Journal of the

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Journal of the
\Winter/Spring 1992
Volume 13 Number 1
Journal of the
Conductots' Guild
Table of Contents
COMMENTARY
PERFORMING ARTS AND THE NATION: A CHALLENGE FOR TODAY
by Joseph\7. Polisi
THE IMPACT OF HAYDN'S CONDUCTED PERFORMANCES OF
T-HECREANON ON THE \TORK AND THE HISTORY OF CONDUCTING
by Pau[ H. Kirby
2
7
CONDUCTORS, ORCHESTRAS AND SOCIETY: A CONTEMPORARY VIE\T
by Kurt Masur
22
STRAVINSKY, TEMPO AND LE SACRE
by Erica Heisler Buxbaum
32
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SELECTED
\NND ENSEMBLE/BAND REPERTOIRE TEXTS
by Harlan D. Parker
40
SCORES AND PARTS
Dimitri Shostakovich,
SymphonyNo. 6 in B Minor, Op. 53
by Glenn Block
45
ARTS MEDICINE CENTERS RESOURCE LIST
54
BOOKS IN REVIE\UT
57
Max Rudolf, The Grammar of Conducting,3rd edition
by Samuel Jones
Richard Koshgarian, Arnerican OrcbestralMusic:A PerformanceCaulog
by David Daniels
Julie Yarbrough, Modem LanguagesforMusicians
by Raymond Friday
Victor Rangel-Ribeiro and Robert Markel, ChamberMusic:
An Intemational Guid,eto V(orksand their Instumenution
by John Jay Hilfiger
Humphrey Carpenter, Benjamin Britten: A Biography
by Judy Ann Voois
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
tournal of tbe Conductors' Guild
CONDUCTORS' GUILD, INC.
103 South High Street, Room 6
'West
Chester, PA 19382
Tel & Fax: 215/430-6010
Voois
.............Jacques
Editor
David Daniels
AssociateEditor
Band/\Ufind Ensemble Editor .......Harlan D. Parker
Officers
.Jonathan Sternberg
Editor-at-large
President
Vice-Presidents"......
Secretary
Treasurer
PastPresident........
.........LarryNewland
.........AdrianGnam
David Daniels
BarbaraSchubert
Bontrager
.........Charles
EthanFried
.........Joe1
Charry
.........Michael
Assistant Editors
Stephen Heyde
Louis Menchaca
John Noble Moye
John Jay Hilfiger
Jon Mitchell
John Strickler
Contributing Authors
Board of Directors
Henry Bloch
John Canarina
Margery Deutsch
JoAnn Falletta
Iauren Green
Dondd R. Hunsberger
Eric tU[. Ituight
Marsha Mabrey
Manuel Prestamo
Roben Spano
John \0elsh
Burton Zipser
Advisory
Glenn Block
Catherine Comet
Robert Emile
Robert Fitzpatrick
Joseph Henry
'Wes
Kenney
John Koshak
Carolann Martin
James Setapen
Jonathan Sternberg
Richard'Woitach
Charles Ansbacher
Harold Farberman
Sergiu Comissiona
Lukas Foss
Margaret Hillis
Daniel Lewis
Donald Portnoy
Evan Vhallon
SamuelJones
Maurice Peress
Gunther Schuller
Maurice Abravanel
Leonard Bernstein
Robert Shaw
Erica Heisler Buxbaum
Raymond Friday
Samuel Jones
Kurt Masur
Joseph\[. Polisi
Executive Secretary
Staff Assistant
Production
Jndy Ann Voois
Dorothy Langton
The Axon-Chancellor
Press,Inc.
Thepublication date of the present issueof rle JounNer
oF THE CoNoucToRS' Guno is Fall, 1993; conseqilently
thepublication date and tbe issuedate do not coincide.
Council
Theodore Thomas Award
Glenn Block
David Daniels
John Jay Hilfiger
Paul H. Kirby
Harlan D. Parker
J.rdy Ann Voois
V'inners
Leon Barzin
Max Rudolf
Sir Georg Solti
Effectiae Volume 13, the JounNer oF THE CottoucToRS' Guno uill bepublisbed semi-annually, tbe tuo issues
being numbered I and 2; tbe seasonalreferencesuill rerrain
unchanged,as utill thejoumal's length.
The JCG's editors and suff, in eaaluating material accEted for publication, will determine appropriate credit for
suchcontribution.
Library of CongressNo. 82-644733
Copyright @ 1993 by the Conductors' Guild, Inc.
All rights resented./SSN# 0734-1032
Commentary
Two of the articlesin the presentissue-- first
and third -- derive from addressesand questionand-answersessionsthat took place at the 1993
Annual Conference for Conductors, Columbia
University, New York City. Each article deals
with a different spectrum of the large body of
issuesfacing the fine arts in today'ssociety. Although, in a sense,the speakerswere both New
Yorkers at the time of the conference, they
provide a fascinating diversity of observations,
opinions and suggestionspertinent to the problems at hand. In their respectivearticles, Dr.
Joseph Polisi and Maestro Kurt Masur bring
insightsbased on life experienceand a cosmopolitan universalityto the issuesraised and discussed. It is hoped that additional articles on
this critical subject will appear in future issues
of the ICG.
Paul Kirby offers a richly researchedinvestigation of Haydn the conducior and the legacyof
his podium efforts. It is difficult, if not impossible, to read and absorb the plenitude of facts,
ideas and postulations found in Kirby's article
without seriouslyreassessingone's own view of
the importance of Haydn's conductedperformancesto the early history of conducting. Could it
be that the endearing appellation, "Papa
Haydn," applies equally weli to Haydn the conductor as it does to Haydn the composer?
Erica Heisler Buxbaum's careful and thorough reviewof sourcesand writingspertainingto
matters of tempo in Stravinsky'sLe sacre du
pintemps is a most valuable reference for conductors who plan to perform the work, or for
those who feel the article provides an excellent
opportunity to review and rethink the subjectof
tempo in this masterpiece. Many segmentsof
the article are amusing, revealing not only
Stravinsky'sacerbic tongue but also his fundamental honesty in assessingsome of his own
recordedtempos.
For the wind ensemble/bandconductorsin
the readership,Harlan Parker'sannotatedbibliographywill prove to be a highly useful resource
document. In addition to a broad spectrumof
band repertoire, the surveyedtexts also contain
valuatlle information about such details as composer biographies as well as selection scoring,
length, difficulty level, availabilitv. etc"
The "Scores & Parts" column is devoted to
Shostakovich'sSymphony No. 6. Glenn Block
has not oniy identified confirmed errata in the
source editions, he has also provided several
presumederrata as well. Since this is one of the
more frequently performed of Shostakovich's
symphonies,we anticipate that this errata list
will be of great interest to many readers.
In Volume 12,Nos. 7 & 2, theICG published
articles dealing with topics of arts medicine and
forensic musicology. Since the distribution of
that issue many requestshave been received at
the CG office for information about the location
of state and regional arts medicine centers. We
are indebtedto Angela Babin, Director of the Information Center at the Center for Safetyin the
Arts, Inc. and to the International Arts Medicine
Association (IAMA) for the entries in the resourcelist publishedhere.
"Books
in Review" leads off with Samuel
Jones'sassessmentof Max Rudolfs The Grammer of Conducting,3rdediticln. Composerf conductor Jones cornpares the leading twentiethcentury conducting manuals and Rudolfs Znd
edition of the Grammar with the new 3rd edition.
Reviewsby David Daniels and John Jay Hilfiger
explore the merits of two new resourcebooks:
one lists twentieth-centuryAmerican orchestral
music; the other covers international chamber
music repertoirefrom its inception.
This issue of the JCG represents several
'firsts.'
It is the first CG publicationto be printed
on the organization'snew 600 d.p.i.laser printer,
ancl the first to undergo tvpeface and format
renovationsenabled by this acquisition. In a
larger context,it is the first of six issuesplanned
for the 1993-1995fiscal years. The purpose of
this project is to return the journal to a production schedulethat coincideswith the calendar
year. E,achmember of the editorial and production staff realizesthe challengethe project represents;with diiigenceand a coordinated'team
effort,'we plan to succeed.
Editor
Performirg Arts and the Nation:
A Challenge for Today
by Joseph\[/. Polisi
Thefollowing addressand subsequentquestionand-answersessiontookplace on lanuary 11, 1993
at the CG's National Conferencefor Conductors
held at Columbia Universitv in lt{ewYork Citv.
* * * * * * * * * *
It's a great pleasure for me to addressthe
membersof the Conductors'Guild this morning.
I feel strongly that the members of this audience
may well be the most influential and effective
representativesof the music profession in addressingthe deeply-rootedand elusiveproblem
of the arts in American society.
During this time of the year we traditionally
take stock of what currently exists,and hope for
positive changein the upcoming months. It is a
natural and important consequenceof the human
experiencethat the future is viewed with optimism. And there is valid cause for a positive
viewpoint due to the current state of world affairs
with a few obvious exceptions. From a global
point of view, the recent signingof an ambitious
nuclear-arms-reductiontreaty which will cut by
close to three-quartersthe strategicarms of the
United Statesand Russiacan only be a sourceof
happinessfor anyonewho has lived through the
Cold War.
In turn, the inauguration of President-elect
Clinton in two weeksbringsa senseof hope for the
future, as is usuallythe casewhen a new administration moves into Washington. Democratic
Presidents have .been linked with progressive
socialpoliciesin this centuryand the desireby the
arts community to have a more pro-active advocate of the arts in the White House has been
satisfied,in part, with the election of Bill Clinton.
These positive signs are partially diminished by
other phenomena.
The complex issue of government support of
the arts in the United States has tended to be
couchedprimarily in financial terms in the closing
years of this century. When the enabling legislation for the creation of the National Endowments
for the Arts and Humanities was signedby President Johnsonin 1965,there was a good deal more
lofty languageabout the arts and American culture than one hears today. That language was
most probably directly related to the philosophy
of members of the Kennedy administrationwho
skillfully and passionatelyshapedthe legislation.
Those individuals,especiallyArthur Schlesinger,
Jr., talked of the arts in moral terms, relating
artistic activity to the basic fabric of American
societyand presentingan integratedview of the
arts and their important relationship to the
American educational system,especiallyat the
primary and secondarylevels.
The practical side of the issuewas also fully
addressedby Schlesingerwhen he wrote a memo
to PresidentKennedy severaldaysafter a glittering state dinner in November, 1961which honored Pablo Casals.The favorablereaction in the
government and art worlds to this event persuaded Schlesingerthat the time was right to
develop a cultural policy for the federal government. The memo to the President, entitled
"Moving Ahead on the Cultural Front," statedin
part,
The Casalsevening has had an extraordinary effect in the artistic world. On the
next duy,when the advisorycouncil for the
National Cultural Center met. a number
of people said to me in the most heartfelt
way how much the Administration's evident desire to recogntzeartistic and intellectual distinction meant to the whole
intellectual community. You probably
saw a column this morning which read,
"President
Kennedy is the best friend
culture . . . has had in the White House
sinceJefferson."
All this is of obvious importance, not only
in attaching a potent opinion-making
group to the Administration, but in transforming the world's impression of the
United Statesas a nation of money-grubbing materialists.And it is notable that all
this hastaken place without any criticism,
so far as I am aware . . . no editorial writer
hasusedthe Casalsdinner to accuseyou of
fiddling while Berlin burns.
I wonder whether this might not be an
appropriatetime to carry the matter a step
further.
Sadly,not enoughstepshavebeen taken since
thosehalcyondaysof the'60's.In 1993thereis no
culturalpolicyin the United States.There are arts
agenciesat the federal, state and local levels.
There are various advocacy organizations and
there are the creativepresenters.But there is no
policy,no plan for insuringthat the arts have the
positive influence on American society which
they must if America is to successfully
pick up the
mantleof leadershipwhich hasbeen thrustupon
it by world events.
I spoke of moral imperatives earlier and I
spokeof our educationalsystemwith all its hopes
and dreams. It is the interrelationship of the arts
and educationwhich I believe will determine how
and if American culture will flourish in the next
millennium.
Last Sunday (113/93) Edward Rothstein
presenteda piece in The New York Times_entitled
"The
State of the [Jnion in the Kingdom of Pan."
The subjectwasone relating to the past and future
which critics have been assignedevery January
First sincethe invention of movable type. But, in
my opinion, this article was special. In a concise
manner Rothstein focussedon some of today's
most pressingissuesin the arts. I am suremany of
you had the opportunity to read the article, but I
believe it would be useful for me to quote from a
few sectionsof the piece. After noting several
positive aspectsof today's arts' world, Rothstein
then addresseda few negative points. First and
foremost was his view of the state of American
music education.
Public music education is subject to
shameful neglect. Many of the public
school systemsin New York and the nation, barely managingto carry on ordinary
business,have trashed a heritage of singing, playing and study that took a century
and a half to develop. Musical instrument
collectionshavebeen dispersedand music
teachers coaxed into early retirement.
Generally, public arts education has become a matter of feel-good pop psychology,with lots of self-expressionand little
learning. In 20 years,if this approach to
teaching continues, it will produce the
audienceswe unfortunatelv deserve.
The dismal state of American music education in the public schoolshas no better or worse
examplethan musicalactivitiesin the New York
City SchoolSystem.As a product of that system,
I am personallyconcernedto seean educational
structurewhich no longer evenhasa supervisorof
music. Thirty years ago thousands of children
were introduced to the serious study of music as
they entered seventh grade. The quality and
quantity of the music-making in this city was
exceptional,with bands,orchestras,chorusesand
various other ensemblesflourishing throughout
the five boroughs. The reason presented for the
demiseof this extraordinary systemwasfinancial.
True, a lack of fiscalsupportin the 1970'swasthe
first causeof the erosionof the system,but I would
contend today, ladies and gentlemen, that the
weaknesswe seein the artistic fabric in our cities
is not basedon dollars alone,but rather on a lack
of effectiveand passionateleadershipfor the arts
in our society. We as an American arts community have been ineffective in having our individual
and collectivevoicesheard in supportof the arts.
How can we resolvetheseproblems, asmultifacetedand abstractasthey may seemtoday? My
answer and the answer of many others is contained in one word: education. Education in the
most creative, joyful, energetic manner that we
can imagine. But in this caseit is not enoughto
define the content of programs for it to be a
success.We need to plan further. We need to
designateand empower the carriers of the message. And this is where the American conductor
can have a great influence.
The image of the conductor as teacher in
America wasso thoroughly embodied in Leonard
Bernstein that it has become a daunting task for
any conductor to attempt to create the level of
discoursewhich Bernstein wove between performer and listener. Yet, as you know so well,
successfulprograms existthroughout this nation
where the music director has becomethe principal link betweenthe musicalarts and the children
of a community. The major challengewe face in
the 1990'sis that the musiceducationalinfrastructure of the small and large towns and cities of
America has been eroded or, in some cases,has
totally disappeared.The preciousstock of dedi-
cated and highly qualified music teacherswhich
existedin the pasthasbeen seriouslydepleted.In
addition, the basic essenceof music-makinghas
been blurred in this country. Mr. Rothstein
presents the problem well when he writes,
"Music-making representeda form of aspiration:
there was alwaysmore to learn, something additional to play. Most acquaintance with music
came through playing it. On a mass scale,this
movementhas come to an end. Personalaspiration has given way to the quest for novelty."
I urgeall of you asconductors,musicdirectors,
composers,teachers,and music professionalsto
seriouslyconsideryour role in changingthe present reality. Specifically,the quality of the American conductor is one which this nation should
embrace with pride and enthusiasm. In typical
American fashion, this country has not comprehendedthe wealth of talent which is embodiedin
the American conductor. Without being xenophobic or parochial,I believewe mustunderstand
thatwith the help of the American conductor,who
comprehendsthe traditions and procedures of
this couotry,we can be able to form an alliance
with local school boards and state educational
agenciesand set in motion a nation-wide moveabout these isment which raisesconsciousness
suesand then sets about to implement curriculum-basedprograms in the arts for our primary
and secondaryschools.
I have alwaysviewed myself as an optimistic
person,but I am deeplytroubled by the quality of
the American arts experiencefor all our citizens
today. The time to act is now. I trust that with the
help of your leadershipand a true and real moral
commitment to positively resolve the current
stateof the arts in our educationalsystem,we can
move into the next millennium with a strong
influence of the arts in our societyand a revitalrzededucationalsystemwhich allowsthe arts to
touch the daily lives of the individualswho make
up the fabric of this extraordinarynation.
QursrroNsANDAxswnns
Q: You speak of the need for a national movement. Do you know of any group presently
developingplans to accomplishthis?
JP: No, I don't, and that is my concern. I believe
there are many earnest,qualified, and dedicated
people in all parts of the country. I see it when I
meet with educators and performers at Lincoln
Center. I follow developments in Washington,
and I do not see such a movement originating at
the federal level; consequently, I think such a
movementmust be initiated by professionalslike
you. One problem when the NEA/Mappiethorpe
brouhaha exploded a few years ago is that during
that period there was no single-focusgroup that
had a strong enough voice to analyze and publicizethe fundamentalcausesof thosefiascos.Had
such an organrzation existed, the arguments
mountedby the anti-NEA forcescould havebeen
significantly neutralized. The arts community
tendsto unite quicklywhen there is a crisis,but we
are not very good day-to-daylobbyists.Finding a
solutionto this problem could solvemany of the
problemswe are discussingthis morning.
"Action
Q: The MENC has what they call an
Packet" for music educators that discussesthe
"bottom line." Are
vou working with them?
JP: Yes. Currently, the directors of MENC,
NASM, and other nationalassociations
of schools
of drama and art are all involved in drafting a
documentthat would establishnationaistandards
for performingandvisualarts curriculain the U.S.
Q: How are these organizationsattempting to
convinceeducatorsthat in the long run, it would
be more cost-effectiveto retain musicin a schooi's
curriculum?
JP: There appearsto be a definite relationship
between the efficacy of general learning and the
presence in the curricuium of arts education;
personally,I believe the concept is quite valid.
One of the problems with the Helms initiative
three yearsago was that the unsophisticatedcitizen who did not examine every detail of the
processleading to the report only heard a single
(and singular)statement,to the effect that the arts
"evil" source
were a potentially -- if not totally -of information. In turn that report causedlocal
school boards to hear only one word: EVIL.
When it came time to vote on funding, the arts
programsreally got hit hard.
Q: I find that MENC's decision to suspend
publication of "Sound Power" is a lamentable
"Sound Power's" purpose was provide
to
one.
guidelines for public advocary in arts education.
I believethat in addition to specificmissionof the
National Committee for Standardsin the Arts, it
would be most helpful if such a group filled the
void of the "Sound Power" loss by establishing
proceduresthat would guide membersof the arts
community towards becoming an effectivepublic
relations force.
JP: I couldn'tagreewith you more. [Jnquestionably we must becomeeffectivelobbyistsif we hope
to succeed.
Q: When I was music director of the Nashville
Symphony,I learned about the Lincoln Center
Institute. The staff there assistedus in establishing a "sisterinstitute" in Nashvillewhich is now in
its eleventh year. For those of you not familiar
with this organization, the Lincoln Center Institute and institutesmodelled on it throughout the
country bring together performing artists with
teachersand studentsin the arts, work to assist
local orchestrasand other arts organizations,and
are generally very helpful centers for arts advocacyand support,sometimesevenwith problems
that fall outside of their charter. Anyone inter-
ested in information on the processof establishing suchan institute in their city or region should
contact the Lincoln Center Institute [70 Lincoln
Each
Center Plaza,New York, NY 10023-65941.
institute is an independent, autonomous organizatron that operates according to time-tested
guidelines and practical, workable methods developed here in New York. It seemsto be one of
the few recent developments in arts education
that is succeeding,and I therefore recommend it
1
very highly.'
JP: What you say is unquestionably true. The
principles that drive the Lincoln Center Institute
have had enormous impact not only here but
throughout the country aswell. What is important
to remember, however, is that I have been addressingthe great need for creating or restoring
curriculum-based activities. While it is vital to
provide an inter-active forum that will enrich and
motivate artistsand arts teachers,unlessthe dayto-day teaching of the arts in our public and
private schoolsis enhanced,such teacher enrichment will be wasted in a svstemof education that
r
Editor's note: In 1992 the Leonard Bernstein
Center fo, Education Through the Arts was
created in Nashville, Tennessee.One of the missions of the center is to expeiment with wrys to
integrate the arts into the classroom, to find ways
to use dance, music and painting to teach math,
history and science. Over the next threeyears,the
centerplans to develop a national teaching center
where instructorswill be taught how to infuse arts
into the teachingof other subiects. There are also
plans for the center to establish a researchdivision
staffed to study the leaming process and how the
arts might best be used to facilitate learning. The
Bemstein family and estate have donated
8150,000to the center and given it permission
to usetapesof Leonard Bemstein'sYouxc PnopLE's
CoNcBnrsin the program.
seesno need to hire arts teachers,sinceit seesno
need to have an arts curriculum.
Q: I have been involved in arts education since
1968,and eventhough the presentcrisisis one of
the worst in that time span, I have never known
"If
any period when the operative thinking wasn't
we have to cut something, let us cut music and
art." If your committee is going to focusits efforts
on attempting to persuadeboards of education
that music and art should have a strong place in
the school curriculum, is there someway to convince them only once per decaderather than each
and every year? Or, instead,shcluldwe instead
work to establishmore youth symphonies,bands,
and chorusesin the schoolsso that if a local school
board had no option but to cut the music budget,
the community would be in a position to take control of those performing organizationsand maintain and support them asindependentcommunity
organrzationsoutside of the school system?
JP: Certainly an interesting alternative. I think
there hasalwaysbeen a senseof impendingperil
about the relevance of music within the curricuof this challum. I would saythat consciousness
lengeexistsin the 1990sin waysthat did not exist
in the 1950sand the 1960s.If we do not wage a
much more intense, focussed, and intelligent
battle on behalf of inclusion of all the arts in our
curriculum-basededucational system, alternatives may be suggestedthat we simply cannot
support. For example,the point has been made
that regularlylisteningto CD performancesin the
home is better than occasionallyattendinga live
performance. This does not make senseto me.
You might havea technicallysuperiorexperience
on CD, but one of the basic purposes of an
orchestralconcert is to allow a group of human
beings (the orchestra)to communicatewith you
(the audience)at a level that cannotbe duplicated
in other ways. In my opinion, there really is no
basisfor comparison.This is the kind of subtlebut
potentially devasting view that could erode the
whole foundation upon which many of us have
dedicated and based our lives. In closing,let me
reiterate that today our greatest challenge is to
discover how to come together as a community,
and how to become stronger -- and ultimately
superior -- advocatesfor the inclusion of music in
America's school curriculum.
Dr. Joseph W. Polisi has servedas the president
of the Juilliard School since 1984. Previouslyhe
held administrative positions at the Yale University
School of Music, the Manhattan School of Music,
and the UniversiQof Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music. He holds academic degreesin both
music and political science,and is an active concertizingsolo and chamber bassoonist.
he I*pact of Haydn's Conducted
Performancesof Tbe Creation on
the Vork and the Flistory of Conductitg
by Paul FI. Kirby
"Conducting" is defined in The l'{ew Grove
"The
direcDictionary of Music and Musiciar?sas:
performance
means
visible
musical
by
of
tion of a
gesturesdesignedto secure unanimity both of
executionand of interpretation."t Throughout
the historyof music,the variety of compositional
styles, venues of performances, and types and
sizesof performing forces necessitateda modification of existingconducting stylesas well as the
birth of new ones. Gaining insights into the
conductingpracticesthat evolvedduring periods
of stylistictransitioncanbe of greatinterest,since
often they provide valuable information about
the origins of a particular development in the
craft.
long recogFranzJosephHaydn (1732-1809),
nrzedas one of the greatestcomposersin music
history, has rarely been mentioned in treatises
and discussionsabout the history of conducting;
when he is, the discussionis usually limited to
whether he led a given performanceof his music
from the keyboard or violin. Nevertheless,be-
tween 7798and 1802Haydn mounted no lessthan
twelve productions of his oratorio , The Creation,
for which he conductedat leasteighteenperformun."r.2 In many of these, if not all, he stood,
without playing an instrument, and conducted
with a baton. This format was probably also
followed for a number of performancesof his two
other oratorios. Il Ritorno di Tobia and The
Seasons,which he conducted between 7794 and
1802. Finally, some evidence existsthat he may
have conductedseveralof his masses,as well as
the works of other composers.Although, aswith
most transitionalperiods, new and old practices
coexistedfor some time, conductingunderwent
great changesduring this period, and Haydn's
contribution to the changeswas significant.
Tnr SrerB oF Coxnucuxc IN THE Lerp
ErcurBrNrs Crxrunv
'modern conducting' had not yet
By 1800,
been developed;it was during the first half of the
nineteenth century that the fundamentals of
modern conducting were established by such
composer/conductors as Berlioz and Mendelssohn. Neal Zaslaw explains that there was
no need for a modern-styleconductorin the eight"the ensembleswere usueenth century because
ally smaller; the musicianswere required to play
oniy the music of their own time (and not that of
severaldifferent eras); . . . [the] music was largely
based upon the steady pulses of dance and
march, and was usually of a basically simple
texture and rhYthm."'
Elliott Galkin, rn A History "f Orchestral
Conducting in Theory and Practice, cites eight
transitional methods of conducting in use during
the period from Quantz to Berlioz: I- no leader,
2. constant audible time-beating, 3. intermittent
audible time-beating (only the first beat of each
measureaudible), 4. triple control (keyboardist,
violinist, and time-beater), 5. dual control between the keyboardist and the violinist, 6. dual
control between Kapellmeister not at the keyboard and the violinist (first reported tn 1772),7.
singlecontrol from the keyboardist,and 8. single
control from the violin leader.4
While the idea of triple division of ieadership
may seemunusual to the twentieth-centurymusician, it was consideredappropriate,if not essentia1,to performancesof large choral/orchestral
". . . in a
works in eighteenth-centuryVienna:
concert of the Vienna Tonkilnstler Societythere
was aviolin-leader,a harpsichordconductor,and
'bei der BAtttttA."'5 Especiallyfor works
Salieri
involving voices and instruments,such divided
"'
leadershipwas consideredmandatory: ' ' the
Kapellmeister,directing at the keyboard,cannotat
the same time keep singersand orchestraproperly together."6 Dual direction of such works
wascommonin England,a situationthat no doubt
became familiar to Haydn "during his two extendedvisitsto that country.'
The Musik-Lexicon(1802)of Heinrich Chrisas
toph Koch (ll 49-1316) describesKapellmei,ster
the highest member or the director of an
orchestra. In courts with a complete orchestra, either for church music or for
opera, or for both, the title Kapellmeister
is given to that composerwhose duty it is
to composethe pieces especiallycommissionedfor court use,to selectand procure
other artistic works for performance, and
to conduct the entire music in the
performun.".8
Koch also explained that the Kapellmeister
conductedfrom a score,and had the responsibility to keep the voices together, cue entrances,
make effective instrumental placements,secure
correct intonation of the instruments,and correct
"In church music he beats time
mistakes.
throughout the entire piece, but in the opera he
usuallyplaysthe figured bassfrom the scoreat the
same time, i.e., while conducti.rg."9Although
this descriptionpertains only to conductingopera
"It is
or church music, it is important to note that
'Kapellmeister'tobe found
the first entry entitled
in any musicdictionary."10
Obviously the need for one or more conductors became apparent as operas and choral/orchestralworks began to involve ever-largerperforming forces, spacing and dynamic resources'
There is considerableevidenceof time-beatingin
variousstyles,with or without a baton, audible or
silent, somewhat before and throughout the
eighteenth century. As an example, Friedrich
Marpurg's (1713-1795) Anleitung nn Musik
u berh aupt und zur s ingkunst besonders,published
in Berlin in 7763,showed eleven different pos11
sible time-beatingPatterns.
