors without harsh fumes. The Klean-strip and Jasco products produced very
poor results in that the paint was not removed after numerous applications. Surface #2 was sanded
with a Ryobi™ S605D hand held finish sander. Initial sanding was done with a 60 grit paper. This
was used until the white paint from the initial coats began to be revealed. A 150 grit sandpaper was
then used to remove paint until the individual bloodstains became visible. At this point a 220 grit
sandpaper was used to clean around the bloodstains. This approach minimized the amount of
damage done to the underlying bloodstains. The sanding approach produced acceptable results
(Figure 7). This method is also desirable in that the analyst has more control in paint removal than
with chemical strippers. Care should be taken, however, to ensure that the bloodstain areas are not
over sanded. Surface #1 was scraped with a razor blade. The first step in the process was making a
cut around three sides of the suspect area with a razor blade. Care was then taken to separate the
overlying blue colored latex paint from the underlying white colored paint. This proved to be very
easy in this particular project. The overlying paint was then carefully peeled back along the edge
applying a straight razor when needed. This processed yielded the best results of the three
approaches. The paint was surprisingly easy to separate and this process resulted in the least damage
to the underlying bloodstains (Figure 8). Bloodstains from all three surfaces were tested with the
phenolphthalein reagent after each process. All stains tested positive using the reagent.
Figure 6. Bloody shoe impression revealed on surface #4 with chemical stripper.
Figure 7. Bloodstains revealed by sanding on surface #2.
Figure 8. Bloodstains revealed on surface #1 with scraping.
The detection of bloodstains under painted surfaces is an uncommon task for criminal
investigators. However, this strategy may be employed to cover up evidence of a crime. This
research focused on two main objectives; detection and restoration. Within the parameters of this
project, the results are deemed a success. It is unclear how certain variables such as paint type, cleanup, bloodstain pattern types, wall texture, and time may affect the success of these techniques. In
spite of that, several recommendations can be made as a starting point. Analysts are encouraged to
work from a non-destructive process towards the more damaging restoration processes. Strong
oblique lighting in a darkened environment seems to be the best place to begin. While clean-up
efforts, bloodstain pattern types, and wall texture may all influence the success of this technique it
should not be overlooked. The second stage recommended is the use of an effective alternate light
source. The SPEX ALS units provided the best results when set at 445nm while using a deep yellow
filter. This approach allowed for the visualization of bloodstains under at least four coats of paint.
Other authors have reported success using various Polilight™ models as well. For this reason, it
may be advisable to examine suspected areas with more than one type of ALS if possible.
Obviously, investigators who can identify suspicious areas are at an advantage in terms of planning
an efficient restoration process. After areas are identified, the analysts must choose a restoration
process. In this experiment, scraping the paint with a razor blade provided the best results. This
technique may not be as effective on textured walls however. In such cases, using a chemical
stripper or sanding the wall with a hand sander may be a better alternative. The analyst may wish to
employ two or more techniques depending on the conditions present at the crime scene. In any
event, it is recommended that the analyst test the proposed restoration process in an inconspicuous
area, not thought to contain evidence. In the best case scenario, the analyst may wish to
“reconstruct” the wall conditions using the same paint so that the effectiveness of each process can
be thoroughly tested. Similar research, or success at crime scenes, should be reported so that a
comprehensive approach can be developed for varied conditions.
The author would like to thank members of the Broomfield, Lakewood, and Denver Police
Departments as well as the Arapahoe County Sheriff’s Office for the use of various light sources for
Request for Additional Information
Thomas W. Adair
Westminster Police Department
9110 Yates Street
Westminster, CO 80031
Vendenberg, N. and van Oorschot, R. 2004. Locating Blood and Saliva Stains Using Polilight™. 17th
International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society
(poster presentation). http://www.anzfss2004.org.nz/cgibin/ViewAbstracts.cgi?paperid=178
Ray, B. 1992. Use of Alternate Light Sources for Detection of Body Fluids. Journal of the Southwestern
Association of Forensic Scientists. 14(1):30-33.
Proof-Reading Service for IABPA Presentations and Articles
The most important function of the IABPA has been to offer vehicles for the dissemination of
information within the Bloodstain Pattern Analysis community. This is accomplished through its
annual conferences and its newsletter. As the association continues to expand its membership base
throughout the international community, it gains more members for whom English is a second
language. I’m concerned that some of these members might be hesitant to give presentations at
IABPA conferences or to contribute to the IABPA newsletter because of the language barrier.
To those IABPA members I would like to offer a proofing service, free of charge. It is available to
non-native English-speakers who are preparing a publication or presentation for the IABPA. If you
are interested, I can be contacted at: [email protected]
San Diego Sheriff’s Regional Crime Laboratory
5255 Mt. Etna Drive
San Diego, CA 92117
Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference in Middelburg, Zeeland,
the Netherlands 13-15 February 2006
Anatomy Related Movement Analysis – a New Tool
Silke M.C. Brodbeck, M.D., Ph.D
University of Cologne
Patterns of body parts or traces of movements are in some cases found at crime scenes. Sometimes it is of importance
to reconstruct the action at the scene, the more detailed the better. Anatomy Related Movement Analysis ARMA tries to
systemize the patterns produced by human bodies in blood and to correlate movement with detailed knowledge of
anatomy. For example: How to differentiate the movement of a shoulder from that of a hip, when it is not possible to
determine by other transfer patterns.
