catalog of the 2015 biennial

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catalog of the 2015 biennial
Acknowledgements
The Boston Printmakers wish to thank our distinguished juror Willie Cole for selecting this
spectacular exhibit. We are grateful to Lesley University Dean of the College of Art and Design
Richard Zauft, Gallery Director Bonnell Robinson and Assistant Gallery Director Andre Mroczek for
hosting the 2015 North American Print Biennial in the beautiful new Lunder Arts Center. We especially
appreciate their dedication to excellence and enthusiastic support for The Boston Printmakers.
Please take a look at the impressive list of material awards from our sponsors and the names of
our patrons in this catalog and you will see the many generous ways they champion our efforts to
support printmakers and educate the public about the complex world of printmaking. We can’t thank
our sponsors and patrons enough for this assistance in support of our efforts.
Thank you to the 699 artists from 49 states, 7 Canadian provinces, Puerto Rico and Cuba for nearly
2000 submissions. The number of entries truly represents a passionate response and further
expresses the relevance and vitality of contemporary printmaking.
I would also like to thank the Board of The Boston Printmakers for their hard work and dedication.
They not only pull together the North American Print Exhibition every two years but also our many
members’ shows, travel opportunities, website and newsletter. I am continually inspired by their
loving commitment to the art of printmaking.
Liz Shepherd
President
The Boston Printmakers Executive Board
Liz Shepherd
Renee Covalucci
Christiane Corcelle
Deborah Cornell
Susan Denniston
Alex Gerasev
Eric Goldberg
Sharon Hayes
Sandra Cardillo
Stephanie Mahan Stigliano
Marjorie Javan
Theresa Monaco
Ky Ober
Julia Talcott
Lois Tarlow
Mary Taylor
Dave Thomas
Bob Tomolillo
Malgorzata Zurakowska
Vivian Berman – Emeritus
Sid Hurwitz – Emeritus
The prints in this exhibition are for sale; in many cases, multiple originals are available. Prints may
be purchased at the Lunder Arts Center at Lesley University College of Art & Design, or after the
exhibition, by contacting The Boston Printmakers, Lesley University College of Art and Design,
29 Everett Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 or by email: [email protected]
ISBN 978-0-9910464-2-3
Copyright 2015 by The Boston Printmakers, Inc.
The Boston Printmakers
2015
North American Print Biennial
The Lunder Arts Center
Lesley University
College of Art & Design
Cambridge, MA
2015 Juror
Willie Cole
November 8 – December 12, 2015
Juror’s Statement
I am an artist who makes prints but I am not a printer. What I mean is that all my prints are
collaborative. I show up at a print studio with a concept or sketch and then throw myself at the mercy
of the master printers who then execute my ideas. These master printers have been my teachers,
both technically and aesthetically. They bring their technical expertise to every project and I bring
my vision. That’s what collaboration means. But the real creativity rises when my ignorance crashes
into their expertise. And when it does, that’s when I know I’m really doing my job. And what is my
job? My job is to push them beyond their scope of knowledge, and to challenge them to employ
unorthodox and innovative approaches to printing.
With that said I will go on to say that, from the pool of entries for this year’s Boston Printmakers
2015 Biennial, I selected the pieces that inspired me the most. They were the ones that showed the
broadest range of possibilities of what printmaking can be. They were the ones that triggered full
scenarios in my mind in a single frame without the use of words. They were techniques brilliantly
executed. They were stories well told and emotions deeply expressed.
In a world where any and all things are possible, it was surprising that narrative story-like images
seemed to dominate this year’s entry pool. In a way it felt as if I were selecting films for a festival
rather than prints for an exhibition, and that all my selections had to be made based on viewing
just one single frame from each film. The parallels with film and print were obvious to me not just
in the subject matter but also in the lighting techniques, perspective, and point of view of many of
the entries. Surrealism, German expressionism, film noir, Italian neo-realism, magic realism, and
photography in general were and apparently still are big influences on how we view and represent the
human experience in printmaking, and maybe even in art in general.
All the entries both confirm and emphasize that printmaking is the missing link between the so-called
fine arts, i.e. painting, drawing, and sculpture, and commercial or graphic arts, i.e. photography,
film, type, and illustration. Perhaps that’s what pop art is, too. And if you agree with that then Andy
Warhol, arguably the most famous printmaker of the 20th century, must have been Moses. We can
blame or thank Andy for taking printmaking to new heights, at least in the marketplace. But the
number of print editions he left behind dwarfs the number of technical innovations he achieved. And
it’s technical innovation that, in my opinion, makes real winners and really moves a medium forward.