In Paris, audible time-beatingwas an established custom,and the practice had its adherents
"How much
and critics. Rousseaucommented,
our earshave been shocked at the Opdra of Paris
by the continual and disagreeablenoise made by
the personwhobeatstime with his stick,whom the
little prophet humorousiy compared to a wood-
chopper cutting wood!"12 In 1776, Johann
Reichardt (I752-1814),Kapellmeisterat the Berlin Court Opera, began (silently, one presumes)
usinga baton.13
Unfortunately it is impossible to determine
which, if any, of these conducting stylesplayed a
major part in influencing Haydn's concept of
time-beating or baton usage.
Heyox's CoNnucnnc ExprRmxcn Pruon ro
The Creation
It was Haydn's practice to lead his Esterhfny
orchestrafrom either a keyboard or violin, as it
had beenfor most other composersof the period.
Haydn preferred the violin, and often directed his
symphonyand chamber music concertswith this
instrument. Albert Dies (1755-1822),director of
the Art Gallery at the court of Esterhilry and
author of an early Haydn biography, noted that
when Haydn directed the premiere of the Farewell Symphony, he did so with the violin, for
"Finally
the last man but one,Haydn himself,puts
his
lights,
out
takes his music,anclwithdraws."14
In recording an event which demonstrated
Haydn's sense of humor, Dies also observed,
"Once
when a Landtag was held at Pressburg,
Prince Nikolaus [Esterhary) took his whole orchestraalong. There were partieswith Empress
Maria Theresapresent.At one suchparty Haydn
conducteda concert (with the violin as usual) in
which four amateursof gentle birth played."15
A shown in the photograph of the painting
(presumedto show Haydn's ensemble),and the
accompanying diagram (Figure 1), "At E,sterhdzy, Haydn had also conducted from the
keyboar6."16
Although by the late eighteenthcentury the
practiceof conductingsymphoniesfrom the keyboard was graduallybeing discontinued,Haydn
directed performancesof his London Symphonies from the keyboard, probably because in
Englandat the time it was the prevailingcustom.
As Galkin has noted.
[William Thomas] Parke and the German
music historian Carl Ferdinand Pohl
(1819-37)have written that when Haydn
participated in the concerts organizedin
London in 1791and 1792by the violinstimpresarioJohann Peter Salomon (17451815), he presided at the clavier while
Salomon led with his violin; and when
Ignaz Pleyel (1157-1831)was engagedto
conduct the rival 'Professional Concerts'
in London during the same years,he also
directed from the kevboa.d.17
J
This is confirmed by many documents,including public announcementssuch as the following,
cited in Landon's Haydn: Chronicle and Worl<s,
which appeared in the Public Advertiser, Gazetteer,etc.:
HANOVER SQUARE. Mr. Salamon
[sic] respectfully acquaints the Nobility
and Gentry, that he intends having
TWELVE
SUBSCRIPTION CONCERTS in the Course of the present
Season. . . Mr. HAYDN will compose
for every Night a New Piece of Music,
and direct the execution of it at the
Harpsichord.l8
Landon also points out that, although most
public advertisementsindicated Haydn would
presidefrom the harpsichord,it is more likely, as
observedby Dr. Burrey, that the instrument he
usedwas the piano-fo,t".'9
Regardingthe concert of 2 February 1795at
which the "Miracle" Symphony received its
name,Dies observed,"When Haydn appearedin
the orchestraand sat down at the piano-forte to
conduct a symphonyhimself, the curious audience in the parterre left their seatsand crowded
toward the orchestrathe better to seethe famous
watercolor by an wtk1owrt aftist'
Figure Ia: Haydn's opera orchestra as depicted on an opaque
ilqi!
r-Eai*-l
I
nn
n
n
i
r
n
0b. IE
0|0-l
noT-l
,d
Foqott I
i'-;--,
i tii
l-VidToiT-l fT6n
ryionnoT_l
lTi
tl tl
l _ il i
L
iFl-T:lll..:_[ll
i"Ii"'i
i i i....-j
i2cor.z
lli'-""r
i.ii...--!
the performance mateial'
Figure lb: A conected versionof the painting above,deived from
Landon also observes that riuring Haydn's
first London sojourn he normally conductedthe
entire concert at which his works and those of
otherswere performed; but later, during the second London visit, he tended to conduct only his
own symphony.22 It should be noted, however,
that Haydnwasnot aversein principle to conducting compositions of other composers' Georg
August Griesinger (\169-1845), another early
Haydn biographer,reported that during the sec"The King then wanted
ond visit to England,
Haydn to conduct a Psalm by Handel from the
organ. Haydn, who had studied Handel's works
very diligentiy, executed this mission to every-
Haydn quite c1ose."20Shortly thereafter came
the famous fall of the chandelier in which no one
was injured becauseall had left their seats'
Although during this period baton conducting
was not uncommon, Haydn apparently was not
yet readyto adoptit. Johannchristian Firnhaber,
who in Il93 was present for the rehearsalsand
"The
performance of Haydn's SymphonyNo' 94,
Surprise,"stated in a long letter to the magazine
"I
Der Freimt)thige, ought to add, incidentally,
that he did not conductthe orchestrain the latest
mode with a stick in the hand but led, asis the
customwith greq\virtuosi, from a harpsichordor
fortepiano. . . ."21
10
body's satisfaction."23 There exist additional
written referencesdescribingprograms on which
Haydn conducted music other than his own.
It also should be noted that the Salomon
orchestra,numbering thirty-sevenor thirty-eight,
was the largest and perhaps the best orchestra
Haydn had ever directed .rp to that ttme.24
the requirements of the symphoniesand
other music to be plaved
' J on the different
euenings.26
This influenced Haydn's later staging of The
Creation As Landon points out: "It will be seen
that this obviouslyeffective plan was the basisfor
the arrangement of the forces used in the first
public performance of The Creation rn 1799."21
Figure 2 rs areconstructionby Neal Zaslaw of the
London seatingplan.A
The fact that the Salomon-Haydn concerts
represented,at leastto someextent,dividedleadership is borne out by the following note fromThe
Diary; or, Woodfall's Register,,as cited by Landon:
"The
other exertionsof the Concert were worthy
of an entertainment in which the great HAYDN
took apart, and which was conductedby the taste
and geniusof Salomon
This is ,rot the only
notice in which Salomon'sleadership,as well as
that of Haydn, was noted. Perhaps the success
of their dual leadership arrangement explains
why Haydn did not adopt baton conducting at
this time.
The large-scaleproductionsof Handel oratorios that Haydn witnessed during his London
visits had a profound impact on him. Karl and
Irene Geiringer, in Haydn -- A CreativeLife in
Music (7982), quote William Gardiner, an observer at the 7184 Handel Commemoration at
WestminsterAbbey which Haydn also attended:
"On
enteringthe Abbey I was filled with surprise
at the magnitudeof the orchestra;it rosenearlyto
the top of the west window and above the arches
of the main aisle. . . . The band was a thousand
strong,*bly conducted by Joah Bates upon the
organ."" Although pointing out that the size of
the performingforcesmay havebeenexaggerated
by Gardiner,Geiringer notesthat Gardiner also
".
said, . . Haydn was so deeply moved that at the
'Hallelujah'
chorus he burst into tears, exclaim'He
ing:
is the master of us all."'31
It was upon Haydn's return to Vienn a in 1793
The difficult technical level of Haydn's
'Salomon'
Symphonies-- e.g. the octave
passagein the violins at SymphonyNo. 97/
IV , 171-4,difficult even now for our greatest orchestras.or the whole Finale of No.
94 -- showsmore clearly than any written
testimony how good were the players
Haydn had at his disposal.For the Handel
Festival in 1791, Haydn could see the
excellent standard of British choirs and
the enormouslyeffective sound of massed
forces; and he would carefully repeat the
largesizein the Vienneseperformancesof
his own late oratorios.25
An important innovation devised by Haydn
while in London was the arrangement of his
musicians.Charlotte Papendiek,who observeda
concertdirectedby Haydnrn 7791or 7192.wrote
in her diary:
The orchestrawasarrangedon a new plan.
The pianoforte was in the centre, at each
extreme end the double basses,then on
eachsidetwo violoncellos.then two tenors
or violas and two violins, and in the hollow
of the piano a desk on a high platform for
Salomon with his ripieno. At the back,
verging down to a point at each end, all
these instruments were doubled, giving
the requisite number for a full orchestra.
Still further back, raised high up, were
drums, and [on the] other side the trumpets, trombones, bassoons,oboes, clarinets,flutes,& c., in numbers accordingto
11
,w
W
re
'ee: q
gE
trtE
C
V
O
C
A
H
L
O
R
U
S
s
o
L
o
l
s
r
s
Dr' Neal Zaslaw,
Figure 2. Source: Westilp, Zaslaw & Seffidge-Field, Oncursrna,p. 829,with the kind permission of
in Zaslaw, Rrvmr, p' 165,
Stanley Sadie, and the RoyalMusical Association. This plan conects the diagram appeaing
p. 684, which has Haydn with his back to the audience and Salomon in
and in Westrup& Zaslaw, OncHnsrnr,
piano
and thus on the second-violinside of the instntments.
the
the curve of
that he had the first opportunity to lead largescaleperformancesof his own compositions.He
was asked to conduct the 22 and 23 December
performances of.1193at the Burgtheater, which
"The WienerZeiincluded a number of his works.
'Haydn himselfconductedthe orchestungwrote:
tra, which consistedof over 180persons,and the
excellent performance moved the public, which
appearedin large numbers,to show its complete
satisfactionby often repeatedand vigorols demttrL
onstrationsof its undivided approval;
Otto Biba citesa contemporaneousdocument
"S,g:[nore]Heydn
that shows
[sic]" as"Battutist"
for the first performance of"II Ritorno di Tobia tn
the expandedversion,given28 &-30 MarchIl84.
"It was customary
In a footnote. he indicates that
in the performances of the Tonkunstler-Societiit
that, if possible,the composer led the produc"It is not
tions."33 Mary Sue Morrow notes that
clear whether this position involved simply making a visible beat for the instrumentalistsand vocalists,or whether the personwas also seatedat a
kevboar6."34 However, the former seemsmore
likely, in that Haydn was listed specifically as
"Battutist" or "time-beater," and "Slg:[nore] Um"Clavi Cembalo." What remains unIauf' as
known is the extent to which this performance
may have represented the divided leadership
tradition of Vienna at the time, asnoted earlier by
Galkin. It is probable, though, that whatever
1,2
Haydn was in front using the first known
baton. The first violins sat immediately to
his left with the secondsimmediately to
his right. It ended with nine horns, nine
trumpets, nine trombones, and the three
pairs of timpani in the back. it was quite a
sound -- the orchestra for The Creation
leadershipmay have come from the keyboardist
or violinist, the direction provided by the composer (and a celebrated one at that) would have
eclipsed the others, as Biba's footnote would
support.
Although information about Haydn's conducting at this time is incomplete, it is known that
during the time between his secondreturn from
London and the premiere of The Creation, he
conducted several performances of his own
works. As an example, Landon points out that
"On the Feast of St. Stephen, 26 December
U7961, Haydn conducted a new mass lMissa in
temporebellil in the beautiful Baroque church of
the Piarists in the Viennese suburb of Jo2<
sephstadt."" There is no indication whether he
conductedthis from the organ or violin. While it
is fairly certain that Haydn conducted his own
incidental music to Alfred at Eisenstadt in the
autumn of 1796, it is also possible, although
speculative,that he may have conducted a performanceof Mozart's Die Zauberflotethere in the
36
.1
same year.-" Again, the manner of conducting
cannotbe determined.
More significant is that Haydn conducted a
large-scaleperformanceof his choral/orchestral
version of Die WortedesHeilands am Kreuzeon 1
and 2April, 1798 for the Tonktinstler-Societat . As
"the choruswas150strong,the orchestraalsovery
,2'.|
Iarge,"'' it seemslikely that Haydn continued the
practice, as noted above for the 7784 perform"battutist,"
and
ances of.Tobia, of conducting as
Again,
violin
keyboard.
the
extent
not from the
or
to which he gaveleadershipbeyondsimple timebeating,or the extentto which he mavhaveshared
the leadership,is unknown.
and there were 20 first
was lSL players,
J
violins.38
PerhapsLandon's assertionthat Haydn used
the "first known baton" is a bit of an exaggeration.
Galkin proposes709B.C. asthe first usein history
of a conductor'sbaton:
Pherekydes of Patrae, giver of Rhythm,
. . . had stationed himself in the center
(there were 800 performers), and had
placed himself on a high seat, waving a
golden staff, and the players on the flute
and cythara were . . . placed in a circle
around him. . . . Now when Pherekydes
with his golden staff gavethe signal,all the
art-ex-periencedmen began in one and
the same time, so that the music reThe
sounded even to the sea.
Rhythmagosbeat with the stavesup and
down in equal movement so that all might
keep together.39
Galkin citesseveralother sourcesnoting the use
of a conductor's baton from the eighth century
onward.
Nevertheless,it is clearthat Haydn conducted
the performancesstrictly as a conductor and not
from the keyboard or any other instrument, and,
like most modern conductors, actually used a
baton. A. Peter Brown, rn Pe(orming Haydn's
Creation, quotes Georg Johann Berwald (17281855),who noted during the 19 March 1799performance,
oF
Hevnxts Coxnucrrn PBnromraNCES
The Creation
"pyramid form"
Describingthe
of stagesetperformances
The
Creation,
of
ting for early
Landon states,
When we entered, we saw that the stage
13
proper was set up in the form of an amphitheatre. Down below at the fortepiano
satKap ellmeisterWeigl, surrounded by the
vocal soloists,the chorus, a violoncello,
and a double bass. At one level higher
stood Haydn himself with his conductor's
baton. Still a level higher on one sidewere
the first violins, led by Paul Wranitzky and
on the other the secondviolins, led by his
brother Anton Wranitzky. In the centre:
violas and double basses[sic cellos?]. In
the wings,more double basses;on higher
levels the wind instruments, and at the
very top: trumpets, kettledrums, and
tion, for two whole hours on end theY
experienced to the full that which, hitherto, they had known only by fleeting intimations -- an existenceof bliss,nourished
by desiresconstantly renewed, ever reinvigorated, and yet unfailingly satisfied.a2
PrincessEleonore Lichtenstein, also present,
recordedin a letter of May 1,1798,that the music
"was played to perfection, conduct.4ly Haydn,
who gave the beat with both hands."43
SamuelSilverstolpe( 1769-1851),a closeassociate of Haydn, observed,
I believe I can still see his face, as this
passagesounded forth in the orchestra.
Haydn had an expressionas someonewho
wasthinking of biting his lips, either to stop
his embarrassmentor to conceala secret.
And in that moment, as this light broke
forth for the first time, one could have said
that the ravs emanated from the artist's
trombonar.4
He also mentions that the so-called Tonkilnstler
Score, one of the early authoritative sourcesof
"was used by the battutist or conThe Creation,
ductor."41 Henri Beyle was present at the first
"Appartments
performance in the
[sic] of the
SchwarzenbergPalace" (29 and 30 April and 7
and 10 May 1798),and observed,
burning "y.r.*
A review in the Allgemeine Musikalische
Zeitung of the 22 andZ3December performances
gives the most informative account of Haydn's
conducting:
Who could describethe enthusiasm,the
delight, the applausethat echoed and reechoed throughout that evening? I was
there myself, and I can assure you that
never in my life have I been present at so
memorablean occasion. . . Haydn himself
conducted. The profoundest of silences,
the most reverent attention, an atmosphere that I could almost describeas religious in its deeP resPect, held sway
throughout the entire assembly:suchwas
the mood that held the audience in its
graspwhen, at long last, the stringsstruck
up the first note. Norwas suchexpectation
disappointed.We beheld,wending its way
before our senses,a long processionof
wonders, of a beauty unconceiveduntil
that instant. Men's minds were taken
unawares:drunk with delight and admira-
Haydn'sgestureswere most interestingto
me. With their aid he conveyedto the
numerous executantsthe spirit in which
his work was comPosed and should be
performed. In all his motions, though
anything but exaggerated,one saw very
clearly
- what
4 5 he thought and felt at each
passage.
This account is remarkable in an eta largely
devoid of even the concept of interpretive
conducting.
While Haydn may have eschewedexaggerobservedin the
atedmotions,he wasnevertheless
14
-_-=I
16 January 1801 performance by Griesinger to
have "conductedwith youthful fire."6 However,
Beda Plank, of Kremsmrinster Abbey, also present at this performance,wrote, "I noticed that the
tempo, especially in the arias and aiso by the
was rather moderate, and not as quick as
fugues,
't1."47
*J ao
What was it that Haydn "thought and felt at
each passage"of this work, ideas and emotions
that he conveyedso well through his conducting
gestures? Although his gestureswere "anything
but exaggerated,"the only direct account of his
stateof mind was given by Griesinger,who wrote,
strong contrasts,resulting in a total sound
with greater distancesbetween loud and
soft than any other music ever heard in
Vienna. The Creation was thus the first
work to use carefully controlled and expanded dynamics of the sort later exploiteclby Beethoven.49
The strength,drama and variety of these musicalelementscertainlyheightenedthe needfor a
conductor, and explains, in part, why Haydn's
approach to conducting this work involved more
than basic time-beating.
In the years that followed, Haydn conducted
additional performancesof The Creation,several
of The Seasons(composed 1801),and a limited
number of his other works. Most recorded impressionsof theseperformancesare highly favorable. For example,the following accountofthe26
December 7802 performance of The Creation,
given in a letter by Andrei Ivanovich Turgenev,
reads:"Yesterduy,my dear brother,Iheard The
Creation here which Hayden [sic] himself conducted. With the greatestpleasure I heard, felt
and understoodall that the music expressed."5o
I had the fortune to be a witness of the
deep emotion and the most lively enthusiasm that several performances of this
oratorio under Haydn's own direction
wrought in all hearers. Haydn also confessedto me that he could not conveythe
feelingsthat masteredhim when the performancewholly matched his wishes,and
the audience in total silence listened intently to every note. "Now I would be ice
cold in my whole body,now a burningfever
would come over me, and I was afraid
more than once that I should suddenly
suffer a stroke."4S
Havoxts Rnscansal Tncurrquns
Clearly Haydn's sense of emotion over his
work foreshadowedthe images we now hold of
suchnineteenth-centuryromanticistsas Berlioz,
Liszt and Paganini.
Although other oratorios had receivedlargescaleperformancesin Vienna, Brown observes,
Unfortunately, little is recorded of Haydn's
rehearsalprocedures. Widely known as a kind
and generous man, Haydn conducted many
performances,including several of The Creation,
for charity benefits. Such an instancewas described in the PressburgerZeitung, No. 3L, 10
April 1802:
What separated The Creation from works
like Dittersdorf s L'Esther (1773) or
Haydn'sownl/Ritomo diTobia( 1775)was
its employment of sound
pictorially,
symbolically, and dramatically: large
numbers of instruments were used to
underline what were already unusually
On the 25th of last month the Creation
. . . was performed in the The ater an der
Wien to benefit the Children's Hospital.
Herr Haydn. who is as widely known
for his charitableness and kindness of
heart as for his genius which is the
wonder of the greatestnations,conducted
15
tact, so that out of love for him they rose to
the level of inspiration required for perforrnance of a Haydn work, and which
generates the charm and grace we are
speakingof here.53
the performanceof his masterpiecehimself, to the thunderous applauseof a large
audience.. . ."
"Farewell"
The well-known story of the
Symphony, the authenticity of which, until recently, had been disputed for nearly two centuries, demonstrates Haydn's kindly attitude toward his orchestral musicia.rr.5t One may surmise that Haydn's renowned sense of humor
also was occasionally invoked while rehearsing
his music.
Perhaps the most interesting account of
Haydn's rehearsal demeanor was provided by
Dies. The episode occurred while Haydn was
rehearsingan opera during his first London visit.
George Smart, as cited by Landon, provides
another rehearsalvignette, this one from 1794.
At a rehearsalfor one of theseconcertsthe
kettle drummer was not in attendance.
"Can no one in the orchestra
Haydn asked
"I
play the drums?" I replied immediately,
"Do
So," said he. I, foolishly,
can."
thought it was only necessaryto beat in
strict time, and that I could do so. Haydn
came to me at the top of the orchestra,
praised my beating in time, but observed
upon my bringing the drumstick straight
down, insteald of giving an oblique stroke,
and keeping it too long upon the drum,
"The
consequentlystopping its vibration.
"have a
drummers in Germany," he said,
way of using the drumsticks so as not to
stop the vibration" -- at the same time
"Oh, very
showingme how this was done.
"we can do so in England,
well," I replied,
if you prefer it."54
Haydn'sconducttoward the orchestrathat
could make or break his opera was captivating and kind; he won them over to his
side at the first rehearsal.He had set out a
symphonythat began with a short a^dagio,
three identical-soundingnotes opening
the music.Now when the orchestraplayed
the three notes too emphatically,Haydn
'Sh! Sh!' The
interrupted with nods and
orchestra stopped, and Salomon had to
interpretforHaydn... . Haydn. . . saidwith
the greatestcourtesythat he was requesting as a favor something that lay wholly
within their power, and that he was very
sorry that he could not expresshimself in
English. Perhapsthey would allow him to
demonstrate his meaning on an instrument. Whereupon he took a violin and
made himself so clear by the repeated
playingof the three tonesthat the orchesHe
tra understood him perfectly"
praised them [the musicians]and interwove reprimand, when it was necessary,
with praise'in the subtlestfashion. Such
behavior won him the affection of aii
musicians'withwhom he came into con-
While the preceding quotation illustrates
Haydn's concernfor correctnessof detail, it also
demonstratesthat he maintained a high standard
for eachperformanceof his works. This is borne
out by Griesingerwho, in a letter describingthe 15
November 1800 performance of The Creation,
wrote that Haydn v,'asonly partially satisfiedwith
the rehearsal. Nevertheless,accordingto Biba,
the musicalstandardsat this theater -- at the time
under the direction of Wenzel Mtller -- appeared
to be reasonablygood.))
"JosephHrydn als Mensch
Georg Feder, rn
und Musiker,,"takes the view that Haydn was a
very demanding conductor who insisted upon
16
either directinghis music himself or appointinga
trusted colleague to do so. "Haydn appeared to
have considered his own direction to have been
more or lessindispensablefor the large oratorios
and masses."56Feder further cites a number of
Haydn's direct comments-- some negative,some
neutral, and some positive -- to demonstratehow
discriminatinghe was. Landon notes that Haydn
insisted on having Paul Wranitzky serve as concertmaster for a 1799 performance of The
Creation presented by the Tonkiinstler-Societiit
and conducted by Haydn. In addition, Haydn
decreed that Wranitzky should conduct the performance to be given the next year by the same
organrzation,in place of its regular director, Jo/
seph Scheidl.) There are many other instances
where Haydn gave special directions regarding
performances of his works, the best known of
which is probably the Applausus letter.58
TnB Lpcecy oF Heyoxts Coxnucrnn PBnroRr{ANCBS
oF The Creation
Haydn's conductingof the early performances
of The Creation impacted the history of the work
in severalareas. They include: 1.possiblealterations of the score by Haydn during rehearsals.If
significantalterationswere made,is there away to
discover what legitimate alternatives exist and
why the alterationswere made?;2. the performing forcesused,their proportion, and set-up;3. ornamentation;and 4. tempo.
The first consideration,possiblescorealteration, is most ably discussedby A. Peter B.o*n.59
He hascarefully examinedthe early performance
materialsfor indicationsof changesthat may have
been made during rehearsalsunder Haydn. One
of Brown's speculationsis that the changesin the
orchestrationof the openinginstrumentalsection
of #29 ("Aus Rosenwolkenbicht, geweckt") -originally scored for three flutes without continuo, to which first the continuo,and then violins
were added -- may have been made by Haydn
t7
during early performances in order to facilitate
ensemble.buBrown believes that the distances
involved in the seating plan would have made
ensembleprecision in this passagequite difficult
as originally scored,and prompted Haydn's addition of violins to the accompaniment. Brown also
makes a number of similar points about other
passagesin the oratorio.
Brown also addressesthe second consideration, performanceforces,proportions and set-up.
It shouldbe reiteratedthat Haydn consideredthe
performance set-up, as discussedearlier, to be
very important. In most modern performances
the orchestra is placed in front of the chorus,
which usually outnumbers it by 2:1 or more. In
Haydn's large-scaleperformances these factors
were reversed:the choruswasplacedin front, and
the orchestra,with wind sectionstripled, had a
sizenearlydouble that of the chorus. Thosewishing to givea modernperformancethat couldbe labeled "authoritative" or "authentic" should give
somethoughtto this arrangement,aswell asto the
more customary considerationsof instruments
used,ornamentation,vibrato or lack of same,etc.
As to the practice of ornamentation, suffice it
to say that Haydn preferred little to moderate
amounts. A number of sources bear this out,
as does the fact that the early performance
material has merely a few examplesof writtenout ornamentation,an important detail cited by
Bro*n.61
The final consideration,tempo, is reviewed
thoroughly in an article by Nicholas Temperley
that appeared in a recent issue of Early Music.&
Temperley provides a complete chart of the
metronomic tempos for each movement as given
by two witnessesto Haydn's own performances:
Antonio Salieri (1750-1825),who provided temposfor only four movements,and SigismundNeukomm (1778-1858),Haydn's star pupil, who furnished tempos for all of the movements. For
comparison purposes,Temperley also includes
tempos rendered on several modern recorded
performances.AlthoughNeukomm'stempolist
was made from memory many years after his
attendanceat Haydn's early performances'it
remainsvaluableinasmuchas it is the gdy comguideto temposof this
plete quasi-authoritative
work. While a slavishadherenceto the listed
temposis neither intended nor desirable,and
other details such as the size of the hall and
performingforcesmustbefactoredinto all tempo
be advisablefor
it would nevertheless
decisions,
to considerNeukomm'stemposwhile
conductors
makingdecisionsin that area.At the very least,
such reckoningmight prevent the wide divergenceof viewsrepresentedby recentrecordings
of.#L3 ("The HeavensareTelling"). The metronomicmarkingfor the half note at the openingof
the movementvariesasfollows:
Krauss
Horenstein
Willcocks
Karajan
Marriner
Bernstein
Rattle
Hogwood
(1949) =
(1959) =
(1974) =
(1982) =
(1980) -(1986) =
( 1990) -(1990) =
others were present during some of Haydn's
Viennese performances,and all of them eventually conducted performances of The Creation
themselves. Is it possible they could have remained imperviousto or uninfluencedby Haydn's
performances? While, as mentioned before,
conducting practices were yet to become stan"a
dardized (Spohr used roll of paper when conducting Haydn's The Creation at an orchestral
concert at Frankenhausenin 1809."64),Haydn's
conducted performances must have presented
the next generation of musicians with specific
examples of how to interpret his works and a
general one on how to conduct a multi-force
performance.
