Milestones - Black Church Print Studio



Milestones - Black Church Print Studio
9 77 0 26 3 9 4 70 08
Past & present
Black Church Print
1982 – 2007
Louise Allen
Deborah Ando
Joy Arden
Jordi Arko
Aïda Bangoura
Dawn Barry
Kate Betts
Caroline Bouguereau
Maggie Boyd
Lucy Braddell
Margaret Bradish
Cecily Brennan
Paul Brooks
Geraldine Bruce
Mary Burke
Anya Burton
Bob Byrne
Caroline Byrne
Catherine Byrne
Michael Byrne
Claire Carpenter
Jonathan Cassidy
Niamh Clancy
Michael Colman
Linda Condon
Barrie Cooke
Liadin Cooke
Michael Corcoran
Gráinne Cuffe
Siobhan Cuffe
Brian Cullen
Cora Cummins
Pauline Cummins
Gina Davey
Janine Davidson
Jan de Fouw
Mary Delany
Lynda Devenney
John Devlin
Alexandra Domaradzka
Phoebe Donovan
David Doran
Gráinne Dowling
Barbara Dunne
Aoife Dwyer
Declan Finn
Dermot Finn
Emma Finucane
Brian Fitzgerald
Mary Fitzgerald
Jane Fitzsimons
Niamh Flanagan
Taffina Flood
Monica Flynn
Andrew Folan
Annette Foley
Michael Ford
Mary Frazer
Martin Gale
Jane Garland
Arthur Gibney
Joan Gleeson
John Graham
Noel Guilfoyle
Naomi Hanrahan
Nickie Hayden
Michael Hegarty
Catherine Hehir
Jamie Helly
Paula Henihan
St John Hennessy
John Hern
John Hewitt
Pete Hogan
Sara Horgan
Sandy Hudson
Patricia Hurl
Margaret Irwin
Karen Johnson
Sandra Johnston
Peter Jones
Eithne Jordan
Ann Kavanagh
Catherine Kelly
John Kelly
David Kiely
Frank Kiely
Brian Kreydatus
Lisa Langhey
Elaine Leader
Catriona Leahy
Maureen Levy
Róisín Lewis
Aidan Linehan
Catherine Lynch
Mairead Lynch
Anthony Lyttle
Theo MacNab
Colin Martin
Marie Louise Martin
Michele Martin
Brid McCartin
Ann McDonald
Fiona McDonald
Patrick McElroy
Christy McGinn
David McGinn
Yvonne McGuinness
Tom McGuirk
Anne Marie McInerney
Theresa McKenna
Aileen McKeogh
Margaret McLoughlin
Greta McMahon
Louise Meade
John Meagher
John Meany
Breda Mooney
Tom Moore
Pat Moran
Sarah Moylan
Rose Mary Murray Blake
Patricia Neary
Silvia Nevado Roca
Ailbhe Ní Bhriain
Liam Ó Broin
Margaret O’Brien
Pádraig Ó Cuimín
Eamonn O’Doherty
Sarah O’Doherty
Siobhan O’Donnell
Catherine O’Dowd
Gwen O’Dowd
Margaret O’Hagan
Seán Ó Murchú
Sinéad O’Reilly
Geraldine O’Reilly
Colette O’Sullivan
Michael O’Sullivan
Louise Peat
Alison Pilkington
Peter Power
Conor Regan
Marc Reilly
Jean Rooney
Piia Rossi
Thierry Rudin
Pamela Ryan
Maura Selfe
Naomi Sex
Vincent Sheridan
Silje Skuterud
Dorothy Smith
Paki Smith
Rob Smith
Louise Somers
Simon Spain
Jacqueline Stanley
Rose Stapleton
Tracy Staunton
Yvonne Sweeney
Liz Smyth
Michael Timmins
Yvan Vansevenant
Stephen Vaughan
Stephen Webster
Rachel Weir
Oliver Whelan
Charlie Whisker
Conor Wickham
Annraoi Wyer
4.Foreword Kate Betts 6.Black
Church Print Studio chairpersons
12.History of Black Church Print
Studio Sara Horgan 22.Born again
and again Andrew Folan
30.Milestones / Miles’s tones: A
coincidence Brian Fay 38.Illustrations
120.Biographies 138.Glossary of
terms Kate Betts 144.Artist index
Published in an edition of 500
by the Black Church Print Studio, 4 Temple Bar, Dublin 2
to accompany the exhibition ‘Milestones’
at the Office of Public Works, 51 St Stephen’s Green,
Dublin 2
1-22 November 2007
ISBN 978-0-9557248-0-0
© Black Church Print Studio & the artists
First edition 2007
Front cover:
Black Church Print Studio, Temple Bar – installing printing press
through the studio window on the second floor.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Project Co-ordinator
Hazel Burke, Black Church Print Studio
Sara Horgan, Andrew Folan
& Brian Fay
Artwork photography
Ronan McCrea
Studio photography
David McGinn
Aoife O'Kelly
Kate Betts, Vincent Sheridan,
Claire Carpenter & Janine Davidson
Design & production
Peter Maybury Studio
Printing & reproduction
Drukkerij Rosbeek bv
binders name here (printer adds this)
Welcome to Milestones, an exhibition and publication celebrating twenty-five years of the Black Church
Print Studio. Selected from the work of all our members, past and present, this show is diverse in medium,
style and subject and as such I hope it gives a sense of the artistic terrain and the distance covered
since a small, passionate group of artists opened the doors to a new kind of printmaking facility twenty-five
years ago.
Established in 1982, the Black Church provides facilities for and nurtures printmaking artists from all over
Ireland, and the world. We facilitate the very oldest of printmaking media right through to the most
modern: woodblock, etching and lithography are housed cheek-by-jowl with the twentieth-century
developments of photo-reprographics and screen-printing as well as the latest in computer aided design
and digital printers. In short, the whole rich diversity of the printmaking genre is available; each separate
medium having its own unique expressive possibilities for the artist. The studio also provides an editioning
service for artists in other media, who can work with a master printmaker to realise works of art in an
unfamiliar medium. We run an exhibitions programme, which includes regular international exchanges.
Meanwhile through our education programme we aim to maintain and improve the printmaking
skills-base in Ireland and to promote awareness and understanding of printmaking amongst the art world
and the public.
Kate Betts
The ‘Milestones’ exhibition was selected by Brian Fay, artist and lecturer in Fine Art at the Dublin Institute
of Technology together with Andrew Folan, print and digital artist and lecturer in Fine Art at the National
College of Art and Design, Dublin. Both Brian Fay and Andrew Folan have also contributed thoughtprovoking essays to this publication, and I thank them both for their vital collaboration and support.
We are very happy to also enjoy the ongoing support of the Arts Council of Ireland, without which the
Black Church Print Studio would no doubt be a very different organisation. Finally, I must acknowledge
the work, dedication and passion of so many people, some paid but mostly voluntary, over the last quarter
of a century. It is thanks to all this past, present and, we trust, future generosity that the Black Church Print
Studio is here to enjoy and build upon its twenty-fifth year of artistic endeavour.
Black Church
The Beginnings
1980 – 1990
The growth of printmaking in Ireland during this time
was concurrent with a flourishing growth in confidence
in Irish Fine Art. Michael Byrne, Phoebe Donovan,
Liam Ó Broin, Sara Horgan and Pádraig Ó Cuimín were
the small group of passionate individuals who, led by
the late John Kelly, set out to facilitate this growth
by creating a new kind of printmaking studio; one
which would include the oldest technology side by side
with the newest. They were later joined by Barbara
Dunne, Andrew Folan, Jan de Fouw, Ken Langan,
Marie Louise Martin and Jacqueline Stanley.
Initially without formally identified roles, and
later employing a rotating chair system, each of
these people played a key role in the establishment
of the Black Church Print Studio; particularly
Sara Horgan who also acted as Administrator.
This gradual development of formal structures at the
Black Church reflects the true nature of a grass-roots
artists’ organisation.
Jan de Fouw Hon NCAD
Chairperson 1990 – 1996
With the National College of Art and Design now
awarding diplomas in printmaking, membership and
ambitions continued to grow at the Black Church.
Emerging as a natural facilitator and motivator, able
to sum up wide-ranging discussions, Jan de Fouw was
the first formal Chairperson of what was by now an
incorporated company.
The fire which destroyed the Studio in 1990 created
the biggest challenge to date – that of keeping the
spirit of the Studio alive when its building had been lost.
Jan describes this as a time of ‘lots of energy awaiting
direction’. The Board of Directors pressed ahead with
the planned exhibitions programme and started yet
again the difficult search for premises.
Black Church finally reopened for business at its new
purpose-built Temple Bar premises in 1993. Designed
by McCullough Mulvin Architects, the building won
the Downes Medal awarded by the Architectural
Association of Ireland in 1996.
(for example of work by Jan de Fouw see page 48)
Andrew Folan
Chairperson 1997 - 1999
Describing the day-to-day life of working in a Temple Bar
studio ‘like running a business in a theme park for
boozing’, Andrew Folan nonetheless gave 16 years
service to the Black Church, two of which were as Chair.
During this time digital technologies were increasingly
used by artists world-wide, not least by Black Church’s
own members. The Studio welcomed these
developments with open arms and the Board showed
support with the purchase of new equipment.
Andrew’s own work reflects this ethos, having exhibited
consistently during this time, his work is typified by the
very considered use of a wide range of techniques,
embracing both the tradition and the cutting edge of
Ken Langan
Chairperson 1996 – 1997
Having already served on the Board for five years,
Ken Langan’s history of commitment and creative
contribution to the Studio were key in his being elected
to the chair. But as an accountant by profession,
Ken was initially somewhat reluctant to take on the role.
Yet it was his particular expertise both as an
accountant and as Assistant Director of the National
College of Art and Design that was vital in this period.
Ken established the finances of the Black Church; a vital
grounding on which the organisation was able to stand
steady and look to the future. He then launched a
period of expansion at Black Church, attracting new
members to both the Studio and the Board.
Dr Tom McGuirk
Chairperson 2000 – 2003
Tom McGuirk enjoyed his term as Chairperson and
attributes this not only to his self-professed delegation
skills, but also to the cooperation and selfless dedication
of the Board and Administrator at that time –
Avril Percival. During Tom’s time as Chair, Black Church
welcomed new graduates working in digital media
and launched the website The exhibitions
programme was used as an agent to encourage
experimentation, by setting themes such as
‘Challenging Conventions’ for members’ shows.
This was an outward-looking time and an international
dimension was introduced to the exhibitions programme
with shows in Paris and Stockholm. Plans were also put
in place for an exchange exhibition with the New York
Society of Etchers.
At a time when other artist-focused organisations were
folding due to cutbacks in Arts Council funding, Black
Church balanced the books and, in recognition of this
and other successes, received assurance of stable and
secure funding on an annual basis from the Arts Council
of Ireland.
Also at this time, health and safety issues in all industries
had come to the foreground. Printmaking has historically
been highly toxic, and since Dürer’s day there has been
much anecdotal evidence of the poor health and
short lives of printmakers. The Board ordered a health
and safety audit of the building. As anticipated,
improvements to the ventilation of the building were
recommended which required a significant capital
Andrew Folan
Surface Dwelling, 1986
photo–etching and aquatint, A/P
86 x 47 cm
Tom McGuirk
Detritus (Strangels), 1996
etching, 4/30
75 x 53 cm
Kate Betts
Toad that under cold
stone Days and nights has
thirty-one, 2007
screenprint and origami,
Unlimited Edition
25 x 10 x 22 cm
Margaret McLoughlin
The Road Through, 2006
carborundum etching, 1/20
47 x 66 cm
Margaret McLouglin BA Fine Art, Printmaking
Chairperson 2003 – 2006
At the beginning of Margaret McLoughlin’s term as
Chairperson the Board undertook the two-fold challenge
of raising the € 55,000 required for the ventilation project
and installation of the system. The phenomenally
successful ‘BOXiD’ exhibition raised a substantial amount.
It was an ‘anonymous’ show, with the artist revealed on
purchase. Along with the support of the Arts Council and
Friends of the Black Church, this secured the funds for
the ventilation project to proceed. Key in bringing the
project to successful completion was board member
and architect Ronan Phelan of Scott Tallon Walker, who
gave generously of his time and expertise to ensure
that Black Church installed a state-of-the-art ventilation
system that would protect the health of printmakers for
years to come.
Kate Betts BA Hons Fine Art, Printmaking
Chairperson 2006 – to date
There has been much change at Black Church
recently, with Administrator Avril Percival resigning after
seven years of committed service to study for a Masters
in Art History. Technician Michael Timmins also left after
seven years to take up a place at the world-renowned
centre for lithography, the Tamarind Institute in New
Mexico and finally, Studio Technical Manager Colin
Martin was enjoying such success in his own artistic
career that he no longer needed to subsidise his art
with a ‘day job’, resigning after eight years. Amidst this
intense period of change, Kate Betts began her term
as Chair and the Board set about recruiting a new staff
The artistic development of the Studio continued and to
this end equipment was bought and upgraded, while
the introduction of the Black Church Graduate Award
attracted a flow of new talent.
Emphasis was also placed on continuing to raise the
international profile of the Black Church; the exchange
exhibition with the New York Society of Etchers went
ahead, as did an exchange with Danske Grafikere Hus
of Copenhagen, where Studio members’ work stood up
well in an international context.
To celebrate the Black Church’s twenty-fifth
anniversary, the Board launched an ambitious and
varied series of events bringing members’ work out of
the traditional print venues and into a broader arena.
The programme included two member shows in the
Original Print Gallery; a collaboration with the Lab,
Dublin; a site-specific show on Grattan Bridge and the
‘Milestones’ exhibition which included work from the
twenty-five years of the Studio’s history.
In the spirit of fairness and transparency the current
Board has committed to working with arts professionals
from outside the Studio whenever possible for the
selection of Black Church exhibitions, as well as for the
twice-yearly selection of new members.
With the acceptance of video art into the mainstream,
artists and the public are open, more than ever, to the
concept of multiples, and to the authenticity of work
produced in edition. Continuing its commitment to
education, Black Church has responded to demand
by running more printmaking courses for the public
than ever before, while the Board has also begun to
exploit the grass-roots style communication made possible
by the internet to promote its activities and in 2007
launched the new ‘National Print Studio Network’
linking people, skills and facilities across Ireland.
History of
Black Church
Sara Horgan
Black Church Print Studio first opened for business on
1 October 1982 but the very first committee meeting had
been two years before that on 1 January 1980, in my
kitchen. The initial Board of Directors was appointed,
Liam Ó Broin, Michael Byrne, Pádraig O Cuimín and
Phoebe Donovan, who was backing a new enterprise at
almost 80 years of age, with myself, Sara Horgan as
Secretary and John Kelly as the first rotating Chairman.
The Arts Council’s suggestion was to establish a major
national print centre, in much improved premises, to
include expanded printmaking facilities catering for
the development of innovative and experimental work.
The national print centre would also engage in active
marketing methods, offer an editioning service to
artists, participate in exhibitions both nationally and
internationally and tour Studio exhibitions.
The only print studio in the country at that time was
Graphic Studio Dublin, established 20 years earlier.
It was located in a rather dank basement in Upper
Mount Street. Patrick Hickey was the Director for the
first ten years, John Kelly for another ten and Leslie
MacWeeney, whom I later succeeded, was Secretary.