A New Chemical Process to Detect Washed Bloodstains, Bluestar™
French Gendarmerie Forensic Institute
This presentation is a is a study of the use of Bluestar™ for the detection of washed bloodstains.
eSCrime : A New Software for 3-Dimensional Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
French Gendarmerie Forensic Institute
This plan, carried out by UMLV and French Gendarmerie Forensic Institut, gives a software allowing to reconstruct a
digital crime scene to analyze and visualize bloodstains in 3D environment. When a crime takes place in a room, the
French Gendamerie Forensic Institut crime scene investigator take bloodstains photo after located accurately them. The
location and the shape of bloodstains allow to calculate the 3D location of the bloodshed where it originated. eSCrime is
a new software that helps the investigators to locate in the crime scene the calculated origin from examined bloodstains.
As the same software allows to model the crime scene, it is easy to study the 3D virtual origin in the modeling
A Comparative Analysis of Bloodstains
This presentation is a case study utilizing a comparative analysis of very poor photographs, photographic
enhancements of those photographs, and the physical evidence. Crucial in this case was the determination of the source
of the bloodstaining, was it from the shotgun blast, from the movement of the body by the medical examiner or police or
combinations thereof. Peripheral evidence involving family disputes and monetary motives were not included during the
forensic analysis of this case by the bloodstain analyst to maintain an objective point of view. Following the analysis,
the complete presentation in court was consistent with the forensic facts found during the analysis Statistical suicide data
as it relates to suicide by shotgun was reviewed in this case with documented conflicting information from a renowned
expert in the field. Surveys of experienced medical, forensic, and law enforcement personnel, were done with realistic
results concerning the manner of death. The case involves an initial finding of suicide to a culmination of a finding of
murder in a civil court.
The Whole is More than the Sum: Putting the Evidence in Perspective
Independent Forensic Services
Nunspeet, The Netherlands
Working a crime scene, solving a homicide is a team effort, but all too often the different disciplines involved work in
relative isolation. With bloodstain pattern analysis, injury description and DNA profiling, at best one discipline looks at
the report from the other. Evidence provided in this way can be persuasive, but when all the available evidence is put in
perspective, the evidence can gain strength. The findings from one field of expertise can be boosted by those from
another field. This makes it possible to increase the support for certain hypotheses or scenarios formulated around the
chain of events surrounding a homicide. In this presentation is a case is brought forward where bloodstain pattern
analysis revealed where the crime had been committed, injury description revealed what had happened and DNA
profiling who had done it. In itself though the findings were less incriminating then when they were all considered
together. The hypothesis formed by the defense was opposed by the hypothesis formed by the prosecutor. The findings
clearly offered more support for one hypothesis over the other. By presenting evidence in this way, it is easier for the
jury or judges to understand the findings put to them. They can decide for themselves which scenario or hypothesis
seems the more likely one.
We Got Our Man (in more ways than one)
Grayson Singley Associates, LLC
This case presentation involves the brutal stabbing death of two (2) women in their home, a 74 year old mother and her
48-year-old daughter. The murders occurred on a holiday weekend and paralyzed a small Pennsylvania town known for
having virtually no major crimes. The investigation took many turns until an arrest was made nine months later.
Although DNA evidence answered the “who?” in the identification of the perpetrator; at trial, the bloodstain pattern
evidence proved to be valuable to the jury in answering the “how”?
Terror in the Woods : The Deaths of Charles & Shirley Chick
Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation
Bloodstain patterns often yield information about who, what, where, and how of violent occurrences. The ‘why’ is
carried in the heart and mind of the perpetrator, and usually is not revealed in the physical evidence at the scene. But
sometimes, the bloodstain patterns, along with other physical evidence, give the investigator a glimpse of the ‘why’. On
a warm July afternoon, a lone motorcyclist was enjoying the beauty of the Kiamichi Mountains when he stopped to nap
on a picnic table in a camping area. He saw a woman napping in the midday shade in a nearby campsite. When the
cyclist awoke from his nap, he noticed that the woman had not moved. Neither had her husband. Both were dead from
multiple gunshots wounds. Fibers in the scene directed the investigation of ‘who’, blood confirmed the identity, and stain
patterns told the ‘how’ that also led to the ‘why’.
BPA Analysis as a Useful Tool to Reconstruct Crime Dynamics
Reparto Carabinieri Investigazioni Scientifiche di Parma
This paper concerns a case of a gruesome murder committed by minors and by a man 35 years old, who killed a young
girl. The murder was committed in a deserted cottage where the minors together the man attracted the young girl. We
refer to technical activities we conducted at the crime scene and the analytical approach we adopted, based on DNA as
well as on BPA analyses of bloodstains we recovered, studied and collected during the crime scene investigation. Due to
the specific shape and number of spattered bloodstains , we decided to select the most important areas where it was
worth applying the BPA both as qualitative and as quantitative approach. On this regard quantitative BPA analyses
applied to the bloodstains located in the stairs allowed us to determine different points of origin related to blows inflicted
on the victim. A model of bloodstain trajectories was then reconstructed using computer aided design (CAD) software.
Following this integrated analytical approach, also supported by fingerprint, footprint and DNA examinations, it was
possible to understand the role of the young killers as well as of the adult and thus reconstruct the dynamics of the event.
A View From the Dark Side
University of Glamorgan
The U.K. adversarial legal system differs from the Inquisitorial system used by many countries in mainland Europe.
Reflecting this, prosecution and defence teams are able to employ their own forensic scientists to assist them in their
investigations. Unofficially, within the prosecution community, defence scientists are often referred to as having “gone
over to the Dark Side”. The speaker will explore some of the effects of the prosecution / defence roles within forensic
science in the U.K. and will investigate the role of the scientist instructed by the defence team, with particular reference
to BPA issues. He will address the question of whether there is such a thing as a defence perspective on BPA.