"The Orchestra in
Clive Brown, in
Beethoven'sVienna," writes,
Beethoven himself seems to have been
one of the first musicians in Vienna to
attempt to direct orchestral concertswithout an instrument. His concern for the
proper interpretation of his own orchestral works made him anxiousto supervise
their performance. He was not primarily
a violinist and seems never to have directed from the violin, nor is there evidenceto suggestthat he, or anyoneelse in
Vienna during the first decadeof the 19th
century, made a practice of directing orchestral music from the keyboard' All
surviving accounts of Beethoven's conducting suggestthat he directed from a
separatemusic desk without a baton'65
76
72
84
63
108
68
108
108
for the half noteat
Neukomm,srecommendation
this point is 88.63
Cotlct ustot'l
Although the effect of Haydn's conducted
performances of The Creation on either the history of conducting or music is not easily documented, certain strong probabilities do emerge.
Vienna was Supremeamong centersfor music at
this time, asit hasbeen ever since.Beethovenand
other important composerswere activein Vienna
at the time Haydn conducted The creation, and
they had to havebeen awareof what he wasdoing.
Neukomm, Salieri, Paul Wranitzky, Weigl and
while the friendship between Beethoven and
Haydn had cooled during the years following the
initial performancesof The Creation,Beethoven
was certainly aware that Haydn regularly conducted the work and of the tremendouspublic
it achieved;one can only assumeit had an
success
influence on him, at least causinghim to evaluate
18
the importance of conductingin the production of
good performances.
Brown further points out that in 1800
Beethovenhad wanted the premiere of his First
Symphony to be performed by the Akademie
orchestra and conducted by Wranitzsky, but the
orchestra musicians, preferring their regular
Viotin-direktor,Conti, rebelled.bo Certainly this
incident illustrates the rise of the conductor as a
musical force in the early nineteenth century.
Here, Beethoven was concerned not only with
rendering correct temposbut alsowith the proper
interpretation of his music, and he had a definite
preference as to who should conduct it. This
represented a definite change of attitude from
only a few yearsearlier, when most performances
were supervisedby composer/conductorsfrom
the violin or keyboard.
Inasmuchas the conductorwasjust emerging
as an important musical forc e at this time, it is
regrettablethat we haveso little direct documentation of the era'sconductingpractices.Reviews
of concertsof this period commented heavily on
the merits of the musical works themselves,
somewhaton the general qualities of the performance and of the soloists,and, occasionally,on
audiencemake-up and reaction. Little attention
wasgiven to the art of conducting. Nevertheless,
by the middle of the nineteenth century, the
conductorwas firmly establishedas an indispensible entity for performancesof opera,symphonic
and choral music; already there were signsthat
certain conductors were beginning to assume
celebrity status. From the diverse but limited
contemporary reports just presented,we must
conclude that Haydn, one of the earliest major
composersto step away from the violin and keyboard to lead his musicianswith a baton so as to
conveynot only time but musical senseand style
aswell, made a major contribution to this important evolution.
Paul Kirby is a composer and conductor in
New York. He has served as music director and
conductor of the Houston Youth and lowa State
(Jniversity Symphonies. He served as treasurer of
the Conductors' Guild for six years.
* * * * * * * * * *
Exnxorns
1'
JackWestrup,"Conductirg, " inThe New GroveDictionary
of Music and Musicians,ed. StanleySadie,Vol. 4 (London:
MacMillan Publishers,Limited, L980),p.641.
)-
SeeA. Peter Brown,Pe(orming Haydn's "The Creation"
(Bloomington: Indiana University Press,1986),pp.2-7 for a
chart of the ViennesePerformancesof The CreationtoEarly
1810.
-"
Neal Zaslaw,"Toward the Revival of the ClassicalOrchestra," in Proceedingsof the Royal Musical Association, Yo|
103 (London: 1977),p. 160.
4 pllio,,
W. Galkin , A History of Orchestral Conducting in
Theory and Pracrice (Stuyvesant,New York: Pendragon
Press,1988),p. 437,458-9.
"5
Galkin,p.M9. Galkin credits the quotation to Eduard
Hanslick, GeschichtedesConcertwesens
inWien (Vienna: W.
B raumi dl l er,1869), p.94.
6
"
Galkin, p.449. Galkin creditsthe quotationto "Uber den
Zu stand der Mu si k, "Al Igem ei n e M usik al li sch e Z eitung 23:Il
(Berlin, l82l), col. 297.
'
Cf. William Thomas Parke, Musical Memoirs, Vol. 1
(London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, 1830),on
pp. Il9-20 records, "The Lent performances (1788) commencedat Drury Lane . . . under the directionof Mr. Lindley
and Dr. Arnold. . . . Oratorios unexpectedlystartedup this
seasonat CoventGarden. . . . and were under the direction
of Messrs.Harrison and Knyvett. . . ." This is also cited by
Galkin, p. a50. While theseparticular performancesdid not
take place during one of Haydn's visits, others given in this
tradition did.
R
Adam Carse, The Orchestra in the Eighteenth Cenntry
(Cambridge:W. Heffer & Sons, 1940),pp.18-23. Cited by
Gal ki n,p.203.
q-
* * * * * * * * * *
19
C arse,pp. 18-23,i n Gal ki n,p.203.
22
to
Lundon,III, p.256.
Gulkirr,p.zo4.
"Time-Beating:
S". Galkin, pp.273-4.In ChaptersFour,
"Time-Beating
to
Descriptions and Definitions," and Five,
conducting: Procedures Described in Specialized Sources
from Earliest Times to Berlioz," Galkin cites various period
11
sourcesto illustrate that, as one might expectof an emerging
art, there were many different time-beating patterns used
during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
The Marpurg chart appears onp.273.
t2
J"un-JacquesRousseau, Dictionnaie de Musique (Paris:
ChezlaveuveDuschesne,L768),as quoted in Galkin, p' 191'
"The little prophet" refers to Baron Friedrich Melchoir von
"Le petitprophite de Boehmischbroda" (Paris: n'p',
Grimm,
L753),trans. oliver- strunk tn source Readings in Music
History (New York: W. W. Norton, 1950),pp' 622- 3'
13
Gulkin , p. 493.
14
Albert Dies, Biographische Nachichten von loesph
Haydn, in Vernon Gotwals, Haydn Two Contemporary
Press,1982),p.
wisconsin
of
Portraits (Madison: University
23
G. A. Griesinger, Biographische Notizen i)ber loseph
Haydn, in Gotwals, P.33.
24 *:Huydn,s
orchestra for his Salomon Concerts,the largest
orchestra that he ever had at his disposal, contained thirtyseven or thirty-eight musicians." See Michael Broyles,
,,EnsembleMusic Moves oul of the Private House: Haydn to
Beethoven," in The Orchestra - Origins and Transformations,
ed. Joan Peyser(New York: charles scribners Sons,1986),
p. 115.
25
Lurrdon III, p. ?a-
26
Landon, II, p. 52. Landon notes that, although Mrs'
Papendiek recorded the year as I'792, she may have been
mistaken on this and on some other details. He stateson page
53, regardingMrs. Papendiek'sdispositionof the orchestra,
"We have confirmation of it, incidentally,in the amusing
that
descriptionof George (later Sir George) Smart in 1794;',
27
101.
Lundon, III, p. 53.
B
Zurlu*, p. 165.
15
Di"., p.Ll2. Dies goeson to explainhow one of the ladies
musedabout what might happenif the professionalsdropped
out of this ensemble,and Haydn, in collusion with the other
professionals,arranged for this to happen. The amateurs
were quite unable to continue alone and everyoneenjoyed a
29
Lundon, III, p. 84.
30
Ku.l and Irene Geiringer ,Haydn - A CreativeLtfe in Music
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982),p' 113'
good laugh.
31'
"See Denis Bartha and L6s16Somfai,
Gakin, p. 454:
H aydn als o p emkapeIlm eister (Marnz: Schotts' s ohne, 1960)'
watercolorby unknownpainter,p. 49 [sic]." It is actuallyopp.
Geiringer , p. ll4. This incident is also reportedin The
GreatDr. Bumey, Volume II, by PercyA' Scholes(London:
p^>dordUniversity Press,L948)' p. 113'
"
cit.d by Landon, III, P.226.
p.48.
33
16
17
"Beispiele
bei
Otto Biba ,
filr die Besetzungsverheiltnisse
Auffihrungen Haydns oratoien in wien zwischen1784und
1808," in Haydn-Stttdien, IV 12, Muy, 1978 (Munich: G'
"Lista Von den 28tenund 30t"n
Henle, June 1965-), p.94:
Marti; 78a [sic] abgehaltenenMusicallischenSocietdtsAc"Bei den
ademien." In a footnote on p' 99 he adds,
Auffihrungen der Tonkilnstler societc)t war es durchwegs
ilblich, da!3nach Moglichkeit derKomponist die Produktionen
Gulkin , pp. 453-4.
18
H. C. Robbins Landon, Haydn: Chronicleand Works,3
vols.(Bloomington:Indiana university Press,1976-78),Vol.
III, p.43.
19
Lurrdon,III, p. 56.
leitete."
20
Di.r, p. 131.
34
Mary Sue Morr ow, Concert Life in Haydn's Wenna
Aspects of a Devetoping Musical and Social Institution
(Stuyvesant,NY: PendragonPress,1989),p' 183'
,,Beichtigung als Beitrag
Lundon, III, p. 151. The letter
zur Geschichte der Musik," appeared rn Der Freimilthige
(XXII, 1825,P. 960).
21
20
?5
""
76
""
77
ger? Ollesonbelievesso. SeeEdward Olleson,"Haydn in the
Diaries of Count Karl von Zinzendorf," in Haydn yearbook
Yol.2 (1963-4) (Brytt Mawr, Pa: Theodore presser Com-
Landon, IV, p.120.
See Landon, IV, pp. L08-9.
pany, 1962), p. 57.
Landon, IV, p.317.
M
'" "
Haydn diigierte selbstmil jugendlichen Feuer." Wien: d.
2IJan.1801 - Briefe. Cited in Gunter Thomas, ,,Giesingers
BiefeilberHaydn," inHaydn Swdien I:2, Feb., 66,p.67. On
p. IT2,Geiringer attributesthis citation to "J. C. Rosenbaum,
1R
"-
Landon, "The Classical Tradition of the 20th Century,,,
Ioumal of the Conductors' Guild,Il:l, Winter 1981, p. 6.
?q
"-
Galkin,pp.487-8,
quotingProfessor
Murchard[?],,,Discoveryof Ancient GreekTabletsRelativeto Music.,,,Hermonicon3, April-May 1825,pp. 56,76.
ul
'"
4'^
1
official in the service of Prince Esterh6ry, [who] kept a diary
that affords much interesting information about Haydn after
his return from London. (Cf.p. 9.)" However, Biba's *Eben
komme ich von Haydn. . ." GeorgAugust Giesingers Konespondenz mit loseph Haydns Verleger Breitkopf ilnd Hrirtel,
I 799-18 19 (Zurich:Atlantis Musikbuch - Verlag, t9B7),p. 53,
confirms Griesinger as the source.
Brown,p.29.
Brown, p. 28.
4)
47 "Irh
bemerkte, dalJ das Tempo, besondersbei den Aien
und auch bei den Fugen ziemlich moderato und nicht so
schnell wie bei uns angegebenwurde." Cited by Altmann
Kenner, Musikgeschichtedes Stiftes Kremsmijnster (Kassel:
Bdrenreiter,1956),p.567, and Landon, IV, p.22.
Henri Beyle, (pseud. Stendahl), Haydn, Mozart and
Metastasio, Trans. Richard N. Coe (New York: Grossman
Publishers, 1972),pp. 110-11.
43
- "La
musique a dtd parfaitement execut1e,diigde par
Hayden [sic] qui donait la mesure des 2 meins.,, Cited by
Hugo Botstiber, Ioseph Haydn - (JnterBenutzung der von C.
F. P oh I hint erl assen en M atei ali en, Y ol.3 (Leipzig: B r eit ko pf
tind Hdrtel,1927), p. 13L,and Landon, IV, p.320.
48^
Grresinger,p. 38.
49
44
' ' "Ich
glaubenoch sein Gesichtzu sehen,als dieserZugvom
orchester ausgtng.Haydn hatte dabei eine Miene wiejemand,
der sich auf die Lippen zu beilSendenkt, entweder um seine
verlegenheitzu hemmen oder aber um ein Geheimnis zu
verbergen.Und in demselbenAugenblick, als zum erstenMal
dieses Licht hervorbrach, wilrde man gesagt haben, dalj
strahlen geschleudertwurden aus des Ktinstrers brennenden
Augen." Cited by Georg Feder, "Joseph Haydn als Mensch
und Musiker, " in OsteneichischeMusikzeitschift, XVII/2,
February 1972(Yienna: H. Bauer Verlag, January 1946-),p.
65.
Brown, Performing, pp. 30-32.
"50
"
C i ted by Landon,IV , p.240.
5L
Marianne Pandi and Fritz Schmidt, ,,Music in Haydn,s
and Beethoven's Time as Reported in the pressburger
Zeitwg," inHaydnYearbook Vol.8, 1971(Bryn Mawr, pa.:
Theodore PresserCompany, 1962-), p.2f.3 also cited by
Landon,IY , p.222.
"\)"
5?
4- 5 ^
Geiringer, p. 164,quoting AMZ review of the 22 and23
December 1799performances. The original passagereads:
"Mirwar
seineMimik Hochst interessant.Er hauchtedadurch
dem zahlreichen Personale der Tonkiinstler den Geist ein, in
welchem sein Werk komponiert wer, und auf gefi)hrt werden
musste. Man las in allen seinen, nichts weniger als
tibertiebenen,Bewegungensehrdeuttichwaserbeyjeder stelte
gedachtund empfunden haben mochte. Es istzu wunschen,
dalSein Werk, welchesHaydn und dem teutschen Vaterlande
so sehr zur Ehre gereicht,nie durch eine ungeschickteoder
mittelmcissigeExekution entstellt werde. -- Gr." (AMZ, No.
16,L5January1800,pp.28l-2.) Was this reviewby Griesin-
54
S eeLandon,II, pp. 180-1.
D i es, pp.' 123-4.
Landon, III, pp. 247-8.
5 5 "DiesenAbend
""
glebtman in LeopoldstridterTheater(dem
casperle) die schopfung zum Bestendes daselbstAngesteilten
Musikpersonals. Haydn war mit der Probe nur mittermr)ssig
zufieden." Biba, Giesingers Konespondenz, p. 49. In a
footnote to this quotation, Biba comment ed:"Das musikatische lViveauscheintnicht schlechtzu sein,auch wennHaydn in
diesemFall nichtrecht zufiedenwar. Kapellmeister an diesem
Theaterwar WenzelMilller (1767-1835))'
56
"-
21
Feder,p.65. "Haydn scheintseineeigeneDirektionbeiden
gro!3en Oratoien und Messen fi)r mehr oder weniger unentbehrlichgehaltenzu haben."
57
58
62
"Haydn's Temp osinThe Creation,"
Ni.holas Temperley,
rn Early Music, MuY, 1991,P.238.
63
F. d" . , p. 65.
Fro- Temperley'stabtreof p. 238, to which I added the
Bernstein tempo marking.
S"" Landon, II, pp. tM-48.
64
"Forces, Scoring,DynamBro*r, , Performing Chapter2:
"Options: Authentic, Allowable and Possible in
ics;" and
Performing Haydn's The Creation,"Mttsical Times, L31, 1990
w.rt.up, p.643.
59
65
(London: Novello & Co.), PP-73-76'
"The Orchestrain Beethoven'sVienna," in
Cliu" Brown,
Early Music, February, 1988 (London: offord University
Press,JanuarY1,913-),,P. 13.
6o
66
Bro*r, , Performin5, PP. 4l-43.
61
Bro*o ,Performing, Chapter 3,
namentation."
"Embellishment and Or-
thi, incident is also noted by Morrow, p' 1-81,with a
"A}y'rz, October 15, 1800, col' 49" as the
footnote indicating
source.
r
r
o
t
Conductors' Orchestrasand )ocrety:
A Contemporaty View
by Kurt Masur
history. He is a playerwho is involvedin the quest
for freedom, and one that has put a very human
face on world events. It is fortunate for our
Western musical heritage that this new face is
both a conductor and music director. Being a
twenty-five-yearveteran of the New York Philharmonic, I can tell you personally of the newfound warmth and commitment that the Philharmonic musicianshave toward the work they are
doing under their wonderful new music director.
Let us welcome a man who needs absolutelyno
introduction, Maestro Masur.
Thefo ll owing address and subsequent quest io n and-answersessiontookplace on January11, 1993
at the CG's l{ational Conferencefor Conductors
held at Columbia []niversity in New York City.
The tape transciption was effectedby Ms. TseYing Koh, a graduatestudentin music theoryat the
ShepherdSchool of Music, Rice University,Houston, Texos. Editing of the transciption was performed by JCG Assistant Editor for Orchestral
Music, Iohn lt{obleMoYe.
* { . * * * * * * * *
Kurt Masur: Today, I would like to form an
alliancewith You,so that we may speakopenly to
CG President Larry Newland: Recently we have
seen a new player emerge on the stage of world
22
dreams, implement our ideas, and maintain the
artistic level we want.
I am not aware of all the different organrzational plans for orchestrasthat existin the United
Statesand Canada.but I am sure we all have one
trait in common: we all want to create musical
performances of the highest possible level. In
addition, we must also look for meansto interact
with society in a meaningful manner that improves the quality of life for the members of
society.It doesnot matter whether you are agood
conductoror a not-so-goodconductor. You must
have a messagefor contemporary society: and I
believe the messageis one of humanism, of poetry, and of beauty. It is unimportant at what level
this is done; if it is believable,you will persuade
people and create a niche in society.
I feel it is very important to learn to know the
people who surround us. To accomplishthis in
New York. we initiated'a seriesof conversations
with the audience. The first evening we did this,
many people at the Philharmonic were very nervous. They feared that difficult and uncomfortable
questionsmight arise, and they were very concernedabout how I would respond. I had no idea
what to expector how I would respond. I thought
that if I had nothing to hide and were honest,I
would establisha bond with the people. They
would feel I wasinterestedin them, that I wanted
to listen to them, and I wanted to know their
desires.I would then be able to offer them a taste
of the musicalfood they expected,and theywould
be more willing to listen to works that I felt they
should experience,such as contemporarymusic.
By establishingthis personal relationship I feel
that the audiencewill be more likely to acceptmy
judgment as to what deservesto be heard. I can
then exposethem to some works in which they
should be interested because they ate in the
contemporary musical language, and they may
have the same (or better) impact on them as
hearing the Beethoven Fifth Symphonyfor the
one-hundredthtime. it is important to present a
each other. My objective is to learn from your
questionsand your ideas.
When I first came as guest conductor of the
New York Philharmonic, I wasvery excitedabout
the musicalpossibilitiesin this city. I learned that
there were not alwayseasysolutions to the problems and, even before I knew that I would be
offered the post of the music director of the New
York Philharmonic, I was intrigued by the challenge of those problems. From the discussions
surroundingthe requestto speakhere,clearlyyou
know of these problems.
When compared with music directors in the
beginning of this century, the role of the presentday music director has changed considerably.
Earlier directorswere chosenby the elite, people
who could afford to pay them, and then they were
placed before the orchestra. The opinion of the
orchestramemberswas not considered,and they
were expectedto perform for whoever was chosen. This situation existedin the United Statesas
well as in Europe.
This method of operation has changed radically in the course of the twentieth centutY, &S
orchestrashave become much more democratic.
While this democratrzatron of musical life of
orchestrascreatessomepossiblepitfalls for conductors, it also establishesmusic-making as a
creative partnership between conductor and orchestra. When I compare my activities in New
York with those tnl-ntpzig, I discover that there
are similar problems in both locations. The
orgafirzationsare very different: the New York
Philharmonic is not a government orchestra,as is
Lerpzig,and it needs support from a board composed of people who understandthis orchestra
has a proud tradition that should be protected.
The organrzational plan in Leipzig is, in one
respect,a kind of liability; but it also provides
security. We are supported by the government
but there arepersistentbudget reductionsdue to
a lack of money, and we must aggressivelysearch
for additional support to be able fulfill our
23
comprehensiveassortmentof musical selections,
but I can only do this successfullyif I have their
trust and respect.
It has been said that the performance of the
New York Philharmonic has improved recently;
that is certainly very pleasant to hear. However,
those musicians have always been able to play
well. The improvement, and it has not been
created by me alone, has been generated by a
changein philosophy that givesthe musiciansthe
feeling they are apart of the managementteam.
They feel the orchestra management and music
director will listen to them, and that we are
working in partnership. I believe this is the
most appropriate approach for music directors
to use today. That is, to be the leader of a
partnership as in the Latin phrase premus inter
pares,the first among peers. The comprehensive
and extensive education possessedby most orchestra members creates a valuable intellectual
resourcethat, if utilized, can enhanceorchestral
managementas well as produce the most imaginative musical results.
In the early daysof my conductingactivities,I
worked with a very small orchestrain which it was
necessaryto function at a very basic level. At
times I wasrequired to build the soundof a simple
chord or provide elementaryinstruction in phrasing to be able to produce acceptable performances.I learned asmuch or more than the players
becausethrough our interaction they taught me
about the limits of possibility. In turn, I encouraged them to develop and use their imagination.
The current challengesfacing the New York
Philharmonic will not be overcomewithout difficulties, as of course they never are. As conductors,we should never forget that we have diverse
personalitiesin the orchestra,that everyoneis a
human being who has their own legitimate musical imagination.Nobody shouldeverbe forced to
work as a musical slave.
Performing in an orchestra demands musicians to relinquish a part of their individual
musical world. To obtain the supreme musical
results we all desire, it is necessaryfor the musicians and the conductor to work together to
accomplishthe goal of artistic excellence.It must
be known that the conductor is not promoting
himself or herself individually or attempting to
"show business"
reap the possiblerewards of the
side of the industry for themselves. We must
demonstrate that we are committed to functioning in a partnership with the players. All orchestras in the world want to perform at the highest
possibleartistic level. When they find a conductor
who can help them accomplish this, they will
admire and respect that Person.
Frankly, for me it is like a marriage. Not all
orchestraswill respond to me in the same w&Y,
evenif I exhibit the samebehavior, have the same
goals,and try to be friendly but demanding in the
work. Therefore, it is necessaryto look for a
partnership in which the conductor as well as the
orchestrafeels comfortable, one in which a close
bond may be developed. In our collaboration
yesterdayeveningwith Yo-Yo Ma, I, and maybe
everyone, felt deeply involved in the creative
process. It was never necessaryto ask him what
he wanted to do in a particular phrase, and he
never had to ask me; we followed each other.
This kind of partnership in musical life is the only
model through which it is possible to project
clearly the messageof a composer to the audience. It has nothing to do with technical perfection, playing in tune, or having a nice tone. It
concernsthe seekingthrough imagination of the
meaning of music.
The recent changes in Germany have producedresultsthat are somewhatshockingat times
to the outside world; but it is not alwaysasbad as
the televisionnewsshowswould haveyou believe.
After such a long time of living in a divided
Germany, we must rediscover how to live together; and everybody must learn this. What
societiesall over the world must learn is that the
arts are not luxuries;the arts are anecessity.Ifyou
24
want to have the people of your country completely healthy, they must have a healthy soul, a
healthy heart, and respectfor their neighbors,for
partnership,and for cooperation. In my opinion,
this only canbe accomplishedthrough interaction
and experiencewith the arts.
If you go to some countrieswhere the people
are educated effectively and comprehensively,
music is an important part of the curriculum. In
Japan, for instance, everybody learns to play
recorder in the elementary schools. It is a toy for
them and the teachers are aware that music
reading is not difficult. However, if you go to
Europe, there are many teachers who consider
musicto be too difficult. Yet, very young students
are capable of learning to use computers and to
play computer gamesat a very sophisticatedlevel
that most adults are incapable of imitating. We
must confront those people who are able to go
into space,thosewho are able to build the rockets
to make it possible,thosewho are able to handle
computers in such a virtuosic way, and demonstrate to them that they are in danger. They are
in danger of losing their ability to experience
emotionally,to discoverthe beauty of a flower, to
discover the beauty of life, because they have
becomecomputerrzed.
Technology changes people in a way that
should concern us. We must not think that we
have fulfilled our obligation to society if we perform music well. We should face the fact that we
have an obligation not to allow our audience to
overlook the beauty in the world.
What has helped produce resultsin the New
York Philharmonicwas that we tried to make the
people of New York awarethat this orchestrais a
culturaltreasure.It is a collectionof diverse,welleducatedpeople who have very interesting and
productive lives outside the orchestra. As the
orchestrabegan to reahzethat their place in the
societywas becoming more respected,they became more proud to be a member of the New
York Philharmonic.
Thiswas one of the primary goalsI established
when I cameto New York. I felt this orchestrahad
been seriouslyunderestimated. Every orchestra
that cameto New York from elsewheregot better
reviews than the New York Philharmonic did in
its hometown. The difference between New York
and Berlin was that a member of the Berlin
Philharmonic would be treated like a millionaire,
whereas a member of the New York Philharmonic would not be afforded the same respect.
This is an issuewe must face. It is our responsibility to convince society that we are not just entertainers,but that we fulfill a basic need of society.
This is an important point to consider for the
future and, in my opinion, it is one of our primary
responsibilitiesas conductors.
I will stop now to answer any questions or
respond to any comments you may have about
my ideas.
QunsrroNsANDAxswnns
Q: Can you give us some insights into how you
formulate programs so that you can personalize
the music for the audience?
KM: This always requires extensive consideration. The first thing I refuseto acceptis someone's
opinion that a program will not sell. I think that
marketing personnel can do considerabledamage in this regard. In the previous seasonwith
the New York Philharmonic,there was a debate
over the schedulingof a Memorial Day weekend
performance of the War Requiem at St. John the
Divine Church. I fought for this performance
becausewhen I saw the church, I felt it was the
perfectlocation. Somepeople suggestedit would
be a disaster. The cost was estimated at
$ 170,000.00and that proved to be accurate.
However, it was also suggestedthat it would not
"sell"
be possibleto
this concert,asno one would
come on Memorial Day weekend. They claimed
it is a weekend traditionallv used to take advan25
tage of sales, rather than a time when people
wouldwant to remember the dead. I believedthat
in New York, there must be people who were
suffering,who had lost someone,and who would
want to go to such a performance. I stubbornly
insisted that we perform the concert.
The church has 4,500seats.There were 8,000
people who came to the performance, so the
remainder had to be turned away. This was proof
that the marketing people could be wrong. It is
alwaysnecessaryto believe in our audience.