The Arts Council was aware of developments in France
and the United States that were reviving the arcane
world of printmaking, and in 1977, under the
Directorship of Colm Ó Briain, approached Graphic
Studio Dublin with a suggestion of expansion. Apart from
the cramped and oversubscribed conditions in Upper
Mount Street, this expansion was necessary because the
National College of Art and Design was undergoing
major changes and was about to start awarding diplomas
and later degrees in printmaking. Graphic Studio Dublin,
as the only existing public printmaking facility in
Ireland, would shortly become inadequate.
The search for premises began. Dublin City Librarian
Deirdre Ellis-King, who was a colleague of John Kelly’s,
suggested we look at St Mary’s Chapel of Ease beside
Parnell Square, known as the Black Church for its
particular dark stone called Dublin calp. The property
had huge potential and the City Development
Department offered it to us for a peppercorn rent.
We had conversion plans drawn up by Richard Hurley
Architects, to include the replacement of what seemed
to be crumbling plaster on the walls.
Every organic growth has birth pangs and the
membership of Graphic Studio Dublin was divided for
and against this expansion, with members becoming
more and more disaffected. This led to a tumultuous
period, which was resolved by a mass meeting in the
United Arts Club in 1979, chaired by Professor George
Dawson, as a Patron of Graphic Studio Dublin.
The majority decided to stay in Upper Mount Street
and the group of dissenting members left to continue
with expansion plans, therefore splitting from Graphic
Studio Dublin.
Black Church Print Studio finally opened in October
1982 with a positive ethos: entry was by invitation or
portfolio. At least a token payment for all services
rendered was given; one print from every edition was
to be donated to the Studio. There was an encouraging
studio atmosphere and an open welcome. Learners’
access was by a strict progression from beginner, to
working under supervision and to possibly evolving into
a full member and key holder. Experienced printmakers
joined, Gráinne Cuffe was the first, followed by Jackie
Stanley. We offered beginner printmaking courses in
January 1983 and by that September we ran an intensive
week to attract artists. We had an excellent line-up:
Cecily Brennan, Eithne Jordan, James McCreary, Aileen
McKeogh, Theo McNab, Michael O’Sullivan, Rob Smith
and Oliver Whelan. By late 1983, Andrew Folan had
replaced Liam Ó Broin as a Director on the Board and
brought his darkroom experience to the Studio.
We set ourselves up as a Company Limited by
Guarantee under the name Black Church Print Studio.
We submitted conversion plans for the Black Church to
the Arts Council, who agreed to give us £80,000, which
was a lot of money at the time. However, as the Dublin
saying goes, ‘Three times around the Black Church and
you meet the devil’. As we had concerns about the
plaster in the Black Church, we had it analysed and
found that it was a double layer of disintegrating
asbestos. To remove it would add £40,500 to the cost,
which we were unwilling to bear.
We started house-hunting again. One of the best options,
which came through Pádraig O Cuimín, architect in CIE,
was in the area that CIE was reserving for a transport
centre in Temple Bar. This was a magnificent ex-clothing
factory, too big for our needs. We approached the Arts
Council with the idea of them taking on the building and
running it as a multiple tenancy of arts organisations –
this was already happening in the London docklands and
in Scotland. The factory eventually became the Temple
Bar Gallery and Studios, under brave Jenny Haughton.
That same year Graphic Studio Dublin left their Upper
Mount Street premises and moved to Green Street East.
They also opened a Print Gallery in the Powerscourt
Town House on South William Street. Nevertheless,
the Arts Council was still pressing for the idea of a
national print centre and together both studios looked
at a number of alternative buildings for sale.
We kept the name Black Church Print Studio in the
firm hope of the eventual resolution of our housing
situation but without working facilities we risked
losing all momentum. However, within a short time we
rented a unit temporarily at Ardee House at the top
of the Coombe. Loughlin Kealy, later Professor of
Architecture in University College Dublin, advised us
on the initial layout. We settled in, ordering and installing
new and second-hand equipment, and establishing
workshop practice.
In 1984 the first Black Church Print Studio exhibition
was held in the Triskel Art Centre in Cork. The first in
Dublin was over Ray’s Restaurant on Crow Street, which
travelled to Longford. Our artistic profile was beginning
to increase, Gráinne Cuffe was awarded a scholarship
to the Tamarind Institute in New Mexico and the Arts
Council organised VIP representatives to visit from print
societies and museums in Cleveland and Sweden.
The first Studio scholarship was awarded to Christy
McGinn. We published Ireland’s first commissioned fine
art lithograph, Barrie Cooke’s Megaceros Hibernicus
(Great Irish Elk), and later we printed a cover illustration
by Barrie for a John Montague poetry collection.
Ms Laura Magahy, former MD of
Temple Bar Properties,
Mr Leslie Waddington of
Waddington Galleries, London
and Mr Jan de Fouw by the
large format etching press at
the official launch of the
Black Church Print Studio.
The crowd gathers and awaits
Mr Leslie Waddington, the official
speaker at the launch of the
Original Print Gallery and the
Black Church Print Studio.
The Douglas Hyde Gallery organised educational tours
to the Studio and Art History students visited from the
National College of Art and Design. The second Irish
Miniprint exhibition followed, administered by Mary
Bryans and jointly sponsored by the Rohan Group
and We Frame It. Held in the RHA Gallery in 1987 and
including 541 entries from 22 countries, it was
numerically bigger than Living Art, Oireachtas and
Rosc exhibitions combined. The show toured Kilkenny,
Limerick and Cork and brought in excellent sales and
publicity for print and for the Studio. The first British
Miniprint exhibition followed, organised by Peter Ford,
the winner of the First Prize at our exhibition.
In 1985 the Arts Council, under the new Directorship of
Adrian Munnelly, announced that they had agreed with
Dublin Corporation to share the cost of the asbestos
removal in the Black Church and suggested that the two
studios regroup. It was too late. We found ourselves in
an enforced marriage of the two Studios, which entailed
shared Arts Council budget applications. This system
was to be eventually annulled in 1989, ten years after
the split.
Nonetheless, our members were making their mark in
Studio and other exhibitions, Gráinne Dowling won a
Salmon poetry magazine award, Andy Folan won the
Douglas Hyde Gold Medal for Print at the Oireachtas,
Marie Louise Martin won a Print Award at the RHA, as
I did in the last Bradford Biennale. We became much
more ambitious in 1986 when John Kelly suggested we
stage a First Irish Miniprint exhibition. It was held at the
Hendriks Gallery on St Stephen’s Green, with 326 prints
on show. This exhibition was sponsored by We Frame It
and short-listed for a Sunday Tribune Arts Award.
After Michael Byrne’s death in 1988, John Kelly,
Dan Treston (Michael’s life partner), and I set up an
exhibition in the Davis Gallery and announced the
Michael Byrne Scholarship for Printmakers, the first of
which was awarded to Michael Corcoran. After Dan died,
I handed over this scholarship to the Arts Council to
By September of 1990, our Committee was Barbara
Dunne, Andy Folan, Jan de Fouw, Marie Louise Martin,
Jackie Stanley and me. A total of 79 artists had used our
Studio. We had organised a total of 22 Studio exhibitions
and had a further 8 in the pipeline. We were starting
to prepare the European Large Format Printmaking
exhibition. We were also lining up a Studio exhibition in
The Hague for the next year and another in the Riverrun
Gallery Dublin. The ILAC Library had asked for a small
exhibition and Jan de Fouw was organising a Studio
calendar to benefit the Rape Crisis Centre. We were in
negotiations with our landlord about moving the screenprint area into a second unit at a reduced rate. Then we
had a break-in by kids (judging by the footprints) who
got the petty cash box. The window was reset with fresh
iron bars, but a week later they got in again. This time,
not finding the petty cash, they set fire to the Studio.
The ensuing fire was compounded by explosions of inks
and solvents and much was lost by fire or water damage,
including the Studio’s records.
Links continued with Graphic Studio Dublin over the
following years. Still on a joint Arts Council budget,
Marie Louise Martin and I were asked to view the site
of what was to become the Graphic Studio Dublin’s new
gallery off Cope Street. In 1987, to coincide with a
celebration of Irish women artists in the National Gallery
and the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery, Graphic Studio
Dublin gallery at Powerscourt mounted an exhibition of
Irish women printmakers: Maria Simmonds Gooding,
Alice Hanratty, Jenny Lane, Mary Farl Powers, Anne
Madden and me.
Once the Temple Bar Properties Ltd submission arrived
at a financial package and planning permission for a
purpose-built studio and gallery, I resigned, burnt out
and thanks to an aunt’s legacy left for Samarkand, and
later Timbuctoo.
Everyone rallied around, our members, friends and
several members of Graphic Studio Dublin.
We dismantled presses, shifting what could be salvaged,
and gave Graphic Studio Dublin the ball-grainer we had
got from the Ordnance Survey. Members claimed back
what was left of their work and gear. Everything was put
into storage. It was back to the kitchen table for Board
meetings, with the charred filing cabinet in the living
room. A formal meeting for all the Studio members
followed at the Artists Association of Ireland office in
Liberty Hall, chaired by Jan de Fouw. The members
voted overwhelmingly for the Studio to continue,
encouraged by our insurance loss adjuster’s hard work,
which provided the seed money to carry on. Our show
at Riverrun Gallery Dublin became a Phoenix Exhibition
to publicise our crisis and we took a collection in a
fireman’s helmet.
The aspiration of a national print centre never materialised, but the aims of regular and travelling exhibitions,
active marketing, editioning, galleries, screen-printing
and darkroom, were all achieved over time.
Through our Studio shows, we made print and the
Studio better known in both national and international
contexts and more particularly, in generating the two
Irish Miniprint and Large Format Printmaking exhibitions
we surpassed our original aims. Also, we wholeheartedly
played a part in advising the growing network of print
studios in Ireland.
Andy undertook to administer the European Large
Format Printmaking exhibition in the Guinness Hopstore
and negotiated printing facilities for Studio members in
the National College of Art and Design for the summer.
I set up viewings of yet more premises from an armchair
after a car crash. After some false starts with other
premises, such as Marrowbone Lane, Cornmarket and
Broadstone, I was finally able to enter negotiations with
Temple Bar Properties Ltd and we were accepted as
clients by them on the evening of the Large Format
Printmaking exhibition opening. We held a viewing in
the RHA Gallery for Studio members, of McCullough
Mulvin’s architectural proposal for the new studio
beside their scheme for Temple Bar Gallery and Studios.
We had come full circle.
All that time and effort spent in house-hunting was
validated by the eventual resolution, a new purpose-built
printmaking studio right in the middle of Temple Bar:
and the legacy continues.
Sara Horgan,
Director and Administrator
of the Black Church Print
Studio (1980 - 1992).
Mr Leslie Waddington (left)
and Mr Jan de Fouw, former
Chairman, standing near the
Relief Press at the official
launch of the Black Church
Print Studio.
Black Church Print Studio,
Ardee Street (after the
Studio fire in 1990).
Contact sheet of
photographs taken during
the installation of
printmaking equipment into
the new Studio premises in
4 Temple Bar in 1993.
The curious process of intaglio printing is practised
today at the Black Church Print Studio, in the same
manner as it has been for centuries throughout Europe.
Its invention stems from a fortuitous discovery in
fifteenth-century Germany when armourers sought to
keep records of their heraldic designs. They discovered
they could print basic images by filling the engraved
lines with ink and pressing paper on to them. These
early graphics served as guides to the restoration of
suits of armour, as well as forming an archive of designs
for future clients. Stemming from the success of these
images, engraving and subsequently other forms of
intaglio were adopted as printing methods in their own
right. Although woodcut printing preceded this practice,
intaglio printing was revolutionary in the distribution of
image and text. Since its primitive origins as a recording
method, the constant need for image and information set
in place a process of refinement in the quest for greater
quality and speed of print production. Curiously, as the
commercial world shed old methods for new, artists
rescued printing machines, fostered the processes and
re-employed them in their less time dependent creative
imaging. The term printmaking was coined to distinguish
the use of print for purely artistic purposes.
Andrew Folan
Historically printmaking has developed alongside
painting and sculpture, while maintaining a distinctive
quality. From its beginnings as a reproductive process,
through its vital role in politics and society, to more
recent formal and conceptual concerns, printmaking
has secured its position within the fine arts. Allied to
graphic communication and publishing, it keeps pace
with the latest developments in the printing world
(although usually one step behind). The continually
expanding range of methods is daunting, and keeping
up with new technologies, while maintaining traditional
ones, presents an ever-increasing challenge,
particularly in the management of print workshops
like the Black Church.
Printmaking is taught at the National College of Art and
Design (NCAD), for example, as a specialist subject
equal in potential to any other discipline. Students there
have had the option of taking print to degree level since
the mid 1970s. Print is taught as a fine art subject despite
its somewhat craft-like methodology. Without doubt a
certain amount of craft and skill are required if one is to
achieve success in its delivery. To do anything beyond
dabble in print requires a specific temperament. Print is
so intrinsically linked to modes of drawing, painting and
photography that of course boundaries overlap. What is
certain, however, is that print requires a controlled and
systematic approach. Inherent is the need for a certain
amount of pre-planning or at least an appreciation of the
mutability that results from the progressive application
of process. Master printer Aldo Crommelynck,
describing Picasso’s love of intaglio printing, stated:
Throughout 500 years printmaking has maintained an
exclusive role in the dissemination and marketing of
images, mostly by established artists. The Pop Art
movement of the 1960s gave a new credence to the
perception of printmaking. Artists such as Warhol,
Rauschenberg and Hamilton employed photo-print
techniques in reaction to Abstract Expressionism, while
devoted to their own specific populist agendas. Utilising
the most up-to-speed methods and materials print was
at the forefront of what was then considered new
technology. It was also recognised as the most
democratic art form and was employed in social and
political causes throughout eastern Europe in particular.
Some artists chose to realise their images exclusively
through print and this interest encouraged the
introduction of specialist print courses in colleges
throughout Europe and America.
‘… working with Picasso, there was
no technical failure; it was the easiest
thing to do.When he was dissatisfied
with a plate, he would take it and
scrape large areas, it didn’t bother
him. I offered to help, but he never
accepted. It was known to the people
around him that when he dedicated
himself to printmaking, especially
intaglio, he was in a good mood – he
didn’t mind seeing visitors.When he
was in a painting sequence, he didn’t
want to see anybody. Drawing on the
etching plate was a very casual
process for him.’ Picasso was working towards
an ultimate conclusion – repeatedly altering the plate in
search of the desired effect. The printing plate provided
a challenge for him. His physical manipulation of the
surface and his desire to utilise the full range of
possibilities was very much part of his creative process.
While the desire of most artists is usually to force a
conclusion, provision should be made also for the notion
of the artist as explorer engaged in the open-ended
journey of transformative production.
The act of breaking the creative process into discrete
stages introduces a circuitous path and opens the
potential for unexpected diversion. For many the journey
will be more interesting than the destination. Print is
unique in the fine arts in its ability to retain a record of
the development and evolution of an image through
printed states. This is a valuable quality enabling the
artist to systematically refine a work. The resulting
sequence may also be a creative exercise in itself.