The Cogne Case
Universita delgi Studi di Milano
The case to be presented, known as the Cogne case, deals with the homicide of a three years old child which is
happened in January 2002. In the trial judge the mother has been recognized guilty, also on the base of the results
obtained through the application of the BPA technique. This results were based on the morphological analysis of the
bloodstain patterns which were recovered: In first place on the ceiling, in correspondence of the point in which was
probably the victim’s body (in fact the body has been moved from the bed in order to facilitate the aides), has been
recovered various cast-off stains, produced by the brandishing of a weapon with acute angles (the weapon has never been
found). Secondly, a void area was seen on a quilt that was recovered which corresponded to the area of the killer.
Finally, the technique of the BPA has been applied to the bloodstain pattern on the pajama pants of the victim’s mother.
This last point is the more delicate: in fact the judge has argued, receiving positively the conclusions of the expert
witness, that who had killed the child was wearing (at 100%) pajama pants of the victim’s mother and he also has
asserted that those pants showed bloodstain patterns with an angle of impact of 30°, even if the bloodstain patterns were
have all a round shape, typical of the patterns with an angle of impact of 90°. A reason for the decision of this type
appears anomalous and, especially, without any objective comparison: in fact has been written in the judgment that this
angle of 90°(which is derived from a bloodstain pattern with an angle of impact of 30°) was explained by the fact that the
pajamas’ fibres presented ridges and valleys (characteristic of the material and not determined by folds or something
else) which were suitable to represent an obstacle to the bloodstain pattern, therefore to make results with a different
shape from the one that we would expected by a pattern with an angle of impact of 30°. There is no concrete element
which proves that the pajama material was so porous or rough to represent such a great obstacle for so many bloodstain
patterns. It is on the third point that we would like to place the attention, especially in order to understand if this case has
any records in the jurisprudence history of BPA.
CAD Methods in BPA
In traditional computerised bloodstain pattern analysis, manual stringing is replaced by virtual strings and twodimensional views of the spatter trajectories are obtained. The author takes this approach a step further by reconstructing
a three-dimensional model of the bloodstain trajectories using computer aided design (CAD) software. The same
mathematical and physical concepts are used to calculate the horizontal coordinates and an upper limit for the vertical
position of the blood source. However, this not only allows an accurate estimate of the blood source location to be
calculated, but also enables the production of three-dimensional rendered views of the crime scene which are
immediately comprehensible to anyone not familiar with the scene itself. The methodology and results have been
compared with two-dimensional software, laboratory experiments and on an actual case scenario.
The Killing of the Driving Instructor
Leif Schiønemann Petersen
National Commissar of Police
The driving instructor, who was from the Middle East, made a good business and a driving instruction book in Arabic.
For the book he took some pictures of a beautiful young woman also from the Middle East. He also took some more
private pictures of her and started a relationship with her. After a while she got tired of this relationship but he forced her
to continue otherwise he would give the pictures to her family. The driving instructor was one morning found dead on
the ground behind a big mall. He was shot twice in his head.
BPA in a Microscene Composed Murder Scene
Carabinieri Investigatigazioni Scientifiche di Roma
Recently, in Italy, a violent murder of a man in his house was carried out. The man was found dead in the afternoon
with many injuries all over the body, most probably from a heavy metal object. A wide and diffuse distribution of blood
evidences in the room, which was very spacious, was detected and various categories of bloodstains were observed all
around the room: especially free-falling drops of blood, splashed and projected blood, blood transfer patterns and cast-off
blood patterns. An accurate evaluation of blood evidence distributions and typologies in the single microscene and in the
entire room performed by a bloodstains pattern analyst led us to believe a scuffle between the victim and the murderer
occurred in several parts of the afternoon and allowed us to define step by step the crime scene events during the murder.
Luminol Chemistry and Forensic Application
Dr. Filippo Barni
Italian Carabinieri Force
Luminol is a relatively simple synthetic organic compound, belonging to the cyclic acylhydrazydes chemical group. In
alkaline protic solvents such as water and in presence of a strong–mild oxidant (in most cases H2O2) and a suitable
catalyst such as a metal ion or some kind of oxidoreductase enzyme, luminol is oxidized giving an intermediate
compound, named 3–aminophthalate dianion in an excited electronic state (3–APA*), that upon its return to the ground
state (3–APA) gives off the energy of excitation in the form of a chemiluminecence emission as an intense, short–lasting,
bright sparkles of blue–green glow ( max is, in most cases, from ~ 480 to ~ 420 nm, depending on the chemical reaction
medium). Due to its chemical chemiluminescent properties and to the mild peroxidase–like activity of aged bloodstains
mostly containing ferric ions as a complexes with hemin or hematin, luminol has been employed from more than 40
years for the presumptive detection of bloodstains which are hidden from the naked eye at crime scenes and, for this
reason, has been considered one of the most important and well–known assays in the field of forensic sciences. An
updated review of luminol chemical properties, reaction mechanism in presence of latent bloodstains and forensic
applications with a reference to an interesting casework will be discussed.
The Sensitivity of Luminol and Bluestar™ and the Use of a Thickened Luminol Solution on
Metropolitan Police Service
Luminol is a widely used chemiluminescent presumptive test for blood that utilises the psuedo-peroxidase activity of
haemoglobin to emit light. Bluestar™ is new formulation of luminol which claims to be better than luminol and
“currently the most sensitive field test for blood.” The manufacturers claim that Bluestar™™ produces a more intense
luminescence that lasts longer and does not affect subsequent DNA profiling. A comparison of Bluestar™ to luminol
was conducted and it was determined that Bluestar™ produced approximately 9 times more chemiluminescence than
luminol with high blood concentrations, however with dilutions under 1 in 1000 it produces less luminescence.
Additionally the sensitivity of Bluestar™ was found to be in 1 in 10,000 whilst luminol was at least 1 in 300,000.
Bluestar™ did have longer chemiluminescence than luminol, however the current photographic techniques used in the
Metropolitan Police Service mean that a prolonged luminol photographic exposure time produces excellent photographs.