With so many entries moving in the direction of storytelling, all or any entries slightly less
representational or narrative stood out most. They, more often than not, reflected popular
movements in western or European abstraction, and a clear understanding of art history, while at
the same time (pursued or not) offered the greatest possibility for the employment of innovative
techniques. And new techniques, not just in storytelling but in image execution, in my opinion, is
what it should really be all about. I recognize that this is not any easy task. But think about the
differences between classical music and jazz. Ask yourself how swing became bebop, and maybe you
will get closer to an answer. Mastering existing techniques and practices in any art form is just the
beginning.
Willie Cole
The Boston Printmakers’
2015 Patrons
Lynn Barlow
All Bright Travel
Stoneham, MA
In Memory of Ture Bengtz
Duxbury, MA
John Bogis & Zoe Caulfield
Winchester, MA
Helen Citron Boodman
Lexington, MA
Susan Brokaw
Winchester, MA
Lawrence Carpman & Pamela
Price
Marshfield, MA
Paul J. Hayes
Hayes Messina Gilman and
Hayes, LLC
Boston, MA
Carol Taylor & John Deknatel
Brookline, MA
Michael Tucci
Boston, MA
Brett J. Holmgren
Robert M. Curry and Associates
Boston, MA
Kellee Twadell
Rose and Dove Specialty Gifts
North Andover, MA
Harriet Berkman Hunt and
Family
Weymouth, MA
Sharon Walkey
Saugus, MA
Katherine Ingraham & Richard
Bergin
Brookline, MA
Arthur & Phyllis Levine
Newburyport, MA
Lawrence & Catherine Lingley
Amesbury, MA
Danny Y. Chang
Koy-Korean Fusion Restaurant
Boston, MA
Kevin M., Amy M., Amanda L. &
Francesca A. O’Brien
Winchester, MA
Jodi Chang
Art and Frame Source
North Andover, MA
Stephen Perry & Oliver Radford
Cambridge, MA
Renee Covalucci
Concord, MA
Lisa Duffy
Prides Crossing, MA
Howard I. Goldstein
Newton, MA
Donald & Kathleen Golini
Reading, MA
Debbie & Michael Hagan
Andover, MA
Heather & Jeremy Pozen
Newton, MA
Gilles Quintal
Jamaica Plain, MA
Robert Rovenolt
Boston, MA
Judith & Hanno Steen
Brighton, MA
Meghan Sullivan
North Smithfield, RI
Ken & Kerry Washburn
Swampscott, MA
Pamela Yameen
North Andover, MA
With Special Thanks To
Full Tilt Print Studio
Boston MA
2015 Awards:
Selection of the Juror, unless otherwise noted
Purchase Prizes:
The Boston Printmakers Prize
Collection: The Boston Public Library
Abby DuBow, DisCards, mixed media monoprint on discarded library cards
The Graphic Chemical Prize
Collection: Graphic Chemical and Ink Company, Villa Park, IL
Jon Goebel, Pursuit of Latitude, drypoint, aquatint
The Otis Philbrick Memorial Prize
Collection: The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, selected by Cliff Ackley
Jenny Robinson, Infrastructure #2, drypoint
The Ture Bengtz Memorial Prize
Collection: The Art Complex Museum, Duxbury, MA
Leah de Prizio, Cyrillic Diptych (3), woodcut on fabric
Materials Awards:
Blick Art Materials, Galesburg, IL
Kathy Aoki, Gangnam Style (at the Moulin Rouge), lithograph
Andy Owen, Heatwave, collagraph
Boxcar Press, Syracuse, NY
Donna Catotti, Waiting for the Tide – Alaska, screenprint
Constellation Studios, Lincoln, NE
Marina Brownlow, Bloodline 4, monoprint
Gamblin Artists Colors, Portland, OR
Donald Furst, 3:20am, mezzotint
Lina Monclus, Distortions, monotype, linocut, chine collé, sewing, drawing
Hiromi Paper International, Santa Monica, CA
Justyne Fischer, Loosie Law, woodcut on voile
Legion Paper/Moab Paper, New York, NY
Coco Berkman, Petflicks, linocut
Robbin Juris, FSA67 Abraham/Isaac, digital pigment print
McClain’s Printmaking Supplies, King City, OR
Neal Harrington, Spirits, woodcut, India ink wash
Mixit Print Studio, Somerville, MA
Coco Berkman, Down in the Grey Zone, reduction linocut
MOO, Boston, MA
Ann Conrad, Motherboard 1, intaglio, relief
Mary Strandell, Mad Men Stairs (with Virginian Silver), 3-D lenticular print
Muskat Studios, Somerville, MA
Helen Cantrell, Suburbia Night Wind, woodcut
Oehme Graphics, Steamboat Springs, CO
Jenny Robinson, Infrastructure #2, drypoint
Savoir-Faire: Charbonnel, Novato, CA
Victoria Elbroch, One Unclouded Blaze, monotype
Savoir-Faire: Fabriano, Novato, CA
Norberto Marrero, Ventanas, artist book
Singer Editions, Boston, MA
Stanley Squirewell, Anyanwu II, acrylic on pigment print
Takach Press Corporation, Albuquerque, NM
Jack Damar, Death of Whimsy, lithograph
Zea Mays Printmaking, Florence, MA
Shirley Bernstein, Eye Cloud, reduction woodcut
Checklist
All dimensions are in inches, height preceding width.