The mechanically reproductive nature of printing
enables the serial evolution of image and concept, and
the subsequent recording of this in printed form. In a
tentative fashion, this quality takes print beyond the
confines of static rendering and places it alongside
dynamic time based media such as animation, film and
video. A sequence of prints is, thus, a sequence of frames
containing alterations and additions in smooth linear
transition. This has been demonstrated to great effect
by treating the plate as a palimpsest – systematically
erasing and reworking the surface, while recording each
transition. The resulting series is, thus, readily locked
into a sequence with every print having a readily
identifiable location. This chain of events forms a code
with many biological parallels. A less defined approach,
open to discovery and interpretation as distinct from
control and structure, is highly engaging and rewarding
for some. There will always be a percentage of artists
who welcome the ‘happy accident’ when a mistake
proves fortuitous. This is not at all unusual in such
process dependent production and where the
manifestation of an image is so many steps removed
from the hand of the artist. George Baselitz once said
of intaglio printing: ‘Working on zinc or
For print artists the 1980s were particularly scary!
While the bold character of woodcut and the emotive
energy required to make drypoints shared values
central to Neo-expressionism, print lacked the
dynamism and physicality of the enormous paintings
produced at that time. Print was not included in the
blockbuster exhibitions, which heralded a ‘new spirit
in painting’. An equivalent regeneration did not occur
in print. Susan Tallman, hightlighted the problem in her
publication ‘The Contemporary Print’. Print was
considered neither fish nor fowl. ‘Partly hand
made and partly automated, partly
populist and partly elitist, the original
print has struck many as either a
fussy little craft or as posters with
pretensions.’ Many artists failed to see the worth
of so much complex process. Indirect methodology often
requiring a synthesis of separate components proved
problematic for some. Those who took time to master
print were often seen to do so at the expense of the main
thrust of their concerns. Printmaking, which requires
technical expertise, sophisticated equipment and
mechanical printing presses, was executed in shared
workshops rather than private studios. Produced in
relatively small format and with an emphasis on
producing commercially viable editions, it was thought
of as ancillary to mainstream art activity.
In 1991 European artists addressed this perceived
failing, producing large-format prints specifically for an
exhibition at the Guinness Hop Store, Dublin. The show,
‘European Large Format Printmaking’, organised by the
Black Church Print Studio, resulted in the production of
prints in which large format was a central proposition.
The exhibits, which spanned a broad range of processes,
sought to overcome the limitations of printing by hand in
innovative, novel and ultimately creative methods.
copper plates demands a certain
concentration, a certain isolation,
almost a singularity. One is a strange
man when one scratches these metal
plates and it sometimes scares me’.
The remainder of the decade brought many changes in
attitudes to printmaking. Initially access to computers
and their widespread acceptance in the visual arts gave
print a new relevance. Digitally created artworks had,
up to recently, only one tangible form – that of print.
The revolution in digital technology has marked a
watershed in the practice of printmaking. Layer based
image composition through PhotoShop, for example,
uses a language already familiar to printmakers and
gives them an advantage with this leading technology.
Print artists can now excel in sophisticated productions
without ever getting their hands inky! For many this
transition has been automatic and welcome, for others it
is not even worthy of consideration.
authority and surface quality become manifestly
independent of the content. The plate’s latent image –
barely visible in its uniformity of copper colour and
shallow depth – may only be realised through the
application of ink and subsequent printing onto paper.
The intaglio plate is a receptacle, a form of memory
bank, capable of recalling on demand.
An ‘original’ intaglio print is not a simulation, replica,
or reproduction. The original print, as unique or as a
multiple, evades definition. Its genesis from the nonimage matrix of the printing plate lends it a singularity.
It is not a copy of the plate that gives rise to it. Born from
the surface of the plate the first proof print is always a
revelation. Seen for the first time in positive, reversed
from its conceived state and standing in a light bas-relief
it is truly something new. Even in its multiple form,
it somehow retains originality. It is thus an emanation
capable of being born again and again.
So why do artists still choose the more traditional
methods of printing when contemporary methods are
cheaper, more refined and more expedient?
One answer is that printing by hand affords a greater
individualisation of mark and style. Another attraction is
the nature of the process, which at times may seem
mystical and even ritualistic in method and effect.
For many artists, engagement with the tactile qualities
of image production fulfils a deeply rooted need.
For them the absence of surface and tactile qualities in
digital synthesis is soulless, while traditional intaglio, for
example, has an almost alchemical resonance. Tactile
values are inherent in intaglio and may become manifest
as central concerns in the symbiotic relationship
between ideas and process. Working with intaglio plates,
marks are incised, layers built up and a printed image
delivered in a distinctly process based manner.
The resulting product bears a resemblance to sculptural
casting. The printing press forces paper into the hollows
of the plate, making what is effectively a cast from the
detail. The paper is stripped from the plate pulling ink
from the finest mark. The indentations of the image are
embossed as a light physical relief on to the paper.
This formal ‘inkscape’ is unique to intaglio printing.
It may be viewed independently of the image it forms
and is one of the key attractions (and of course pitfalls)
of the process. The deliberateness of the mark, its
Andrew Folan is a print
and digital artist and
lecturer in Fine Art at
the National College of
Art and Design, Dublin.
Coincidences happen. The American author Paul Auster,
famous for his use of chance, states: ‘There are
coincidences and it is impossible
know what to make of them.’1 My
Brian Fay
coincidence occurred when I was asked to be involved
in the selection of this show – I had just been listening to
Miles Davis’s 1958 album Milestones. While this record
is sometimes overshadowed by his later more famous
collection Kind of Blue (1959), Milestones is known for its
contrasting styles, range of technique and the bringing
together of artists, in his case a sextet, who offered a
special and unique mix. I hope it is no coincidence
that these elements are also present in the ‘Milestones’
Milestones /
In selecting a showcase of work there are many methods
one could use. Choose chronologically, selecting
representative pieces from each year. Choose one piece
by every studio member. Look at different print methods
and exhibit those. Impose specific thematic threads.
What we tried to do was simply look at the work
submitted and choose what we felt was the strongest.
Perhaps this allowed coincidence to answer some of the
questions we had asked ourselves.
Different selectors would no doubt bring their own
concerns, interests and influences to the table and, of
course, arrive at different outcomes. No selection is
infallible; it is always just a snapshot in time. In this
case a snapshot trying to record 25 years of artistic
production. When you assemble over 40 artists with
diverse practices it might be coincidence that lets us
look for connections, shared interests and subject
matter. Independent pieces made at different times can
seem to run into each other, creating counterpoints and
dialogue. Obviously none of this could be intended by
the artists, but it does create a context for us to reflect
and respond to these relationships. Conceivably, it allows
us to see how certain themes have changed and evolved;
or remained unanswered questions that still need
engagement. Themes include visual responses to
literature, landscape and space, process-led work, self
and identity, the extraordinary in the everyday and art
as social/political engagement.
Landscape and the depiction of space play a significant
and diverse role in many of the pieces presented here.
In Cora Cummins’ subtle etching Factory Mountain,
landscape and location act as anchors for issues of
refuge, a wishing to be elsewhere and the
commodification of leisure time. The finely rendered
etchings Tent and Hammock by Colin Martin depict
familiar settings and scenes of recreation and leisure
where wider narrative themes – beyond what are shown
– are implied. Barbara Dunne’s sensitively balanced
etching Yellow Flower, The Touch, Blue Feather Triptych
is emblematic of her interest in space as an expanded
vista, a site for transformation and nurture. Joan
Gleeson’s two etchings Moon Shadow and the recent
Into the Depths skillfully show her ongoing interest in
man’s imprint on nature. Jacqueline Stanley’s elegantly
structured etching and aquatint The Palm House and
Morning Glory show the shift in her focus to landscape
work during this earlier period of her practice. Kate
Betts inventive use of a Turner landscape highlights her
concern with dialogically opposed systems of thought.
Hope III – Sky after Turner, a composite etching, presents
an expanse of cloud comprising playing cards
individually altered by Betts. Michael Timmins’
monochrome print Mesh Landscape depicts another type
of pictorial space. One that is constructed through an
intricate build up of delicate lines over broad stark solid
areas. Anthony Lyttle’s etchings Enclosure I and Dot II
also deal with elements of landscape, specifically its
containment, division and transitional states. Equally in
Stephen Vaughan’s work there is an interest in deriving
marks and systems from architectural forms. Juggernaut,
an etching and screenprint contrasts organic forms with
geometric shapes alluding to the imposition of man in
the natural world. Transitional states might also be,
by coincidence, referred to in Paki Smith’s etching
Wildman Burns the City. In his biographical piece for this
catalogue Smith mentions the studio fire in 1990.
Perhaps, one might suppose, an image that could have
inspired this piece.
The identification of these headings is not intended to
be a definitive listing. Rather it is one of many possible
readings that we as viewers can make. It is not intended
to limit the potential responses to the artists’ work, or
indeed to define the core of their practices, but to offer
a framework to discuss the works on show.
The continuing influence of Irish and European literature
as a source for visual artworks can be seen from Eamonn
O’Doherty’s 1982 etchings Ulysses – Cyclops/Citizen and
Bloom in Nightown to Frank Kiely’s recent colourful
screenprint Voyage to Houyhnhnms 2007, drawn from
Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels. Jan de Fouw’s detailed
etching Amergin Hawk was created in response to and
reproduced in a recent poetry collection. As well as
literature being a source for content the book as an
object has proved a rich vein for artists to pursue.
In Marie Louise Martin’s recent piece Book of Days –
September, we see a series of seven prints, developed
from diaries and sketchbooks, threaded together
referencing a book’s narrative and journey. We also
receive a sense of Martin’s artistic journey with the
much earlier double portrait etching Maud & Lottie,
highlighting her interest in early Florentine Renaissance
art. In Paula Henihan’s digital print My Life, we see the
book used as a ground for an appropriated scientific
image of a head and a tree, creating a dialogue between
universal empirical sources and our own personal
subjective histories. A different dialogue appears in
Caroline Byrne’s Procession, a linocut on japanese paper.
With great delicacy Byrne explores the natural world
and its presence in an urban landscape. Byrne’s use
of animal imagery is also shared with Jane Garland.
Garland’s composite screenprint Unspeakable Pursuits
draws from literary traditions of using animals as
metaphors for understanding human society. Here the
fox is emblematic of nature being excluded from our
controlled human order. Similarly in the etchings of
Vincent Sheridan, Motion II and Evening Dance,
swarming birds are employed to mirror human group
dynamics and social behaviour. The frantic motion of
the birds is juxtaposed against the calmness of the
landscape they travel over.
questioning of a sense of self in a changing world.
Self and identity is also examined by other artists in this
exhibition. Catherine Lynch’s vivid Untitled IV silkscreen
on cotton showing multiple figures against a patterned
background refers to the choices that women make in
relation to their domestic and work life. Louise Peat’s
screenprint Deep Song shows a naked faceless female
figure obscured against a black background, suggesting
moments of change and flux both physical and
psychological. Similarly in Rob Smith’s energetic To
Catch a Cat we see a representative work from a practice
that was concerned with an inner search for meaning.
However it is the construction of buildings and the
imposed order on our environment that inform Piia
Rossi’s Paper Houses. These three-dimensional
monoprints constructed to depict familiar, yet
anonymous places, are made to relate to each other,
allowing us to imagine a utopian or dystopian world they
could occupy. Her exploration of the three-dimensional
properties of print is also investigated in the work of
Andrew Folan. Folan’s practice has constantly sought
innovative forms for print, combining new technology
with traditional techniques. His investigation is seen in
the range of work here from the three-dimensional Parcel
Constrained by its Image, Surface Dwelling to Love Heart
3. He allows collaboration in architecture, medicine and
science to inform his own practice. Likewise Fiona
McDonald draws on her background in chemistry to
influence and define much of the outcomes in her
print work. Scientific-like investigations into alternative
methods of etching plates produces extraordinary
results, as seen in Merging Waterlines and Untitled –
Poet Patrick Kavanagh’s dictum to make the ordinary
extraordinary unites a diverse range of work. Aoife
Dwyer’s screenprint 25 Years details the residual marks
of insignificant things, a subtle form of commemoration.
Sara Horgan’s etching Love Letter 7 employs an
ambiguity at the actual centre of her intriguing print.
Framed by a Greek male/female pattern, is the image
denoting a heart or a pelvis? Is this a physical residue of
an emotional experience? Catherine Kelly’s striking
screenprints Mother & Child and Teresa reflect her
experience and knowledge of her subjects and surroundings. This is comparable in intention to Gráinne
Dowling’s sensitive aquatint Resting, demonstrating a
skillful response to her circumstances and environment.
Margaret O’Brien’s wide ranging exploration of
everyday objects and activities transformed by a
replacement of their actual function is seen in her four
screenprints Woman’s work IV, Dirty Trash II, Precious and
Rubbish. Triptych, an etching by Silvia Nevado Roco,
picks up on the playful qualities in O’Brien’s work.
She transforms an ordinary chair into a more joyous
object than perhaps originally intended. Sinéad O’Reilly
in her finely rendered etching The Daydream also
alludes to the everyday with an air of the unusual.
Naomi Sex’s two atmospheric etchings Pick up Truck and
Overhanging Wire present scenes of the mundane, where
something of significance may have occurred.
Alison Pilkington evidences the centrality of process in
Even, an etched-lino print. Pilkington has specialised
in this particular print form as it acts as an appropriate
medium to retain the painterly qualities within her
interdisciplinary practice. In Mary Fitzgerald’s
Embedded Blue we can see her interest in the properties
and potential of drawing. There is also a sophisticated
questioning of the production of meaning, initially
through the placement of elements within a composition,
then the further placing of the artwork in the public
arena. Strong associations with drawing can also be
found in Aïda Bangoura’s It Doesn’t Count and It Doesn’t
Count 1. A range of dynamic handmade marks are used,
describing systems of time, fragments of writing,
numbers suggesting calendars combine to give a sense
of presence and disappearance. The use of supposed
analytical imagery is also seen in the delicate and
dreamlike etchings Untitled and Butterfly Net by Elaine
Leader. Leader draws on a wide variety of sources,
including botanical illustration and maps to populate
her work. Each element contributes to her overall
Engagement with the social and political is also a strong
undercurrent. Perhaps most explicitly so in Annraoi
Wyer’s provocative screenprint Viper, juxtaposing a
dictionary definition of a viper, a picture of the viper
and an image of – the then centre of a political storm –
Oliver North. Dermot Finn’s etching That Men Cannot
Learn acknowledges preceding political printmakers
such as Goya and Hogarth while drawing on
contemporary media and street art giving his message
a contemporary relevance. Equally in Margaret Irwin’s
etching Sweet Flower of Youth current images of warfare
are arranged around a poppy motif – a symbol
synonymous with the First World War. Janine Davidson
in her four etchings from the Little Devils series
decontextualises motifs and iconography associated with
different cultures allowing us to reinterpret their original
meaning and create our own. Diverse cultures, and
notions of the stranger provide a backdrop to Emma
Finucane’s striking digital print Disappearing Other.
Finucane engages in the debate of the role of the artist
in society and how that position is defined and mediated
in a significant way.
In my role as selector I would like to thank the Black
Church Print Studio for inviting me to be involved in this
project. I would particularly like to thank Hazel Burke for
all her help and patience and my fellow selector Andrew
Folan. I hope we have caught a sense of the quality,
diversity and endeavour that emerged from the Studio
over the past 25 years.
It is said that Miles Davis’s Milestones provided a
platform of experimentation and technical virtuosity for
his future work. Looking at this exhibition I believe that
the next 25 years are in very good hands. And that is no
1. Auster, Paul, Interview, The Art of Hunger, p 290, Faber and Faber,
London, 1997
Brian Fay is an artist
and lecturer in Fine Art
at the Dublin Institute of
Technology, Dublin.