DNA analysis of samples treated with Bluestar™ and luminol indicated that Bluestar™ particularly interfered with the
DNA profiling of samples. Although luminol is a valuable tool its lack of fixative within the reagent means that it
diffuses easily on non-porous surfaces and this can lead to a decrease in detail of any blood marks present and also
makes the subsequent photography of such marks difficult. This problem could be solved by the addition of a
commercial thickening agent to the luminol formulation. This thickened luminol formulation may reduce the diffusion of
luminol and blood marks on vertical and non-porous surfaces and therefore retain detail of blood marks. Xanthan Gum, a
thickening agent used in the food and cosmetic industries, was added to a luminol formulation and this was sprayed on
vertical and non-porous surfaces without any of the reagent running and the clarity of marks being retained on such
Bloodstains Come from Injuries – the Forensic Pathologist at the Scene of Crime
Dr. B. Karger
Institute of Legal Medicine
University of Műnster, Germany
The morphology of bloodstain distribution patterns at the scene of crime carries vital information for a reconstruction
of the events. Contrary to experimental work, case reports where the reconstruction has been verified have been
published infrequently. A small series of illustrative cases is therefore presented where bloodstain pattern analysis at the
scene of crime made a reconstruction of the events possible and where this reconstruction was later verified by a
confession of the offender. The cases comprise various types of bloodstains and problems frequently encountered in
practical casework such as combinations of different bloodstain patterns, preceding efforts to eliminate the stains and
unexpected artifacts. The complexity of real situations suggests a step-by-step approach starting with a comprehensive
view of the overall picture. This is followed by differentiation and analysis of single bloodstain patterns and a search for
informative details. It is ideal if the expert inspecting the scene of crime has also performed the autopsy but he definitely
has to have detailed knowledge about the injuries of the deceased/injured and about the possible mechanisms of
production. It is also demonstrated that analysis of bloodstain morphology can support individualisation of stains by
directing the selection of a limited number of stains from a complex pattern for DNA analysis.
Chronic Venous Insufficiency Syndrome
Des Moines Police Department
Des Moines, Iowa
An elderly couple awakes to find their house full of blood, ranging in a variety of bloodstain patterns. There appeared
to be no injuries to either person. The blood was soon determined to be human and eventually determined to be the blood
of the female resident. The elderly female is blind that added to the mystery of the blood origin. Projected blood patterns
were found throughout the house and appeared to associate with door openings and furniture that the lady used to assist
her travels throughout the house. The blood was determined to originate from the lady through DNA profiling. This
presentation illustrates the bloodstain patterns that if misinterpreted could have been associated with a number of
delivery mechanisms or causes. The presentation also gives a basic understanding of the chronic venous insufficiency
disease, the bodily functions that move blood through the body and also create these patterns. The presentation also
discusses the nearly undetectable wound this lady suffered and also gives examples of several fatal incidents due to this
disease and the potential to misinterpret these patterns. This power point presentation gives a number of visual examples
of these bloodstain patterns and even everyday household items, such as floor coverings and furniture that possibly
added to the dynamics of these bloodstain patterns. An article of my investigation and analysis of this incident was
published in the Sept. 2004 issue of the IABPA news.
“Blood on Clothing, Have you Scene it?"
Forensic Science Service, LTD
A discussion on the patterns of bloodstains on the clothing of those involved in violent crime.
Demonstration of the Latent Bloodstain Reagent Bluestar™ Forensic
Monte Carlo, Monaco
Slide presentation of comparative study on 4 identical substrates between classic luminol, fluorescein and Bluestar™
(North Carolina Association for Identification conference, May 31, 2004) Presentation of the preparation and
comparative demonstration of the latent bloodstain reagent Bluestar™ tablets, Bluestar™ Kit, Bluestar™ Magnum and
classic Luminol on several different substrates. Preparation and demonstration of the human blood confirmatory test
Blood in the Barrel of a Firearm
Zutphen, the Netherlands
This presentation is about a new research project the Dutch police is working on. Bloodstains in a gun can not only be
used for DNA investigation but also for determining the discharge distance between the firearm and the blood source.
Collecting the bloodstains as positioned in the barrel was always a big problem. Since there is a new casting material
called forensic stil collecting bloodstains in a barrel is very easy. In this presentation you will see the procedure how
bloodstains can be collected out of a barrel of a gun.
Luminol – A Safer Way Forward
Grampian Police Forensic Science Laboratory
Luminol has been widely used for many years as a presumptive test to detect latent blood stains at crime scenes.
However, in recent years concerns have been raised over health and safety issues related to its use, leading to the
withdrawal of the technique by some laboratories, and to the introduction of newer alternatives which claim to be safer,
such as Bluestar. This presentation aims to look critically at the basis for the health and safety concerns over the use of
luminol, to review our current understanding of the risks inherent in the technique, and attempts to distinguish between
risks associated with the chemical luminol itself and risks associated with the other components of the reaction mix, such
as sodium perborate or hydrogen peroxide. It is proposed that any risks associated with luminol use at crime scenes can
be significantly minimised by modifications to the technique, by the adoption of safe working practices and by the use of
adequate protective clothing, so that with suitable safeguards a highly valuable technique can continue to be used.
Crime-Lite, a New Approach to Forensic Light Sources
For many years specialised forensic light sources have been used for the search and examination of forensic evidence.
The development of alternative light sources based on LED technology has improved the implementation of light based
crime scene examination, so increasing awareness of the type of examinations that can be carried out. This presentation
will explain the principles and benefits of LED light sources over conventional forensic light sources and explore the
variety of suitable forensic applications. Appropriate products from Foster & Freeman’s range of LED-array powered
forensic light sources will be introduced for each purpose. In addition to discussing techniques for enhancing the
visualisation of blood on a variety of backgrounds, the presentation will also look at the search and examination of other
body fluids using lighting techniques.