* Member of The Boston Printmakers
†
2015 Juror Award
Kathy Aoki
Santa Clara, CA
1.
Gangnam Style
(at the Moulin Rouge) †
Lithograph
24 x 36
$1350
Kathy Aoki
Santa Clara, CA
2.
The Twerking Lesson
Photopolymer intaglio
8 x 10
$650
Frances Ashforth
Ridgefield, CT
3.
Water Study 33
Monotype
22 x 22
$1100
Frances Ashforth
Ridgefield, CT
4.
Water Study 34
Monotype
22 x 22
$1100
June August *
North Hampton, NH
5.
Kiss at L’Hotel de Ville
Screenprint
31.5 x 44
$1175
Jane Banquer
Peaks Island, ME
6.
Calm After the Big Storm
Woodcut
13 x 14
$200
Stephen Barnwell
Wayne, NJ
7.
American Relief Bond
Digital print with mixed media
11 x 8.5
$300
Stephen Barnwell
Wayne, NJ
8.
Perpetual War Bond, Series 2014
Digital print
11 x 8.5
$300
Edward Bateman
Salt Lake City, UT
9.
Specimen No. 1 from Five Anomalies
Pigment print from 3D digital construction
20 x 20
$350
Judy Bergman Hochberg *
Canton, MA
10.
The Cornfield
Polymer plate photogravure
9.5 x 17
$350
Judy Bergman Hochberg *
Canton, MA
11.
The Last Stop #2
Polymer plate photogravure
15 x 10
$300
Coco Berkman *
Gloucester, MA
12.
Down in the Grey Zone †
Reduction linocut
18 x 24
$450
Coco Berkman *
Gloucester, MA
13.
Petflicks †
Linocut
36 x 24
$180
Shirley Bernstein *
Hampton, CT
14.
Cloudy Ceiling
Reduction woodcut
10 x 22
$450
Shirley Bernstein *
Hampton, CT
15.
Eye Cloud †
Reduction woodcut
12 x 22
$450
Rebecca Bleau
Grass Valley, CA
16.
Ladies, Don’t Lose Your Heads
Screenprint
23.5 x 13.5
$650
Becky Blosser
Lancaster, PA
17.
Trap Study 2
Screenprint
10 x 10
$250
Becky Blosser
Lancaster, PA
18.
Trap Study 3
Screenprint
10 x 10
$250
David Blow *
Hickory Creek, TX
19.
We All Go Blind
Digital print
12 x 20
$350
Marina Brownlow
Santa Fe, NM
20.
Bloodline 1
Monoprint
40 x 30
$2800
Marina Brownlow
Santa Fe, NM
21.
Bloodline 4 †
Monoprint
40 x 30
$2800
Marina Brownlow
Santa Fe, NM
22.
Bloodline 5
Monoprint
40 x 30
$2800
Rachel Bruya
Madison, WI
23.
Meeting the Sky
Lithograph construction
12 x 12 x 4
$500
Quenby Bucklaew
Jamaica Plain, MA
24.
Causeway Bay Rush
Collagraph, linocut, gum arabic transfer
9x7
$250
Anne Burton
Lincoln, NE
25.
Cheer
Woodcut
13 x 19
$225
Helen Cantrell
Old Lyme, CT
26.