Aïda Bangoura
It Doesn’t Count, 2007
silkscreen, 1/1
70 x 100 cm
Kate Betts
Hope III (sky after Turner), 2003
etching à la poupée, composite,
104 x 247 cm
Caroline Byrne
Procession, 2005
lino cut on japanese paper,
63 x 400 cm
Cora Cummins
Factory Mountain, 2003
etching, A/P
71 x 100 cm
Janine Davidson
Little Devils I, 2002
etching, 2/7
30 x 30 cm
Janine Davidson
Little Devils IV, 2002
etching, 2/7
30 x 30 cm
Jan de Fouw
Amergin Hawk, 2000
copper etching, 5/12
38 x 33 cm
Gráinne Dowling
Resting, 1989
aquatint & soft ground, 3/5
13 x 13 cm
Barbara Dunne
Yellow Flower, The Touch,
Blue Feather Triptych, 2001
etching, 8/10, 8/10 & 1/10
22 x 30 cm ea
Aoife Dwyer
25 years, 2003
screenprint, 2/3
100 x 70 cm
Dermot Finn
that men cannot learn…,
etching, 1/11
36 x 60 cm
Emma Finucane
Disappearing Other, 2005
digital image on photorag, 2/3
65.5 x 48.25 cm
Mary Fitzgerald
Embedded Blue, 2003
etching, drypoint
& carborundum, 8/10
75 x 102 cm
Andrew Folan
Parcel constrained by its image,
stack of 65 intaglio prints,
7 x 12 x 18 cm
Jane Garland
Unspeakable Persuits, 2003
screenprint, 2/10
56 x 69 cm
Joan Gleeson
Moonshadow, 1984
etching & roll up, A/P
75 x 53 cm
Paula Henihan
My Life, 2006
digital print, 1/10
30 x 38 cm
Sara Horgan
Love Letter 7, 1987
lino etch & tissue
lamination, 3/3
92 x 72 cm
Margaret Irwin
Sweet Flower of Youth, 1995
etching, 6/25
71 x 54 cm
Catherine Kelly
Mother & Child, 1995
acrylic screenprint on
printed paper, 1/3
245 x 133 cm
Frank Kiely
Voyage to Houyhnhnms, 2007
screenprint, V/P
45 x 100 cm
Elaine Leader
Butterfly Net, 2006
etching, 11/20
40 x 35 cm
Catherine Lynch
Untitled IV, 1998
silkscreen on cloth
60 x 60 cm
Anthony Lyttle
Dot II, 2006
etching aquatint/
copper, 3/15
60 x 65 cm
Colin Martin
Hammock, 2006
etching, 7/50
62 x 80 cm
Marie Louise Martin
Book of Days –
September, 2007
etching, embossing &
chine collé, 3/5
60 x 320 cm
Fiona McDonald
Merging Waterlines, 1999
aluminium electro-etch, A/P
76 x 34 cm
Silvia Nevado Roco
Triptych, 1999
etching, 1/5
56 x 150 cm
Margaret O’Brien
Dirty Trash II, 2001
silkscreen on
aluminium, 1/1
65 x 96 cm
Eamonn O’Doherty
Bloom in Nightown, 1982
lithograph, 1/25
76 x 57 cm
Sinéad O’Reilly
The daydream, 2006
etching, 5/10
35 x 25 cm
Louise Peat
Deep Song, 1996
screenprint, 7/8
76 x 56.5 cm
Alison Pilkington
Even, 1998
etched lino, 6/6
57 x 62.5 cm
Piia Rossi
Paper Houses, 2007
11.5 x 4.5 x 3 cm &
10 x 4 x 2.5 cm
Naomi Sex
Overhanging Wire, 2006
etching, A/P
19 x 25.5 cm
Vincent Sheridan
Motion II, 2004
etching, 9/40
64 x 76 cm
Paki Smith
Wildman Burns the City , 1996
etching & carborundum, 20/50
38 x 52 cm
Image courtesy of the Office of Public Works
Rob Smith
To catch a cat, 1983
etching, A/P
53 x 76 cm
Jacqueline Stanley
Morning Glory, 1990
etching & aquatint, 4/30
76 x 57 cm
Mick Timmins
Mesh Landscape, 2002
carborundum & etching, 6/10
75.5 x 76 cm
Stephen Vaughan
Juggernaut, 2003
etching, carborundum &
screenprint, 17/20
54 x 74 cm
Annraoi Wyer
Viper, 1989
screenprint, 3/6
76 x 57 cm
She has exhibited widely, having had previous solo
exhibitions at the Original Print Gallery, Dublin; the
Belltable Arts Centre, Limerick and at the National Concert
Hall, Dublin. She has also exhibited in Paris, Dublin,
Copenhagen, London and New York. Kate’s work is
represented in public and private collections, including
Northern Rock, Office of Public Works and AIB.
Aïda Bangoura
Born in Paris, Aïda Bangoura moved to Ireland in 1995 and
took a Painting and Printmaking degree at the Institute of
Technology, Sligo. After graduating in 2001 she returned to
France for a period of time before coming back to Ireland
in 2006. She currently lives and works in Dublin and joined
the Black Church Print Studio in April 2007. Bangoura is a
fine art printmaker, a painter and an installation artist.
Screen-printing is her preferred print medium. Time plays
an important role in her work; she seeks the experience of
absence and presence, appearance and disappearance
over time. She plays with spatial and emotional tension
using text, numbers, erratic lines, forms, colour and
composition. In 2005 she was awarded First Prize, Laureate,
in Resolution 9, Paris.
Caroline Byrne
Born in Waterford, Caroline Byrne moved to Dublin in her
early years. She attended the College of Marketing and
Design from 1988 to 1990 and the College of Technology
from 1990 to 1991, where she graduated after three years
with a Diploma in Graphic Reproduction Technology. She
then pursued a career in design and illustration in Dublin
and later in San Francisco, where she was first introduced to
the art of book design and limited edition books. In 2000
she travelled to Scotland where she completed a Masters in
Illustration at the Edinburgh College of Art in 2002. Pursuing
this course through traditional and contemporary print
media she created a series of artists’ books. Byrne joined
the Black Church Print Studio in 2004 and continues to
create both original prints and limited edition artists’ books.
She works primarily in the relief printmaking methods of
woodcut and linocut. Her creative practice explores the
natural world and its diversity, which can be found within
the urban landscape.
Selected solo exhibitions include Resolution 9, Paris (2006);
‘Despite my Confusion’, Market House Gallery, Monaghan
(2003) and Galerie de Tableau, Marseilles (2002). Bangoura
has also participated in a number of group exhibitions in
both Ireland and France. Collections include the Institute of
Technology, Sligo and private collections in Ireland,
England and France.
Byrne has exhibited at group shows in both Scotland and
Ireland. Solo exhibitions include Halliwells House Museum,
Selkirk, Scotland (2004); South Tipperary Arts Centre,
Clonmel, Co. Tipperary (2005) and No. 72 John’s Street,
Kilkenny (2007). Her work is held in private and public
collections including the National Irish Visual Arts Library
(NIVAL) at the National College of Art and Design, Dublin.
Kate Betts
Born in Liverpool, Kate Betts completed a BA honours
degree in Fine Art at the University of Northumbria,
Newcastle in 1995. Upon graduation Betts was awarded a
membership bursary at the Northern Print Studio in North
Shields. She has been a member of the Black Church Print
Studio since moving to Dublin in 1998. She joined the Black
Church Print Studio’s Board of Directors in 2005, and
became Chairperson in 2006. Betts works mainly in intaglio
printmaking. She is interested in the polarisation of opinion
(such as the evolution versus creation debate), and in modes
of thought which rely on diametric opposition, and in their
inherent tension (such as right brain/left brain function, and
right and wrong).
of Directors in 2006. She is currently part of the Artists
Panel (2007/2008) at the Irish Museum of Modern Art,
Dublin. While her personal work is based in traditional
printmaking, she consistently seeks to incorporate new
media which enhance and inform her practice. The main
impetus behind her work is to create an accessible visual
language that reflects societal and cultural concerns.
Her work de-contextualises motifs associated with different
cultures, offering the potential to reinterpret their original
meaning and create elements of intrigue, which were
otherwise absent. Davidson’s new work explores the
habitual, the everyday routine and our subsequent attempt
to break from these grounding elements. She has
participated in residencies in Johannesburg and Nice.
Cora Cummins
Born in Co. Carlow, Cora Cummins studied Fine Art at the
College of Marketing and Design, Dublin from 1991 to 1995,
specialising in etching. In 2003 she completed a MA in Fine
Art from the National College of Design, Dublin. In 2002
she was accepted on the work programme studio residency
at the Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin. She joined
the Black Church Print studio in 1995, serving as a Director
of the Board from 1999 to 2006. Cummins work can be
described as an ongoing exploration of the subject of
landscape and location, encompassing issues of refuge,
resistance, identity and memory. Under the title ‘Workroom
Elsewhere’ – an independent collaborative art initiative with
fellow artist Alison Pilkington, Cummins has been involved
in exhibitions, projects and publications, such as The Fold.
She has received funding awards from the Arts Council of
Ireland (2000, 1999) and Carlow County Council (2000).
Her work has been exhibited internationally in New York,
Sweden, South Africa, France and here in Ireland. Recent
group exhibitions include ‘Order & Chaos’ at the Lab,
Dublin; Íontas, Sligo and the RHA Annual Exhibition, Dublin.
She is currently working towards an exhibition with the
artists collective Jeco Sword, of which she is a founding
member, to be exhibited in the Lab, Dublin in 2008.
Jan de Fouw
Solo exhibitions include The Dock, Carrick-on-Shannon
(2007); the Kevin Kavanagh Gallery, Dublin (2004, 2002,
2000); Portlaoise Arts Festival (2001) and Toradh Gallery,
Co. Meath (2001). She is also a regular exhibitor at the
RHA Annual Exhibition, Dublin (2006, 2003, 2000) and
numerous other group exhibitions throughout Ireland.
Public collections include the Office of Public Works, AXA
Insurance, Dublin Institute of Technology, Northern Bank,
National Council for Vocational Awards, Bausch & Lombe
and AIB.
Born in The Hague, Netherlands, Jan de Fouw was trained as
a graphic designer at the Royal College of Art, The Hague.
He worked as a trainee designer for KLM (Royal Dutch
Airlines) from 1947 to 1949. After his Dutch army military
service (1949 – 1951), he travelled throughout Europe.
He settled in Dublin in 1951 and started to work as a
free-lance designer with a Bauhaus background. He initially
joined Graphic Studio Dublin in 1964 and was instrumental
in setting up the Black Church Print Studio in 1982. His
printed works are mainly copperplate colour etchings of
medium format, which reflect man’s relationship with nature
and the elements. Poetry sometimes accompanies the
imagery, as in the book Amergin, published in 2000 by
Wolfhound Press, Dublin. More recently he has been
experimenting with bronze sculpture focusing on similar
concerns. From 1952 to 1996 he worked as free-lance
design director of the bi-monthly magazine Ireland of the
Welcomes. He is a three-time award winner from the
International Regional Magazine Association, USA. He was
awarded Honoris Causa Associateship of the National
College of Art and Design, Dublin in 1991. He has lectured
at the College of Marketing and Design, Dublin and the
Institute of Art, Design and Technology, Dun Laoghaire.
Janine Davidson
Born in Belfast, Janine Davidson graduated from the National
College of Art and Design, Dublin with a BA honours degree
in Fine Art Printmaking in 1997 and subsequently with a
Higher Diploma in Community Arts in 2003. Davidson
joined the Black Church Print Studio in 2001 and its Board
a place where light is ever present, never absent. Contained
within the light is the wonderment of the silent colours,
revealing themselves, transient, transforming, nurturing
and bathing all that is within the vista. And so it is and so it
continues to reveal a unique incredible beauty of ‘strength
in simplicity’. ‘In the skin of our fingers we can see the trail
of the wind, it shows us where the wind blew when our
ancestors were created.’
He has participated in countless group shows both
nationally and internationally, including exhibitions in
Milwaukee, Los Angeles, Boston, Toronto, Sydney, Beijing,
Hang Zhou and here in Dublin. He is a regular exhibitor
at the RHA Annual Exhibition, Dublin.
Gráinne Dowling
Born in Dublin, Gráinne Dowling spent much of her
childhood living in England. She returned to Ireland in 1960
and in 1963 entered the College of Art, Kildare Street (now
the National College of Art and Design), graduating in 1968
with a Diploma in Painting. In 1968 she received a
scholarship to study printmaking in the Folkeswang Schule
fur Gestaltung in Essen-Werden, Germany, where she
studied etching and lithography for two years. Dowling
joined the Black Church Print Studio in 1986. She currently
teaches printmaking in the National Print Museum, Dublin
and drawing studies in the National Gallery of Ireland,
Dublin. Etching is her specialised area of printmaking, and
the subject matter and inspiration for her work has always
been a reaction to her own circumstances and physical
location. She is a winner of a Taylor Award, Arnotts Portrait
Award, Íontas Drawing Award, Book Cover Prize for Salmon
Poetry, and a contributor to The Great Book of Ireland.
Her work has been exhibited regularly in the Taispeántas
Ealaíne An Oireachtas, Dublin; RHA, Independent Artists,
Dublin; Impressions, Galway; Original Print Gallery, Dublin;
Butler Gallery, Kilkenny, and in the USA and Europe. Dunne
was a prize-winner at the Irish/International mini print
exhibition at the Hendricks Gallery, Dublin in 1986. Public
collections include the Arts Council of Ireland, Office of
Public Works, Bank of Nova Scotia, Great Southern Hotels,
Air Rianta, AIB, Office of An Taoiseach and the Butler
Gallery, Kilkenny. Publications include Contemporary Print
of the World, Kyoto Arts Centre Japan.
Aoife Dwyer
Born in Dublin, Aoife Dwyer spent some time living in
Brighton, England, where she studied screenprint at night
under the tutelage of Terence Gravett at the Brighton
Polytechnic College of Art. In 1993 Dwyer began studying at
the National College of Art and Design, Dublin, graduating
in 1998 with a BA honours degree in Fine Art. She became a
member of the Black Church Print Studio that same year and
subsequently became a Director of the Board in 2005. Since
1998 she has been teaching fine art print with the City of
Dublin VEC and is currently working with Dun Laoghaire/
Rathdown County Council as part of their Artist in School
programme. Working with photography, screenprint
and etching, Dwyer is interested in drawing attention to
everyday domestic objects, spaces and surfaces, where
the stories and emotions of life accumulate. She works
towards giving a sense of importance to the overlooked
and evokes a sense of stillness, time passing and absence
in her work.
Dowling is a regular exhibitor at the RHA Annual Exhibition,
Dublin; Íontas, Sligo; Claremorris Open, Mayo; Éigse,
Carlow; Watercolour Society of Ireland, Dublin and
numerous Black Church Print Studio exhibitions.
Residencies include Annaghmakerrig (2000, 1996, 1993,
1992, 1991), Heinrich Boll House, Achill (1998, 1993) and
Kiltimagh, Co. Mayo (1999). Public collections include
the Haverty Trust, The Labour Party and the Office of
Public Works.
Barbara E. Dunne
From Kilkenny, Barbara Dunne has been living in Dublin
since 1983. She was awarded a Diploma in Fine Art
Printmaking at the Crawford College of Art, Cork in 1981.