I am very impressed by the people of New
York. I have discoveredthat most of the people
you meet on the streets or anywhere else have
family and friends. There are also many millions
of lonesomepeople you see on the streetswho
want to connectwith others. In music,if you make
the right choiceswith programs,you can have an
effect on the life of people, not only temporarily
but also permanently. We have received many
letters from members of our audience that Serve
as proof of this point.
Designing programs is complex and I want to
explain how I do this. I feel that contemporary
people do not want to listen just to beautiful
music. Theywant to have a unifying theme undertying the program or relationship between works
which provides stimulus for thought. I recently
scheduled a program beginning with Brahms'
First Piano Concerto in the first half and the
Second Symphony of Robert Schumann in the
secondhalf. The relationshipbetweenthesetwo
works is that Brahms' First Piano Concerto was
composedshortly after the first suicideattempt of
Schumann. It was under this influence that
Brahmswrote this work. Schumann,in his letters,
documentedthat he wanted to recover from that
moment of despair by composing the Second
Symphony. To me, this forms a bond between
these works. The relationship between Brahms
and Schumann,their friendship, and their relationship with Clara, (which may have had many
more conflicts than we know) -ay be seen to
provide a basis for a kinship that would justify
performing them together. Such associations
provide the foundation for a type of programming
that intrigues not only the emotions but also
the intellect.
Another consideration is the effect the first
work on the program will have on the audience.
This is very dependentupon where the concert is
held. If the audience will arrive in a relzured
manner, then it is possible to begin with a concerto or a work that requires their ful| attention.
However, if you are planning a concert for New
York, then it must be reco gntzedthat the audience may arrive mentally unfocused. Opening a
concert with a work that requires their full attention, such as a modern work, would be somewhat
less successful.Generally, I never begin with a
piece that would need their whole attention.
Another considerationis the manner in which
one work may serve to prepare the audience for
another. For example,next week we will perform
the Babi-Yar Symphony (Symphony No. 13,
of Shostakovich. I was in doubt at first as
119621)
to what we should do in the first half. I made the
choice to shock the audience. If the ears of a
musical audienceare presentedwith a Schumann
piano concertoor somethinglike that in the first
half, then the Babiy-Yar Symphonyrn the second
half, they will listen to the work with the earsof a
saturated, very well-fed American audience.
Their impressionliketywill be that the Shostakovich communicatesa very sad story. They may fail
to obtain the impressionthat I would like them
to receive: that it is actually a horrifying story'
The challengeis to find the means by which to
focustheir listening,so that they use their earsin
the manner that I want. Then it may be possible
for them to discover that Shostakovich'smusic,
as in the words of Yevtushenko,is deeply full of
humanism, even when it describes horrifying
events.When creatingand performing programs
we should consider how we may persuade and
influencepeople.
26
Q: What is the program for the first half?
KM: The financial director of the board would be
the most appropriate person to answerthat question. I think that Avery Fischer Hall is now, after
the recent changes,acoustically one of the best
halls in the world. There is one physical changeI
have been considering,and it is that we need an
organ. There is considerablerepertoire that we
cannot perform without that instrument. We
already have a builder, we only need the money.
In referenceto other possiblelocations,I am
alwaysin searchof alternate sights.Currently, we
are looking for a location for summer concertsto
replace the loss of Tanglewood. I have reviewed
a number of locationsin New York, but no decisionshave been made as yet.
KM: It is a work that chronicles the Tiananmen
Square events. It is composed by Bright Sheng,
the Chinesecomposerwho lives in Chicago at the
moment. I met him and discussedthe work with
him. It is a very hard work to listen to. There are
horrifying soundsin the orchestra, but I think it
demonstratesto the audience that musical languagewhich horrities has an appropriate place in
the repertory,a conceptwhich may alsobe seenin
the music of Mahler. After the Sheng,listening to
the Shostakovichwill be more like listening to a
classicalpiece. This program may prove to produce a very uncomfortable evening, but it will
certainly be unforgettable.
Q: Many of us are concerned about dwindling
audiencesand the lack of education to generate
interest in music. I know you have startedthe new
youth concert series. Could you expand on that
subject and explain how that might also be
adaptedto adults as well?
Q: In your opening remarks did you indicate that
you have a direct dialogue with the audience at
times?
KM: Yes.
Q: How do you do that?
KM: We expanded our preconcert lectures,
which is for the older audience,basicallyto help
them discoverand understandnew and unfamiliar compositions. This is a very good first step.
As you may know, one of the programs we
initiated was the rush-hourconcerts. I wanted to
createa new form of concert to attractpeoplewho
could not afford to come to our regular concerts.
Then someonesuggestedthe wonderful idea of
rush-hour concerts. This kind of concert meets
the needs of the audience who cannot afford to
return to the city from their homesfor the evening
concerts. The first meeting was surprisingfor us
all. We performed genuine music, and the responsewas very positive. It is very important to
ensurethat the quality of theseperformancesis as
good as for an eveningconcert.
Regarding educational concerts,I think you
had a golden time in New York with Lenny
KM: This wasvery easyto initiate becauseI have
done it in l-e,rpzig,where it has created a bond
between the orchestra and the audience. We
announcethat we will have a one-hour conversation with the audience beginning two hours before the concert. The managingdirector and I go
out on stageand have a discussionwith the audience. Approximately 600 people came to the first
meeting. It wasa fantasticdialogue,and I wasvery
impressedwith the knowledge of the people.
Q: Are you contemplating making any physical
changesin Avery Fisher Hall in the near future?
Secondly,now that you haveplayedin St.John the
Divine, are you consideringany other placesin
the city or nearby to which you would like to bring
the orchestra?
27
Bernstein. I know that many of our present
middle-aged musicianswere inspired to go into
the field of music by him. This cannot be repeated; there is nobody like him on the current
scene,and the time is very different now. However,we have received support from many different sourcesto designsome new productions. We
have established an association with selected
schoolsthrough which we are bringing teachers
with their classesinto rehearsals. Many people
are interested in seeing how a rehearsal is conducted,how an orchestradevelopsits sound,and
how it works together with a conductor.
Additionally, we have created some special
programsusingmembers of the different sections
of the orchestrato perform community outreach
concerts,and we also have initiated a young artist
competition for studentsin the New York area.
Q: There have been some changes in the setup of the orchestra. For example,the bassesare
in the back.
KM: When I came here, I tried to discover the
weak points of the acousticalstage. I discovered
that the hatl acousticsof Avery Fischerwere good,
but the stagewas a problem. It seemedthat the
sound of brass reverberated and masked the
string sound, making it impossible to achieve a
proper balance. To solvethis, I decidedto move
the bassesto the back, so they would cover the
back wall with their bodies and their instruments
and dampen the reverberation in the shell. This
helpedfor the first seasonalthoughsomeplayers
developedhearingproblems. It wasvery hard to
perform from that position, and I am very grateful
to the orchestra for their patience and cooperation. We then designedsome alterationsin consultation with the acousticianRussell Johnson,
who designedthe halls in Dallas, Texas and in
Birmingham, England, both of which are very
cleverly built. After a year of delaysfor financial
reasons,the changeswere made to the stage'
At the beginning of this season'we placed the
bassesin their usual position and the sound was
wonderful. The celli are not outside anymoreand
we are very satisfiedwith their sound. So I think
we have a new opportunity to refine the tone
quality of the orchestra.
Q: Can you comment on the differences or
similaritiesbetweenthe orchestrasin lripzig and
New York, and the way in which they work
with you?
KM: The principal difference between lripzig
and New York is that more than 85Vo of the
playersin Leipzig are trained at the Conservatory
of lrerpzig, at.the Gewandhaus. They have the
same training, the same vibrato, the same spirit,
and are proud to be a member of the orchestra.
Traditionally the music director hasnotbeen able
to changethe sound of that orchestrasignificantly
becausethe tradition hasbeen so carefullypassed
down from generation to generation. As you
know, Brahms often conducted this orchestra as
did Mendelssohn. Brahms conducted all of his
symphonies,he played all the concertoswith the
Gewandhaus orchestra, and their sound is the
sound Brahms imagined. I pick a Brahms symphony like a ripe fruit. We haveone rehearsaland
then we discussthe music and perform it. Of
course, if I perform An American in Pais', rI'
soundsa little bit tike Brahms becausethe character of the orchestra is so instinctive.
When I come to New York, theY can PlaY
anything very well technically. I can choose the
most unorthodox tempi and they can play it. What
we must discussis the kind of spirit we want to give
to a phrasing. In the classical literature, for
instance,whichwas not in the tradition of the New
York Philharmonic, we must work extensivelyto
develop the aPProPriatestYle.
I am often askedabout the differencebetween
American and European orchestras. I always
answer that there is not really a difference be28
causethe ClevelandOrchestracan play Mozart
like the Vienna Philharmonic. George Szell's
influenceis still evident.The New York Philharmonic is much more comfortablewith the Romantic or contemporaryliterature. What they
can read is just incredible and their rhythmic
knowledgeis extraordinary.
say honestly to the audience that I believe in the
work. I am always searchingfor such works.
Q: We appreciatethe conductorsround table you
have instituted, but you mentioned that people
are not generally aware of it.
KM: We actually meet quite often. This is a
meeting with very young conductors,mostly from
the conservatories,who are allowed to attend
rehearsals,and then afterward we meet for discussions. It is a wonderful forum. lnl-e,ipzig we
have a connection to the Conservatory that was
establishedby Mendelssohnand continuestoday.
In New Yorkwe had no similar collaborationwith
any of the three music schools. We havebegun to
establishsuch liaisons by opening rehearsalsto
students and collaborating on musical performances. For instance,I am very pleasedthat in the
next few daysI will be rehearsinga Martin Luther
King Memorial Concert with the Mannes School
Orchestra performing the Bach D Major Suite,
Duke Ellington's Three Black Kings, and the
" Reformation"
Symphony of Mendelssohn.
Q: What are the qualitiesyou look for in new
playerswhenthey cometo audition?
KM: That is a good question. Virtuosity, of
course,is an important consideration,but the
principalconcernis musicality. You can easily
discoverwhetherthe playerhasmusicaltaste,if
they can build a phrase,and if their musical
imaginationis sufficientto performwith suchan
orchestra.I feel it is a mistaketo look only for
technicalperfection.Everyorchestrahasplayers
who canplayall the notesbut cannotdo anything
more. It is very difficult to explainand develop
musicalimaginationand style. Therefore,it is
necessaryto bring players into the orchestra
who alreadypossessa senseof musicalityand
musicalstyle.
Q: It sometimesseems that we live in an age
where classicalmusic is consideredto be more a
luxury than an experience that is available to
everyone. In Europe, concertsare considereda
social event and made available to everyonewho
can go. Here, they are so expensivethat many
people cannot afford to attend.
Q: What do you look for in new compositions?
KM: Everything.I prefer to performworksthat
expressthe characterof the countryor regionof
origin.The ideais to find a characteror a musical
languagethat interestsor impresses
me. Sometimes it is the architectureand structurethat
initiallyinterestsme,but it alsomusthavesomethingto say.I look for a personality
in the score,
andwhenI firstreadit I usuallycandecidequickly
whetheror not it is a workthatI canperformwell.
It may be a greatwork, but if I can find nothing
with which to identify,then I am reluctantto
performit. It is not somucha questionof quality
asit is thatI wantto be ableto createa bondwith
thework. If I conductit. thenI wantto be ableto
KM: There is a difference between the way the
two societiesview the importance of music. In
Europe, the orchestras are supported by the
government, which feels that it is their duty to
provide this experience. The reductions in the
educationalprograms in America horrify me. I
created a children's choir in Dresden. Initially
there was considerable opposition to the idea
from parentswho felt it would interfere with their
29
children's educational development. We persuadedthem to try the idea. We auditioned and
accepted120children into the choir. To date they
have performed the Ninth Symphony and the Sr'
Matthew Passionwith me. We perform at a very
high level and I am quite demanding of the
students. We have informed the parents that if a
student begins to do poorly in school, we will
remove them from the choir for two months so
they can recover academically.However, this last
sessionthe median test score of the choir memberswas slightlybelow the highestpossiblescore.
The students had learned to discipline themselves,and this assistedthem in their academic
studies.Additionally, and not insignificantly, they
had acquired some direction in their lives.
Q: I think we also need to educatethe parents as
to the effectsof music on the development of the
human being.
KM: I think that the sourceis the children. It is my
goal to establisha children's choir in New York,
but I have to proceed very carefully. For each
child singingin a choir concert,there are parents,
grandparents,and other relatives who would attend. Usually, there will be a minimum of ten
personsin attendancefor each child singing. The
students attract an audience that we may then
influence with the music. This is an excellent
means of establishinga link with an older audience. In America at the moment, I think the
solution to most of our problems is to perform as
many concerts as possible and to make them
available to as many people as possible.
KM: A very good question. I feel that any
Philharmonic Orchestra must be able to play
Mozart very well. In one of our meetings there
was a very strangeremark made by someone,and
I feel that many people may have the same idea'
"When a large orchestraperThe comment was,
forms Mozart,the audience feels that they are not
getting their money'sworth." I think this is a very
strange attitude. The implication is that the
"Jupiter" Symphony of Mozart is less important
than the Bolero of Ravel. We must educate the
public to see that this is not a valid philosophy'
I also think the public may have had too much
attention focussed on Mozart. There are very
interesting and important composerswho lived
around the time of Mozart, and they can enrich
the whole programming of an otganrzation' On
the last program, we opened with a very small
early Mozart symphony that is a childish but
divine work. We then performed a cello concerto
by Moraw etzlhatwas dedicated to Martin Luther
King and a Dvorak symphonyafter intermission.
The audienceseemedto be very satisfied.
Q: You have been speakingabout how the roie
of musicdirector/conductor has changed'I wonder if you would say a few more words along
thoselines.
KM: Before Mendelssohnand the Gewandhaus,
every concertwas conductedby the leader' They
performed the entire Beethovensymphonycycle
with the leader, a conductor was only used for
the last movement of the Ninth Symphony' I
would imagine the beginning of the Fifth
Symphony must have been quite adventurous'
It still is for me !
I haveneverbeen able to conductan orchestra
that did not like me. Even when I wasyounger,I
was not cheekybut I wasvery clear;if the orchestra did not like me, I would go awayand let them
obtain another conductor. If I cannot communicatewith an orchestra,it doesnot make sensefor
Q: My question concerns the repertoire of the
Classicalperiod. We find very little music of this
period being performed by larger orchestrasin
this country. Is that music something that
should be reserved for Mostly Mozart, or
should it also be included in the repertoire of
the larger orchestras?
30
rather than going directly to the music director. I
find that very strange.I would prefer a more open
personalrelationship.
me to continue working with them. I feel that it is
a partnership, and that we must be able to communicate to produce mesmerrzingmusicalinterpretations. This approach produces leadership
through persuasionrather than dictatorship.
I have often wondered whether Toscanini
would be successfulif he were beginning his
career today. I think he would simply becausehe
never was a dictator personally. He became one
because,given the exigenciesof the time, it was
the only method that would produce the artistic
results he wanted. He was forced to handle the
orchestrain that manner. Today, it is no longer
necessaryfor conductorsto function in this manner becausecurrent orchestrasare educatedto a
much higher standard. I think Toscanini would
have recognizedthis.
I have conducted many amateur orchestras,
and I still love to conduct youth orchestras. I am
amazedat what they can do. Of course, it is a
different performance standard,but I never stop
teachingthem what they need to know to perform
well, even if they are not able to reach that level
of performanceat the moment. A comprehensive
educationin performance technique generatesa
self-confidencein the players that is absolutely
necessaryto create the kind of partnership that
produces the most compelling musical results.
The self-confidenceof the musiciansis an important factor in their ability to perform to the best of
their ability and I think we, as conductors,play a
very important role in fosteringthe psychological
health of the musiciansin the orchestra.
Q: Can you tell us of the orchestra'sfuture plans
for recordings?
KM: I always try not to be a slave of the record
companies. I feel there is a dangerwhen managers and record companieshave too much control
over the musical rnarket. The marketing theories
should not be allowed to overrule the imagination
of the artists. Otherwise, we lose our creativity.
We design our concert programs on the basis of
what we think is meaningful to our New York
audience; then we offer that repertoire to the
record company, which selectswhat it wants to
record. We have agreerrientswith some composers, and we try to record their works. At the
moment we have a very good working agreement
with Teldec that has allowed us to record more
contemporary American works.
Q: We have heard recordings made from live
concerts. Do you prefer that?
KM: Oh yes, I much prefer that technique because it is very honest. After such recorded
concerts,we will have a later sessionwithout the
audience,during which we re-record sectionsto
eliminate audiencenoises. The live recording is
much more effective,musicallyspeaking. Sometimes we run the risk of documenting a lesser
performanceif we are not at our best. However,
as the orchestrabecomes more stable. this will
becomelessof a risk.
Q: Are there any organrzed feedback systems
that allow the players, either as a group or as
individuals, to talk to you and establish a
constructivedialogue?
Q: You see the orchestra as a necessity,not
just entertainment. How do you make that
distinction?
KM: I only engage in constructive dialogue.
Generally, if someone initiates a dialogue they
speakwithme. The American orchestrasseemto
want to work through the various committees
KM: This is a truth that must be understoodby
societyas a whole.
31
Q: But a lot of concertreviewsand advertisements are on the entertainmentpagesof the
print media.
promotenot just the survivalof our profession,
but also the improvement in the quality of
peoples'livesthroughmusic.
KM: On the subjectof reviews,I thinkwe should
be able to discussthe quality of performances
openlyamongourselveswithout being destructive. However,I have often joked that in New
York manypeoplewait until they seethe review
in the papersto determinewhetheror not they
liked the concert.Thereis too muchdependence
reviewsfor mytaste.It isdangerous
onnewspaper
that therearewriterswho feel it is their responsibility to dictate the taste and knowledgeof the
audience.We shouldall be workingtogetherto
Q: And this is more than entertainment?
KM: Yes, this is much more than entertainment.
* * * * * * * * * *
Kurt Masur, selected by MusIcer, AunRrcAas
its 1993 Musician of the Year, is music director
of the lr{ew York Philharmonic and the
Gewandhaus Orchestra of LeiPzig.
Stravinsky, Tempo
and Le Sacre
by Erica Fleisler Buxbaum
many questionsasthey answerabout the determination of tempo and the documentary value of
recordings. Like Wagner, Stravinsky believed
that the establishmentof the proper tempo for a
"a piece of
work was crucial and declared that
mine can survive almost anything but wrong or
uncertain tempo."1 Stravinslcynotated his tempi
preciselywith both Italian words and metronome
markingsand assertedon many occasionsthat the
primary value of his recordings was that they
demonstratedthe proper tempi for his works. In
the recordings, however, Stravinsky often departed from the metronome markings, creating
doubt about which should be considered definitive, the markings or the performance tempi.
The following article appeared oiginally in
PBnronuexcePnecncn Rnvtnw(Vol. 1, Sping/Fall
1988).It is repinted here with the permission of
the author.
* * { < * * * * * * *
Performing the works of Igor Stravinskyptecisely as he intended would appear to be an
uncomplicated matter: Stravinsky notated his
scoresin great detail, conducted recorded performancesof many of his works, and wrote commentaries that contain a great deal of specific
performance information. Stravinsky'srecordings and publishedstatements,however'raise as
a-r
JL
Stravinsky's
ideasabout the value of recordings and about tempo changedsignificantlybetween 7934and 1911:
I have changed my mind . . . about the
advantagesof embalming a performance
in tape. The disadvantages,which are that
one performance representsonly one set
of circumstances,and that mistakes and
misunderstandingsare cementedinto traditions as quickly and canonically as
truths, now seemto me too great a price to
pay. (1969,revised 1971)'
[Transcriptionsfor mechanical piano]
enabledmeto determinefor thefuturethe
relationshipsof the movements(tempi)
and the nuancesin accordancewith my
wishes.Thesetranscriptionsenabledme
to createa lastingdocumentwhichshould
be of serviceto those executantswho
would rather know and follow my intentions than strayinto irresponsibleinterpretationsof my musicaltext. (l%qz
As these quotes reveal, Stravinsky's statements raise questions about the determining of
a single, enduringly correct tempo, and about
the documentary value of his recordings. For
if time and circumstances render metronome
markings obsolete, what guidelines may we use
to determine the proper tempi? Are the performance tempi of more recent recordings to
supersede the markings in the scores? If so,
how might we determine which of these performance tempi represent "mistakes and misunderstandings"and which illustrate "truths"?
Stravinsky'sconception of the role of the interpreter also changed,subtly but meaningfully,
over the years. In 1934,he wrote that Monteux
"was
able to achieve a very clean and finished
execution of my score. I ask no more of a
conductor, for any other attitude on his part
immediately turns into interpretation, a thing I
have a horror of."8
He maintained that "music should be transmitted and not interpreted"9 and that "an
executant'stalent lies precisely in his faculty for
seeingwhat is actually in the score,and certainly
not in a determination to find there what he
would like to find."lo
In 1961,however,Stravinskystatedthat "the
most nearly perfect musical machine, a Stradivarius violin or an electronic synthesizer,is useless until joined to a man with musical skill and
imagination."ll He asked,"What, to a composer,
is most important about a recorded performance'?" and answered,"The spirit, of course,the
Theessential
thing,withoutwhichitwould
be impossibleto form any idea of the
composition[is] the pace of movements
and their relationship to one another.
2.
(1934)'
A recordingis, or shouldbe a performance,andwho cansufferexactlythe same
setof performancelimitationsmore than
once
at least with familiar music?
A
( 1961)-
I could not do any of [the recorded performances]the sameway again. But even
the poorest are valid readings to guide
other performers.( 1961))
If the speedsof everything in the world
and in ourselveshave changed,our tempo
feelings cannot remain unaffected. The
metronome marks one wrote forty years
ago were contemporary forty years ago.
Time is not alone in affecting tempo -circumstancesdo too, and every performance is a different equation of them. I
would be surprisedif any of my own recent
recordingsfollows the metronome markings. (196D6
33
sameasin any performance. . . . Next to the spirit
come the two chief questionsof the flesh: tempo
and bala nce."l2
And in 1970, Stravinsky described a
performance of Le sacre du pintemps con"always exciting, at
ducted by Zubin Mehta as
"many errors, especially in
least" despite
tempi."13 Thus, although Stravinsky's attitude
toward interpreters did not changeasradically as
did his thoughts about definitive recordings and
tempi, his gradual acceptanceof somethingmore
"transmission" or "execution" from a perthan
former is significant.
Among the most informative of Stravinsky's
writings are his reviews of six recorded performances of.Le secredu pintemps, including one of
his own.14 Several of the performances Stravinsky describedhave been reissued;15*he., studied in relation to the detailed, specific reviews,
these recordings provide enormous insight into
Stravinsky'spreferences regarding articulation,
balance, and particularly temPo.
A comparison of Stravinsky'scomments regarding tempo in five of theseperformanceswith
the actual tempi on the recordings suggeststhat
while Stravinsky'smetronome markings are on
the whole a more reliable guide to his enduring
conception of the work than even his own performance, the tempi which elicited the most favorable responsesfrom the composerwere more
varied than the absolute markings in the score
would imply. Other of his comments, however,
reveal either that his original markings did not
adequatelyconveyhis intentions, or that his ideas
about tempo in some portions of.Le sacrehad, in
fact, changedwiththe passageof time, and that his
own recordingwasnot alwaysthe clearestguideto
the precisenature of these changes.
Stravinsky'sreview of his own recorded performance of Le sacre du printemps provides
valuable insightsregarding the composer'sintentions regarding tempo, but not without raising
additional questions. For example, Stravinsky
indicated dissatisfaction with several performance tempi that departed from the metronome
markings:
Tempo on
Rehearsal MM
recording
Number
) = 108
1I2
48
144
54
) = 160
152
57
) = 168
80
72
J = 60
=
j
108
80
93
Commentl6
"too fast"
"too slow"
"too slow"
"too fast"
"too fast"
What tempi, then, might he have preferred?
Stravinsky's observations concerning other
passages,however, raise questions about the
markings in the score. For example,his perform"The Sage" and "Introduction II" were
ancesof
"too fast" although both were perdescribed as
formed at the tempi indicated. Again, what tempi
would have been preferable?
Stravinsky'sreviews of four other performancesprovide additional clarification of his ideas
about tempo rn Le sacre du pintemps - The
following table correlates the metronome markings and the tempi of the five performanceswith
Stravinsky'sremarks in the reviews. By comparing Stravinsky'sevaluations of several tempi in
we may begin to draw concluselectedpassages,
sionsabouta rangeof tempi he mostlikely considered acceptableand to see how and where his
ideason tempo in Le sncremay havechangedover
the years. In the reviews,Stravinsky'scomments
regardingtempo were plentiful enoughto suggest
that ternpi that he failed to mention lay within an
acceptable range where no contrary evidence
exists.
,
"Augurs of Spring," (marked ) = 50),
For
a rangeof 50-54was apparentlyacceptable,while
56 wasdefinitelytoo fast. Stravinsky'sown tempo
of 54 seemsto set an absolute upper limit, and
"the end of the
even here he commented that
movement is rushed."19
"Ritual of Abduction,"
The marked tempo for
34
J . - l3},was judged " very fast, but good,"
suggestingthis as an upper limit, while a "perniciouslyslow" or "sluggish"tempo of 116shouldbe
avoided at the other extreme. Speeds of 120-732
seemedto be acceptablehere, with a preference
for the marked tempo.
Stravinsky's comments on the tempi of
"spring
Rounds" (marked, at 48, ) = 108)
clearly illustrate his predilection for favoring a
narrow rhnge of possibilities. His remark that
Boulez'stempo of 100was "on the slow side,but
greatly to be preferred to my own very hurried
reading" ( ) = 7lz),suggestsapreferredrange
of 104-108,as marked. The passagebeginningat
54,howevermight be taken slightly fasterthan the
marked
) = 160 (Mehta's 168 was judged
"brisk
and good"), but not more slowly.
Neither the three performancesof "Ritual of
the Rival Tribes" ( ) - 168)at 160nor the one
at the marked speedelicited comments,suggesting a posqiblerange of 160-168.An even slightly
slower tempo, however,should be avoided (152
was "too slow").
Stravinsky's comments on tempi for "The
Sage"imply, for the first time, a real dissatisfaction with the marking in the score( J = 42).
He judged his own performance at the marked
tempo "no better than the other two," in other
words, too fast. If Boulez's ) = 52was"approximately twice too fast" and his J - 58 was
"more
than twice too fast," perhaps.a tempo
of
.l,) = 50-54 might be appropriate. In any
case,the'tempo should not exceedthe indicated
speed,and should probably be slower.
Stravinsky'ssuggestionthat "a slightly faster
tempo than the metronomic 168 would not be
amiss" for "Dance of the Earth," and his comment that Mehta'sperformanceat ) - 160was
"the
best of the three" implies a tolerance of a
rangeof tempi from about 160-176 for this dance,
with a preferencefor the fastertempi. A speedof
152,on the other hand, is definitely too slow.
Establishingthe proper tempo for "Introduc-
tion II" (marked
) - 48) is problematical.