Suburbia Night Wind †
Woodcut
36 x 72
$4000
Helen Cantrell
Old Lyme, CT
27.
Suburbia Pink Night
Woodcut
36 x 72
$4000
Sandra Cardillo *
Framingham, MA
28.
Connections 1
Solar plate etching
15 x 11
$300
Sandra Cardillo *
Framingham, MA
29.
Connections 2
Solar plate etching mounted on wood panel
8x8x2
$250
Donna Catotti
Haines, AK
30.
Waiting for the Tide - Alaska †
Screenprint
18 x 6
$165
Liz Chalfin *
Florence, MA
31.
Peso Taxi
Etching
12 x 16
$250
Ann Chernow *
Westport, CT
32.
Moonlight
Lithograph
11 x 14
$500
Ann Conrad
New Canaan, CT
33.
Motherboard I †
Intaglio, relief
40 x 32
$4200
Candice Corgan
Albuquerque, NM
34.
Choose Your Poison
Lithograph
8.5 x 8.5
$80
Candice Corgan
Albuquerque, NM
35.
Playtime
Lithograph, chine collé
22.5 x 22.5
$300
Damian Cote *
Holyoke, MA
36.
Untitled, from the series “Letters to Dr. Ehrlich”
Intaglio
9 x 12
$300
Kevin Cummins *
Chester Springs, PA
37.
Chalk Drawing
Etching, aquatint
11 x 14
$500
Jack Damer
Madison, WI
38.
Death of Whimsy †
Lithograph
12 x 15
$750
Leah de Prizio *
Boston, MA
39.
Cyrillic Diptych (3) †
Woodcut on fabric
18 x 38
$1400
Paula DeSimone
Plainville, MA
40.
Metamorphosis I
Monotype, chine collé
17 x 40
$1800
Jacob Diaz
Boise, ID
41.
Immortality Through Biology 1
Screenprint on paper, wood
48 x 30 x 1
$500
S. Dickey *
Columbus, MS
42.
Next Time We Live
Dimensional screenprint
18.75 x 42.25 x 3
$1700
Beth Dorsey
Minneapolis, MN
43.
2 x 2 Black and Brick
Monoprint
24 x 18
$950
Abby DuBow
New York, NY
44.
DisCards †
Mixed media monoprint on discarded
library cards
25 x 27
$1100
Jessica Dunne
San Francisco, CA
45.
Bus, Ulloa
Spit-bite aquatint
6x9
$800
Jessica Dunne
San Francisco, CA
46.
Commuters, Salzburg
Spit-bite aquatint
4x6
$400
Barbara Duval
Charleston, SC
47.
Untitled 01
Woodcut, chine collé
28 x 34
$400
Barbara Duval
Charleston, SC
48.
Untitled 02
Spit-bite etching
28 x 34
$400
Matthew Egan
Greenville, NC
49.
Dinner Party
Lithograph
17.5 x 13
$500
Matthew Egan
Greenville, NC
50.
Near Maaloula
Lithograph
12 x 9
$350
Barbara Elam *
Dallas, TX
51.
Three Graces of Rio
Layered monotype
37 x 28
$1600
Victoria Elbroch
Kittery, ME
52.
One Unclouded Blaze †
Monotype
15.75 x 11
$295
Mike Elko
Bloomington, MN
53.
Grandma’s Raisin-Radium Muffins
Screenprint
30 x 15
$300
Mike Elko
Bloomington, MN
54.
Tree Romance
Screenprint
22 x 22
$350
Justyne Fischer
Washington, DC
55.
Loosie Law †
Woodcut on voile
50 x 32 x 3
$1400
Kirsten Flaherty
Astoria, NY
56.
Dollar Store
Intaglio, watercolor
16 x 22
$250
Donald Furst *
Wilmington, NC
57.
3:20 a.m. †
Mezzotint
12 x 12
$400
Donald Furst *
Wilmington, NC
58.
Afterglow
Mezzotint
8 x 4.5
$250
Joan Karissa Gallego
San Francisco, CA
59.
Locked
Reduction linocut
14 x 13
$300
Ron Garrett
Boca Raton, FL
60.
Magpie Americana
Intaglio, hand-coloring
18 x 24
$795
Ron Garrett
Boca Raton, FL
61.
Stingray Fever
Engraved plasti-cut relief print
72 x 39
$1695
Jon Goebel
Hilo, HI
62.