She is currently a tutor in Fine Art Print at the Senior
College, Ballyfermot, Dublin and the National College of Art
and Design. She joined the Black Church Print Studio in
1983, where she served on the Board of Directors for 13
years from 1985. Dunne is both a printmaker (specialising in
etching) and a painter. Her work is inspired by a ‘vast vista’,
a place of expanse, a place of discovery, a place of light –
Solo exhibitions include ‘Wild’, National Concert Hall
Dublin (2004) and ‘Link to the Future’, Aer Rianta Arts
Festival (1999). She has also participated in many selected
group exhibitions, including Taispeántas Ealaíne An
Oireachtas (2003, 2002); RHA Annual Exhibition (2003,
2000); Éigse, Carlow (2001); Íontas Sligo (2000) and Black
Church Print Studio exhibitions. In 1998 she was short-listed
James’s Hospital, Dublin and a research project entitled
‘The role of the artist in learning communities’ in NCAD.
Over the past year she coordinated and participated in a
research project in association with NCAD and Pfizer Ireland
entitled ‘Portraits of Pain’. In 1998 she won the Dakota
Printmaking Award and she has received funding awards
from the Arts Council of Ireland, Bray Town Council and
Wicklow County Council. In 2006 she received a Phase
One Research and Development Grant from CREATE; an
International Utopian Art Prize, Germany and a Wicklow
County Council Artist in Residence Award with St Fergals
Boxing Club, Bray. In 2007 Finucane was invited to take part
in Voice Our Concern, Amnesty in Schools Programme and
Ballyhaise Unframed, Co. Cavan.
for the CAP Foundation award and won an ESB bursary.
Her work is represented in many private and public
collections, including the Office of Public Works, RTE,
Guinness Irl., Dublin Bus, PMPA Insurance and Campbell
Bewley Group.
Dermot Finn
Born in Dublin, Dermot Finn studied Fine Art, specialising
in print at the National College of Art and Design, Dublin
graduating in 2005. Since then he has experimented in
many techniques, from painting on found materials and
street art to digital and traditional printmaking. He joined
the Black Church Print Studio in 2006. Finn has been
teaching art at Pine Forest Art Centre for the past few years
and is currently a member of City Art Squad, where he has
worked with a wide range of community groups. In 2007 he
returned to the National College of Art and Design and is
currently studying a postgraduate Diploma in Art Education.
Finn lists influences such as Goya, Hogarth and Callot,
amongst other artists, whose work deals with social or
political issues. War, death and human neglect have
captured the artist’s imagination over the last number of
years and all of his work has focused on these themes.
Finucane regularly exhibits nationally and internationally
and has had three solo exhibitions to date. Her work was
selected for the Claremorris Open (2005); Perspective
(2005); OBG, Belfast and most recently as part of the Black
Church Print Studio twenty-fifth anniversary programme.
Finucane was selected to create four site-specific digital
images which were displayed in windows on the Grattan
Bridge Kiosks. Public collections include AIB, Dublin
Institute of Technology and University College Dublin.
Mary A. Fitzgerald
Born and currently based in Dublin, Fitzgerald studied Fine
Art at Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology
and the National College of Art and Design, where she
completed her Masters of Fine Art in 2004. She is a recipient
of both Visual Arts and Professional Development Awards
from the Arts Council of Ireland. In 2005 her work was
shown as part of the 5th International Biennale de Gravure
in Liege, Belgium. Fitzgerald was invited to show works at
the 175th Royal Hibernian Academy Exhibition in 2005, and
is part of the current Artists Panel at IMMA. In 2003 Fitzgerald
completed a major public art project entitled ‘The Home
Project’, commissioned by Breaking Ground and Ballymun
Regeneration. She has been a key member of Black Church
Print Studio since 1995 and has also acted as Print
Coordinator. She has lectured at both NCAD and DLIADT.
He has had one solo exhibition to date, ‘all my old socks’,
128 Rathmines Road, Dublin (2004). Since 2001 he has
participated in various group exhibitions in Ireland and
most recently at the 25th Dunlavin Festival, Wicklow (2007);
the Original Print Gallery, Dublin (2006); the Back Loft
Gallery, Dublin (2006) and the Dublin Fringe Festival (2006).
Emma Finucane
Emma Finucane was born in Dublin and lives in Bray, Co.
Wicklow. She graduated from the National College of Art
and Design, Dublin with a BA honours degree in Fine Art
Print in 1997 and an MA in Fine Art in 2006. She joined the
Black Church Print Studio in 1997 and works in the area
of screenprint, digital imaging and video. Finucane’s work
investigates the way we communicate with others and
ultimately how it determines the quality of our lives.
She is also interested in the role of the artist in society and
is currently involved in the ‘Open Window Project’ in St
She exhibits both nationally and internationally and her
work is included in private and public collections, including
Bank of Ireland, AIB, University College Dublin, Office of
Public Works, Bank de Paris, AXA Insurance and Microsoft
Irl. Solo exhibitions include ‘A longer Walk Home’, Lemon
Street Gallery, Dublin (2007); ‘Drawn’, Original Print Gallery,
Dublin (2004); ‘Showcase’, Lemon Street Gallery,
area of screen-print. Garland has created a series of prints
based on her interest in the literary and visual traditions of
using animals as metaphors for human society. Aesop’s
fables have been a strong influence on her work. In these
fables a fox is depicted as being continually at odds with
prevailing human efforts to control and exploit the
environment and to exclude all who do not fit into the social
plan. In Garland’s work she uses the metaphor of the fox
trying to gain unauthorised access in the context of
contemporary Ireland.
Dublin (2006); Postgraduate Show, The Digital Hub, Dublin
(2004) and ‘Works On Paper’, Galleuiet, Grafikens Hus,
Stockholm (2002). Recent selected exhibitions include the
RHA Annual Exhibition; ‘Attraction’, Talbot Gallery, Dublin;
‘Drawing is a verb, Drawing is a noun’, The Stone Gallery,
Dublin; ‘Hung, Drawn and Quartered’ and ‘Tender’, Original
Print Gallery; Portrait Ireland, Newtown Barry House and
‘Contemporary Irish Printmakers’, The Gallery of Graphic
Art, New York.
Andrew Folan
Her work has been selected for several group shows in
Ireland, including, Íontas, Sligo; RHA Annual exhibitions;
Taispeántas Ealaíne An Oireachtas and the Irish Exhibition
of Living Art. She has also been selected for many
exhibitions in Britain, including group shows at the
Barbican, the Mall Galleries, the Curwen Gallery, the Royal
Festival Hall and the Bradford International Print Exhibition.
Since graduating from the Slade School of Fine Art, London
in 1981, Andrew Folan has practised in print, photography
and sculpture. Recent works have combined digital
processes with print in multi-layered composites. He is an
active collaborator in scientific, medical and architectural
projects and participated in the ‘Digital Surface’ presented
at Tate Britain (2003). Essentially a conceptual artist,
Folan has more recently explored concerns of a social,
psychological and scientific nature. While he is essentially
concerned with issue-based reasoning, aspects of process
(particularly photography and print) are often delivered in
a formalist and labour intensive manner.
Joan Gleeson
Born in Co. Mayo, Joan Gleeson completed a teacher training course in Carysfort College of Education, Blackrock; art
teachers’ certificate courses in the National College of Art
and Design, Dublin from 1968 to 1976 and subsequently a
BA degree in University College Dublin from 1970 to 1973.
She joined the Black Church Print Studio in the early days in
1983. Gleeson specialises in the area of etching, sometimes
combining a variety of techniques including carborundum,
embossed paper, chine collé and photo etching, to convey
a sense of unfolding possibilities within an image. She has
always been fascinated by nature, and the impact of the
elements on natural phenomena. Gleeson now lives in
Clontarf, the coastal region around Howth and Dollymount,
which provides an ever-renewing source of inspiration and
investigation. Imprint of man on nature as well as natural
phenomena on man, are part of this investigation.
He has exhibited widely throughout Europe. His solo
exhibition of printed sculptures ‘Arterial Ink’ toured to a
number of venues in Ireland, as well as London, Paris and
Stockholm (1991-2001). More recently his solo exhibition of
digital lambda chromes ‘Stray Light’ was shown at the
Ashford Gallery, Dublin in 2002. He participated in the
group exhibition ‘Dead Bodies’ at the Centre Culturel
Irlandais, Paris in 2003. In 2006 he completed a sculptural
installation ‘The Fleet Morph’ at the Mater Hospital Dublin.
His work features in the collections of the Arts Council of
Ireland, Irish Museum of Modern Art, Central Bank of
Ireland and Trinity College, Dublin.
Gleeson has exhibited widely nationally and internationally.
Solo exhibitions include Lambay House Howth Gallery,
Dublin; Cintra Studio Exhibition, Kinsealy; National Concert
Hall Terrace Exhibition, Dublin; Limerick County Golf Club,
GPA House, Limerick and Red Stables Arts Centre, Dublin.
She is also a regular exhibitor at the RHA Annual
Exhibitions; Claremorris Open, Mayo and Íontas, Sligo.
Public collections include AIB, Office of Public Works,
Gresham Hotel Group, INTO Headquarters, Jury’s Hotel
Group, Muckross House, Mater Private Hospital, Nova Scotia
Bank and St Luke’s Hospital.
Jane Garland
Born in Dublin, Jane Garland studied Printmaking at the
National College of Art and Design, Dublin and the Slade
School of Fine Art, London. She is a member of the Black
Church Print Studio since 1995, and works mainly in the
instrumental in establishing the Black Church Print Studio
and was the Studio Administrator for 12 years from 1980 to
1992. Lino, etching and chine collé, cast paper and plaster
are her preferred media for editioning and printmaking.
She says ‘her work refers to love, death and the whole
damn thing’.
Paula Henihan
Horgan has exhibited widely in Ireland. Her solo exhibitions
include the Oliver Dowling Gallery, Dublin (1989, 1987)
and the Original Print Gallery, Dublin (1999). Awards
include a prize from the British Print Biennale, Bradford and
an Arts Council of Ireland award in 1987. Her work is included
in many public collections including the Arts Council of
Ireland; Aughinish Alumina; Bank of Ireland; Blackrock
Clinic; Contemporary Irish Arts Society; Córas Iompair
Éireann; Guinness plc; Irish Life; Irish Management Institute;
Jury’s Hotel Group; Kilkenny Art Gallery Society; Lambert
Collection at IMMA; Museum of Art and Design Chernobyl;
Office of Public Works; Royal Hospital Donnybrook; Limerick
City Art Gallery and the National Self-Portrait Collection.
Born in Galway, Paula Henihan studied Fine Art at the
Galway Institute of Technology and completed a Masters in
Printmaking at Camberwell College of Art, London. She now
lives and works in Dublin. Henihan became a member of
the Black Church Print Studio in 2006 and creates conceptbased works in mixed media prints. Using mainly screenprint, digital print and collograph, she explores ideas of
universal origins and personal history as subject matter for
visual and theoretical investigation. Her work plays with the
medium of print in an innovative manner and attempts to
push the possibilities of print past the two-dimensional
framed paper piece.
Selected solo exhibitions include ‘The Big Round’ at
Westport Customs House (2006); ‘Corplár’, Ballina Arts
Centre (2005) and ‘Peripheral Consciousness’, Galway
Fisheries Tower (2004). Henihan has exhibited in numerous
group exhibitions in Ireland and abroad, including ‘Within
and Without’ at the Original Print Gallery, Dublin; ‘The First
Book of Ideas’ at the Art Scene Warehouse in Shanghai,
China; ‘Arrivals’ at the Solander Gallery in Wellington,
New Zealand and ‘Originals’ at the Mall Galleries in London.
Most recently Henihan curated and exhibited in
‘Inheritance/Impermanence’, a three-person exhibition at
the Linenhall Arts Centre in Castlebar in 2007. Public
collections include Limerick City Gallery; Dundarave Print
Gallery, Vancouver; Irish Government Buildings; the
National College of Art and Design and the National
University of Ireland, Galway. Henihan was awarded a
scholarship to study at postgraduate level in London by the
Arts and Humanities Research Council, UK and her work
was chosen for a purchase prize at ‘Impressions ‘06’ at the
Galway Arts Centre.
Her subject matter betrays a predilection for stone, and is
mainly figurative drawn from landscape and archaeological
sites where she lives, but with departures into exploration
of images dealing with issues of social conscience.
Degree Show in 1995 and the Open section of Íontas, Sligo
in 1994. In 2002 she was commissioned by Irish Hospice
Foundation to design the Queen of Spades playing card for
‘Art:pack’. She has screened art videos at the Royal
Hibernian Academy, Dublin and the Irish Film Centre,
Solo shows include Brunneby, Ost Gotland and
Galleriesander, Linkoping, Sweden and recent group
exhibitions include Summer Exhibition, Royal Academy,
London (2007); ‘Impressions’ Open, Galway (2006); Limerick
Printmakers Open and Lorg Printmakers Open, Galway
(2006, 2005). Awards include Exhibition & Materials Award,
Galway County Council (2007, 2005, 2004); Artist in
Residence, Fundacíon Valparaiso, Mojacar, Spain (1998);
Artist in Residence, Joensuu Print Workshop, Finland (1995)
and ‘O’Sullivan Graphics Award for Work of Distinction,
Print’, RHA Annual Exhibition (1995). Public collections
include Allied Irish Leasing, Dublin; Aer Lingus; City of
Boston Public Libraries MA, USA.; Department of Foreign
Affairs; Galway County Council; Galway City Council; Mayo
County Council; Office of Public Works and the Smurfit
Art Collection.
Kelly has had three solo shows to date, in the United Arts
Club, Dublin (2003); the National Concert Hall, Dublin (2003)
and Habitat, St. Stephen’s Green (1995). She has also
participated in a number of group exhibitions including
most recently the Rathmines Festival, Dublin (2006); the Irish
Art Exhibition, Omaha, Nebraska, USA (2004) and in Gallery
411, Hangzhou, China (2004). She is also a regular exhibitor
at the RHA Annual Exhibitions since 1995.
Frank Kiely
Frank Kiely grew up in Co. Kildare and later Dublin. He
studied at the Galway Mayo Technical College, National
College of Art and Design, Dublin and the Royal College of
Art, London. Kiely is a member of the Black Church Print
Studio and has served on the Board of Directors from 2005
to 2007. He is a member of the Royal Society of Painters and
Printmakers, London since 2006 and sits on their council.
On moving to London to study at the Royal College of Art,
he was confronted with a multi-cultural society in stark
contrast to the one he had left behind. Kiely began to make
screenprints of street scenes of London with isolated areas
of colours, typically the red bus or the phone box. This body
of work dealt with his experience from the perspective of a
minority, exploring his ‘Irishness’ laterally. While exploring
existential loneliness and a search for identity unattached
to nationality, these iconic prints of familiar London cultural
symbols frequently contain hidden visual puns. Alongside
this work, Kiely is recently combining portraiture to his
cityscapes. There are many subtexts to these works, taken
from literature, his imagination and Irish mythology, which
he reinterprets in a contemporary setting.
Sara Horgan
Born in Dublin, Sara Horgan was educated in Montreal,
Switzerland, Paris, The Hague, Dublin and École des Beaux
Arts, Tours, France. In 1980 she graduated with a degree in
Fine Art from the National College of Art and Design,
Dublin, where she specialised in the area of printmaking.