The Significance of Limited Quantities of Impact Spatter Associated with Beating Scenes
Stuart H. James
James and Associates Forensic Consultants, Inc.
Fort Lauderdale, Florida
The issue of the significance of the quantity of impact spatter present at a scene where blunt force injury has occurred
or on the clothing or person of suspects often arises in casework. The factors that may reduce or eliminate spatter
production on a particular surface are well documented. The following is a summary of the variables affecting the size,
shape and distribution of impact spatter associated with a beating mechanism:
Shape of weapon
Weight and length of weapon
Number of impacts
Amount of force applied
Direction of force applied
Location of wounds
Movement of victim and assailant during attack
Amount of blood available for a given impact
Amount and thickness of scalp hair
Two cases will be presented that demonstrate limited quantities of impact spatter at scenes where multiple blunt force injures to
the head of the victims had occurred. In each case there were different opinions offered as to the significance of the spatter
relative to the scenes being the location of the beatings in part or their entirety or the suspect being the assailant or present at the
“Viewed in the Light of the Forensic light”
Forensic Investigation Unit Politie Midden en West Brabant
Tilburg, the Netherlands
The use of a forensic light source not only for the detection of biological traces, drugs or fingerprints but also for the
detection of invisible injuries. This method includes not only a simple way of detection using light with a wavelength
between 415nm and 475nm in combination with longpass filters, but also a easy way to photograph those injuries using a
normal camera and longpass filters. UV sources with a dangerous wavelength are not longer necessary and the camera
with a special UV-objective is no longer needed.
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis – A Canadian Model and the IABPA
Lethbridge Regional Police
Overview of current training and practices utilized within Canada for members involved in Bloodstain Pattern
The Impact of the Media, and the Importance of Communication within an Investigation.
Mickle van der Scheer
Gravenhage, the Netherlands
During the last few years forensics has become an commercial article. In the Netherlands it is a major media topic,
especially after a recent wrongly convicted person. This case has led to questions in parliament, followed by an intense
independent investigation. This resulted in a report which is already changing the whole approach of forensic
investigation in our country. That the media can influence an investigation is known. But what if investigators at the
scene of crime are informed of the news that their case is already solved… Besides the pressure of the media the absent
of communication towards the forensic investigators was debit to this situation.
3D Virtual Crime Scene Reconstruction
Willem van Spanje
Delft, the Netherlands
If a picture says more then a thousand words what about a 3D picture in which you can walk! It’s all about reverse
engineering and communication. After an introduction of laser scanning and 3D engineering for civil, petrochemical
engineering (on- and offshore), architecture, cultural heritage, archeology, rapid prototyping, the introduction will be
focused on the following forensic topics:
3D laser scanning of accidents and crime scenes
The pro’s and cons of laser technology
Witness verification and awareness
3D suspect measuring from security camera pictures/video and 3D laser scanning
Accident measurement and reconstruction
3D VR-tool for Crime Scene Management Training
3D Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
Fup Goudswaard, Chief Constable of the
Zeeland Police welcomes the conference attendees
Koos Schouwenaar, Mayor of Middelburg
welcomes the conference attendees
Tony Larkin, London, UK
Andrea Berti, Rome, Italy
Silke Brodbeck, Cologne, Germany
Martin Eversdijk, Zutphen, the Netherlands
Lee-Anne Singley, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
Alexei Pace, Marsaxlokk, Malta
Rex Sparks, Des Moines, Iowa
Nigel Hodge, Wales, UK
Zeeland Police Force Scene of Crime Van
Klaas Vervloet demonstrates use of light source
at mock crime scene
Vice President of IABPA Region 5, Leif Peterson (center) with Conference Coordinators,
Andre Hendricks (left) and Peter Lamb (right).
Left to right: Peter Lamb, Chief Constable Fup Goudswaard, IABPA President, William Basso,
Region 5 Vice-President Leif Peterson and IABPA Secretary-Treasurer, Norman Reeves at
2006 INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF BLOODSTAIN
PATTERN ANALYSTS ANNUAL TRAINING CONFERENCE
Corning, New York
Hosted by Herbert Leon MacDonell
OCTOBER 18-19-20 2005
If you plan to attend, please e-mail Herb at [email protected]
with a “yes” in the subject line. It will help with conference planning.
Register early & plan on presenting
TENTATIVE PROGRAM OUTLINE
Herb MacDonell, Program Chairman for out Annual Meeting, says that during past IABPA
meetings it has been difficult, if not impossible, to enjoy whatever local attractions were available in
any particular host city. The program schedule rarely allowed taking in the wonders of the local
area, whatever they might have been.
Therefore, this fall in Corning he has designed the program to allow all who wish to visit two of
the greatest museums in the country an opportunity to do so without missing any of the conference
program. In Corning, the third most visited tourist attraction in New York State, they have the world
famous Corning Museum of Glass and the Rockwell Museum of Western Art. There will not be a
program on Wednesday afternoon to allow anyone who would like to visit either, or both, of these
international attractions to do so. Group tours and rates will be made available and published in the
next issue of the IABPA News.
The program will resume Wednesday evening to make up for having the afternoon off. Papers will
be presented from 7:00 PM until 10:00 PM and Herb promises to be the last speaker so you can
leave early and not miss anything important if you wish.
Following the official welcome on Wednesday morning several papers will be presented. Lunch
will be on your own this day as well as Thursday and Friday. There are many fine places to dine
within easy walking distance of the Radisson. As stated above, the afternoon will be free to visit the
vendors and do whatever you please. More about local attractions later. The meeting will reconvene
at 7:00 PM for additional papers.