Pursuit of Latitude †
Drypoint, aquatint
17.5 x 11
$400
David Graves
Santa Barbara, CA
63.
Ascending Descendents
Reduction woodcut
27 x 15
$950
Dirk Hagner *
San Juan Capistrano, CA
64.
Guns L. A.
Reduction relief
34 x 32
$2200
Neal Harrington
Russellville, AR
65.
Delta Oracle
Woodcut, India ink wash
32 x 24
$950
Neal Harrington
Russellville, AR
66.
Feather Signal
Woodcut, India ink wash
24 x 24
$800
Neal Harrington
Russellville, AR
67.
Spirits †
Woodcut, India Ink wash
38 x 24
$950
Zoe Hawk
Augusta, WI
68.
Governess
Linocut
14 x 11
$450
Su-Li Hung *
New York, NY
69.
Little Girl’s World
Woodcut
21 x 20
NFS
Nina Jordan
New York, NY
70.
612 Excelsior St.
Woodcut
14 x 22
$600
Robbin Juris
Stamford, CT
71.
FSA67 (Abraham/Isaac) †
Digital pigment print
14.2 x 14.2
$750
Robbin Juris
Stamford, CT
72.
Untitled (FSA45D)
Digital pigment print
15 x 12
$750
Robbin Juris
Stamford, CT
73.
Zeus/Athena
Digital pigment print
14 x 13
$750
Robin Koss
Chatham, NJ
74.
Walls Which Do Not Last, No.1
Intaglio
18 x 12
$1375
Judy Kramer *
Cambridge, MA
75.
The Chanteuse
Hand-colored screenprint
15 x 11
$350
Cynthia Lollis and Daniela Deeg
Decatur, GA
76.
Der Prinz von Liegenland
Screenprint artist book
10 x 6.8 x 1
$400
Haley MacKeil
Cambridge, MA
77.
The Old Woman
Linocut
30 x 44
$500
Norberto Marrero
Havana, Cuba
78.
Ventanas †
Artist book
10.4 x 8.8 x 1.6
$1300
Donald Martin
Saint Augustine, FL
79.
Grasses
Linocut
24 x 24
$400
Michelle Martin
Tulsa, OK
80.
Infirmity
Etching
16 x 12
$400
Stephen McMillan *
Bellingham, WA
81.
Winter Reflections
Aquatint etching
9 x 12
$180
Frederick Mershimer *
Brooklyn, NY
82.
After Hours
Mezzotint
6.25 x 12
$450
David Mollett
Fairbanks, AK
83.
Our Town
Screenprint
15 x 15.5
$500
Lina Monclus
Weston, Broward County, FL
84.
Distortions †
Monotype, linocut, chine collé,
sewing, drawing
47 x 47
$1812
Jim Monson *
Tourrette-Levens, PACA France
85.
Sacred Grail
Reduction woodcut
15 x 19.25
$650
Julie Nadel
Jersey City, NJ
86.
Elephant Ride - Coney Island
Linocut
9 x 12
$325
Charles Norris
Cambridge, MA
87.
Dory II
Woodcut
17 x 13
$800
Charles Norris
Cambridge, MA
88.
Islesford Ebb I
Woodcut
13 x 37
$1200
Marian O’Connell *
Middletown, RI
89.
Quholme
Etching, watercolor
14 x 12
$300
Andy Owen
Naples, FL
90.
Heatwave †
Collagraph
36 x 31
$850
Robert Patierno
Dallastown, PA
91.
Wrightsville Quarry
Reduction linocut
16 x 12
$400
Jim Pearson
Lawrenceville, IL
92.
Anonymous Plant QW
Digital inkjet print
7.5 x 6
$300
Barbara Putnam *
Southborough, MA
93.
Fingers in the Snow
Woodcut
28 x 32
$1600
Jenny Robinson
San Francisco, CA
94.
Infrastructure # 2 †
Drypoint
26 x 54
$2200
Ramiro Rodriguez
South Bend, IN
95.
Plutocracy Rising
Reduction linocut
12 x 9
$80
Donald Rubinstein
Santa Fe, NM
96.
A Story Line
Archival pigment print
11 x 15
$1900
Masaaki Sato *
New York, NY
97.
Apple No.8 - RR
Screenprint
21.5 x 21.5
$800
Vinay Sharma
Sacramento, CA
98.