In the same year, having served as Secretary to Graphic
Studio Dublin for over seven years, Horgan was very
Margaret Irwin
Born in British India, Margaret Irwin grew up mainly in
Delgany, Co. Wicklow. From the age of 10 she received
regular painting lessons in Dublin from Lilian Davidson
RHA. Firmly discouraged from attending art school, she was
educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where she obtained an
honours degree in languages and literature, as well as a
Diploma in History of European Painting. She eventually
studied painting at the Studio Andre L’Hote in Paris and
qualified as an Art Teacher from the National College of
Art and Design, Dublin in later years. In the late 1950s she
lived in Scotland and England, returning to Dalkey, Ireland
in 1968. She took up printmaking under the tutelage of John
Kelly at Graphic Studio Dublin, Upper Mount Street. She
became a full-time Art Teacher at Dun Laoghaire VEC in
1974, transferring to the Art School after some years and
finally to NCAD in 1982, where she was full-time lecturer in
the Faculty of Education until 1991. She became a member
of the Black Church Print Studio in 1983/1984. She now lives
in Connemara, where she has her own print studio,
but remains a member of the Black Church. All Irwin’s
work is intaglio; mostly etching with some dry-point and
Born in Ballymun, Dublin, Catherine Kelly attended college
for the first time as a mature student in 1991. She graduated
with a BA in History of Art and Fine Art Painting from the
National College of Art and Design, Dublin in 1995 and
subsequently with an MA in Fine Art Painting and
Printmaking in 1999. In 2005 she completed a Higher
Diploma in Computer Science from University College
Dublin. Kelly became a member of the Black Church Print
Studio in 1995. As a fine artist she works in a variety of
media, including printmaking, video production and bronze
casting, but screen-printing is her preferred medium in
printmaking. Kelly’s work has concerned itself with
relationships and preconceived perceptions about certain
imagery such as Punch and Judy, playing cards and so on
which are often manipulated and used to convey a
particular message to the viewer. Kelly was awarded a place
on the Second Random Access Training Symposium by the
Sculptors’ Society of Ireland in 1997, and received bursaries
to travel to New York in 1995 and Japan in 1997. She won the
KPMG Stokes Kennedy Crowley purchase prize at the NCAD
Catherine Kelly
Kiely has exhibited widely, his solo exhibitions include
‘City Life’ with Anvari Art, London (2006); ‘Memoirs of a
London Journey’ at Mark Jason Gallery, London (2004);
‘Solo Show’ in the Mezzanine, National Concert Hall, Dublin
(2003) and ‘I Must Not Talk Between Classes’ at the Bank of
Ireland Arts Centre, Dublin (2000). He has also exhibited in
many group exhibitions in Ireland, Britain, Europe and the
USA. Kiely’s works are featured in public and private
collections worldwide.
Print Studio and worked mainly in the area of screenprint.
Lynch’s work is inspired by her interest in the many aspects
of womanhood and the choices that women make in relation
to their work and domestic life.
Solo exhibitions include ‘No Title’, The Bourn Vincent
Gallery, University of Limerick (2001); ‘Portraits’, Charlevoix
Art Gallery, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA (1999); ‘New
Work’, Green on Red Gallery, Dublin (1997); ‘Prints’,
Original Print Gallery, Dublin (1997); ‘Decanos’, Old
Museum Arts Centre, Belfast (1995) and ‘A Return From
Enchantment’, Triskel Arts Centre, Cork (1994). In 1991
she was a participant of the Arts Entrepreneurial Business
Course, sponsored by the America Fund for Ireland in
conjunction with the Arts Council of Ireland. Her work is
included in many public collections, including the Irish
Museum of Modern Art and the Office of Public Works.
Elaine Leader
Born in Dublin, Elaine Leader graduated from the College
of Marketing and Design in 1995 and became a member of
Black Church Print Studio in the same year. Leader draws
upon a number of sources in the construction of her prints,
including field guides, mapping and botanical illustration to
investigate how the self orientates and navigates a world in
constant flux. Her work sensitively, yet unsentimentally,
addresses themes of care, nurture and dependency.
Selected exhibitions include ‘Insideout’, Graphic Studio
Gallery, Dublin (2006); RHA Annual Exhibitions, Dublin;
‘Garden of Earthly Delights’, Chester Beatty Library, Dublin
(2005); ‘Hand Pulled Prints’, San Antonio, Texas (2004);
‘Contemporary Irish Prints’, The Gallery of Graphic Art,
New York (2004); ‘Ireland France‚ Paris 2001’, Cité
Internationale des Arts, Paris and Grafiska Sallskaet,
Stockholm (2002). Awards include Arts Council Travel
Awards (2000, 1996); RHA Annual Print Award (1998); Arts
Council Art Flights (2001, 1997, 1994); Arts Council Studio
Grant (1996); Arts Council Materials Grant (1995), as well
as an Office of Public Works Per Cent for Arts Scheme
Commission for the National Library, Dublin. Public and
corporate collections include the National Library of
Ireland, the RHA Collection, AIB, the Office of Public Works,
Dublin Institute of Technology, Intel, KPMG, Dublin Castle,
Office of the Ombudsman, Jury’s Doyle Hotel Group, and the
Irish Medical Organisation.
Anthony Lyttle
Anthony Lyttle was born in Kisumu, Kenya, where he lived
until the age of eight. His family then moved to Ethiopia until
1973, before coming to live in Co. Carlow. He was educated
at St Columba’s College in Rathfarnham and then at the
National College of Art and Design, Dublin, where he
studied Fine Art Painting from 1979 to 1982 and 1983 to
1984. The subject matter of his earlier work is inspired by
elements of landscape and how we contain and separate
space; the themes of enclosures, borders and areas of
concentration are common in his work. In recent work the
subject matter has evolved into an exploration of transitional
states of change. He joined the Black Church Print Studio in
1987 after taking a night class in etching given by Andrew
Folan. His main area of interest is etching.
Exhibitions include ‘Estampe/Print’, Galerie Michele Brouta,
Paris (2001); ‘The Holy Show’, Chester Beatty Library, Dublin
(2002); ‘Composites’ (large format print), Original Print
Gallery (2003) and ‘Insideout’, Graphic Studio Gallery
(2006). Lyttle received the Éigse Open Award in 2004.
His work is included in the collection of the Office of Public
Works and many private collections.
Catherine Lynch
Born in Co. Cork, Catherine Lynch graduated from the
Crawford College of Art, Cork with a Diploma in Painting in
1988 and a postgraduate in Printmaking in 1989. She then
pursued a Masters degree in Fine Art at The Royal College
of Art, London, graduating in 1991. From 1992 to 1993 she
attended the Tamarind Institute, University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA where she participated in
the print training programme and specialised in the area of
lithography. In 1996/1997 Lynch joined the Black Church
interested in Florentine portraits and her subject matter
included images of women’s heads. More recently she
works with both Irish and Italian landscapes and her latest
work comprises a series of journals related to time spent
in Italy.
She has exhibited at Royal Hibernian Academy, Royal
Academy, Royal Ulster Academy, Claremorris Open, Íontas,
ev+a, Éigse, Impressions, Gateway to Art, Taispeántas
Ealaíne An Oireachtas, Independent Artists; as well as print
exhibitions in Japan, UK, Netherlands, China, USA, Germany,
Spain, Australia, Germany, Cuba, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Finland
and Sweden. She won prizes at the Royal Ulster Academy
(2003, 2001), Royal Hibernian Academy (1989) and the
Claremorris Open (1988). In 2005 she had a residency at
Cill Rialaig, Ballinaskelligs, Co. Kerry. Her work is
represented in a number of public collections, including
Office of Public Works, National Self Portrait Collection,
Dáil Éireann, Stormont Castle, St Luke’s Hospital, Microsoft
Ireland, Contemporary Arts Society, BP Oil (Europe)
Brussels, Boyle Civic Collection, Butler Castle Collection,
Guinness Peat Aviation, Durrow Castle and Craig Gardner
& Associates.
Colin Martin
Born in Dublin, Colin Martin studied painting at the College
of Marketing and Design, Dublin graduating in 1994, and he
completed post-graduate studies in printmaking the
following year. He joined Black Church Print Studio in 1995.
Martin’s practice cross-references the stillness of European
genre painting with the expectant uncertainty of lens-based
narrative. He creates a staged familiar reality in scenes of
recreation and leisure which hint at wider narrative themes
that are beyond what is actually represented.
He has exhibited both nationally and internationally
including: ‘The Night Demesne’‚ Ashford Gallery, RHA,
Dublin and West Cork Arts Centre, Skibbereen, Cork
(2006/2007); ‘Insideout’, Graphic Studio Gallery, Dublin;
RHA Annual Exhibitions; ‘Garden of Earthly Delights’‚
Chester Beatty Library, Dublin (2005); ‘Contemporary
Irish Prints’, The Gallery of Graphic Art, New York (2004);
San Antonio, Texas; ‘Ireland France, Paris 2001’; Cité
Internationale des Arts, Paris; Grafiska Sallskaet, Stockholm
(2002); ‘Contemporary Irish Printmaking’‚ Kelowna Art
Gallery, Vancouver (2000) and the 22nd International
Biennale of Graphic Art, Slovenia (1997). Recent awards
include the Arts Council Visual Arts Bursary (2004); the
Hennessy Craig Scholarship (2005) and the Ballinglen
Arts Foundation Fellowship (2005). Public and corporate
collections include ESB, McClelland Collection, AIB, Chester
Beatty Library, Office of Public Works, Dublin Institute of
Technology, Microsoft Irl., AIG, Dublin City University,
Ace Europe and Iona Technologies.
Fiona McDonald
Born in Co. Louth, Fiona McDonald graduated with a BSc
in Biological Chemistry from Coleraine University of Ulster
before attending the National College of Art and Design,
Dublin. In 1996, during her final year at college, McDonald
began experimenting with an alternative method of etching
plates called electrolysis. In 2001 she received an MA in
Fine Art from the National College of Art and Design and
a MSc in Multimedia Systems at Trinity College Dublin in
2006. McDonald joined the Black Church Print Studio in
1997. She is a printmaker (specialising in electrolytic and
other non-toxic etching methods) and an installation artist.
She has exhibited her work in many shows nationally,
including group exhibitions at the Green on Red Gallery,
Dublin, ev+a, Limerick and the Lab Gallery, Dublin.
She has also participated internationally in exhibitions in
Canada, Copenhagen, Paris, New York and the Cologne
Art Fair, Germany. Her work is included in the AIB and
UCD collections.
Marie Louise Martin
Born in Dublin, Marie Louise Martin attended the National
College of Art and Design where she studied Fine Art
(painting and printmaking) from 1978 to 1983. Martin joined
the Black Church Print Studio in 1983 and later served as a
Board Director. In 1999 she established a print studio for the
Airfield Educational Trust, Dublin. Martin has always worked
with etching and embossing. In the early years she was very
O’Brien has exhibited nationally and internationally, and
has won numerous awards for her work from various
funding bodies including The Slade School of Fine Art,
London, the Arts Council of Ireland, Dublin City Council
and AIB. Solo shows include ‘The Long Goodbye’, Droichead
Arts Centre, Drogheda (2007); ‘Sea of Unknowing’, Pallas
Heights, Dublin (2005); ‘No Man’s Land’, West Cork Arts
Centre (2004) and ‘Dirty Trash’, Droichead Arts Centre,
Drogheda (2002).
Silvia Nevado Roco
Born in Barcelona, Spain, Silvia Nevado Roco studied a
degree in Fine Art Print at the University of Fine Art,
Barcelona from 1987 to 1993. In 1991 she attended the
Art Institute, San Antonio, Texas, USA where she studied
lithography and engraving. The following year she received
an Erasmus Scholarship to study etching in Accademia di
Belle Arti di Bologna, Italy. From 2001 to 2004 she
completed a Masters in Art Therapy, Metáfora, University of
Barcelona and became a member of the Spanish Association
of Art-therapy in 2006. She initially joined the Black Church
Print Studio in 1995 and remained a member until 2001,
when she returned to Spain. She rejoined the studio when
she returned to Ireland in 2007.
Eamonn O’Doherty
Born in Derry, Eamonn O’Doherty studied a degree in
Architecture at University College Dublin, graduating in
1965. He was Visiting Scholar at the Graduate School of
Design in Harvard, where he was able to access the
printmaking facilities in the Carpenter Centre under
printmaker Peik Larsen. He was offered a one-year
residency at the Graphic Studio in Mount Street in 1967
and continued to make prints there, and subsequently at
the Black Church Print Studio under the tutelage of
Patrick Hickey and John Kelly until 1983.
She was the winner of the Engraving Prize at the 12th Plastic
Art, Generalitat di Catalonia, Spain (1993) and has also been
awarded an Arts Council Scholarship (2001) and an Arts
Council Travel Award (1999). Her work is included in many
public and private collections in Ireland and Spain.
O'Doherty works in all media but prefers the ‘magic’ of
lithography. He is best known for his large-scale public
sculptures. More than thirty of his public sculptures stand in
Ireland, Britain and the USA. These include landmark works
such as the Tree of Gold at the Central Bank and the James
Connolly Memorial in Beresford Place, the Hooker Sails in
Eyre Square, Galway and the Great Hunger Memorial in
Westchester, New York. In 2006 he won the prestigious
Selvaag/Peer Gynt international sculpture competition and
the resultant four-metre high bronze is now in Oslo.
O’Doherty is also a painter and photographer and has won
awards at the Irish Exhibition of Living Art, the Claremorris
Open, the Arnotts National Portrait Competition and the
RHA. His photographs have recently been exhibited at the
Fowler Museum of Cultural History at UCLA, the University
of Virginia, the Glucksman House of New York University.
Throughout his career O’Doherty has supported himself as
an academic and was for many years a Senior Lecturer in
Architecture at the Dublin Institute of Technology. He has
also taught at the University of Jordan, the University of
Nebraska, and the École Speciale d’Architecture in Paris,
and has been external examiner at the École Superieure
D’Arts Graphiques, Paris and the Dun Laoghaire School
of Art. He relinquished teaching for good in 2002 to
concentrate on artwork and now lives and works in Ferns,
Co. Wexford, where the adequate studio space has enabled
him to re-engage in printmaking.
Margaret O’Brien
Margaret O’Brien graduated with a BA in Fine Art from the
Limerick School of Art in 1995 and completed her MFA at
the Slade School of Fine Art in London in 2004. O’Brien is a
lecturer in Fine Art at Crawford College of Art and visiting
lecturer at a number of third level institutions, including the
National College of Art and Design. She is currently based
in London. O’Brien joined Black Church Print Studio in 1998,
specialising primarily in photographic screenprint. Her
practice has expanded over the last few years from printmaking to site-specific installation involving a variety of
materials and media. Her works refers to a psychological
in-between space, one that exists between the private and
public self, and the self and others. She draws inspiration
from the everyday, the familiar and the domestic environment. In recreating objects or spaces that we encounter on a
daily basis, she replaces their normally functional or benign
fundamentals with an element of malfunction or mishap.
Solo exhibitions include ‘Clearing’ in St John’s Art Centre
Listowel, County Kerry (1999) and ‘Elemental’ in the
National Concert Hall, Dublin (2005). Her work has been
selected for many group shows nationwide, including
ev+a; RHA; RUA; Íontas; Oireachteas; Sculpture in Context;
Claremorris Open; Monaghan Open; Éigse; Daniske
Grafikere, The Association of Danish Printmaking Artists,
Copenhagen; Henrietta Street Artists Group show and the
Black Church Print Studio Members group shows. She
recently had a two-person exhibition called ‘Paradigms’
with Belgian artist Ronald Ceuppens at the Original Print
Gallery, Dublin. Peat received an ev+a award in 1998, and
in 2000 she won the Douglas Hyde Gold Medal and Arts
Council Award for painting. Her work is held in many
private and public collections.