Thursday will be a day for presentations both during the morning and afternoon. We will break a
little early as the staff has to set up for our banquet in the meeting room. Herb reminds us we are
meeting in the room where IABPA was formed and it is not the most spacious location; but it does
hold a lot of history for us.
Herb is still trying to work out the details of having what is normally an outside pig roast served
inside a hotel. For some reason the chief chef doesn’t want the hog cooked inside! For those who
may never have enjoyed a pig roast it will be both interesting and a delightful gustatory experience.
Naturally, there will be alternate choices for your banquet entrée.
Friday morning will again consist of papers. Our annual business meeting will be held after lunch
and, when ended, will conclude our annual meeting. Everyone can then go home or stay for a few
days to see whatever it is that they may have missed in Corning.
The hotel where the meetings will be held during the 2006 Annual Meeting of IABPA is the
Radisson Hotel in Corning, New York. This is a most significant location because while this
location was a Hilton Hotel in 1983, it is the place where IABPA was formed on 18 November 1983.
Our meetings will be held in the very same room where IABPA was first conceived and everyone
can reflect back and imagine if any of those first twenty-two members could have ever anticipated
that their initial efforts could have resulted in what is now such a vibrant worldwide organization. I
know I couldn’t.
Herb MacDonell, Founder
Rates for rooms at the Radisson Hotel are:
Guestroom rate: $102 plus 12% tax.
The Radisson has reserved 100 rooms for our group which, if necessary, could be increased.
Those who wish to stay at the Radisson are advised to make their reservations as soon as possible to
avoid disappointment should they be filled up early. Be sure to mention that you are with IABPA,
the Bloodstain Group, when you register.
The contact information is:
Radisson Hotel Corning, 125 Denison Parkway East, Corning, New York 14830
Telephone: 607-962-5000, Fax: 607-962-4166, or www.radisson,com.corningny
Rates for rooms at the Holiday Inn Staybridge Suites are:
Studio (Queen): $60 plus tax.
One Bedroom (2 Double/King): $89.00 plus tax.
Two Bedroom (Queen and 2 Double): $109 plus tax.
Be sure to mention that you are with IABPA, the Bloodstain Group, when you register. They offer
a complimentary hot breakfast and free snacks Tuesday-Thursday at 5:00 PM with free beer and
wine. Every suite has a full kitchen and a pantry in the lobby. The Staybridge is about five minutes
from the Radisson if you drive or ride. Otherwise it is a refreshing 15 minute walk. Getting a ride
with other delegates should be no problem.
The contact information is:
Staybridge Suites, 201 Townley Road, Corning, New York
Telephone: 607-936-7800, Fax: 607-936-7900, or www.staybridge.com
Rates for rooms at the Comfort Inn are:
One Bedroom (2 Double): $60 plus tax.
Be sure to mention that you are with IABPA, the Bloodstain Group, when you register. The
Comfort Inn is probably the most economical as two can stay for the price of one. They offer a
complimentary hot breakfast. The Comfort Inn is about a five minutes drive from the Radisson or a
brisk fifteen minute walk. It should be no problem in getting a ride from others who are attending
the annual meeting.
The contact information is:
Comfort Inn, 66 West Pulteney Street, Corning, New York 14830
Telephone: 697-962-1515, Fax: 607-962-1899, or [email protected]
Corning, New York is not a large city. Rather, it has the small town charm than can only be found
in more rural areas. People are friendly, they do not rush, and they say. “Hello” to you on the
sidewalk. We do not have 1,000 room hotels and for that reason I strongly suggest that if you plan
to attend the October Annual Meeting of IABPA you make you reservations sooner rather than later.
We may not be able to have more than 100 rooms blocked off for us at the host hotel, the Corning
Radisson Hotel. However, many of our members have stayed in Corning before and are familiar
with the wonderful accommodations the Staybridge Suites have to offer and I suspect they will elect
to stay there as it is not that far from the Radisson. Likewise, many are familiar with the Comfort
Inn and may wish to stay there.
In the event we have a much larger turnout for the October meeting than expected I have listed
below several other possible motels where rooms ought to be available. Also, some people may
prefer one of these locations to those listed above. If so, you must call them directly to make your
Other Accommodations in the Corning Area are:
Days Inn, Corning, New York. Telephone: 607-936-9370
Econo Lodge, Painted Post, New York. Telephone: 607-962-4444
Fairfield Inn, Corning, New York. Telephone: 607-937-9600
Hampton Inn, Painted Post, New York. Telephone: 607-936-3344
Holiday Inn, Painted Post, New York. Telephone: 607-962-5021
GETTING TO CORNING, NEW YORK
It is not difficult to get to Corning, New York. The problem is that once there you won’t want to
leave! If you come from far away and wish to fly the closest airport is the Elmira-Corning Regional
Airport (ELM). I can see the airport out of my office window but it is 14 miles down the valley
from here. Both US Airways and Northwest fly into and out of this airport. Only problem, it is
Many people, like a lot of our local residents, prefer to use the Rochester, New York Monroe
County Airport (ROC) to our North. The lower rates to and from there more than make up for
renting a car for a week and driving the 90 miles to Corning. There is not one traffic signal from the
Rochester airport until you come into Corning and it is all on a four-lane freeway with no tolls.
Besides, that way you will have a car here and if you stay at the Staybridge it will be handy. Very
important, if you elect to fly into the Rochester, New York airport be sure your travel agent does not
get confused and send you to Rochester, Minnesota as it has happened before!
If you plan to drive the map below should be helpful.
Herb MacDonell, Chairman
BLOODSTAIN PATTERN ANALYSIS IN THE NEWS
Presented below are news articles that feature bloodstain pattern analysis. Links are active at the
time of writing (mid-February 2006), however they may be put offline after a few weeks. These
news items are distributed through the BPA in the News mailing list and discussion forum, which
counts 160 members and to which one may subscribe to by e-mailing me at [email protected] All
details shown are available in the public domain and were acquired through online press websites.