SFO Series
Drypoint
24 x 36
$1200
Mark Sisson
Stillwater, OK
99.
Portrait of Mary Crone: Black Tie Cuts T-Shirt
Linocut, woodcut, lithograph
16.25 x 12.25
$500
Stanley Squirewell
New York, NY
100.
Algorithmic
C-Print
30 x 35
$5000
Stanley Squirewell
New York, NY
101.
Anyanwu II †
Acrylic on pigment print
48 x 34
$7200
Dan Steeves
Sackville, NB Canada
102.
A Large Overarching Story
Etching
18 x 24.2
$900
Dan Steeves
Sackville, NB Canada
103.
Fifteen Stones
Etching
18 x 24.2
$900
Stephanie Stigliano *
Malden, MA
104.
Red Monsters
Monoprint, chine collé, sumi ink
15 x 22
$500
Susan Stranc *
Lowell, MA
105.
Red Squirrel Blue Squirrel
Reduction linoleum
30 x 44
$1200
Mary Strandell
North Bergen, NJ
106.
Mad Men Stairs (with Virginian silver) †
3-D Lenticular print
12 x 20
$1200
Art Werger *
Athens, OH
107.
Descent
Etching, aquatint
24 x 24
$1200
Art Werger *
Athens, OH
108.
Nightfall
Etching, aquatint
36 x 24
$1200
Thomas Wood
Bellingham, WA
109.
Adoration
Etching
7x7
$500
Jury Exempt Work by the Executive Board
of The Boston Printmakers
Vivian Berman, Emeritus *
Lexington, MA
110.
A Quiet Place
Collagraph, collage
22 x 20
$500
Christiane Corcelle *
Belmont, MA
111.
Mask #2
Carborundum collagraph, monotype,
chine collé
20 x 20
$600
Deborah Cornell *
Lexington, MA
112.
DarkLight
Archival pigment print
18 x 15
$700
Marc Cote *
Framingham, MA
113.
Florence and Padua
Etching, aquatint
10 x 8
$300
Renee Covalucci *
Concord, MA
114.
Arizona Sky
Reduction woodcut
12.75 x 19
$450
Susan Denniston *
Scituate, MA
115.
Infinite Sea
Etching, aquatint, drypoint, chine colle
7x7
$250
Alex Gerasev *
Revere, MA
116.
Moon
Lithograph
5x4
$180
Eric Goldberg *
Philadelphia, PA
117.
The Lovers
Etching, aquatint
12 x 18
$350
Sharon Hayes *
Andover, MA
118.
Waiting
Etching, chine collé
14.5 x 18
$450
Theresa Monaco *
Stoneham, MA
119.
Memories of the Mezzagiorno
Photopolymer intaglio
8.75 x 9.25
$400
Ky Ober *
Arlington, MA
120.
Unearthed Plate
Collagraph, drypoint, monoprint
20 x 15
$600
Liz Shepherd *
Boston, MA
121.
Ardennes Redux
Linocut, hand-coloring
37 x 13
$650
Stephanie Stigliano *
Malden, MA
122.
Moon Halo
Intaglio, sumi ink
8x6
$200
Julia Talcott *
Newton, MA
123.
Night Flight
Woodcut, collage
16 x 12
$350
Lois Tarlow *
Newton, MA
124.
Falling Squares
Monoprint
15 x 11
$850
Mary L. Taylor *
Marshfield, MA
125.
Sea River Dock
Digital pigment print with encaustic,
silver leaf on board
24 x 24 x 2
$1000
Bob Tomolillo *
Lynn, MA
126.
Al Mutanabbi Street
Lithograph, chine collé
15 x 12
$350
Malgorzata Zurakowska *
Lexington, MA
127.
Sun Black like . . . .
Mezzotint
16 x 12
NFS
Glossary
How Prints Are Made
An original print is a work of graphic art; the general requirements are:
1. The artist has made the image in or upon the plate, stone, wood block, a computer, or other material for the purpose of creating a work of graphic art.
2. The impression is made directly from the original material by the artist or pursuant to his or her directions.
3. The finished print is approved by the artist.
Relief Printing
In relief printing, the artist carves away from a block or metal plate what is not to be printed. The
raised surface is then inked and printed onto paper by means of hand pressure, rubbing the paper
with a spoon or baren or by using a press. Both hand work and photo-based imagery can be used
with this method.
Woodcut: Parts of a wood plank or plywood block are cut away, leaving a design in relief, which is
then printed.