"The
As in
Sage,"another relativelyslow tempo,
Stravinskydid not seem satisfiedrvith any of the
performance tempi" Von Karajan's performance
at 44 was describedas "sleepy:' while those of
both Boulez and Stravinskyhimself, which begin
at the marked speedbut accelerateto 54 and 58
respectivelyat one measure before 85 were "too
fast." Although Stravinskywasusuallyclear in distinguishing between unacceptable basic tempi
and undesirable (always,unlessmarked) modificationsof tempo, it is possiblethat his real dissatisfaction here was with the later, faster tempi.
Craft'sstatementthat "the composerupholdsthe
metronome marking in the score"tor.rpportsthis
view. Perhapsthe solution would be to perform
the movement at the marked tempo throughout.
"Mystic
Circles" ( J - 60) shouldevidently
not exceeda speedof 66: tempi of 72 and faster
are "too fast." "Glorification of the Chosen
One" ( J_J - I44), however,may be effectively
per-formed at 732("the tempo is good"). Stravinsky's observation that Mehta's tempo of 138
"soundsrushed
all the way" may refer more to an
instability of tempo than the basic speed,since
Boulez'sperformanceat the sametempo elicited
no comment.
slightly slower tempo than is marked
+
( ) = 144) seemsappropriate for "Evocation
of the Ancestors" as well, since Boulez's performances at 138 and 132 were enthusiastically
praised as "perfect." Tempi of 112-126 are,
however, too slow.
"Ritual Action
of the Ancestors" ( ) - 52)
is another relatively slow tempo about which
Stravinskyapparentlyhad secondthoughts,ashis
remark about von Karajan'sperformancemakes
abundantly clear. Tempi of 56 and 60 were
describedas "good," while 69 was "too fast."
Stravinskyfavored his own performance at 66
overall,althoughhe did not comment specifically
on the tempo. A range of 56-66may be postulateC,with 66 as an absoluteupper limit.
35
Stravinsky'sCommentsRegarding Tempo
in Five Recordings of Le sgcre du printemps
Title
Tempo of
Rehearsal
Number
MM
I
Augurs
of spring
t3
) :50
Ritual
of Abduction
3i
J.
Spring
Rounds
€
: 132
11
Performance''
vinslcvts
Stravinslry'
,18
comment
K
81
BZ
M
s
5
50
56
52
56
4
K
81
82
M
S
L3z
126
116
116
T2O
K
81"
82
69
104
100
M
S
69
ll2
"on the slow side, but greatly to be preferred
to mY own very hurried reading"
"too slow"
"too fast"
K
81
82
M
S
160
160
168
168
1'M
"brisk and good"'
"too slow"
K
8L
B2
M
S
168
160
160
160
I52
"too slow"
"muchtoo fast"
"the temPois good"
"vitiatinglYfast"
"the tempo,thoughvery fast,is good"
"PerniciouslY
slow"
"sluggish"
I
a:108
I
54
J:160
I
Ritual of the
Rival Tribes
57
J = 168
I
TheSage
4
before
l2
J=42
52
K
"more than twice too fast"
58
81
"approximatelytwice too fast"
52
BZ
"too fast"
52
M
S42..myperformanceisnobetterthantheothertwo',
Dance of
the Earth
72
J = tU*
K
81
160
1.52
"a slightly faster tempo than the metronomic 168
would not be amiss"
"this may bc the slowestPrestissimoever clocked"
144
BZ
M160..thisisthebestperformanceofthethree,,
"too slow"
I52
S
Rehearsal
Number
Title
7s
Intro II
Mystic
Circles
Glorification
of the
Chosen One
Evocation
of the
Ancestors
MM
)=48
Tempo of
Performance
K
B1
82
M
S
M, M*
52
48,54
48
48, 58
Stravinslry's
Comment
"sleepy
tempo"
"too hurried"
"a shade
too fast"
"too fast"
8e
J =60
K
B1
82
M
S
50
69
76
54
72
s1.
J =60
K
B1
82
60
66
80
M
S
piu mossoat93"
72-94 "this is not onlytoo fastbut pushed"
"too fast"
80
K
B1
82
M
S
r32
r32
138
138
t32
K
B1
82
M
rI2
138
r32
116
L 0 4J
)=l.M
\_r.,
I21.
I
d ='1..44
"the tempo is
too fast, being in fact the tempo of the
"the tempo is good"
"this soundsrushed
all the wav"
"this is too
slow!"
"the tempo perfect
is
and so is the articulation"
"this is perfect exactlythe way the music should be performed"
"the pulsation
. . . should be exactlythe same as in the previous
dance,and not, as here, adjustedto a slower [empo.,,
126
Ritual Action
of the
Ancestors
rzs J =52
Sacrificial
Dance
r42
52
81
69
B2
56
M 6 0
s
6
6
(1s7)
r42
)=rru
82
116
r32
138
r20
M
S
r32
r20
K
B1
"whether
or not metronomically correct, this
tempo di hoochie-koochieis definitely too slow,,
"- but this is
too fast"
"this is good"
"this is good"
"the passageis
better played here as a whole than
in the other recordings"
"sluggish
tempo"
"fast but good"'
"unsuitably
fast"
"a little
slow, but clear, and incomparablybetter
than Boulez's old recordins"
"rushed"
* The secondtempo occurs at L before 85.
37
known, or first copyright. These dates are not in
agreement with publication information for the
sourcesfrom which the quotations were taken.
Stravinskyseemedto favor his marked tempo
"sacrificial
of ) = 1260r one slightly faster for
Dance." The range of possibilitiesis narrow here,
"a
and the limits are clearly drawn -- 120was little
"fast but good," and 138 was
slow," 132 was
"unsuitably fast."
Thus, in seeking to establish performance
tempi f.or Le sacre du pintemps in accordance
with the composer's conception, we cannot unquestioningly accept either his metronome
markingsor his own recorded performancetempi
as reliable guidelines. A study of his reviews of
five performances of the work suggests that
preferred tempi encompasseda range more flexible than the markings in the scorewould imply,
but less so than his own performance tempi
might suggest.The limits of what Stravinskyconsidered acceptableor desirable are narrow, but
-&y, in a number of cases,be clearly defined
when his evaluations of several different tempi
are considered.
3
Stravinsky,A, Autobiography,p.150.
a
Igot Stravinsl<y,Dialogue-s,originally published
as Dialogues and a Diary (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday and Company, 1963; reprint,
Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press,1982),p. I20 (pag" referencesare to
reprint edition).
5
Stravinsky,Diatogttes,p. 12I.
6
Stravinsky,Diatogu€s,p. 722.
1
Igor Stravinskyand Robert Craft, Themesand
originally published in two volumes
Conclusions,,
as Themes and Episodes and Retrospectivesand
Conclusions,singlevolume version (Berkeley and
I-os Angeles:University of California Press,1966,
7961,1972;p aperback reprint, 1982),p.139 (page
referencesto reprint edition).
* * * { < * { < * * { < { €
Eica Heisler Buxbaum conducts the Frances
and I.E. Libaw Orchestraat The Webb School in
Claremont, California.
8
StravinsW,,A, Autobiography,p. 34.
9
Stravinsky,A, Autobiography,p. 74.
* * * * * * * * * *
Er.rnxorns
10
"The PerIgor Stravinsky and Robert Craft,
formance of Music," in Conversationswith Igor
Stravinslq (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and
Company,1959),p. 135.
1
2 lgot
(New York:
Stravins$,An Autobiograpfty
Simon and Schuster,1936;paperbackreprint,
New York and London:W.W. Norton & Company,Norton Library, 1962),p. 101(pagereferencesare to reprint edition). Dates given for
quotationsare for completion of the work, if
Stravinsky,An Autobiography,p. 75 .
11
Stravinslry,Dialogues,p. 126.
12
Stravinslq, Dialogues,p. 722.
13
Stravinsky, Themesand Conclusions, p. 275.
14 "stravinsky Reviews 'The Rite': a Review of
Recent Recordings of Le sacredu pintemps," rn
Stravinsky, Dialogues, pp. 81-90. A footnote
"written in October
explainsthat the review was
38
London "Jubilee"JL 41002,and Stravinsky's
on
CBS Masterworkscassettetape MPT 38765.
Stravinsky's
recordinghasalsobeenreissuedby
CBSas MS6319,D3S 705,MG 37202,and LXX
36940.
1964for Hi-Fi Stereomagazine,New York, partly
out of annoyancewith the 'uselessgeneralitiesof
most record reviewing'." This review discusses
performances by Herbert von Karajan (Berlin
Philharmonic,DGG), Pierre Boulez (Orchestre
national de la R.T.F., Internationale guilde du
disque),and P. Kpaot (Moscow State Symphony
Orchestra, Amalgamated [Jnions Gramophone
Studio). Reviews of performances by Pierre
Boulez (Cleveland Orchestra, CBS Records),
Zubrn Mehta (Los Angeles Philharmonic, London Records), and Igor Stravinsky (Columbia
Symphony, Columbia Records, 7960, reissued
1970),datedJune \910, appearin "spring Fever:
a Review of Three Recent Recordings of 'The
Rite of Spring' " in Stravinslry,Themesand Conclusions,pp. 234-4I.
r,
1A
Stravinsky'scomments are quoted from the
review rn Themesand Conclusions,pp.234-41.
1 ' t7
L
Letters preceding numbers identify conductors. K - von Karajan; B1 = Boulez, Orchestre
national de la R.T.F.; 82 - Boulez, Cleveland
Orchestra; M = Mehta; S = Stravinsky.See
endnote 15 for recording citations.
18
Comments on K and B 1 are from Stravinsky,
Dialogues,pp. 81-90. Comments on B.z,,Mand S
are from Stravinslry,Themesand Conclusions,pp.
234-41.
t5
Vo.r Karajan's performance hasbeen reissued
as DGG CD 423 214-2. Boulez's performance
with the Orchestrenational de la R.T.F. hasbeen
reissuedon cassettetape by Nonesuch(71093-4),
while that with the Cleveland Orchestra is available as part of the CBS "Great Performances"
series (cassettetapc MYT 37764 or CD MYK
37164). Mehta's performance is available on
10
\)
Stravinsl<y,Themesand Conclusions,,p. 235.
20
Rob.rt Craft, "The Performance of the 'Rite of
Spring'," in Igor Stravinslq, The Rite of Sping:
Sketches, 1911-1913 (London: Boosey and
Hawkes,Ltd., 1969),Appendix IV, pp. 46-47.
qACTb trEPBAfl
LE SACRE DU PRINTEMPS
lz Stcc du Printcmpe wu pmdued
rt rhc Th6rc
on Mry 29. 1913. by thc Dirghilcv Brll.t
Rue.
Mr.
PART
l.
'Thc
F.ftiliv
lo4trrl
da Chrmpr Elynr
Mmtcur
@nduct.d-
Bcrynaeuie.
of rh. E nh'
n
Po
Inlniuction
l
[email protected]
IGOR
STRAVINSKY
Drncc of thc Youthr ud Mri&o
Hoft
lF€=+
Trungcu
:
ol Abdwtion
c.
Drne
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tol'*"IS€4G
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rE
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Pictures of Pagan Russia
62
to ihc E nh
a
PART
(Th. P.ttn
Intmddio
LE SACRE DU PRINTEMPS
(The Rite of Spring)
Torm.
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ll.
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Nithr)
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PREMIERE
L'A.DOl.AttOi
PARTIE.
Dt LA ttnlt
Iutroduction.
An Annotated Bibliography of Selected
Vind Ensemble/BandRepertoire Texts
by Harlan D. Parker
Publisherreferencesare abbreviatedand crossreferencedwith the completepublisherlist that
appearsat the end of the text. The dategivenis
of the originalpublicationor lastknownrevision.
The secondsection offers an alphabetical
listingof composersand arrangers,and includes
all compositionssurveyedin the first section.
Each compositionis also categorizedas Band
Titles (AOO), Collections(BOO), Solos& Ensembles
with Band(COO),BandMethodBooks
(DOO), or MarchingRoutines(EOO).
Althoughneitherselectiontimingsor musical
descriptionsare provided,this text is an invaluable resourcefor locatingcomposers,
compositions,publishers,and datesof publication.
The following bibliography compriseseleven
books that list compositionswritten primarily for
wind ensembleand band. In addition to providing
standard reference information, several of the
lists include musical descriptions,offer insightful
performancesuggestions,or containbiographical
information on composers. The books surveyed
here represent the more celebrated works of
this genre published in the last ten vears. No
negative value judgment should be inferred regarding any similar reference book not included
in this bibliography.
* * * * * * * * * *
1. Band Music Guide. Northfield,lL: The
Instrumentalist
Publishing
Company,1989.
2. Berg,Sidney,ed. TheDirecfor'sGuideto
Festival and Contest Music, The Official SelectedMusicList of the VirginiaBand and OrchestraDirectors'Association. Northfield,lL:
TheInstrumentalist
Publishing
Company,1988.
The Band Music Guide is divided into two
sections.The first sectionhasfive subheadings:
Band Titles, Collections,Solosand Ensembles
with Band,Band Method Books,and Marching
listedunder each
Routines. The compositions
subheadingare arrangedalphabeticallyby title.
Eachentryprovidesthe work'stitle, composer/
arranger,size of the music,grade of difficulty,
publisher,anddateof publication.Threesizes,C
- Concert,M - Marching,and O - Octavo,are
represented.
The gradingscaleis the "standard"
Instrumentalist
scale:Grade1 - firstyearplayers;
Grade2 -beyondthe beginningstage;Grade3 having acquired basic instrumental facility;
instrumentalists;
Grade
Grade4 - moreadvanced
level.
5 collegelevel;andGrade6 professional
In TheDirector'sGuide Berg distributesthe
repertoire among five performancecategories:
Band, Wind Solosand Ensembles,Orchestra,
String Orchestra, and String Solos and Enis listed
sembles.The repertoirein eachcategory
by gradelevel. There are six gradelevels,and
within eachlevelthe piecesappearalphabetically
by composer.Also listedare the publisherand
price(asof 1988).Nextto the price
composition
quotation,out-of-printpublicationsareindicated
with the anagram"POP".
One of two statemusiclistspresentedin this
40
article,this guide doesnot include musicaldescriptions,
selectiontimings,or thespecificinstrumentationof eachpiece. It is, nevertheless,
a
comprehensive
list of musicwritten for bandand
orchestra,and would, therefore,be a valuable
resourcefor conductorsof most instrumental
ensembles.
the band,band music,and virtually everyaspect
of the band professionhavechanged(hopefully
for thebetter)since1946.Anotherexceilentreferencebook for the contemporarywind band
conductor.
3. ConducforsAnthology. Vol. 2, Conducting and Musicianship,1st. ed. Northfield,lL:
publishingCompany,1ggg.
The Instrumentalist
4. Dvorak,Thomas L., ed. Bob Margolis.
Besf Music for YoungBand, A SelectiveGuide
to the Young Band/young Wind Ensemble
Repertoire. Brooklyn,Ny: ManhattanBeach
Music,1986.
Volume 2 of the ConductorsAntholog is ,,A
compendiumof articlesfrom TheInstrumentalist
from 1946to 1989on score study,conducting
techniques,rehearsals,and musicianship.',The
work hassixdivisions.Theyinclude:1) InterpretiveAnalysesof BandRepertoire;2) Conducting
and RehearsalSkills; 3) DevelopingMusicianship;4) Jazz,Ensemblesand Guiding Students;
5) Repertoire;and 6) Interviews/profiles.For
purposesof thisbibliography,onlydivisionsLand
5 will be discussed.
"Interpretative
Analyses of Band Repertoire" addresses
thirty-oneband compositions;
sixteenof the articleswere written by Frederick
Fennell. Other authorsinclude Harry Begian,
Arnald D. Gabriel,FisherTull and Keith Brion.
Each analysisoffersinterpretativeideasfor the
compositions
(somearrivedat throughpersonal
discussions
with the composer).Where necess&ry,a list of scoreandpartserratais provided.
"Repertoire"
containsarticlesthatsurveythe
appropriateness
of certaintypesof repertoire,the
repertoireof specificcomposers,
andthephilosophy of repertoireand programming. Authors
include:DonaldHunsberger,
Acton Ostling,Jr.,
Frank Battistiand Keith Brion.
Throughoutthevolume,the originalpublication dateof eacharticleappearsin theupperlefthandcornerof the title page. This smalldetail
affordsthe readera splendidopportunityto develop a historicalperspectiveon how and why
Best Music fo, Young Band surveys the
available(as of 1986)repertoire for the young
band and presentsit in three parts:part I: ConcertfFestivalWorks for Young Band; part II:
Concert Marches for Young Band; and part
III: Concert/FestivalWorks for young Wind
Ensemble. The compositionsthat appear in
eachpart are listed alphabeticallyby composer.
Each entry includestitle, grade level (I - III),
duration and publisher. A completelisting of
publisherscum addresses
is includedin an untitled sectionat the back of the book. The
"Wind Ensemble"
sectionis separatebecause
of unusual instrumentationneeds,which are
listed. Each entry also includesa brief summativedescriptionof the composition.
In the"Criteriafor MusicSelection,'
segment,
the authorinformsus that eachwork considered
for inclusionin thisvolumewassubjectedto three
,,. . . ahigh
basiccriteria.Eachworkhadto possess
degreeof compositionalcraft," ". . . important
musicalconstructs
necessary
for thedevelopment
".
of musicianship,"
and . . an orchestration
that,
withinthe restrictions
associated
with eachgrade
level,encourage[s]
musicalindependence
bothof
individualsand sections."
Eventhoughthis text is limited to GradesI III, it is a usefulreferencefor anyoneworking
with youngbands,whetherasguestconductoror
music director seeking recommendationsfor
qualityliterature.Accordingto the publisher,a
41
companiontext comprisingGradesIV - VI will
be published shortly.
the contentsof which are listed by grade level. In
the introduction he explains, "the second category, Concert Program Material, is devoted to
literature that is of primary value on concert
programsrather than assubjectsfor seriousstudy,
detailed rehearsalor festival performances."
In the "Concert Music" section Kreines furnishes two lists for each grade level: the first is
"preferred"
designated
music; the second pro"good
vides
alternatives to the works listed
above." In the "preferred" section,eachcomposition is described in detail; from time to time
opinions about the work also appear. The "alternatives" section gives only a brief description of
each composition. The compositions appearing
in each grade-level are alphabetrzed by composer, and entries include composer,title, publisher and approximate time.
The works listed in the "Concert Program
Material" section are listed by categoryof music
(e.g. Waltzes, Latin-Style, Dance, Rhapsodies,
etc.); the selectionsin each categoryare alphabetized accordingto title. There are no musical
descriptionsor timings of the compositions.For
each work, however, Kreines does identify the
composer,publisher and grade level.
5. Garofalo,RobertJ. Guidesto Band Masterworks (publishedin two formats: Teacher
Manualand StudentManual).Ft. Lauderdale,
FL: MeredithMusicPublications,
1992.
This guide provides"instructionalunits fbr
teaching"six band pieces. In the preface,the
author statesthat it "was written primarily for
secondary
schoolbanddirectors,. . . [but] maybe
usedasa referencetextbookby collegeand universityprofessorswho teach coursesin instrumental music pedagogyand curriculum." The
masterworksappearingin the text are: Overture
Trauersinfonieby
for Bandby FelixMendelssohn,
Richard Wagner,FirstSuitein E-flat andSecond
Suitein F by GustavHolst, ChesterOvertureand
Bidge by William Schuman.
GeorgeWashington
Inbothpublishedformats,Garofaloprovides:
Listening Assignments,Practice Assignments,
and CreativeProjects. He also furnishesa sixweekoutlinedesigned
to allowstudyof a compositionfrom sightreadingto performanceaswell as
a four-yearrotationalplan to facilitatestudyand
performance of the six compositions. fhe
TeacherGuide includes:LearningGoals,Introduction,Resources,
andPerformance
Notes.The
StudentGuideprovides:LearningGoals,Assignments,Historical Notes, Glossaryof Musical
Terms,Home PracticeGuide,ImportantInformation,anda Comparative
Orchestration
Guide.
7. Prescilbed Music Lisf, For Music Compet i t i o n i n S c h o o l Y e a r s B e g i n n i n g1 9 9 1 , 1 9 9 2 ,
1993,1994.Austin,
TX:University
Interscholastic League,
1991
.
Another state music list that deservesmention. This referenceincludesnot only works for
band, but for orchestraand chorus as well. The
band list containsfive gradelevels,and the gradelevel requirements for the state of Texas are
"Performance
outlined in the section titled
Requirementsfor Band." The entriesin eachgrade
level are ordered alphabetically by composer.
Publisher information is also furnished; if the
composition is out of print, &n editorial bullet
appearsnext to the listing.
6. Kreines,Joseph.Musicfor ConcertBand.
Tampa,FL: FloridaMusicService,1989.
Music for ConcertBand provides another
gradedlistingof literature. The gradelevelsare:
Easy(GradesI &2), MediumEasy(3),Medium
(4), Medium Advanced(5), and Advanced(6).
Kreines divides the text into two categories:
ConcertMusic and ConcertProgramMaterial,
42
Despitethe absenceof musicaldescriptions,
the list is relativelycurrentandincludescontemporarypiecesaswell assomeof the "standards."
VI. Marches,The Original Band Music
VII. Yesterday's
Band Music:SomeSources
and Repositories
VIII. Researchon AmericanBand Subjects
IX. The HeritageSeriesof LP Records
8. Rehrig,
WilliamH.,ed. PaulE. Bierley.The
Heritage Encyclopedia of Band Music, ComposersandTheirMusic,Vols. l& ll. Westerville.
OH: IntegrityPress,1991.
The encyclopedia's
closingsectionis a Title
Indexwhichlistsall surveyedcompositions
alphabeticallyby title.
The Heitage Encyclopediaof Band Music rs
perhaps one of the most valuable reference
guides for the contemporarywind ensemblef
band conductor. The set has over 1,000total
pages. Obviously,there are works and composersthat, for one reasonor another,are not
listed;nevertheless,
this encyclopedia
providesa
mostcomprehensive
listingof bandcompositions
writtenprior to its publicationdateof 1991.
The basicgoalsof the encyclopediaare outlined in the "Publisher'sIntroduction." They
include:"an attemptto documentall editionsof
all music ever published (and some unpublished)for concertand military bands,"and "an
attempt to provide biographiesof composers
whosemusichas been used by bands,whether
the music wascomposedfor the band or not."
The publisher also contributesa somewhat
amusingdetinitionof "band," describingit as "a
group of brass,woodwind, and percussioninstruments, with the proportionsthereof not
rigidly defined(despitenumerouseffortsto encouragestandardizatron)."
Entries are alphabeticalby composer;each
entrycontainsa brief biographyof the composer,
birth and death dates (where applicable),rhe
referenceor referencesfor the biography,and a
list of known works. When available, a
composition'spublisherand date of the most
recenteditionis listed. The composers
foundin
Volume I havenamesthat beginwith A through
N; thosewhosenamesbeginwith O through Z
appearin VolumeII, whichalsoincludesa Bibliographyand nine appendices,
titled:
9. Smith,NormanE.,andAlbertStoutamire,
eds. Band Music Nofes,rev.ed. LakeCharles,
LA: ProgramNote Press, 1g7g; reprint,Lake
Charles,LA: ProgramNote Press,1989.
Band Music Notes is a compilationof over
600 compositions
listed alphabetically
by composer. A brief biographyof each composer
representedin the volume is provided; a
selectecdlist of a composer'soutput appears
with a program-notetype of entry for each
work. Additional information provided includes:arranger(where applicable),publisher
(abbreviationkeyed to a master list found
elsewhere),grade level (1 - 6), timing, and a
recording(whenavailable).The list of compositionsfor a givencomposeris rarelycomprehensive,but the program-notedescriptionsof the
worksthat arelistedareinformativeandhelpful.
The Appendicesinclude: Contributors
Individualsand Organrzations,
Keyto Publishers,
Keyto RecordCompanies,
andanIndexof Titles,
Grade of Difficulty, PerformanceTime and
RecordAvailability.
I. An Overviewof Band Music In America
II. AmericanBandMusic: A Brief Historyof
PublishingPractices
III. A Glossaryof Publishers
IV. The BandJournals,Backboneof the
Repertoire
V. UsingForeignBandMusicwith American
Bands
43
to create,justify, or supportany factions."
This repertoirelist hasthree sections:Wind
Ensemble/Band,InstrumentalSolo and Wind
Ensemble/Band, and Voice and Wind Ensemble/Band. Each sectionlists the composiby composer,and eachentry
tionsalphabetically
includes:composer,title, instrumentationand
availability(publisher). The instrumentationis
listed numericallyin the following order: flute,
oboe, clarinet, bassoon,horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba, timpani and percussion.Doublings
aswell
Sa:rophones
areindicatedby parentheses.
as non-sopranoclarinetsare includedby voice,
"band" or "wind
andfor largerworks,the words
ensemble"appears.For example,2 (pic) 2 2 2 twoflutes(one
at szu<
I 433 1TP(3),wouldread:
doublingpiccolo),two oboes,two clarinets,two
bassoons,alto and tenor sax,four horns,three
trumpets,three trombones,one tuba, timpani,
andthreepercussion.Publishersarelistedin the
in the
textby numberswhicharecross-referenced
in
publisher'sinformation section located the
front of the book.
No musical descriptions or timings are
given,but the listing of pre-1984compositions
(written for chamber wind ensemble,larger
wind ensembleand symphonicband) is quite
comprehensive.
10. Smith, Norman E. March Music Nofes.
Lake Charles, LA. Program Note Press, 1986.
A companion text to Band Music Notes,
March Music Notes shares the Band Music Notes
format. As the title suggests, this text lists
marchesalphabeticallyby composer. A comprehensive biography of each composer is a welcome feature of this work. Each composition
entry includes: an extensive musical description, publisher and date of publication, grade
level,performance time, and a recording (where
available).
In the introduction, Smith summarizes the
purpose of the book, describing it as a reference
text for directors and members of bands,program
note writers and announcers,record collectors,
and teachers of such classes as concert band
literature, music appreciation and conducting. It
waswritten so that performers and listenerscould
learn more about a variety of marchesand, at the
same time, become better acquainted with the
composerswho have used this form to express
their musical ideas.
Davidand EugeneCorporan.
11. Wallace,
CO:
Greeley,
Repertoire.
WindEnsemble/Band
ColoradoSchoolof
of Northern
TheUniversity
Music,1984.
Understandably,someduplicationof literature amongthe textslistedaboveis unavoidable.
Atl of the books surveyedhavebeen published
sincel984;theyshouldprovidethe foundationof
an excellentreferencelibrary for any conductor
who is a devoteeof wind literature.
In the prefacethe authorsprovidethe follow"The music
ing descriptionof the musiclisted:
contained within the Wind Ensemble/Band
Repertoiretext shouldbe representativeof the
literaturewhich most often would be playedby
fine high school,college,university,community
and professionalgroupswho seekto studyand
perform artisticand challengingworksof a seri"it is
ous nature." The authorsalso note that
important to understandthat the terms Wind
Ensembleand Band are not used in this text
* * * * * * * * * *
Dr. Harlan D. Parker is Conductor of the
Wind Ensembleat the PeabodyConservatoryof
Music of the Johns Hopkins University(MD).