Sinéad O’Reilly
Born in Cavan, Sinéad O’Reilly studied Printmaking at
the National College of Art and Design, Dublin before
completing a Higher Diploma in Art and Design Teaching
at the Limerick College of Art and Design, graduating in
1999 with first class honours. She became a member of the
Black Church Print Studio in 2001 and currently teaches art
at Dominican College, Drumcondra, Dublin. O’Reilly
specialises in the area of etching. Through her etchings,
which combine the real with the mythical, a playfulness
emerges that seeks to endow the everyday with an air of
the fantastic and questions, among other things, our
relationships with nature, conservation and beauty.
She has recently returned from India, where she studied
printmaking techniques under Professor Kashinath Salve
in Mumbai.
Alison Pilkington
Born in Sligo, Alison Pilkington graduated with a Diploma
in Fine Art Painting and Printmaking from Sligo Regional
Technical College in 1989, and with a BA honours degree
in Fine Art Painting from the National College of Art and
Design in 1990. She completed an MA in Film and TV
Studies in Dublin City University in 1994. Pilkington joined
the Black Church Print Studio in 1997 and has worked in a
broad range of printed techniques. The areas of printmaking
that she specialises in at the Black Church are relief and
lithography. She primarily concentrates on an etched lino
technique to produce graphic work, which echoes the
strong painterly qualities that she has become known for.
Pilkington draws inspiration for her graphic work from her
paintings. The work is process-led and this ultimately
determines the outcome of the image. She has produced
large-scale print installations that combine print, video
and painting. She has received Arts Council travel and
publication awards and project bursaries. She is co-editor
of The Fold with fellow artist Cora Cummins, which is a
publishing platform for invited artists to consider various
She is a founding member of Jeco Sword artists' collective
and her work has been selected for numerous group shows,
around Ireland and is represented in many private
collections. Recent exhibitions include ‘Hung, Drawn and
Quartered’ at the Original Print Gallery, Dublin (2007) and
‘Íontas 07’ at the Sligo Art Gallery.
Louise Peat
Born in Dublin, Louise Peat attended the National College
of Art and Design, Dublin and the Dublin Institute of
Technology, graduating with an honours degree in
Painting in 1993. She is a painter and fine art printer, and is
a member of the Black Church Print Studio since 1990.
Peat works mainly in the area of screen-printing, as she
feels this is a technique that mirrors her cerebral approach
to print-making. It is a process in which one part is added
to another, so that the image is built up from the surface in a
development of superimposed strata. There is a real sense
of play, improvisation and experimentation in the gathering
and arrangement of the images and the possibilities that
they invite.
She has been selected for group shows in Ireland, Scotland,
England and America. She has had solo exhibitions in the
Belltable Arts Centre, Limerick; Sligo Art Gallery; the
Basement Gallery, Dundalk; The Workroom, Dublin and the
Kevin Kavanagh Gallery, Dublin. Her work is in numerous
public and private collections, including the Office of Public
Works, Univeristy College Dublin and Bank of Ireland.
Piia Rossi
Naomi Sex
Piia Rossi was born in Finland, where she studied Jewelry
Making and Scandinavian Design. In 1992 she moved to
Dublin to study printmaking in the National College of Art
and Design. She graduated in 1996 with BA honours degree
in Fine Art, and in 2007 she completed an M.Litt in NCAD.
She has been working as a printmaker in the Black Church
Print Studios since 1996. Rossi has always drawn inspiration
from architecture. She is interested in the concept of how
people construct buildings in an orderly manner seeking
control over their surroundings. Through her prints,
Rossi creates mysterious and evocative buildings and
environments. These are fictional, anonymous places with
unknown histories, composed so that they connect with each
other. These prints reflect the many roles and attributes of
buildings throughout the ages such as strength, order,
power, control, protection, identity and beauty. A strong
sense of order is obvious in Rossi’s monoprints. Her work is
about cultivated compositions and refined mark making.
Most of Rossi’s prints are monoprints and therefore unique
and not editionable. She uses a technique of combining
chine collé and mono-printing on hand-made paper,
reinforcing the uniqueness of each piece.
Born in Co. Cork, Naomi Sex grew up in Dublin. She attained
an Honours BA degree in Fine Art Print in 1999 from the
National College of Art and Design, Dublin, where she is
currently completing her Masters studies. She joined the
Black Church Print Studio in 2000 and subsequently became
a member of the Board of Directors in 2006. Specialising in
etching, her prints encapsulate the essence of particular
times and places. Exhibiting these pictorial descriptions of
personal slices of history allow the viewer to access a
glimpse of a private version of events, akin to finding a
stranger’s lost diary, ripping out random pages and reading
them. These snippets of a life can then be experienced and
reinterpreted in a public domain. As a result of her Masters
studies her practice is now expanding; continuing to use
print and its diverse technical vocabulary, while
encompassing a wider language of materials and media
conveying concepts informed by relevant concerns in
contemporary living.
Since 2000, Sex has exhibited widely both nationally and
internationally. In 2001 she was part of a two-man show in
the Original Print Gallery. That same year she was funded
by the Arts Council to travel to New York, where she took
part in a workshop at the Bob Blackburn Print Studio in the
Lower East Side. In 2002 She was awarded a residency
by the Newfoundland/Ireland artist program, with the
award she worked at St Michael's print studio in St Johns,
Newfoundland for a month. In 2003 as part of the ‘percent
for arts scheme’ she was awarded a commission by the
Office of Public Works to produce a series of ten
etchings documenting the restoration of the Great Palm
House in the National Botanical Gardens. In 2005 she had
a solo show at the Printmakers Gallery, Dublin. Her work is
part of numerous state collections including the Office of
Public Works, AXA insurance, the Aviation Board of Ireland,
A & L Goodbody Solicitors, Chris Ryan, KMD and O’ Dowd
and Herlihy & Horan Architects. She has also lectured on
a part-time basis at the Dublin Institute of Technology.
Rossi has held two solo exhibitions to date, ‘Dream Travel’,
Lambay Art Gallery, Howth (1997) and ‘History/Order/
Space’, Original Print Gallery, Dublin (2002). Group
exhibitions include RHA Annual Exhibitions; Taispeántas
Ealaíne An Oireachtas; Tokyo International Mini-print
Triennial and New York Etching Week. Public Collections
include AIB, Microsoft Irl., Embassy of Finland, Trinity
College, County Councils and Dakota print. Blanchardstown
Art Centre purchased her work for presentation to President
Mary McAleese at the opening of the Centre.
Vincent Sheridan
Rob Smith
Vincent Sheridan studied at the National College of Art
and Design, Dublin and the Dublin Institute of Technology.
He has been working as a full-time artist since 1981. From
1989 to 1998 Sheridan lived and worked as an artist in
Toronto and Vancouver, Canada. He returned to Dublin in
1999. In 2007 he graduated with an Honours degree in Fine
Art, specialising in Video. He joined the Black Church Print
Studio in 2000 and is currently a Director of the Board.
Birds (especially crows and starlings) continue to feature
largely in Sheridan’s work. He is concerned with the social
behaviour, flight dynamics and subliminal ‘brushstroke’
patterns of birds in flight. His images often mirror human
group dynamics, modes of communication and social interactions.
Rob Smith was born and educated in Wolverhampton,
England. As a teenager he apprenticed to a crystal glass
engraver for five years before entering Wolverhampton
Polytechnic to study fine art. He continued his studies at
Manchester Polytechnic and was awarded an MA in Painting
in 1974, before moving to Ireland to take up a position as
Assistant Lecturer in Painting at the National College of Art
and Design, Dublin. Smith was an extremely private man,
for whom art provided a means to explore inner worlds
beyond the mundane. He constantly challenged the everyday presumptions, striving untiringly to go beyond ordinary
understandings. This uncompromising inner search for
meaning fed richly into his imagery as an artist as he strove
to create visual representations reflecting realities including
chaos and order, beauty and humour. He often juxtaposed
awkard styles, scale and media in his endeavour to create
metaphors for the Absolute. Printmaking, in particular the
etching press, was a constant resource, and provided a
medium through which a style could evolve facilitating the
strength and surety of mark making, which had earlier
enabled his success as a glass engraver. He worked and
reworked the plates, as he would a canvas, overlaying
imagery and re-engraving until he was satisfied, which was
seldom. Smith joined the Black Church Print Studio in the
early 1980s and continued to work there until his death
in 1990.
Residencies include West Baffin Eskimo Printshop, Arctic
Canada; St Michael’s Print Shop, Newfoundland; Cill Rialaig
Art Centre, Kerry and Annaghmakerrig, Tyrone Guthrie
Centre. Awards include First Prize (graphics), Claremorris
International Exhibition (1989); Best Graphics Award, RHA
Exhibition (1992); Ernst & Young Purchase Award (1992) and
Image Now Award, Best Use of Multimedia in Fine Art
(2007). Sheridan has had solo and group exhibitions in
Ireland, Canada, Japan, Taiwan, Poland, Germany, Peru and
the USA.
He had two solo shows during his lifetime and regularly
exhibited in group shows in Ireland and abroad.
A posthumous retrospective was held at the Irish Museum
of Modern Art in 1994. He was also a member of the Irish
Living Art Committee and the Dublin Visual Arts Centre.
Collections include the Arts Council of Ireland, Irish
Museum of Modern Art, Office of Public Works, RHA Gallery
and Contemporary Irish Art Society.
Paki Smith
Born in New Zealand, Paki Smith studied Fine Art at the
National College of Art and Design, Dublin, graduating in
1987. It was there that he learned to etch from Coilín Murray
and John Kelly. He joined the Black Church Print Studio in
late 1987, etching there until the day he arrived to find the
Studio burned to the ground. Smith has exhibited widely, his
last one man show was ‘The Holy Shiver’ in the Taylor
Galleries in 1999, when Mermaid Turbulence published his
artist’s book The Rose Hedge.
Jacqueline Stanley
Born in South London, Jacqueline Stanley studied at
Beckenham School of Art and the Royal College of Art,
Kensington under the tutelage of John Minton and Francis
Bacon, where she was awarded First Prize in Painting and
a shared first prize at the Young Contemporaries (Louis le
Brocquy was one of the selectors). Stanley taught at
Walthamstow, Croydon, Hornsey and Byam Shaw colleges of
Since 1993, Smith has become increasingly involved in film,
carrying out production design on several movies, most
recently including Ferris Wheel in Canada in late 2006,
starring Charlize Theron and Dennis Hopper. He also
set-decorated films including Veronica Guerin and Batman
Begins. In 2003 Smith directed a short film called God’s
Kitchen which was selected for competition at the Venice
Film festival that year. In 2007 he worked on James
Coleman’s as yet untitled project, which is to be shown at
Dokumenta 2007 in Kassel, Germany.
He has exhibited widely both in Ireland and abroad, his
work is included in private and public collections including
Iona Technologies, British Telecom and the Office of
Public Works.
art and the Cyprus Summer School. She also studied
printmaking at Morley College with Birgit Skiold. She
moved to Ireland in 1975 and currently divides her time
between Dublin and West Cork. Stanley’s work in London
was city-based (markets and shopping centres), but has
moved towards landscape. She joined the Black Church
Print Studio in 1982 as a Founder Member specialising in
etching and monoprint. She served as a Director of the
Board and represented Black Church as a Director of the
Board of Graphic Studio Dublin for several years. She taught
part-time at NCAD (1975 – 1987). She is a member of AICA
(International Association of Art Critics) and founded and
co-organised Arnotts National Portrait Awards (1985 – 1999).
Stephen Vaughan
Born in Kilkenny, Stephen Vaughan attended the Grennan
Mill Craft School, Co. Kilkenny in 1989 and subsequently
the Crawford College of Art and Design, Cork where he
received a Diploma in Fine Art in 1993, and then an Honours
BA in Printmaking in 1994. He works from his studio in
Thomastown, Co. Kilkenny and at the Black Church Print
Studio in Dublin, where he has been a member since 1997.
His work examines the varied landscapes and environments
both internal and external that mankind inhabits. He works
with large plates using all the techniques of intaglio to
create highly textured images. He likes to think of this as
‘building’ plates and, in this sense, there is a sculptural
aspect to the work. At times his prints have also approximated
the characteristics of paintings. This transformation within
the medium is of considerable interest to him. His work is
multifaceted culminating in the convergence of ideas,
experiences and events both current and historical.
Anecdote plays a significant role in his work. The whole
gamut of humankind's trials and tribulations, successes and
failures, are explored.
She has exhibited regularly in the UK and Ireland including
Royal Academy, Whitechapel Art Gallery, Angela Flowers
Gallery in London and the RHA, Catherine Hammond, Éigse,
Vanguard Gallery and the Irish Museum of Modern Art
(‘SIAR 50’) in Ireland. She has held a number of solo
exhibitions at the Hallward Gallery, Dublin. Biennales
include Japan, Germany, Egypt, Hungary, Belgium and Italy.
In 2002 she held a fifteen-year retrospective at the West
Cork Art Centre. Public collections include AIB, NIB, Smurfit
plc, Guinness Irl., Office of Public Works, Arts Council of
Great Britain and the Guildhall, London.
Michael Timmins
Born in Dublin, Michael Timmins graduated from the Dublin
Institute of Technology in 1999 with an Honours degree in
Fine Art, specialising in the area of printmaking. He joined
the Black Church the same year and subsequently became
part-time studio technician. He has worked in all print
media, but has recently concentrated on the medium of
lithography. In 2003 he travelled to St John’s in
Newfoundland on an exchange with St Michael’s Print Shop,
where he worked for an intensive three-week period
making lithographs. In August 2007 he travelled to the
Tamarind Institute in New Mexico, where he commenced
their prestigious printer-training programme.
Solo exhibitions include the Michael Gold Gallery in New
York (1999, 1998); Galeri Helle Knudsen, Stockholm (2001)
and more recently, at the Original Print Gallery, Dublin
(2004). Vaughan has also participated in numerous group
exhibitions in continental Europe and the USA. In 1997 he
was awarded the Graphic Studio Award for Printmakers:
In Memory of Mary Farl Powers. His work is included in
many collections, including AIB, Office of Public Works,
Chester Beatty Library, the New York Public Library Print
Collection, Upsala University and University College Dublin.
Annraoi Wyer
Born in Dublin, Annraoi Wyer studied at the Dublin Institute
of Technology and National College of Art and Design,
taking an honours degree and diploma. He currently lives
in Co. Wicklow. Wyer’s initial contact with the Black Church
Print Studio was in 1985, when he undertook a course in
lithography. The following year he became a Studio
Member. The technique of photo silkscreen and more
recently of digital manipulation have been key areas in the
production of his studio work. In the late 1980s Annraoi
produced a polemic series, revolving around the Iran
Contra affair and the illegal sale of weapons. From the mid
1990s abandoned structures and interiors reemerged as a
theme in his work. The wreck of the SS America on the west
coast of Fuerteventura continues to inspire him. In 1986
Wyer worked with the late art critic Dorothy Walker on the
GPA Emerging Artists Exhibition at Kilmainham.