VICTIM hit while lying helpless on her back, bleeding, jury told
Hamilton Spectator - Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
By following the blood trail from the apartment door to the loft where the victim was found, Niagara Detective Craig
Moore concluded the attacker struck at least one more blow to her head after pulling down her jeans while he was
kneeling down or hunched over her body.
The bloodstain evidence indicates, however, she was fully dressed when she was attacked at the entrance of the
apartment, dragged through the living room and up a flight of 16 stairs to the loft where her body was found. Testifying
in Ontario Superior Court, Moore also said he found large bloodstains on the buttock of a denim pants and the back of a
white underpants. He said her panties and pants were on when these stains were created. On the front of her panties he
also found more than 80 tiny bloodstains which he concluded were formed by droplets of blood that sprayed from her
head when the killer struck her with a club. He said her panties would have been intact and on her body when these
marks were formed. But her pants had to be pulled down or off for the projected blood to land on the front of her panties.
He added the killer was probably straddling her body when he swung the club.
JURORS hear violent tale as Va. Beach murder trial begins
Virginian Pilot - Norfolk, VA, USA
Crime scene specialist Elizabeth Dunton of the city Police Department said blood-spatter evidence indicated that the
victim suffered her injuries in a first-floor bathroom and was moved into a narrow hallway, where her body was found
by authorities lying face down and covered with a sheet. Scattered around her body was “a tremendous amount of tiles
in many shapes and pieces,” much of it spattered with blood. The blood spatter appeared wild and random in pictures
shown to the jury. Dunton said the spatter on doors and walls probably was caused by “a tile that the blood was coming
off of.” The source of the blood, Dunton said, was the gaping wound on the back of Elizabeth Phillips’ head. The spatter
on the door, Dunton said, was caused by “a fairly significant amount of force.”
KILLER need not have been covered in blood - court told Hastings
Observer - Hastings, England, UK
Scientist Adrian Wain told jurors he examined the blood spatter from photos of the scene. He was giving evidence at
the retrial of Sion Jenkins, 48, who is accused of battering his foster daughter to death with a tent spike at their home.
Jenkins was found to have microscopic blood specks on his clothes after the attack on February 15 1997. Prosecutor
Nicholas Hilliard said: "It might be tempting to think that those who did this killing would be covered in blood."
Mr. Wain replied: "That is quite incorrect. You can see from the photographs we do not have a uniform 360-degree
spatter. Therefore if the attacker is not standing there and the majority of this spatter is going the direction of the house
then he is not going to intercept very much spatter. It is also to do with the interaction of the weapon with whatever it is
Mr. Wain said blood spatter, similar to that found on Jenkins' clothes, was found on the front of Billie Jo's leggings.
However, the victim was found lying face down on the patio of her home, the court heard. Mr. Wain said: "Clearly the
body in this case has been moved. Blood has drained out of the body even after death and lots of things can change."
Defence scientists claim the blood spatter could come from the victim’s breathing or 'snorting' either in her final
moments of life or when she was moved.
BLOOD matches stains on clothing, says expert witness
Mid-Hudson News – Newburgh, NY, USA
Stains on some of the clothing are consistent with that of clothes which were worn during a stabbing. Christopher
Rhodes of Highland Falls is accused of stabbing to death seven-year-old Jerica Rhodes at her elementary school.
Criminalist Professor Dr. Peter DeForest, proven by the prosecution as an expert in crime scene analysis and
reconstruction, claimed that the blood spatter on the shoes, blood smears and spots on the black leather jacket, and blood
smears on the pants are all consistent with an incident involving a stabbing. He said that the jacket proved to be a major
contributor to his drawn conclusion. Blood smeared on the lip of the right pocket of the jacket is consistent with the
action of a bloody hand entering and exiting the pocket, according to the doctor. The prosecutor asked DeForest if any
of the blood on those pieces of clothing corresponds to nose bleeds, a claim made several times during the trial by
defense attorney. DeForest said that none of the stains he observed on the jacket, the jeans, or the shoes is consistent
with that of a nosebleed.
ABSTRACTS OF RECENT BPA RELATED ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THE
Fracasso, T. and Karger, B., Two Unusual Stab Wounds to the Neck: Homicide or Self-Infliction,
International Journal of Legal Medicine, published on line 10/20/05
A 31-year-old woman was found dead by her daughter, lying in the living room which showed a large pool of blood,
secondary blood droplets and stains from arterial blood spatter, dropping and contact. This bloody scene and two
puncture wounds at the anterior aspect of the neck, one of them transecting the left common carotid artery leading to
exsaguination, arose suspicion of homicide. However, the wound morphology including notches and a parallel skin
incision as well as microradiography demonstrated that the two puncture wounds had been produced by glass. At the
scene, a broken wine glass with two dagger-like tips had been standing on a table in front of a sofa where the woman had
been sitting, and she most likely sustained the injury when she suddenly moved her head downwards, thus moving into
the protruding tips. This self-inflicted accident demonstrates that inspection of the scene and synthesis of the autopsy and
scene findings can be crucial for a successful medico-legal reconstruction. The mechanism of producing the accidental
injury is very extraordinary, in that the woman actively moved into a shattered wine glass instead of falling into an intact
architectural glass surface.
Yamashita, B., Maloney, K., Carter, A.L. and Jory, S, Three-Dimensional Representation of
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, Journal of Forensic Identification, 55 (6), 2005 pp. 711-725
As part of a bloodstain pattern analysis course delivered at the Canadian Police College by the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police, a mock crime scene bloodstain pattern was analyzed by computer, and the results were rendered in three
dimensions for court presentation. The data from the BackTrack™ program used on the course were successfully
integrated into a standard AutoCAD program in order to show the virtual fight paths of droplets of blood in a threedimensional depiction.