M
Scores& Parts
Sy-phony No. 6 in B minor, Op. 53
by Dimitri Shosrakovich
compiled by Glenn Block
Thefollowingerratalist comparestheorchestral scoreof the Moscowstate publishers19g0
edition that appearsin volume 3 of Dmitri
shostakovich's
collectedworks with the orchestra partsasreprintedby KalmusMusic.The score
correctionsare variants or omissionsin the
Moscowstateeditionthatconductors
maywishto
consider."Probable" errata,basedon editorial
assessments,
are indicatedby a questionmark.
Readersmay own or have accessto other pub_
lishedscoresof this symphony.Theyincludethe
BooseyandHawkesedition,andthesecondprinting of the MoscowStatepublishersedition of
1968,originallypublishedin lg4l.
66/.2
lQ/,1-tO
66/L2-I4
...Str:+ ffi (?)
EH, Ci:-+'t.itts
1t;
EH, pCl: + trilli, iies(?)
92/5 .......
Vln 2, Va: + cresc.
9 2 / . 7 , 1. . . . . . . . . . . V
. . l.n. .t : + f ( ? )
??17,,_4
Tpt t &- f Z:'+' accenr(?)
. .B
. .s n : ( ? )
\ 0 q / . 5 , 1. . . . . . . . . .C
.
Hns
3 ai +: + X
\0?/e,1
I03/2-5,1 ..........
Tri, Tamb:+ iccents
I03/9-L2,1........
Tri, Tamb:+ accents
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. . .i .n d s :+ a c c e n(t? )
W
\04/,I,1
rc!/.1,1 ..............
Hns: + espress.
(i)'
L 0 5 / . 5 , .2. . . . . . . . .T. .r.i.. : + a i i n . 1 t l
109/2
Vc, DB: s/r *li. ".
L 2 2 / 9 , 1. . . . . . . . . .H
. . n. .s | & ) : + a c c e n r
I ? 2 / . n , 1 , 3 . . . . . .C
. . .l :. + a c c e n t(s? )
I23/I & 3, | ......Fl, Ob, Cl: + itorr.
1 2 3 / 11, . . . . . . . . . .B
. .C
. .I :+ a c c e n t
I24/1,1 ..............
Fl, Ob, Cl: + accent
126/1-2,3
Cl: + stacc.
I?7/.2,1..............
Fl, Ob: + stacc.(?)
! 3 0 / . 1 , ,.1. . . . . Y m , T b n , T u b a : ' +s t a c c\. (/? )
\30/.!& 8, 1 ......Bl.r, Hns: + accent(?)
..............
Picc,Fl, Ob, Cl: + siacc.(?)
,l?0/.5,,1
\ /
l?0/.5,4........B
. . s. .n. ., H n s+: t r O
.. 11..,FI,Ob,"EH,'Cl:+ stacc.
(?)
!?t/},l
1 3 L / 6 , 3. . . . . . . . . .C
. .l.:. + s t a c c(.? )
L 3 2 / 5 , 1. . . . . . . . . .p. .i .c.c ,F l , O b , ' p C lC
, l : + s t o c c(\ ?
. /\
1 3 ? / . 5 , .4. . . . . . . . .W
. . .w. s :+ s t a c c . ( ? )
*******{€**
Score Corrections
I?/.3,
PCI: + trills, accidentals,
asin EH
I2/5, | & 3
PCl.: + flarsto trill: - frornb.2
1 3 / 3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .p. .pF(l?: \
27/6-7
. Vln 1i 1 iie
3 2 / 6 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . .V
. .l.a. .:.+. s l u r( ? )
3!fi
MM s/r d.q.n.= L04
Vla, Vc: + tresc.(?)
9/.3 ,.. .
4 :/71 0 , 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+Hf pf :( ? )
47/1J
...9p' + lrebie clef(?)
4:9
Percmargin:s/r T-no
/9 ........
6!/9 .......
Bsns:+ aicent1t;
65fl
.....C1:
+ trill (?)
65/9-Il
EH, pCl: + lrills (?)
65fi2-14
EH, pCl: + trills;l ties(?)
66/2
.....Winds:+ff(?)
Hns,Tbn:+ tr O
\1?/5,4..............
picc, pcl,-tli:
133/1,1 .............. Fl,
(?\
stacc.
\ /
1 3 3 / 1 , 4. . . . . . . . . .H
. . n. .s ,T b n : + f f ( ? )
pcl;"Ci:'+
r?3/7,4..............
g_b,EH,
"itiri.1Z7
tr Q)
I33/8,1..............
gg,pct,Cl,Tpr:+
1 , 3 4 / 1 ,.1. . . . . . . . .T. .r .i :. + f f ( ? )
Parts Corrections
NorE: All parts should correct Mvt. I time signature
to be 4f 4, and M't. II metronome marking to reaJdotted
quarter note.
45
Abbreviations Key
PnncussroN : Perc
: Ww
INsrnucrroNs
Wooownns
Should read : s/r
Add : (+)
Delete : (-)
Bar number : Bar
measure(s): m.
Flute : Fl
Piccolo : Picc
Clarinet : Cl
Piccolo Clarinet : PCI
BassClarinet : BCI
Oboe : Ob
English Horn : EH
Bassoon: Bsn
Contra Bassoon: CBsn
Bass Drum : BD
Cymbal : Cy
Snare Drum : SD
Tambourine : Tamb
Timpani : Tmp
Triangle : Tri
Xylophone : Xy
DvNnnnrcs
NorBs
Violin : Vln
Viola : Va
Cello : Vc
Double Bass = DB
Bnnss : Br
French Horn : Hn
Trumpet: Tpt
Trombone = Tbn
Tuba : Tu
crescendo = cresc.
decrescendo = decresc.
diminuendo : dim.
espressivo: espress.
staccato : stacc.
subito : sub.
Hnnp : Hp
eighth note : e.n.
quaner note : Q.n.
dotted quarter note : d.q.n.
half note : h.n.
natural sign : nat.
whole note : wh.n.
reh.# /bar. beat. . .action needed
reh.#/bar. beat. . .action needed
Violin 1
.s/rf
+ cresc.sign(?)
+ cresc.sign
l/3, L-2
+ e .n .re s t to e n d o f b a r
3 /1 . . . . . . . . . .
+ trill
4/2,1.-2
. . . s / rm f
5/L,4
1 2 /t , 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+...ff a n d s h a rpto tri l l
s h a rptq tri l l
1 2 /2, L . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+....
*
meter t/t / o
16/4 ........
... + tie toReh'. #27
26/10
top s/r B
29/I........
4
2 9/ 5, 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...Zn no dte s /r C "
+ f andmarcato
43/ 5, 2 ..................
5 7/ L , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a
. .c. c e n t
. . ..a c c e n t
5 7/12, L . . . . . . . . . . . . +
+ cresc.sign (?)
Violin 2
continue slur from beats L-3
+ comma after b.3
t 9 / 3 ,4 . . . . . . . . . . . s/r
. . . .C
. nat.
1 9/ 9 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . top:
. . . . . + nat. sign
3 t / t , L . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .p. .cresc.
4 4/ 5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .-. .accent
...
!
4 6I 6 , l - . . . , . . . . . . . .+'. . f' . J
bottom: sf r C*
47/r-s
. . .p. . .
5 3I t , L . . . . . . . . . .s/r
.......
...i ttntbottom s/r Ab
5l l13,1 . .....
..
5 9/ 5 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . . +. . .accent
+ accent
....
6 4I t t , 1 . . . . . . . . . .botto.m:
s/r BD
80/ t, 1 ............................
+ stacc.to all notes
erl4-s
r 0 0 1 t 4 , 3. . . . . . . . .s/r
... C
.
t 0 2 /4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. .accent
r 0 5 l ] . l . , 1. . . . . . . . .+. . p.
6/4
re13.......
..+ sffi
51/13,1..............
....+ ffi
64/L,1..............
+ trill untilLstbeatof m.8
65/7........
+ arco
70/1........
8 7/ 3 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .a. .c.c e n t
8 7/ 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .a. .c.c e n t
8 11 4 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . .*. .a. .c. c. e n t
....+ cresc.
89/6,3 ..............
. f
9 0 / 2 , L. . . . . . . . . . . . +
+ stacc.
90/1I,1................
9 0 / L 2 , 6. . . . . . . . .....+. .p.
....+ stacc.
3 ..............
9'1./3,
begrnslur on 2ndbeat
9L/5 ........
g1.'
s/r"Eb
f 8, 2 ............................
.. + stacp.
ll2/ 5, 1 ..............
s/r c# (t)
n3:h', z ................
+ cresc.(?)
II3 12,4 ................
l l 7 / 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a. c. c e n t
+ accent
Il7 I 4, 3 ................
* accent
lI7 /8,1"................
+ accent
ll7 /16,1..............
.. * marcato
I25/3, 4 ..............
+ CTCSC,
r1,5
/2, 4 ..............
t 2 2 l5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .accent
.
t 2 2/ 9 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . +. . .stacc.
.
r 2 2 / t 0 , 4 . . . . . . . . .+. . .stacc.
to B
L26
. . .accent
.
/ 6 ,4 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .stacc.
.
t 2 6I 6 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . +
sign and stacc.
.
r 2 9/ 4 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . +. . .cresc.
sign and stacc.
t 2 9/ 5 , t . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .cresc.
.
+ cresc. sign
r3014
+ cresc. sign
r30/8
+ accent
L31.
/8, 2 ..............
r 3 L / 8 ,3 . . . . . . . . . . +. . .S|ACC.
.
r 3 2I t , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +. . .accant
.
M
reh.#/bar. beat. . .action needed
reh.#/bar. beat. . .action needed
Viola
tts/3,1,
tt9/1,1
+ CTCSC.
L23/1,,1,
+ff
I4/l-2
. continue tie
1 5 /6 .. . . . . . .
c on ti n u eti e to R e h . # 1 6 . m .3
L6/4........
+ Moderato = 66
l8/5.............
2nd note s/r Bb
1 9/ 3 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s. l.u r
2 6 / 9 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s.h. a r pt o t r i l l
29/10
... + slur over bar
r23/r2, r-3
t25/1,4
r30/3, I
t30/7,1.
r3r/8, I
t31./9,2
t32/3, I
r32/3,2
T32/4,I
132/8,r
133/4,r
L33/7,4
3r/2,1.................
+f
3 9 / t , 1 . . . . . . . . . .+. .p. . . .
4 0/3 , L . . . . . . . . . ........+ c re s c (?
. )
4 4 /5 ,3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .f .l a r
4 6 / 6 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . +. f
6 6 / 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . ........+. f f i
78/1,-4
. continue slur
9 2 /6 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .m
. a rc a to
9 4 / 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . .........s / rp p
9 7/7 , L . . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a. c c e n t
9 7/8 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a. c c e n t
9 9 / r , L . . . . . . . . . . . . .+
. . f. f. .
l l 5 /3 , L. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .c. re s c .
I2 2 /7 -8, 1 . . . . . . . . . .*. . a c c e n t
1 2 2/ L 4 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a c c e n t
L 2 3/ l , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. .a. c c e n t
1 2 3/2 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .a. c c e n t.
Bz:/B:, 3- 4. . . . . . . . . s. ./.r B , _ c # , D # ,8
133/8,1 ................
sf r A*
+ accent
+ accents
+ q.n. rest
+ accent
+ accent
+ stacc.
+ accent
+ accent
+ accent
+ accent
+ accent
+ accent
+ff
Double Bass
2/2,3-4
+ cresc. sign
26/4-s
continue tie
28/r.......
s/r pp
6 3/ 7 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .accent
..
6 4 / 2 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . bottom:
.....
* accent
6 6/ 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+ffi
....
7 8/ 1 , ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .e.n.
. . rest
8 0 / 7 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .e.n.
. . rest
8 5/ 1 , L, . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .p. .
89/'1,,1 ................
+ Qrco
9 t / r , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . +. . p. . .
r04/8
s/r h.n., then q.n.
rje/2
s/r wh. n.
t t 5/ 3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .cresc.
.
(?)
1 t 5/ 5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. .f.
1 . 1/ 6t 2 , 4 . . . . . . . . . +
. . .p
t 2 3/ t , 4 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .stacc.
.
r 2 3/ 2 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .stacc.
.
t 2 3 / L 2 , 1. . . . . . . . .+. .accent
.
L 3 t/ 8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .f .f ( ? )
r 3 r/ 8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +. . .accent
.
Cello
1 , 5 / 1 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s.t.a. c c 1
. 6 t hn o t e
2 2 /2 -4, 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .f la r to tri l l
2 3 / 6 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .f.l .a t r o r r i l l
2 4 /1 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .f.l a r to tri l l
2 4 /4 ,4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .f.l a t to tri l l
3 0 /2 , L. . . . . . . . . . . . . .botto
. . . . m n o te s /r G
3 1 / L , 1 . . . . . . . . . ........+. e s p r e s s .
3 l / 2 , 1 , - 2. . . . . . . . . . .+. .s. l u r
3 1/2
, , 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . p
. . mo re n d o
3 1 , / 3 , 1. . . . . . . . . .........-d i m .
3 2 / 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .c. o. n s o r d . a n d p
3 7/ 5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. f
3 7 '/1 ,3
s 7i C b
4 A / 3 , 1. . . . . . . . . ........+. u e s c .
4 6 / 6 , 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. f
5 0 /9 , L . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+ t e n u to
6 3 / 7 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a. .c c e n t
6 5/ 1 , , 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a. .c c e n t
6 5/ 2 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .a. .c c e n t
r3r/8,3 ..............
+ accen[
1 3 24/ , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. .accent
.
t 3 2 / 8 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . +. . .accent
.
r 3 3/ 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +. . .accent
.
r 3 3/ 8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .f .f
Piccolo
3 6/ 6 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .f .l a. t t o B
3 8 / 3 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . .-. .accent
...
3 8 / 5 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . .-. accent
....
4 6 / 3 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .cresc.
..
4 8 / r ,1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .f .l a. t t o A
4e/1 .......
+ slur over all notes
5 2 / 8 ,2 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .f.l.a t t o A
66/2
+ trill
72/1,5,'1,-2
+ stacc.to all notes
9 0 / 3 , 3. . . . . . . . . . .+. . stacc.
...
9318-r0,3
+ SIACC.
9 3/ 1 2 ,3 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .stacc.
.
9 4 / 7 ,2 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .stacc.
..
65/9, 2 ..................
+ ffi
66/2,1..............
....+ fff
8 3 / 3 ,4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .q. . n .r e s t
8 3 / 4 ,4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .q. . n .r e s t
8 5 / L , 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. p
9 0 / 6 ,4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .q. .. n .r e s t
9 0 / I 0 , 1 . . . . . . . . . .....+. . s t a c c .
9 L / 1 , , 1. . . . . . . . . ........+. p
1 0 2/2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. .ac
. cent
I 0 2 / 3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a.c c e n t
I0 4 /7 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . *. . .ac
. cent
q5/5 )
4l
+ stacc.
reh.#/bar. beat. . .action needed
reh.#/bar. beat. . .action needed
9 8/ L 3,3 . . . . . . . . . . . . *. . ..a c c e n t
1 0 2 /3, 1. . . . . . . . . . . .-. .a..c c e n t
+ stacc.
108/ 12,1-..............
120/10-[
+ cresc. sign
I20/Il-12
+ bar line
1 2 0 /12
. + d i m.s i g n
I2 I/1 0, 2 . . . . . . . . . . .+. ..s ta c c .
1 2 6 :f t , 3. . . . . . . . . . . Lst
. . ...n o te i s A#
1 2 3 /7, 2- 4. . . . . . . . . .+. .s ta c c .to a l l e .n .
+ stacc.
93/8-9,3
* accent
93/12,3 ..............
l0'4/8',3 ........................
+ accent,note is Cb
120/10-11
+cresc. sign
120/12
+ decresc.sign
* accent
I22/ l l , 3 ............
* accent
122/13,1 ............
126/3,1 ..............
* accent
+ stacc.to all e.n.
r28/7,2-4..........
+ / and cresc. sign
r29/ 4,4 ..............
+ stacc.
t29/5, 1 ..............
t 3 0/ 1 , 1, . . . . . . . . . . +
. .stacc.
..
t 3 0/ 5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +. .stacc.
..
+ stacc.
r3r/t, 1 ..............
+ accent,- stacc.
r3T/8,
4 ..............
+ stacc.
t32/5,L ..............
+ stacc.
t33/ t, 1 ..............
Flute L
2 4/ L, 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .s/ r d o tte de .n .
2 5/ 3 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .p. p. p
3 7/ 8 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+ s t a c c .
5 l /2 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . -. . a
. ..c c e n t
5 l / 7 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .-. .n. o
. .t e , + r e s t
6 L / 7 , 1 . . . . . . . . ........+. . f
...s/r D nat.
f68/4
l 6 /7 , 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . ..
te n u to
7 71 1 2 , 1. . . . . . . . . . . +
. .p
.
8 7/3 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . s..ta c c .
9 0 / 3 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. s t a c c .
9 3 1 8 , 3. . . . . . . . . ........+. s t a c c .
9 3 1 9 , 3. . . . . . . . . ........+. s t a c c .
9 4 / 7, 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s.t.n c c .
9 8I 1 5,1 . . . . . . . . . . . .-. .a..c c e n t
I 0 2 / 4 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . .s./.r. .C n a t .
1 ,0/8
4 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2n
. . d n o te s /r C D
I0 4 /I 0, 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a c c e n t
I0 5/ 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . *. . .a. c q e n t
I0 7/2, 1 . . . . .. . . . .s. ./.r Eo
1 0 7/ 4 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .s. t a c c .
I 0 7/ 5 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
.. stacc.
II7 /4,4............+
. . .s. t a c c .
l I 7 / 1 1 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . .+. .s. t a c c .
1 2 0 / 9 ,L . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a. c c e n t
+ cresc.sign
I20/I0-ll
I2 0 /L2
. + d e c re s c .s i g n
1 2 2/ 15,1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a c c e n t
I2 3/1, 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .a. c c e n t
* accent
I23/ I1,,3 ..............
1 2 7/ 2 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .s. t l c c .
I 2 1 / 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a.c c e n t
I2 8/ 5 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .a. c c e n t
123/7
... + stacc.to all e.n.
130/8
... + f and cresc.sign, as in 130/4
I3 l /8 , ,2 . . . . . . . . . . . . *. . ..a c c e n t
r3 1I.8, 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . ..a c c e n r
I3 31 7, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .-. .a..c c e n t
I3 41 7 ,4 . . . . . . . . . . . . *. . .a. c c e n t
Oboe 1
+ flattoB
t/3,5
4 6/ 3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .cresc.
..
6 6/ 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .ff(?)
..
+ stacc.
93/1.t,1.-4..........
1 0 0 / t 4 , 3. . . . . . . . .s/r
... C
* accent
I22/ 11,,
3 ............
r 2 2 / 1 5L, . . . . . . . . .*. . .accent
r 2 3/ t , 3 . . . . . . . . . . +. .accent
..
* accent
t23/3, 1 ..............
+ accent
t23/4, 2 ..............
r 2 3/ 4 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . *. .accent
..
r 2 3/ 5 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . +. .accent
..
r 2 3/ 5 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . +. .accent
..
t 2 3/ 6 , 2 . . . . . . . . . .-. .accent
..
L 2 3/ 7 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +
. .accent
..
L 2 3/ 7 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . +
. .accent
..
t 2 3 / t 2 , 3 . . . . . . . . .+. .f.( ? )
r 2 4/ L , 1 . . . . . . . . . .-. .accent
..
1 2 6/ 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +. . .accent
.
1 2 6 / 22, . . . . . . . . . . +. . .accent
.
1 2 6/ 2 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .stacc.
.
1 2 6 / 3 , 3 - 4. . . . . . . .+. .stacc.to all e.n.
r 2 8/ 7 , 3 . . . . . . . . . .-. .slur,
. . + stacc.
r 2 8/ 7 , 3 . . . . . . . . . .2nd
. . . . note sf r Anat., 4th note s/r F#
r 3 0/ 5 , 1 " . . . . . . . . .+. . .stacc.
.
t3r/t, 1 ..........+
. . .stacc.
.
t 3 2 /5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .st%cc.
.
t 3 2 /5 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .stacc.
.
(?)
L 3 3/ 1 . 1, . . . . . . . . . . +. . .stacc.
.
1 3 3/ 7 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .f.f ( ? )
r34/rr-r2
* accents
Flute 2
Oboe 2
2/3,3
. . .+ a c c e n t
1 3 1 3 , 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. p p ( ? )
2 6 1 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .t.r.i.l.l
2 6 / 5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .f.l.a t t o t r i l l
M / 3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . +. . cresc.
...
..
6 0/ 4 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . .*. .accent
6 0/ 9 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .accent
..
6 6/ 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .f.f.( ? )
9 3 1 t L , 1 - 4. . . . . . . .+. .st^cc.to q.n.
9 3/ 1 2 ,3 . . . . . . . . . . .f . .accent
.
r z t / 9 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . .+. .f.f
1...............
...+ ff
61.11,
6 5/ 9 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . s. / rA n a t .
9 0/ 3 , 3 . . . . . . . . . ........+. s t a c c .
48
reh.#/bar. beat. . .action needed
reh.#/bar, beat. . .action needed
I2 2/ l l , 3 . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .ac c e n t
1 2 2/ 1 4 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .ac c e n t
I2 2/ 1 6 ,2 . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .ac c e n t
L 2 3/ L , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
.. stacc.
1 2 3/ l , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .ac
. cent
I2 3/3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
.. stncc.
f i S / 5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
LI8/5,2 ..............
+ stacc.
II8/6,2 ..............
+ stacc.
TI8/8,2 ..............
+ stacc.
1 2 0 / 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
122/II, L ............
+ accent
I22/II,3 ............
* accent
122/13,1 ............
* accent
122/L5,4 ............
* accent
1 2 3 / 1 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c (. ? )
I23/3,1 ..............
+ stacc.(?)
I23/6,2 ..............
+ stacc.
1 2 4 / 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .*. .a.c c e n t
l 2l /4,1 ..............
* accsnt
I21/4,4 .............
. + stacc.
l ?3/1, L ..............
* accent
I ? 3 / 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. .a. c c e n t
1 2 8 / 5 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . .*. .a.c c e n t
I ? 3 / 6 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. .a. c c e n t
l ?3/7,2-4 ..........+ stacc.
I29/4,4 ..............
+ cresc.
L 2 9 / 5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
I 3 0 / 5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
l 3 I / 1 , 1 . . . . . . . , . . .+. . .s t a c c .
l 3l /6-8,2 ..........+ accent
L3I/6-8/ 3 ..........+ stacc.
I3l /6-8/ 4 ..........+ stacc.
132/5,L ..............
+ stacc.
I 3 2 / 5 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
1 3 3 / 1 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
I 3 3 / I , 4 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
1 3 3 / 7 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . f. f ( ? )
r23/L2,3..............
+ tr Q)
1 2 6 /2 ,L. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . ac
. cent
I 2 7/ 5 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .s. t a c c .
I2 8 / 4 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .s. t a c c .
I2 9/5 ,3 . . . . . . . . . . .....+
. stacc.
L29/5, 4 ................
* stacc.
I3 0 /5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
.. stacc.
l3'1,/1,L ..............
.. + stacc.
131,
* accent
/7, 2 ................
l 3 l /8 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .ac
. cent
I3 2 / l , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . *. . .ac
. cent
I3 2 /5 , L . . . . . . . . . . . . +
.. stacc.
I 3 2 / 5 , 4 . . . . . . . . . .....+. . s t a c c .
1 3 3 /1 ,,1. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. s t a c c .
1 3 3/7 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .f.f ( ? )
English Horn
65/12-13
+ tie
6 6 / 2 ,L . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . f. f. .
6 6 / 7 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .f .l .a t t o t r i l l
66/r4-L5
+ tie (?)
1 2 7/4 , L . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .ac
. cent
1 2 3 /6 ,4. . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .f. an d c re s c s. i g n
L 2 9/5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. s t a c c .
I30/8, L-4 ............
+ cresc.sign
l 3 l /2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .-. .ac
.. cent
I3 L/ 5 , L . . . . . . . . . . . .-. .ac
.. cent
I3 l /8 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .ac
. cent
I 3 2 / 5 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . s. .t a c c .
Clarinet 2
13/2-3
+ tie
L 9 / 3 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .c. r e s c .
2 I / 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .f. .
2 I / 7 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .p. .
? 3 / 1 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .p. .p
3 5 / 3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a. c c e n t
4 6 / 3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .c. r e s c .
6 l / 7 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . " .+
. . .a. c c e n t
65/7, t-3
+ trill (?)
6 6 / 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .f.f.
6 6 1 7 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .f.l a t t o t r i l l
9 0 / 3 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .s. t a c c .
9 0 / 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .s. t a c c .
9 3 / 9 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .s. t a c c .
9 5 / 5 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .s. t a c c .
1 0 2 / 6 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .-. .a. c c e n t
l l 8 / 5 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
122/11,1 ............
+ accent
122/II,3 ............
* accent
I 2 2 / 1 3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . .+. . a c c e n t
1 2 2 / 1 5 , 4. . . . . . . . . .+. . a c c e n t
I 2 3 / I , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
7 2 3 / 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
1 2 3 / 3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
1 2 3 / 6 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
1.2412,1
. . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a c c e n t
r33/7,4
..............
..+ tr Q)
Clarinet 1
2/3,1.
... + ff and cresc.sign
13/2-3
. + tie
1 8 /I, L -3 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .dim . s i g n
2 r / 4 , 1. . . . . . . . . . . +
. .f.
2 I/4 , 4 .. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .dim
. . sign
2 1 1 7 , 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. p
? 3/ 1 , 1 . . . . . . . . . ........s. / r J p
33/2........
* '/n meter
36/5-6
.- slur5 4 /1 1 ,,1 . . . . . . . . . .. . +
. . dim .
6 l / 7 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a. c. c e n t
6 6 / 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . +. . f f
6 6 / 7 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .f.l .a t t o t r i l l
69/1-3
.- long slur
8 8/ 6 , 3 . . . . . . . . . ........+. s t a c c .
9 01 3 , 3 . . . . . . . . . ........+. s t a c c .
9 0/ 4 ,,1 ... . .... . . . .. . . + s t a c c.
9 3 / 9 , 3 . . . . . . . . ........+. . s t a c c .
9 4 /4 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s.t.c t c c .
I 0 2/ 6 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . -. . a. .c. c e n t
I 0 4 / 8 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a.c c e n t
49
reh.#/bar. beat. . .action needed
reh.#/bar. beat. . .action needed
1 2 6/ l, 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. s ta c c .
L 2 6/2, 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . s ta c c .
I 2 7/ 4 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . .. .. +
.. stacc.
I2 8/ L, 1 . . . . . . . . . " . .*....a c c e n t
L ? 3/ 1,2 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . ..s ta c c .
I? 3/2, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . *. . ..a c c e n t
I? 3 / 3, 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. ...s ta c c .
1 2 8/ 7, 2- 4. . . . . . . . . .+. .s ta c c .
1 2 9/5, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. s ta c c .
I3 0/ 5, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . s ta c c .
131,/1,1 ..............
.. + stocc.
1 3 1,
/ 6, 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. ..a c c e n t
I3 l /7, 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .+...a c c e n t
1 3 1,
. . ..a c c e n t
/ 8, 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
+ stacc.