Wood Engraving: Similar to woodcut, but the end grain of the block is utilized, enabling the artist to
get a much finer line.
Linocuts: Linoleum may be used instead of wood, giving a somewhat similar result.
Relief Etching: A print is made from an acid-etched plate whose top surface has been rolled up with
ink and printed, rather than the usual intaglio inking method.
Intaglio Printing
Intaglio is the opposite of relief printing in that the incised lines or textured areas of the plate, and not
the raised surface, hold the ink. After the artist has created the image on the plate (usually copper
or zinc), ink is forced into the incised lines and textures. The surface is wiped clean, leaving ink only
in the recessed lines or areas. The print is made when dampened paper is pressed into these areas,
picking up the ink as it goes through the press. Both hand work and photo-based imagery can be
used with this method.
Etching: A metal plate is coated with an acid resistant “ground”. The artist removes or scratches
away parts of this ground to create the image. The plate is then put into an acid bath and the lines of
the design are eaten into the plate. The resist can be a hard ground or a soft ground.
Aquatint: Large tonal areas of the plate are often created with aquatint. The plate is covered with a
dusting of acid-resistant rosin or lightly sprayed with enamel. The amount deposited, along with the
length of time the plate is etched, determines the final tone.
Engraving: No acid is used here. Instead, the lines are cut into the plate with a tool called a “burin”.
Drypoint: A method similar to engraving; however, a sharp needle is used which creates a burr along
the cut line. Ink caught in that burr leaves the characteristically soft, velvety effect.
Mezzotint: A tool is used which raises a texture of burr over the entire plate. A print taken from this
plate would be solid black. Lighter areas have to be scraped or burnished away.
Collagraph: The surface is built up by adhering various materials to the plate. Either (or both) relief
and intaglio inking may be employed. When printed, the paper will generally be embossed due to the
thickness of the materials on the plate.
Lithography
The image is drawn or painted onto a lithographic stone, metal or plastic plate using a greasy or
non-water soluble material. The stone or plate is then treated so the image areas are ink-loving
(greasy) and the non-image areas are water-loving. During printing, the stone or plate is dampened
with water and an oil-based ink is rolled over the surface, depositing ink only on the image areas.
Paper is placed on the inked surface and run through a press. Both hand work and photo-based
imagery can be used with this method.
Screenprint
The artist prepares a stretched screen (originally silk but now usually polyester) and blocks out the
areas not to be printed with glue, cut film, paper, photo-stencil, etc. Ink is then squeezed over the
screen, forcing it through the open areas onto the paper, which has been placed beneath the screen.
This method is also known as silkscreen and serigraphy. Both hand work and photo-based imagery
can be used with this method.
Monotypes & Monoprints
Monotypes are unique prints made by creating an image on a smooth plate or open screen and then
transferring the ink to paper, often using a press. The image is sometimes developed by overprinting
repeatedly or by adding to the print surface directly.
Monoprints are also unique prints, but include at least one plate that has been treated in any one of
the various printmaking techniques, creating a repeatable element. The artist often uses this plate as
a base or constant and adds other imagery to create a unique print.
Digital Prints
Digital prints are first-generation prints made directly from a digital file. Digital images can be drawings and paintings done by hand using a paint program or collages of imagery from photographs,
scanned materials, and other sources, which are manipulated in a photo-editing program, or a combination of the two methods. If other media are applied before or after printing, a mixed-media image
results which can be either a multiple or a monoprint.
Digital collage: A single image is created by combining images from a variety of sources in a computer, where each layer of imagery can be manipulated separately and then combined for output in color
or black ink. The computer may be used at any stage to produce printed images from which the artist
selects parts to create a pasted collage.
Inkjet print: A continuous-tone image printed with an inkjet printer, which sprays color droplets from
tiny nozzles onto a piece of paper or other substrate.
Iris print: An inkjet print printed on an Iris printer, which uses electrostatically sorted droplets of
water-based vegetable dyes.
Giclée: A French term that means a spurt of ink and is sometimes used to describe a second-generation Iris print or reproduction.
Limited Editions
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A set of identical prints made is called an edition. The edition number (represented as a fraction),
title (if any), and signature of the artist usually appear at the bottom margin of each print. The top
of the fraction identifies the print within the edition; the bottom of the fraction indicates the total
number printed. A small number of additional prints designated as “Artist’s Proof” or A.P. may also
be printed.