Illes, M.B., Carter, A.L., Laturnus, P.L., and Yamashita, A.B. , Use of the BackTrack™ Computer
Program for Bloodstain Analysis of Stains from Downward-Moving Drops. Can. Soc. Forensic Sci.
J., 2005, 38(4) pp. 213-217.
Using Directional Analysis, the BackTrack™ suite of computer programs can be used to analyze a crime scene in
which bloodstains only from downward-moving drops are available. Only two of three Cartesian coordinates for the
blood source location can be accurately determined, but this is still significantly better than the stringing and tangent
methods which cannot accommodate the stains from downward-moving drops without great difficulty. Crime scene
investigators with access to this computer program should be aware of the program’s ability to use data that cannot be
used easily in other methods of analysis.
Sears, V.G., Butcher, C.P.G., Fitzgerald, L. A., Enhancement of Fingerprints in Blood Part 3:
Reactive techniques, Acid Yellow 7, and Process Sequences, Journal of Forensic Identification, 55
(6), 2005 pp. 741-763
A systematic evaluation of a number of techniques that react with the components of blood has been carried out on
various surfaces (both porous and nonporous) that are typically found at scenes of crime. Most effective on porous
surfaces were DFO and ninhydrin, which react with amines. On nonporous surfaces, no process was found to be as
effective at developing fingerprint detail as the protein dye benzoxanthene yellow. However, because this dye has
become unavailable, acid yellow 7 was determined to be a suitable replacement.
Sears, V.G.; Prizeman, T.M. Enhancement of Fingerprints in Blood – Part 1: The Optimization of Amido
Black. J.For.Ident. 2000, 50 (5), pp. 470-480.
Sears, V.G.; Butcher, C.P.G.; Prizeman, T.M. Enhancement of Fingerprints in Blood – Part 2: Protein
Dyes. J.For.Ident. 2001, 51 (1), pp. 28-38.
All changes of mailing address need to be supplied to our Secretary Norman Reeves. Each quarter Norman
forwards completed address labels for those who are members. Do not send change of address information to
the NEWS Editor. E-mail your new address to Norman Reeves at:
12139 E. Makohoh Trail
Tucson, Arizona 85749-8179
Membership Applications / Request for Promotion
Applications for membership as well as for promotion are available on the IABPA website:
IABPA Website: http://www.iabpa.org
The fees for application of membership and yearly dues are $40.00 US each. If you have not received a
dues invoice for 2006 please contact Norman Reeves.
April 24-28, 2006
Bloodstain Pattern Recognition Course
July 10-14, 2006
Advanced Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
Northwest Bloodstain Pattern Association
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
City and Angel College
Course Coordinator: S/Sgt. John Forsythe RCMP
E-mail: [email protected]
Instructors: Paul E. Kish and Stuart H. James
Contact: Anthony Larkin at the Metropolitan
Tel: 00 44 (0)207 230 0342
Fax: 00 44 (0)207 230 0372
E-mail: [email protected]
June 12-16, 2006
Basic Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Course
Nashua Police Department
Nashua, New Hampshire
Contact: Paul Erwin Kish
Forensic Consultant and Associates
P.O. Box 814
Corning, New York
E-mail: [email protected]
Contact: Toby L. Wolson, M.S.
Miami-Dade Police Department
Crime Laboratory Bureau
Forensic Biology Section
9105 NW 25th Street
Miami, Florida, 33172
E-mail: [email protected]
October 23-27, 2006
Bloodstain Pattern Recognition Course
Northwest Bloodstain Pattern Association
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Course Coordinator: S/Sgt. John Forsythe RCMP
E-mail: [email protected]
December 4-8, 2006
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Workshop
Training Announcements for the June
issue of the 2006 IABPA News must be
received before May 15, 2006
Miami-Dade Police Department
Specialized Training Department
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As a charter member of the IABPA I have witnessed the growth of this organization
from the 22 students at Herbert Leon MacDonell’s advanced class in 1983 to the more
than 700 members that we have today. Our European colleagues have shared their
knowledge with us and have been well represented at our annual IABPA conferences in
the US and Canada. As a result of the growing European representation in IABPA,
Region 5 was established with Leif Peterson as the vice-president. When the
announcement of the First European IABPA Conference to be held in Middelburg,
Zeeland, the Netherlands was made, it signaled a historic milestone for the continuing
growth of this organization. Fellow charter member, Norman Reeves and I gladly
accepted the invitation from conference organizers Andre Hendrix and Peter Lamb to
attend this conference of 140 participants from 20 countries. You will see by the
conference abstracts published in this issue, the diversity and quality of papers that were
presented by speakers from many of these countries. I have great praise and appreciation
for the efforts of Andre Hendrix, Peter Lamb and the hospitality of the Zeeland Police
Force that resulted in a superlative conference.
Old City Hall in Middelburg, Zeeland, the Netherlands – The site
of the First European IABPA Conference 2006
Stuart H. James
James & Associates Forensic Consultants Inc.
4800 SW 64th Avenue, Suite 105
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314
E-mail: [email protected]
Past Presidents of the IABPA
V. Thomas Bevel
Warren R. Darby
Rod D. Englert
Tom J. Griffin
Toby L. Wolson, M.S.
Daniel V. Christman
Phyllis T. Rollan
Associate Editors of the IABPA News
L. Allyn DiMeo
Barton P. Epstein
Paul E. Kish
Jon J. Nordby
Robert P. Spalding
T. Paulette Sutton
The IABPA News is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December. © 2006. The International Association of
Bloodstain Pattern Analysts. All rights are reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is prohibited.