I3l./6,3-4 ............
l 3 l /8 , 3- 4 . . . . . . . . . .+. .s ta c c .
L 3 2/ 5,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. s ta c c .
1 3 2/ 5,4. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. ..s ta c c .
I3 3 / 1, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . s ta c c .
I3 3/L, 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
....s tn c c .
+ f andcresc.
133/7,4 ................
I3 3 / 8, 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. ..s ta c c
+ accent
t3t/8,2
+ stacc.
l3t/8,3
+ stacc.
t32/t, I
+ stacc.
t32/5, I
+ SIACC.
t32/5,4
'1,
+ stacc.
l33lL,
+ stacc.
t33lt,4
+ff(?)
t33/7,,4 ..............
+ stacc.
t33/8, I
Bass Clarinet
- tie
13/2-3
+
1 3/ 3 , ,3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .dim.
..
. . .pp
.
1 9/ 9 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .s/r
2 8 /t , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .s/r
. . .pp
.
+ decresc.sisn
2813-4
4 6 1 71, . . . . . . . . . . . s/r
. . . . G#
.
4 5/ 9 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .*. .accent
..
.
5 0/ 1 0 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . +. . .tenuto
s/r C#
50/11,,2 ..............
5 5/ 4 , L . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .stacc.
..
5 6/ t 5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . *. . .accent
.
...
5 81 6 ,1 , . . . . . . . . . .*. . accent
..
5 91 7 ,4 . . . . . . . . . . . .*. .accent
6 6/ 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .f.f.
- accents
105/5,t-3
r 0 5/ 1 , 11, . . . . . . . . . +. . .p
(?)
t 2 3/ 1 . 1, . . . . . . . . . . +. . .accent
.
(?)
t 2 3/ 1 .2, . . . . . . . . . . +. . .accent
.
r 3 3/ 8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .f .f
Clarinet 3/Piccolo Clarinet
+ trill to eachnote
I2/3........
1 2 / 3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s. h
. arp
1 2 / 3 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .f. . . .
t 2 / 3 , 5 . . . . . . .. . .+. .f. .
+ flatto trill(?)
12/5,1..................
1 2 /5, 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fl
...a t fro m tri l l (? )
fl a t to tri l l (? )
1 2 /5, 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. ...
1 3 / I , L . . . . . . . . . ........+. d i m .
1 9 12,4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+....
te n u toto 1 6 thn o te
3 4 / L , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .".s. o l o "
4 6 /3, 1-. . . . . . . . . . . . . .+ c re s c .
6 5 /9- 11, 1. . . . . . . . . .+.. tri l l (? )
6 5 /L2- 14, 1. . . . . . . .+.. tri l l (? )
6 6 / 2 , 1. . . . . . . . . ........+. f f ( ? )
+ tie (?)
66/12-15
Bassoon1
* accents
t/5,4
t 9 / 7 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .dim.
..
- accents,+ tenuto
+ bar line after 3rd beat
sign
5 6 1 91, . . . . . . . . . . .+. . cresc.
...
5 9 / r , 1. . . . . . . . . . .+. .accents
...
..
5 9 / 2 , 1. . . . . . . . . . .+. . .accents
..
6 2/ 8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .accent
..
6 5/ 8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .accent
5 6 I 5 - 6 . . ! . .! i . . . . . . rr . .r
7 6 / r , 1 . . . . . . . . . .+. .p. . . . . .
1 2 3/ 1,L . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. s ta c c .,- a c c e n t
I2 3/ l, 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. ...a c c e n t
1 2 3 / 3 ,L . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . s. .t a c c .
1 2 3/ 6, 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
....a c c e n t
1 2 3/ 6, 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
....a c c e n t
1 2 3 / 1 , 1. . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a.c c e n t
1 2 3 / 7 , 3. . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a.c c e n t
I2 4 / 1, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
....a c c e n t
I2 4/ l, 3 . . . . . . . . . . . .-..s ta c c .
+ accent
1 2 6/ 2,L. . . . . . . . . . . . ....
1 2 6/ 3, 1. . . . . . . . . . . .+....a c c e n ta n d tri p l e t
1 2 7/ 4 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .s. t n c c .
I 2 7/ 5 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .s. t a c c .
I? 3/ l, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. ...a c c e n t
I2 9/ 5, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. s ta c c .
n a t. s i g nto G
1 3 0/ 4, 2. . . . . . . . . . . .+. ...
. . s ta c c .
I3 0/ 5, 1 . . . . . . . . . .. . +
I 3 l / 1 , 1 . . . . . . . . . .....+. . s t a c c .
l 3 l /5, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . c re s c .
6 5/ 9 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . .+fff
.....
6 6 / 2 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . .+
. .f. f. (. ? )
..
9 0 1 2 , 2. . . . . . . . . . .+. . .accent
...
9 0 1 3 , 3. . . . . . . . . . .+. . stacc.
..
9 3 1 8 , 3. . . . . . . . . . .+. . .accent
(?)
...
9 5 / 6 , 1. . . . . . . . . . .+. .accent
s/r G
. . . . note
.
9 9/ 2 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . .2nd
sl r G
. . . . note
.
9 91 4 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . .2nd
...
r 0 3/ 1 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+ffi
1 r 5/ 8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . *. . .accent
.
t t 8 l 6 , 3 - 4 . . . . . . . .+. .stacc.
t r 8 l 1 ,1 . . . . . . . . . .+. . accent
..
r t 9l l , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .accent
.
r 2 21 83, . . . . . . . . . .*. . accents
..
t 2 2/ 9 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . +. . .accents
.
1 2 2 1 1 3 ,.3. . . . . . . .+. . .accents
1 2 3/ 6 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +. . .accent
.
r 2 31 1 ,3 . . . . . . . . . . +. . .accent
.
+ ff
t3t/7,4................
50
reh.#/bar. beat. . .action needed
reh.#/bar. beat. . .action needed
I2 3/9, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . ..a c c e n t
1 3 0/ 4, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . ..a c c e n t
130/8, 1 ................
* accent
1 3 3 / 8 , 1. . . . . . . . . .....+. .f f
Horn 1
1 3 / 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a. c c e n t
28/8,l -4 ............
+ uesc. si gn
23/8,5-6
+ dim. sifi,
2 9 / 1 . , 1. . . . . . . . . . . .s./.r.p. p p
3 l / 2 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .p. .p
Bassoon 2
66/2,1................
+ tr Q)
6/4,3
... + cresc.
7/ 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. ./. . . .
66/L0,L ..............
+ accent
9 2 / I , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .s. t a c c .
9 8 / 3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a. c c e n t
I04/1, L ..............
+ cresc.sign and accent
1 1 , 5 / 3 , 1 & 3 . . . . . .+ s t a c c .
I l 5 / 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
l I 5 / 4 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . .+
. . .s t a c c .
fi S /5,1 ..............
sfr mf, + stacc.
IT5/5,3 ..............
+ stacc.
1 2 2 / 7 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a c c e n t
122/9,L ..............
+ accent
1 2 3 / 3 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . f.
I 2 3 / 7 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . .+
. . f.
1 3 0 / 1 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+
. . .s t a c c .
1 3 0 / 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a c c e n t s
130/3,1 ..............
* accents
1 3 0 / 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+
. . .a c c e n t s
130/8,1 ..............
* accents
132/4,L ..............
* accents
132/8,L ..............
+ accents
132/8,I-4 ..........+ cresc.si gn
1 3 3 / 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a c c e n t
I 3 4 / 6 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+
. . .a c c e n t
59/3, 2..................
+ ff
6 2 /8, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . ..
accent
6 3/9 , 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . ..
accent
6 4/3 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. ...
accent
6 !/.9 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . ..
a c c e n t(? )
6 5/2 , 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . ..
accent
66/2,1
..............
....+ tr Q)
9 0/2 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. ...
accent
9 0 /3, 3 . . . . . . . . . .. . . .+ s to c c .
9 2 /5, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+ s ta c c .
9 2 /5, 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .* s ta c c .
9 2 /6, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+ s ta c c .
9 2 / 6 , 3 . . . . . . . . . ........+. s t a c c .
9 3 /9- 1, 1, 3. . . . . . . . . .+. .s ta c c .
9 5 / 6 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a. .c c e n t
9 9/2 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z n d n o tes /r G
9 9 / 4 , 3 . . . . . . . . . .........2 n dn o t e s / r G
1 0 0 /4,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. ccent
Il5 /5, 1 ..............
.. + stacc.
l I8 /6, 3- 4 . . . . . . . . . .+. .s ta c c .
L Ig/ l, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. ccent
123/6, 1 ................
* accents
L 2 3/ 6 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a
. c c e n ts
1 3 0/ 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. ..a c c e n ts
1 3 0/8, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a
. c c e n ts
I3 2 /2, 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. ccent
L 3 2 /4, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a
. c c e n ts
I3 2 /8, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. ..a c c e n ts
I3 3/ 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. ..a c c e n t
1 3 3 /8 ,L. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. ..f f
Horn 2
2/2-3
... double Hn t
38/I-2
+ bar line
5 8 / 1 , , 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a. c c e n t
6 6 / 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . f. f.
66/I0,1 ..............
+ accent
9 9 / 6 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a. c c e n t
L 0 4 / I , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . *. . .a c c e n t
t 0 5 / 3 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . .-. .d. i m .
II5/3-5,1 ..........+ stacc.
lI5/3-5,3
+ stacc.
I 2 2 / 9 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a c c e n t
122/I0,1 ............
+ accent
t 2 3 / 3 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . .+
. . f.
1 2 3 / 6 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a c c e n t
I 2 5 / 2 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
I 2 5 / 2 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
1 2 5 / 5 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . . *. . .s t a c c .
1 2 5 / 5 , 6 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
l ? 3 / 1 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .s t a c c .
I 3 0 / 1 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+
. . .s t a c c .( ? )
L30/5-6
+ bar line
1 3 0 / 2 - 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . .*. a c c e n t s
I 3 0 / 8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a c c e n t s
1 3 2 / 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a c c e n t s
1 3 2 / 8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+
. . .a c c e n t s
1 3 4 / 3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a c c e n t s
1 3 4 / 8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a c c e n t s
Contrabassoon
l/4,1,
...-tr
5 7/9 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a. c c e n t
5 8/ 1 , ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a. c c e n ts
5 8/ 1 . ,3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a. c c e n ts
5 8 / 2 , L . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a. c. c e n t s
5 8/2 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . ..
a c c e n ts
6 5 / 8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a. .c c e n t
6 6 / 2 , L . . . . . . . . . ........+
. ff (?)
8 6 /1 .,L . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+ s ta c c .
1 0 5/ f l , I . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .p
I2 3 /l , L. . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. ccent
1 3 2 /2 ,1,. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a
. c c e n ts
I3 2 /2, 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. c c e n ts
I3 2 / 6, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. c c e n ts
I3 2 /6, 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. c c e n ts
I3 2 / 4, 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a
. c c e n ts
132/8, 1 ................
* accents
1 3 3 /4 ,L. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a c c e n t
I33/8,1 ..............
..+ ff
51
reh.#/bar. beat. . .action needed
reh.#/bar, beat. . .action needed
Horn 3
Trumpet 2
L 3 / 2 , 3 . . . . . . . . . ........+. d i m .
1 9/ 7 , 1 ". . . . . . . . . ........+. d i m .
3 8 /5 , L. . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a. c c e n t
4 9/ 3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a. .c c e n t
5 8 / 1 ,L . . . . . . . . . . . . . *. . .a. .c c e n t
5 9/5 , L . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+ c re s c .
6 5/1 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a. c c e n t
6 6 / 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a. .c c e n t
9 9/4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a. c c e n t
1 0 2 /9 ,1. . . . . . . . . .. . .+. f f
1 0 4 /1 , 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. e s p re s sa.n d a c c e n t
1 3 0 /2 - 4, 1. . . . . . . . . .*. . a c c e n ts
1 3 0/ 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. .a. c c e n ts
I3 0/8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. c c e n ts
L 3 l /8 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a
. ccent
1 3 2/2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a
. c c e n ts
1 3 2/ 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. c c e n ts
I3 2/8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. c c e n ts
I 3 3 / 1 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . f. f.
1 6/ 3 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . s/r
. . . . dotted
.
e.n.
4 9/ 5 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .accents
..
4 9/ 6 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .accents
..
6 0 / 9 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .accent
..
6 6/ 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .ff(?)
..
* accent
104/1,,
1 ..............
+ sharp
t04/t4,2
r05/3, L-3
* accents
+ stacc.(?)
t33/8, 1 ..............
Trumpet 3
60/7,r-3
63/t0,l-2
* accentsto all notes
+ cresc. sign
6 3/ t 0 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . *. . .accent
.
6 6 / 2 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+
. .trQ)
..
Trombone I
47/7, t-3
* accentsto all notes
6 6/ 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .f.f ( ? )
+ accent(?)
r04/1,,I
* accent
132/4,I
* accent
132/8,r
Horn 4
2/2-3
...double Hn 3
1 3 /3 ,3 - 4 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .c re s c s. i g n
5 8 /1 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a. c c e n t
6 6 / 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +. . f. f. . .
1 0 2 / 9 , 1 . . . . . . . . ..... +
. . f. f
1 0 3 / L ,1 . . . . . . . . . .....+. .f f
I0 4/ 1 ,,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a
. ccent
1 0 4/ 1 4,1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a c c e n ts
1 0 4 /1 4, 2. . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a c c e n ts
1 2 2 / 3 , 1. . . . . . . . . . . .*. . .a. c c e n t
I2 3/3 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. c c e n ts
I2 3/3 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. c c e n ts
1 2 3/ 6 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. ccent
1 3 0 /1 ,L . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. s ta c c .
* accents
130/2-4, L ............
1 3 0/8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. c c e n ts
1 3 2/2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a
. c c e n ts
1 3 2 /4 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a
. c c e n ts
1 3 2 /8 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a
. c c e n ts
r32/5,4
133/1.,4
r33/8,2
+ff(?)
+trQ)
* accent
Trombone2
r 3 2 / 5 ,4 . . . . . . . . . . .+. .f.f. .( ? )
1 3 3 / 1 , 1. . . . . . . . .....+. .f.f ( ? )
* accentsto all notes
47/1, t-3
6 5/ 2 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . f. .
6 6/ 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. .ff(?)
..
6 6/ t 2 , ,L . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .accents
.
6 6/ t 3 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .accents
.
t 0 4 / t , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .*. .accent
.
* accents
r05/\ 1.-3
t 3 0/ t , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .stacc.
.
r 3 2/ 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .accents
.
1 3 2 / 81, . . . . . . . . . . .*. .accents
.
t 3 2 /5 , 4 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .f .f ( ? )
1 3 3/ t , 4 . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .f .f ( ? )
t 3 3/ 8 , 2 . . . . . . . . . . +. . .accent
.
Trumpet 1
Trombone3
3/4,4
. . .+ d i m .
4 71 6 ,1 . . . . . . . . ........+
. .f f
* accents
6012,L ..................
* accents
60/8,1 ..................
6 l / I , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . *. . .a. .c.c e n t s
* accents
6l/2, 1 ..................
+ accent
63/I0, 3 ................
. .f f ( ? )
6 6 / 2 , 1. . . . . . . . ........+
. . .a. .c.c e n(t? )
9 2 / 7 ,4 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
* accent,
1041L,1................
espress.,
andcresc.sign
1 1 6 I 1 0L,. . . . . . . . . .+. .d. .i m .
+ accent
I3313,1 ................
13318,1 ..............
.. + stacc.(?)
12/4-9
.-dim.pocoapoco
T 3 / 1 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .d.i m .
6 3 / 8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . a. c c e n t
6 4 / 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . a. c c e n t
+ tr Q)
66/2,1................
+ accpnt(?)
1041' 1,
1 ..............
1 0 5 / 2 , 2. . . . . . . . . . s. .f.r. E n
I 0 5 / 9 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . p
.p
I 3 0 / 1 , , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+
. . .s t a c c .( ? )
I 3 2 / 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . *. . .a c c e n t s
I 3 2 / 8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a c c e n t s
1 3 3 / 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a c c e n t
1 3 3 / 8 , 1. . . . . . . . . . .+. .f.f
52
reh.#/bar, beat. . .actionneeded
reh.#/bar. beat. . .actionneeded
1 3 4/ 5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .ac
. c e n ts
I3 4/ 6 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .ac
. c e n ts
Bass Drum
Tuba
6 6 / I , 1 . . . . . . . . ....... s. / r f f
I 3 a / \ 1 . . . . . . . . . . .+. f. .
6 3 /6 , 1 ... . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .ac
. c e n ts
6 3 /8 , 1 .. . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .ac
. c e n ts
6 4 / 6 , 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a. .c c e n t
6 6 / 2 , 1 . . . . . . . . .........+.f f ( ? )
6 6 / 8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .+. . .a. .c c e n t
1 0 0 /1 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .ac
. cent
1 0 4 /1 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .ac
. cent
I 0 5/5 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . dim .
T 2 5 / 2 , 3 . . . . . . . . .....+. . .s t a c c .
L ? 0 /.L ,1. . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . s t a c c .(? )
1 3 2/8 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .ac
. cenr
1 3 3/ 4 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . +
. . .ac
. cent
I33/8, 1................
+ ff
Military
Drum/Triangle
- decresc.sign
47/I,2-3
l 0?/.?-4,1 ..........+ accents(?)
103/8-11,1 ........+ accents(?)
1 3 4 / 6 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . .-. .a. c c e n t
Tam-Tam
. - ppp
26/10
Xylophone
6 5 / 9 , 1 . . . . . . . . .......-. t r e m o l o
Timpani
2 7/ L , 1 . . . . . . . . . .........-t r i l l o
6 6 /9 , 1 ... . . . . . . . . . . .+ c r es c .
8 1/,7 , 1 ... . . . . . . . .......+. c op e rti
8 r / 9 , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . +. . p
1 0 3 /.2 -4 , 1. . . . . . . . . .+. . ac c e n ts(? )
I03/8-II,1 ..........
+ accents(?)
Harp
2 3 / t , 1 . . . . . . . . .......s./ r f
2 6 / 5 , 1 . . . . . . . . ......._.p
47/LI,1 ..............
L.H .: - trebl e cl ef
Cymbal
* * * * * t < * * * * * *
1 3 4 /5 ,1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. .ac
. cent
Dr. Glenn Block is the Director of Orchestras
at lllinois state university and Music Director of
the Youth Symphony of Kansas City (KS).
Tambourine
I 3 4 /6 ,1 .. . . . . . . . . . .-. .ac
.. cent
ttild rifi rFd ombhoorb1
fltn0ul s[tlJot
SYI'{PH3NY
No'6
r:l
o, !]
lnstrawentation
,_:l)
I ilinpl(
r n8t,!h
2 Clain.r
I to.il
in Ub
Rr;r (-larincr in Bq
Xr l,,fh{,n(
\
lt
llrrp
I
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lt
t11
)
t*\
53
Arts Medicine Centers
ResourceList
Dr. BarbaraPollack,ClinicalPsychologist
1945I\y Street
Denver,
co 80220
303/32r-6Dr
Theseclinicsand individualsprovideartsmedicine information and services. This list was
compiled with the help of the Centerfor Safety
in the Arts and the Intemational Afts Medicine
Association (AMA).
Illinois
* * * * * * * * * t !
Medical Program for Performing Artists
Attn: Alice Brandfonbrenner
The RehabilitationInstituteof Chicago
345EastSuperiorStreet,Room l'129
Chicago,IL 60611
312I908-ARTS(2787)
California
SoutheruCalifornia Arts MedicineProgram
3413WestPacihcAvenue,Suite204
Burbank,CA 91505
8r8/953-4430
Division of Performing Arts Medicine
EvanbrookOrthopedicand SportsMedicineAssoc.Ltd.
1.144
WilmetteAvenue
Wilmette,IL 60091
708/853-9'100
The ChiropracticR€sourceCenter
Attn: Bary Carlin
EleventhStreet
1.453
SantaMonica, CA 902101
3L0/393-8286
Indiana
Performing Artists Health Program
Attn: Peter Ostwald
SanFralciscoMedicalCenter,Universityof California
400Parnassus
Avenue,5th Floor
SanFrancisco,CA 94143
4L5/476-765
Performing Arts Medicin€ Program
IndianaUniversitySchoolof Medicine
541ClinicalDrive
Indianapolis,IN u16202
3r7/274-4225
Kentucky
Performing Arts Medicine Program
GlendaleAdventistMedicalCenter
1509WilsonTerrace
Glendale,CA 912)6
313/,109-8076
Arts'in'Medicine Program
The GenesisCenter,Departmentof Psychiatry
Universityof LouisvilleSchoolof Medicine
Louisville, KY 40292
502/588-7353
Colorado
Massachus€tts
HealthSciencesCenter
Attn: Stuart Schneck
Universityof Colorado
NeurologyDept/Box B 1.83
4200East 9 Avenus
Denver,CO 80262
3$/n0-7566
Musical MedicineClinic
MassGeneralHospital
1 Hawthorne Place,Suite 105
Boston,MA 02114
611/726-8657
5L
Performing Arts Clinic
BrighamandWomen'sHospital
45 Francis Street
Boston,MA 02115
6r7/732-s771
performing Arts program
JewishHospital
216South Kingshighway,3rd Floor KB
St. Louis,MO 63110
3L4/454_STAR(7827)
Manland
North Carolina
Performing Arts Medicine Program
BennettInstitutefor SportsMedicine& Rehabilitation
Children'sHospital
3835GreenspringAvenue
Baltimore, MD 2]^2ll-1398
410/69-mr5
Arts Medicine program
Duke University
Cdtural ServicesMedicalCenter
Box 3017
Durham, NC 27710
gLs/684_2027
National Arts Medicine Center
NRH RehabilitationCenter
3 BethesdaMetro Center,Suite950
Bethesda,MD 212ll-5356
30r/654-9160
BowmanGray School of Medicine
attn: David Goode
MedicalCentreBoulevard
Winston-Salem,
NC 27157-1087
919/716_2011
Michiqan
Newyork
Arts Health Interlock
WayneStateUniversity
UniversityHealth Center
4201St.Antoine, Suite4J
Detroit, MI
313/ 543-44L0
Center for Safetyin th€ Arts
Attn: AngelaBabin
5 BeekmanStreet,Suite1030
Newyork, Ny 1003g
NeurologicalConsultantsof Central Newyork
p.O. Box 505
5730Commonspark
Arts Medicine
MedicalRehabilitation
355BriarwoodCircle Drive
Dewitt, Ny 13214
313/998-7899
Mill€r H€alth Care Institute for performingArtists
St. Lukes/RooseveltHospital
425West59th Street,Suite64
New york, Ny 10019
Ztz/5n-6m0
Minnesota
Instrum€ntalArtists Hotline
SisterKenneyInstitute
800East28thStreet
Minneapolis,MN 55,107
6L2/863-4481
HarknessCenterfor DanceInjuries
Hospitalfor Joint Diseases
301East17thStreet
New york, Ny 10003
2r2/598-6022
Missouri
SimonHorrnstein
3655VistaAvenue
St. Louis,MO 63110
3L4/776-8100
C€nterfor OsteopathicMedicine
4l East42ndStreet,#200
New york, Ny 10017
212/685-8113
55
Philadelphia, PA 19104
21'5/525-3784
Institute of Rehabilitative Medicine
New University, School of Medicine
400 East 34th Street
New York, NY 10016
Arts Medicine Center
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
lLth and Walnut Streets
Philadelphia, PA 19101
2L51955-8300
ZLZ/263-6105
Performing Arts Center for Health
Mental Hygiene Clinic
Bellevue Hospital
400 East 30th Street
New York. NY 10016
212/561-N73
Pennsylvania Pain Rehab Center
Bailiwick #!2
Routes 3L3 and 6L1 Bypass
Doylestown, PA L890L
21.5/348-5104
Performing Arts Health Network
Radio City Station,P.O. Box 566
New York, NY 10101-0566
2I2l2M-0557; Fax 2121399-3009
Medical Center for Performing Artists
Suburban General Hospital
2705 DeKalb Pike. Suite 105
Norristown, PA I94OL
215/279-1060
Performing Arts Physical Therapy
Zl2lBroadway, #201.
New York, NY 10023
212/769-1423
South Carolina
Blythedale Children's Hospital
Attn: Vasoma Challenor
Department of RehabilitativeMedicine
Valhalla, NY 10595
The Vitality Center
St. Francis Hospital
L St. Francis Drive
Greenville, SC 29601'
914/592-7555
803/25s-r843
Ohio
Tennessee
Center for Orthopedic Care
2123 Auburn Avenue, Suite 235
Cincinnati, OH 45219
VanderbiltVoiceCenter
AvenueSouth,#2700
L50021"st
Nashville,Tlli' 37212-3102
(7467)
6rs 1343-SING
5r3l65r-0094
ClevelandClinic Foundation
Performing Artists Medical Center
9500 Euclid Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44195
Texas
Austin RegionalClinic
L301Wesr38rhSt.,Suite401
Austin,TX 78705
5r21458-4276
216/44-5545
Clinic for the Performing Arts
2651 Highland Avenue
Cincinnati, OH 45219
SportsArts Center
TIRR Institutefor RehabilitationandResearch
MoursandAvenue
1-333
Houston,TX 71030-3N5
7131799-5000
1-800-44REHAB
5r3128r-3224
Pennsylvania
International Arts-Medicine Association
3600Market Street
56
Washington
Hamilton, ON L9C 7N4
416/574-5444
Clinic for Performing Artists
Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Section
Virginia Mason Medical Center
1100Ninth Avenue, p.O. Box 900
International
ISSTIP/London Coilegeof Music
Performing Arts Clinic
London College of Music
Greater Marlborough Street
London, England W1V
Seattle,WA 98111
206/223-6600
Canada
center for Human performance and Heatth promotion
Sir William Osler Health Institute
565 Sanitorium Road
Music Medicine Clinic
The Conservatory of Bari
Bari, Italy
Books in Review
Max Rudolf, The Grammar of Conducting: A
comprehensive Guide to Baton Technique and
Interpretation,3rd edition (New york: schirmer
Books, 1993), 496 pp.,500+ musical examples,
drawings,indices,$40.00,ISBN: 0_02_TTZZZI_3
only, or that Maestro Rudolf would not prove
equal to the task,can be immediately laid to rest.
In a word, the Grammar'sthird edition is a winner.
For conductorsit is clearly one of the most significant publishing eventsof the decade.