In 1995 Paraclete Press published his first book Blackrock
College 1860-1995, a selection of archival photographs. His
graphic work has been included in numerous international
shows. Selected exhibitions include Mednarodni Grafic
Biennale, Moderna Galerija, Ljubljana, Slovenia, (1997, 1993,
1989); Taipei Fine Arts Museum (1987-1988); Portrait
Gallery, Tuzla, Bosnia-Herzegovina (1990); Museum of
Modern Graphic Art, Egypt (collection 1992); First
Maastricht Biennale The Netherlands (1993); Varna Arts
Museum Bulgaria, (1995, 1993, 1991, 1989); Highlights of the
Taylor Awards 1878-2005 at the National Gallery of Ireland
(2006). Awards include Irish Exhibition of Living Art (1987);
Douglas Hyde Gold Medal; Cultural Relations Committee
Department of Foreign Affairs (3 awards); Elizabeth
Greenshield Foundation Montreal, and The Taylor Prize
(1986, 1985). His work is included in the following public
collections: Sharjah Art Museum, United Arab Emirates,
Museum of Graphic Art Giza, Egypt, Dundrum College,
Ireland and a number of private collections.
Kate Betts
Artist’s proof
Chine Collé
Having completed the plate, the artist will then experiment
with the inking up and printing of the image until completely
satisfied by the result. This first perfect proof is marked A/P,
artist’s proof or e/a, épreuve d’artiste and is used as a reference
to which the rest of the edition is matched.
There are usually one or two artist’s proofs, in addition to the
numbered prints in any edition, and when a print is highly
sought after, a good-condition artist’s proof may be the most
valuable print in the edition.
Meaning glued tissue in french, this refers to the addition of
an extra layer of lightweight paper to the main paper support.
It is often used to add colour to a print, or to show finer details
that the heavier support paper may not pick up.
This method is popular in Europe and the West because
Western printmaking papers are traditionally very heavy.
Eastern printmaking papers by contrast, particularly those from
Japan, are very fine and lightweight.
Check out: Joan Gleeson, Piia Rossi.
The invention of aquatint meant that broad areas of tone could
be achieved by anyone in less than an hour, as opposed to the
days required by master craftsmen to engrave a similar effect.
Artists such as Thomas Rowlandson (1756 – 1827) abandoned
engraving for this new technology. Ease and speed of
production led naturally to more spontaneous images and,
importantly, to more frivolous subject matter. More risks were
taken and social commentary, caricature and satire began to
flourish. A fine dusting of resin granules is bonded to the metal
printing plate using heat. The plate is then etched in acid,
giving a rough texture made up of the acid-bitten pits in the
surface and the raised dots, which were protected from the acid
by the resin. This rough surface holds ink so that broad areas of
tone can be achieved. Aquatint is very adaptable, but it
particularly lends itself to dramatic chiaroscuro and wonderfully
rich blacks.
Check out: Mary Farl Powers, Goya, Colin Martin,
Rembrandt, Vincent Sheridan.
Like the term chine collé, the word collograph comes from the
greek word collo meaning glue. It is a print made from a plate
which is literally glued together; usually made of card and other
textured materials. A wide variety of effects can be achieved
without the need for acid or any other toxic chemicals.
Check out: Peter Wray.
Any image generated on a computer printer may be called
digital. See also: giclée.
Check out: Lynda Devenney, Dermot Finn, Emma Finucane,
Andrew Folan, Paula Henihan.
Any pointed tool is used to scratch into a metal plate, for
example a nail. This creates a groove in the metal, as well as a
raised ‘burr’ to one side of the groove which will hold extra ink.
Marks made in this way print up as blurry edged lines.
The simplicity of the technique, as well as the force required
to scratch the metal mean that it lends itself well to lively,
expressionistic, angular drawing.
Check out: German Expressionist portraits, e.g. Ludvig
Kirchner and Max Beckmann, who is considered the Master
of drypoint. For contrast take a look at Lars Nyberg, who
achieves incredible delicacy and detail in this medium.
Also: Mary Fitzgerald, David Lilburn.
Tiny grains of silicon carbide are mixed with PVA glue.
The texture of this mixture is such that it can then be brushed
onto the plate in a very free way, and will even retain the
characteristic marks of the brush as it dries. Once dry, this
rough surface will hold ink in a similar way to aquatint. This
medium has the advantage of being less toxic than aquatint,
and unlike aquatint it needs no complicated equipment so the
plate can be worked away from the printmaking studio.
Check out: Margaret McLoughlin, Louise Meade, John
There are physical limits to how many prints can be taken from
one plate. However, it is more in the interest of preserving a
‘rarity value’ that artists limit and number their prints.
The edition information is conventionally noted in pencil at
the bottom left-hand corner of the image. The notation 1/25,
for example, tells us that this is the first print in an edition of
A form of intaglio whereby instead of using acid, the metal plate
is etched by placing it in a bath of electrolytic solution along
with another piece of metal. The plate is attached to a positive
electric charge (thus becoming an anode) whilst the other
piece of metal is attached to a negative electric charge (thus
becoming a cathode). When an electric current is passed
through, ions migrate from the anode through the solution to
the cathode. The same technology is used for gold-plating.
It was invented in 1832 by the self-educated Cockney and first
Fullerian Professor of Chemistry, Michael Faraday. It was not
utilised in printmaking, however, until many years later.
Check out: Fiona McDonald.
sixteenth century onwards there was a separation of the ‘art’
from the ‘craft’; craftsmen were employed to engrave the
images drawn or painted by artists. They achieved almost
photographic reproductions of images created in other media,
but this artistic remove resulted in some very dull images.
By this time most artists making their own prints had
understandably moved towards the new, easier, more
spontaneous medium of etching. Nontheless, the uniquely
clear and fluid line which engraving allows, which cannot be
achieved by etching or any other means, has led a small
number of extremely patient artists to persist.
Check out: Albrecht Dürer, Pitteri, Evan Lindquist.
Meaning cut in italian, intaglio is a generic term, which covers
all kinds of printmaking where the ink is held below the surface
of the plate in grooves, scratches or tiny holes. The paper used
must be well soaked so that when rolled through the press with
the plate, it will be forced into the grooves to pick up the ink
there. Drypoint, etching and engraving are all forms of intaglio.
An image is created on a metal plate using a ‘resist’ such as
wax. The resist acts as a kind of stencil, which protects some
areas of the plate while exposing others. The plate is then put
into a bath of acid or other mordant (such as the less toxic ferric
chloride), which bites into the exposed areas of the plate.
The resulting rough areas of the surface will hold ink, giving
black and grey tones, whilst the smooth areas, which were
protected from the acid, will not hold ink and will provide the
highlights or pale tones of the image. Damp paper is laid on top
of the inked up plate and both are rolled through a press, which
looks something like a mangle. The pressure forces the paper
into the bitten areas of the plate where it picks up the ink.
Etchings can be identified by their characteristic emboss and
plate mark – the indentation around the image which marks the
edge of the plate; a subtle reminder of the 180 lbs per square
inch of pressure required to create the image.
Check out: Jaques Callot, Cora Cummins, Mary Farl Powers,
Patrick Hickey, Anthony Little, Naomi Sex, Antoni Tapiès
When damp paper is laid on a plate and rolled through the
great pressure of the press, the outline and texture of the plate
is imprinted on the paper. This is an emboss. A print made in
this way, without ink, is called a ‘blind emboss’ and often has
sculptural/architectural qualities.
Check out: Eduardo Chillida, Marie Louise Martin, Lina
Nordenström, Maria Simmonds-Gooding.
laws governing printmakers and publishers and in 1832, Honoré
Daumier, a political caricaturist, was imprisoned for publishing
lithographs critical of King Louis Philippe. Later in France,
Toulouse Lautrec and others produced iconic theatre posters in
this medium.
Check out: Claire Carpenter, Honoré Daumier, David Du
Bose, John Kelly, Nancy Spero, Michael Timmins.
Hard ground
Hard ground refers to the hard wax which is melted and rolled
onto the metal plate. Once cooled, lines can be scratched into
the wax exposing the plate, which is then etched in acid or
another mordant. Hard ground gives a sharp edged line and
lends itself to line drawing and cross-hatching. It is usually used
in conjunction with other methods, such as aquatint.
Check out: Niall Naessens.
Giving soft, velvety images with incomparable blacks, mezzotint
is often used for dramatically lit still-lifes. It was invented in the
seventeenth century by Ludwig von Siegen, a professional
German soldier. No chemicals are used, only elbow grease,
and a lot of it. The artist starts by abrading the whole surface
of a copper plate with a hand-held tool to give a rough surface,
which when printed will give the black. The artist then
burnishes away parts of the surface to give mid-tones and
white. The plate is then inked up and printed in the same
manner as an etching or any other intaglio print.
Check out: Konstantin Chmutin, James McGreary, Robert
Lino Cut
Picasso was amongst the first artists to cut into this cheap,
mass produced floor covering to create a plate for a relief print,
and he did so in very innovative ways. Because of its texture,
linoleum is relatively easy to cut and lively spontaneous marks
can be achieved. As well as being cut into, lino can also be
etched using caustic soda. This results in a different kind of
mark; fluid, looking something like a wash.
Check out: Caroline Byrne, Picasso (cut), Alison
Pilkington (etched).
Also referred to as monotype, this is a unique print. Only one
exists; there is no edition. There are many different ways of
creating a monoprint; one such way is to ‘paint’ an image onto
a very smooth surface such as glass or metal and then transfer
that image onto paper. This technique has been around since
the seventeenth century. Alternatively the artist may roll up a
smooth covering of ink onto glass or metal, lay a sheet of paper
over the top and draw on the paper. This will result in a printed
image on the reverse. These are just two popular examples,
but monoprint techniques are as varied and inventive as
the mind of the artist. Robert Rauschenberg’s Tyre Print is a
great example.
Check out: Gráinne Dowling, Tracey Emin, Louise Peat,
Robert Rauschenberg, Piia Rossi.
Giclée is in fact the french word for inkjet. A print at the press
of a button has understandably attracted many contemporary
artists to work in this medium. (See also: digital)
Check out: Barbara Freeman.
A sharp tool called a burin is used to cut grooves in a metal
plate. The sliver of metal displaced comes away from the plate.
This results in a line which is fluid, sharp edged and, by
necessity, very controlled. The plate is inked up and printed
in the same way as an etching (see across). Engraving is
enormously time consuming and an extremely difficult skill to
master, requiring years of practice. Consequently from the
The image is created using greasy crayon or ink on a stone or
specially surfaced tin plate, and as such a lithograph often has
the line and tonal qualities of a drawing. The complex and
lengthy chemical process which is then used to preserve the
image on the stone was invented by Senefelder, a German
chemist, in 1798. The first image-based printmaking medium to
be mechanised, lithography led to democratisation of the
image, and indeed can be said to have spurred on democracy
itself. At a time when illiteracy was the norm, the impact of the
new mass produced images was taken very seriously by those
in power. During France’s revolutionary period there were strict
emulsion; and at this point screenprint became the eminently
flexible medium that it is today. Many screenprint artists remain
true to its roots, however, using it to create bold compositions in
vibrant colours. Interestingly artists have also returned to using
its original name. Perhaps this was under the influence of
Warhol and the Pop Art movement, which relished its links with
‘trades’ such as signwriting and graphic design.
Check out: Michael Craig Martin, Aoife Dwyer, Terence
Gravett, Frank Kiely, Lichtenstein, Louise Peat, Robert
Rauschenberg, Warhol.
The earliest recorded photo-etching was made in 1827. It is
also sometimes known as gravure and photo-gravure. A lightsensitive resist is applied to the plate. An image is then laid
on the plate and the plate is exposed to light. The resist, once
developed (a bit like developing a photograph), can be inked
up as it is, or may be used to etch the plate. The electronics
industry picked up on this method and it is now used to
produce circuit boards.
Check out: Janine Davidson.
À la Poupée
When Japanese woodcuts started to reach Europe in the 1860s
an artistic sea change ocurred. European artists, particularly
the French Impressionists, were inspired to break previous
conventions of composition. Artists of Die Brucke seized on this
medium too. For them the visible gesture of cutting into the
wood with force conveyed something of the artists’ inner state
and served the needs of the art they were creating – later
termed Expressionism.
An image is carved into a plank of wood which has been cut
along the grain. Ink is applied onto the flat raised surface. Paper
is layed over the top and pressure applied, which transfers the
image to the paper.
Check out: Polly Apfelbaum, Jim Dine, Albrecht Dürer,
Hiroshige, Hokusai, Caroline Byrne, Anita Klein, Fang
Lijun, Edvard Munch, Kou Yanming.
Poupée means dolly in french, but in this case it refers to a
tightly rolled piece of scrim, which is used to apply different
colours of ink to different areas of the same intaglio plate.
Check out: Kate Betts, David Hockney’s ‘A Rake’s Progress’
series; the concept for which was inspired by William
Hogarth’s (1697 – 1764) series of etchings of the same
A generic term which refers to prints made by applying ink
to the raised surface of the plate (not rubbing it into grooves
below the surface as in intaglio). This is the most ancient form
of printmaking. Woodcut, linocut and wood engraving are all
forms of relief printmaking, as is a finger print.
Wood engraving
Similar to woodcuts, except that by using a piece of hardwood
cut across the grain it is possible to achieve much finer detail.
Check out: Thomas Bewick, Monica Poole.
The medium as we know it was first patented in Manchester in
1907 and used in the signwriting trade. These early screenprints
were made by painting an image in negative onto silk, which
had been stretched taut across a frame. The paint would harden
when dry and act as a stencil. Ink was then pushed through
the mesh screen onto paper or other support using a squeegee.
This lent itself to bold, clearly-defined areas of flat colour.
By the 1930s artists had adopted the medium and rechristened
it serigraphy, clearly to distance themselves and their work
from the signwriting trade. By the 1940s the stencil was being
transfered to the screen photographically, using a light-sensitive
------------------------------------------Artists’ names underlined are or were Black Church Print
Studio members.
Bangoura, Aïda
Betts, Kate
Byrne, Caroline
Irwin, Margaret
Peat, Louise
98-99, 131
Pilkington, Alison 100-101,
Kelly, Catherine 74-75, 127
Kiely, Frank
76-77, 127
Cummins, Cora
46-47, 122
Dowling, Gráinne 50-51, 123
Dunne, Barbara E. 52-53, 123
Dwyer, Aoife
Leader, Elaine
Lynch, Catherine
Lyttle, Anthony
Davidson, Janine
de Fouw, Jan
Finn, Dermot
56-57, 124
Finucane, Emma
58-59, 124
Fitzgerald, Mary A.
Folan, Andrew
62-63, 125
Garland, Jane
Gleeson, Joan
Henihan, Paula
Horgan, Sara
78-79, 128
80-81, 128
82-83, 128
Martin, Colin
84-85, 129
Martin, Marie Louise
McDonald, Fiona
88-89, 129
Sheridan, Vincent
Smith, Paki
Smith, Rob
Stanley, Jacqueline 112-113,
Sex, Naomi
----------------------Timmins, Michael
----------------------Vaughan, Stephen
O’Brien, Margaret 92-93, 130
O’Doherty, Eamonn 94-95, 130
O’Reilly, Sinéad 96-97, 131
68-69, 126
70-71, 126
Nevado Roco, Silvia
64-65, 125
66-67, 125
Rossi, Piia
Wyer, Annraoi

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