Prior to Rudolf s Grammer, Hermann
scherch en'sHandbook of Conducting (1929) and
sir Adrian Boult's Handbook (rgzr) were perhapsthe most important twentieth-centurybooks
on conducting. Since Rudolfls first edition,
Benjamin Grosbayne's Techniques of Modern
orchestral Conducting (1973) and Frederick
Prausnitz' score and podium (19g3) have commanded respect. of the many conductingtexts
designedfor the college textbook market, Elizabeth Green's The Modern Conductor, now in
its fourth edition (1987), continues to be one
of the best. Brock McElheran's conducting
Techniquesis also of interest, though it lacks
the comprehensivnessof the previously mentioned books. But, in the opinion of many (the
present writer included), Rudolf s Grammar of
Conducting, now graced with the subtitle. A
Since its publication in 1950,Max Rudolfs
The Grammar of Conducting has been widely
regarded as the ranking text on the subject, the
standardagainstwhich all subsequentconducting
textbookswere measured. The secondedition,
which appearedthirty years later (19g0),was a
major revision of Rudolfs initial effort, greatly
expandedin scope and usefulness. News that
schirmerwasplanninga third edition wasgreeted
with equal parts of pleasure and amazement:
pleasure that an already standard-settingbook
would receive,the publisher promised,a careful
and thorough updating; and amazement that
Rudolf, who recently celebratedhis ninety-first
birthday,still possessed
the desireanclenergyto
undertake such a challengingproject. Any fears
that the revisionswould be of a cosmeticnature
5l
wieldy and negative one. It is also gratifying to
note that almost all gender-relatedreferencesin
the text have been removed, starting with the
opening sentenceof the Introduction. (The sec"The conductor . . . must
ond edition reads:
be
able to convey his intentions to his players by
"The
meansof gestures;"the third edition reads:
conductor . . must be able to convey musical
intentions to players by means of gestures.")
Although one can find an occasional sentence
where the masculinebias is retained(e.g.,p.427),
most instancesof patriarchal prose have been
rewritten. This thoughtful detail is not simply
an attempt to conform to political correctness.
We have all learned -- or should have, by now -that strength and authority have nothing to do
with gender. No matter how subliminal, every
gender-basedhindrance to a woman's success
as a conductor, assuming she has all the requisite talents of musicianship and personality,
must be removed.
While most of the material of the second
edition hasbeen retained in the third. Rudolf not
infrequently effects changes of wording or emphasis,evidencinga refining and updating of his
thoughts. For example,in the secondedition we
find: "One would not use 1-beat for the 4th
movement of Beethoven's First Symphony,although the metronome refers to the whole bar as
the rhythmic unit." (p. 2a7) In the new edition
Rudolf makes the samepoint by referring to the
Eighth insteadof the First, and he shareswith us
some of his recent research regarding
Beethoven'smetronome markings,writing,
Comprehensive Guide to Baton Technique and
Interpretation, has towered over them all.
A significant function of the Grammar's third
edition is that it embracescontemporaryconductingpracticesevenasitpreservesour linkto the socalled Golden Age of conducting. Rudolf is one
of the last European-trained masterswhose craft
was part of a legacybegun by Wagner and passed
on through Bi.ilow to Nikisch, Weingartner,
Strauss,Mahler, Walter, Szell, and many others
in that extraordinary generation of conductors.
Rudolfs thoughtful descriptions of the motions
of conducting, along with carefully drawn diagrams of the basic beat patterns (prepared in
consultationwith Szell), help to codify, preserve,
and extend to future generations that great tradition. A thorough knowledge of the standard
body of gestural language as developed and
refined by the great conductors is essential for
each of us, regardlessof one'spersonalconducting style. Thus, the importance of the Januslike aspect of Rudolfs book -- putting forth an
important visual language that simultaneously
draws from the past and looks to the future -cannot be underestimated.
The third edition has been revisedin several
important ways. The presentationof some material has been reordered. and now follows a
more pedagogically progressive arrangement.
The contents are divided into four major parts:
(I) BasicTechniques;(II) Applications;(III) Execution and Performance;and (IV) Interpretation
and Style. Additionally, the text has been expanded to include the results of scholarly
research of the past decade, not the least of
which is Rudolfs own series of articlespublished in this journal.
One would not use 1-beat for the 4th
movement of Beethoven's Eighth Sy-phony, although the metronome refers to
the whole bar as the rhythmic unit
(Beethovenmarked it (o = 84, because
his metronome did not provide a notch for
a pulse beyond 150).(p. 129)
A significant refinement occursin the area of
terminology. What was previously referred to as
"Non-EspressivoPattern" is now labeled,
the
"Neutral-Legato
much more felicitously, the
Pattern," thus a more accurate description has
replaced what previously was a somewhat un58
Sometimes, new thoughts are added. For example, in the section "Use of an extra beat"
(in the chapter on "starting after the count,"
p. 100)' the new edition adds an interesting and
helpful aside:
or class pianist's music rack. It is handsomely
produced and bound. Clearly, Schirmer has
sparedno expenseingiving this new edition its full
editorial support. The entire text hasbeen reset.
the musical examples have been engraved,
whether manually or by computer, and the layout
of the text and examples is clear and easy to
follow. Bravo!
A particularly valuable addition appears as
a new final chapter, in which Rudolf reminisces
on his long and productive career as a conductor
and conductingpedagogue. It is alwaysinspiring
to young conductors to sense how celebrated
predecessorswent about the difficult task of
building a career, and Rudotfs story is no exception. It is also interesting to see the names
of those from whom Rudolf learned, and to
sense the historical breadth of the legacy he is
passingon to us.
It is an astonishingachievement to have cov_
ered, as Rudolf does in this book, the multitudinous aspectsof conducting-- musical,technical,
artistic,theoretical,scholarly,physical,practical,
even psychological-- with such clarity and com_
prehensiveness.To accomplishthis Rudolf has
drawn from years of experienceas a major conductor and eminent teacher,enriching the prose
with the keen insights of a fine mind and the
elegant turns of phrase of an artful writer. The
new edition retainsthe impeccableprofessionalism of its predecessorsand assuresthe relevancy of this landmark study into the foreseeable future. It is, quite simply , a necessary
acquisition for the library of every conductor
who is seriousabout the art'
samuel Jones
Earlier in our century such extra beats
were hardly ever used. In fact, they were
considered unprofessional, an expedient
for amateur groups. In our days,how_
ever, even master conductorsdo not hesitate to make use of them [extra prepara_
tory beats] as a safety device to ensure
precise attacks.
Another example: the second edition referred
to a twenty-minute change in pacing of parsifal
by "a famous conductor" at Bayreuth in the
1930s;the new edition namesthe name (p.360).
A discussionof Weber,s Oberonoverture and
its relation to the completeopera,togetherwith a
thoughtful list of recommended reading are
,
someof the new entriesin the appendices,supplementing what was already an invaluable treasure
store of practical advice. The new general index
is a bit scanty, but considering the previous
edition had no index at all, it is a decided improvement. (Both editions provide full indices
of the musical examples.)
There are several interesting changesin the
editorial layout and format. All musical examples
now give the measure numbers from the scores
which they quote. And the musical examples
themselveshave an improved systemof numbering, making it easierto find examplesreferenced
in other parts of the text. Those who have used
this text in the classroom,as I have, will readily
appreciate the convenienceof these changes,as
well as a changein the overall dimensionsof the
book. The new edition is approximately one inch
longer and wid er, a feature that allows it to lie
openmore easilyon the studentconductor'sstand
Dr. Samuel lones is Professor of Composition
and conducting at the shepherd school of Music
at Rice University in Houston, Texas, and is a
past president of the Conductors, Guitd.
* * * * * x * * * *
59
whatever size as "orchesttal." Works without
strings that frequently appear on orchestral programs (suchasCopland' sFanfarefor the Common
Man) will not be found.
The compiler handles a second problem -who is an "American" composer -- flexibly, if
arbitrarily. He includes many composersborn in
other countrieswho spenta substantialamount of
time in the United States: for example, Henry
Brant, Ernst Krenek, Nicholas Slonimsky.Others
who are curiously absentinclude Erich Korngold
and Kurt Weill, composerswho left their marks
on those two quintessentially American institutions, Hollywood and Broadway, respectively.
(Weill even became a United States citizen.)
Perhapsit was the contamination of the commercial that ruled them out, though of course both
composedexcellentconcert music as well.
The starting date for composersborn "within
the last 100 years" is also not hard and fast.
Although the copyright date onAmeican Orchestral Music is 1992,thebookwas conceivedin 1988
and begun in earnest in 1989 as part of the
author's doctoral work at the University of Iowa.
That would seem to put the earliest date for
composersincluded somewhere bewteen 1888
and 1892. Actually, Koshgarian permits himself
to includecomposersborn a fewyearsearlierthan
that -- a welcomeinclusivenessthat will offend no
one, even though one can question why he includesl.ouis Gruenberg (born in 1884)and not
Charles Tomlinson Griffes (born in the same
year); why Wallingford Riegger and not Deems
Taylor (both 1885).
Koshgarian'sreply is that he was motivated in
part, and especiallyin the earliestyearstouched
on, by a desire to include composerswhom he
feels had been unjustly neglected. In fact, that
very intention led him to draw the line after the
birth datesof such paradigms of Americanism as
Gottschalk,MacDowell, Ives and Ruggles.It is an
entirely reasonableposition, though perhaps it
would havebeen wiser to expressthis criterion in
Rich ard Ko shgar ian,Am erican Orchestral M usic:
A Perfoffnance Catalog (Metuchen, NJ & London: Scarecrow Press,,1992), 762 pp., 572.50,
ISBN: 0-8108-2632-1,
Sincethe large ASCAP and BMI catalogslast
appeared in the late 1970s, a void developed
which has now more or less been filled by a new
publication from Scarecrow-- a publisher that can
be counted upon to produce charmingly off-beat
music books such as the recent MusicJor Threeor
More Pianists and The Keyed Bugle.' The newcomer is Richard Koshgarian's bibliography, a
volume that is hefty in more ways than one: it
weighs more than two pounds, costs more than
$70,and is a significantcontribution to the profession. While the price may prevent it from occupying the bookshelvesof many struggling conductors, it is reassuringto know that it exists,and will
doubtlesssoon be found in the referencecollections of most university or large city libraries.
The work lists over 7,000orchestralpiecesby
some 900 American composers,born within the
last 100 years,more or less. Concertos,choral
works,and vocal solosaccompaniedby orchestra
are included,asare piecesfor chamberorchestra
and string orchestra. Operas,stagedworks, film
scoresand ballets are not included, "unless the
composerpersonally sanctioneda concert performance of such a work." There are. however.
numerousoperatic arias listed.
Determining who and what should be includedin sucha broad work is a task fraughtwith
peril. Generally the bibliographer has a gut
feeling of what to include,but then must develop
criteria that fit the concept. Thus Koshgarian
defined anywork that involvesa string sectionof
1
Readers of this journal will be alarmed by
Scarecrow's subversive 1988 title Conducting
Made Easy fo, Directors of Amateur Musical
Organizations.
60
the title or subtitle (suchasAmeican orchestral
Music:A PerformanceCatalogforcomposersBorn
since 1883).As it stands,a first-timeusermaybe
confoundednot to find Ives or MacDowellin a
book on Americanorchestralmusic.
Another composerunaccountabry
missingis
GeorgeGershwin,thoughhe appearsto meetall
the criteriagivenfor inclusion.RichardRodgers
might alsohavebeen included;his slaughteron
TenthAvenue andcarouselwaltz are valid concert pieces.Koshgariansayshe deliberatelyexcludedone of the most-performedof all Americancomposers:
LeroyAnderson(a student,interestinglyenough,of Enescuand piston). That
shouldcauseno alarmamongusers,whoprobably
will not be turningto thisbook for popsmaterial.
The instrumentationis listed in a variant of
thecustomary
formulaunderstoodbyconductors.
one potentialfor confusionis that the numbers
aren't separatedby spaces.Thuswhen symbols
for auxiliary instruments are employed, the
reader could easily misread Koshgarian,s
"3*3x2*3" "3 *3 *2 x3.',
as
ActuallyKoshgarian
intends"3* 3* 2* 3" (i.e.heputsthesymbolafter
the number rather than in its more customary
positionbeforethe number.) This is madeperfectly clear in the introduction,but still might
causea problemfor the casualuserwho is accustomedto the more familiarmethod.
Publishers
areindicatedbyabbreviations,
and
a key is given in Appendix E. Koshgarianhas
includeda gooddealof musicthatisunpublished,
and therefore Appendix F gives addressesof
about200individualcomposers
(includingsome,
curiously,who do havepublishers).The listed
worksof eachcomposer
arearrangedchronologicallywherepossible.This makesfor interesting
browsing,but canbeannoyingwhensearching
for
a particulartitle amongthe works of a prolific
composer-- Hovhaness,
for instance,
goeson for
eight-and-a-half
pages.Anotherminorirritation
is that the runningheadsof composers'
names
(like the guidewordsin a dictionary)are at the
insidecorner of the page,where they are harder to
spot.
Appendix A liststhe entire contents,classitied
by duration (5' or less,6, to 10,,etc.), and subdivided within each classificationby the size of the
orchestrarequired (large,medium, small, cham_
ber orchestra,or string orchestra). Thus if one is
looking for, s&y, an American opener of five
minutes or lessfor a chamber orchestraprogram,
turn to p. 587 and -- voild! -- there are six candidates. If you think the "small orchestra,,category
might also work, there are more like ninetv-six
possibilities.
Appendix B listsworks for various solo instruments with orchestra. where the number of
works is large (e.g. piano solos), Koshgarian
subdivides them into useful smaller categories
such as duration and sometimes even orchestra
size. For example, there are six piano concertos
for medium orchestra that are more than thirty
minutes long. All this subdividing is carried out in
a practical way that is neither rigid nor pedantic.
The author clearly understandswhat information
the program-builder needs,and has constructed
his book so that it can be found easily. A few
minutes spent leafing through these appendices
will reveal their logic better than my description.
Koshgarian uses a similar organization for
Appendicesc (vocal soloists,including narrator)
and D (chorusesof varioustypeswith orchestra).
As a bibliographer myself,I am well aware of
the enormity of the task Koshgarian undertook.
This is the sort of work that is never really complete -- never perfect. The inclusionsand exclusionsare alwaysgoing to trouble some and offend
others. And of course,the moment sucha book is
offered for sale it is already out of date. In spite
of all this, that Koshgarian has perseveredand
producedawork that fills a seriousgapis causefor
rejoicing and gratitude.
David Daniels
David Daniels is Music Director of the Wanen
61
the languages are: 1. International Phonetic
Alphabet symbols and Pronunciation; 2. Nouns,
Pronouns and Prepositions;3. Verbs, Indicative
Mood, Prefixes and Summary (other verb forms
and verbs frequently encountered in musical
scores and vocal literature); 4. Adjectives and
Adverbs; 5. Sentence Structure (prepositions,
conjunctions, and additional pronoun forms);
6. Word order in sentence structure (interrogative and relative pronouns); and 7. Additional
Characteristics of Verbs (subjunctive and conditional moods). Of course, there are slight
variations allowing for the idiosyncrasies of
each language.
Also noteworthy are the exercisesat the end of
most sections. These include pronunciation,
alphabet, pitch names, opera titles, names of
musical instruments. cardinal and ordinal
numbers, times of day, days of the week, months
of the year, and the seasons.In addition, nouns
in vocal literature, research questions,and several sets of translation exercisesare provided
for each language.
Besidesits intended use as a classroomtextbook, Modern Languages fo, Musicians will
serve as a fine one-volume reference book for
college teachers of basic foreign language
grammar, and for those who teach vocal diction
in the classroomor private studio. It will assist
in developing enough expertise to translate
moderately difficult texts such as art song,
Lieder and opera texts for singers,coachesand
Symphony and the Pontiac-Oakland Symphony
in Michigan, where he is also on the faculty of
Oakland University. He is currently at work on
a third edition of his Oncursrnnl Mustg also
published by Scarecrow Press.
* * * * * * * * * *
Julie Yarbrough, Modent Languagesfor MusiNY: PendragonPress,L993),
cians(Stuyvesant,
499pp.,$54.00,ISBN#: 0-945193-06-8
In the Foreword of Modern Languagesfor
Musicians,author Julie Yarbrough statesthat
the book is ". . . designedto make languages
both practicaland applicablefor musiciansby
transformingthe symbolsand soundsof languagethrough relevantmusic terminologyinto
a functionalskill." Faithful to her description,
approachto basic
sheutilizesa comprehensive
grammarin German,French,and Italian, with
emphasison the benefit of theselanguagesfor
musicians.
Althoughthere is a completeexplanationof
pronunciationfor each language,the thrust of
grammaticalstructurewith
the book emphasizes
a goal of reading and translatingmoderately
difficult texts. From this standpointthe book,
which is really three manualsin one volume,
is encyclopedic.
Indeed German,French and Italian are the
not only
mostfrequentlyusedforeignlanguages,
by operaand concertsingerswho regularlystudy
andsingforeignlanguagetexts,but by musicians
in all of the art's disciplines. The book could
readilybeusedfor an advancedhighschoolclass,
or, better still, as a college text for a course
concentratingon basicgrammarfor music studentsor for thosewith a stronginterestin music.
The organLzationof structural elements is
excellentlypresented.The divisionsfor eachof
conductors.
As is often the case,the work could havebeen
more carefully proofread prior to publication;
severalminor errors were present in my review
copy. However, one error was repeated
throughout the book: a misspellingof the word
"principal" as in "principal parts of verbs" that
"le" instead of "a1." Certainly
concludeswith
such errors will be corrected in subsequent
printings of the book. However, Modern Lan'
62
guages
for Musiciansshould be a valuabreasset
for English-speaking
musicstudentsandteachers
wishingto improvetheir fluencyin three
of the
world'sgreatlanguages.
RaymondFriday
Dr. Raymond Fnday ,s professor of Vocal
Music at West Chester (Jniversity(pA).
* * * * * * { < * * x
victor Rangel-Ribeiro and Robert Markel,
chamber Music: An Internationar Guide
to
worl<sand rheir Instrumentation (New york:
FactsOn File, Igg3),352pp., $+S.OO.
ISBN 0_
8160-2296_8
Most conductorsregularly consult one
or
more publishedlistsof musicliterature. There
are now many such compilations available,
includingonesspecializingin literature for
orchestra,chamberensembles,
chamberorchestra,
and so on. Even so, tinding the right work
for
the nextconcert,amongthe bewilderingmass
of
titles in print' can be a dauntingtast. A
new
book, giving a differentset of choicesand
arrangedin a cleverway,may be a welcome
addi_
tionalresource.The title underscores
the book,s
valueto chambermusicplayers,but conductors
of chamberorchestrasand wind ensembles
will
alsofind it useful.
Title notwithstanding, the compilers
of
chamberMusic had to set limits when-selecting
worksfor inclusion.Rangel-Ribeiroand Markel
electedto bypassthe solo and duo literature
as
well as compositionsfor groupsof identicalinstruments,three violins or four horns, for
ex_
ample.Th"y did list "chamber"worksfor combinationsof up to twentyinstrumentalparts. Thus,
a string sectionhaving first and secondviorin,
viola, cello, and bassparts countsas only five
instruments, even though a work such
as
63
Wagner'sSiegfied ldyil (p.214), would
normally
be performed by severalstring playersper part.
It
seems that the compilers attempted to
restrict
their book to true chamber music by
weeding
out most titles which imply orchestral performance, such as ,,symphony" and ,,concerto.,,
Hence, no Haydn or Mozart symphonies
are
included, but many chamber orchestra
works
do appear, for instance Siegfried ldylt,
Virgil
Thompson's Four Saints (p. 205), and
Wolf
Ferrari' s Kammersymfonie(p. 2ZI).
The compilers searched cataloguesof
more
than a hundred American and European publishers, and then added those out-of-print
works
which they judged to be significant. ihe
result is
nearly 8,000 titres from the sixteenth
century to
the 1990s.while this is an impressiveand
usefur
collection, it does have some limitations.
A
number of obscureworks were included
simply
becausethey happenedto be availablewhen
the
researchwasdone. The readerwill have
to decide
exactly how bothersome the presence
of such
works actually is. The more serious problem
is the compliers' omission of many woithwhile
works. Selectionssuch as Schubert,sEine
kreine
Trauermusik, available in several
modern
editions, some Mozart Divertimenti, and
nearly
all of Percy Grainger,schamber music, to
name
a few, are missing. The probrem of these
missing
works by celebrated composers is pointed
out
simply to alert potential usersthat this very
good
book should not become their only resource
for
chamber music.
one of the book's greatest strengths is its
format. Each page contains a grid designed
to
help the reader'seyesmove smoothly acioss
the
page from left to right as well as from
top to
bottom. The names of listed compositions,
ar_
rangedalphabeticallyby composer,appear
along
the left sideof the page.Acrossthe top of tf,.
page
appear categoriesof information, such as year
composed/published,k.y, duration, and specific
Unquestionably, Chamber Music provides
much useful information in a convenient format. Unfortunately, not all data is provided for
eachwork cited. The first sectionof the book lists
music composed before circa 1800. There are
hundreds of entries in this section, but a duration is given for only one work! In the second
section,from circa 1800 to the present, very few
entries include both key and duration. When a
work is available in many editions, a code for
"various publishers" is given, but without a
single publisher's name being listed. The usefulness of the book would have been significantly enhanced had a Publishers' Glossary
been included and cross-referencedto each
entry under copyright as well as many lesserknown works in the public domain.
Despite a few lacunae, Chamber Music rs a
very helpful, well-organrzed reference tool.
Anyone planning chamber music or chamber
orchestra concerts would likely benefit from
perusal of this volume. Libraries with music
collections,large or small,would be well-advised
to place this book on the referenceshelf.
John Jay Hilfiger
instruments.Numbers or letters are placed on the
grid in appropriate spacesunder specific headings. Thus, if a composition requires three trom"3" appearsin the "trombone"
bones,the number
column on the line opposite the title. The works
are listed by composer and title. For example,
moving down the left-hand side of the pageunder
"Enesco,Georges" (p. 86), one would
the entry,
find "Dixtuor, Op. 14." Reading from left to right,
one learns that the work was composed and/or
published(we are not told which) in 1906,is in the
key of D, lasts26 minutes,callsfor an ensembleof
2 flutes, oboe, English horn, 2 clartnets,2 bassoons,andZhorns, and is availablefrom Editions
Salabert. One can work in the opposite direction
aswell. The wind ensembleconductor could scan
the pageto find a work having clustersof numbers
on the right side (the area listing wind instruments)but is blank in the center of the page (the
string area) to find, for instance, Max Reger's
(p. 170) for pairs of flutes, oboes,
Wind Serena"de
clarinets and bassoons,and four horns. A chamber orchestraconductorwould look for clustersof
numbersin both the string and wind areasof the
page to find sucha work as Milhaud's L'Homme
et son d€sir (p. 150). One can also search for
various keyboard instruments, guitar, harp,
voice, percussion,and several others, including
early instruments. With a little practice, works
having a specificinstrumentation can be located
quite easily. If an unusual instrument, e.g.
celesta or mandolin, is included in the score,
a note giving the instrument's name appears
after the title. A note also follows the title of a
work which requiresa conductor,but suchnotes
are all-too-infrequent. Does the lack of any
indication to the contraryindicatethat ensembles
p erform ing Siegfie d I dyll, Schonber g's Kammer symphonie(p. 183), and many other compositions of orchestral proportions, can dispense
with conductors?!'
John Jay Hilfigens Assistant Professor of
Music at the University "f Wisconsin Center Fond du Lac and Music Director of the Fond
du Lac Chamber Orchestra.
* * * X ( * * * * * *
Humphrey Carpenter, Beniamin Bitten: A
Biography(New York: CharlesScribner'sSons,
7993),617 pp., photographs,indices,$30.00,
19569-0
ISBN:0-684Throughoutthis book a multitudeof sources
makethe point that BenjaminBritten(1913-76),
despitebeingthe subjectof public scrutinyand
64
controversy throughout his life, was nevertheless a private and enigmatic character. Humphrey Carpenter, a highly regarded biographer
whoseprevioussubjectsinclude W.H. Auden and
J. R. R. Tolkien, meticulously set about interviewing dozensof Britten's personal and professional associates,culling information from numerous press notices and writings about the
composer and his works, and, most importantly,
sifting through volumes of Britten's personal
diaries and correspondence. The challengewas
to assemble this wealth of information into a
readableprosewhich revealsto the reader-- in an
interesting fashion -- a complete portrait of the
man, his life andworks. To alargepart,the author
succeedsadmirably in his task,but for the professional musician, more concerned with Britten's
musical corpus and professional milieu than
lengthy speculativeanalysisabout his psyche,this
exhaustivework may be less satisfyingthan one
would hope.
The book comprisesfour parts, four appendices, and two indices. Of particular interest to
musicians will be Appendix A, & chronological
list of Britten's compositions, and the second
index, that of Britten's works as they appear
in the text. The first two parts devote much
attention to the developmentof Britten's sexuality, a topic which, in this reader's opinion, is
weightedtoo heavilyin the text. The second-hand
psychoanalysisand relentlesssearch for sexual
overtonesin the least significantof Britten's activities as a strugglingyoung composer in London negatesthe fact that Britten was at the time,
quite frankly, an immature, naive, "momma's
boy," a socialand political neophytewho was no
matchfor the leftist, openlyhomosexualgroup of
friends with whom he associatedat the time.
Glimpsesof his musical influences,including an
adoration of Beethoven,Berg and Mahler, and
a strong dislike of Brahms and many of the es-
tablished British composersof his day, such as
Vaughan Williams and Walton, are just that:
tossedoff declarationsthat are frequently out of
context and without explanation.
The secondhalf of the book, which represents
the period of Britten's mostprolific and successful
musical output, is far more satisfactory for the
musicianfreader, including as it does several
excellent analysesof Britten's major works. Of
specialinterest in this segmentis the fact that for
many of his more celebratedworks,includingThe
Rape of Lucretia, Peter Gimes , Billy Budd , Turn of
the Screw, and Death in Venice, not only was
Britten the composer,but an active participant in
all aspectsof casting,rehearsalsand the premiere
performances as well. Three generous photo
sectionsenhancethe biographyby providing the
reader with facesto accompanynamesfrequently
mentioned in the text.
On the whole Benjamin Bitten: A Biography
is a credit to Humphrey Carpenter's skills as a
researcher and author. To gain a more wellrounded perspectiveof Britten's personalityone
might do well to consult the diaries of the subject, housed in the Britten-Pears Library in Aldeburgh,or the two-volumesetof selecteddiaries
and letters of the composer edited by Donald
Mitchell (Britten's own choice for his personal
biographer) and Philip Reed, published in lggl
by Faber and Faber. Conductors and performers of Britten's music can certainly profit by
making judicious use of the works' index, to
focus on those practical and pertinent pieces
of information that address the genesis of
Britten'sworks.
Judy Ann Voois
ludy Ann Voois ,s Executive Secretary of
the Conductors' Guild, Inc., a woodwind instrument instructor and freelance bassoonist in
Southeastern P ennsvlvania.
65
Letters to the Editor
To the Editor:
Benda (1722-1795), and on several occasions
consideredcomposing a melodrama himself.
I agree with M. Marty about the graduated
tempos in the G minor Allegro Interlude which
beginsin triple time and later changesto duple -Allegretto ( ) - 100),Andante, Piil andante,Piil
adagio,Allegretto,Adagio -- and I observe them.
I believe M. Marty's negative judgment of
Gebler's text on a theme from Sturm und Drang
may be extreme,because,if well-played,its concise five acts might play effectively in a staged
version.
My reference to the near Beethoven-like
I am pleased to offer some comments on the
soundlyprovocative letter written by Jean-Pierre
Marty concerningmy brief guide to Thamos(Vol.
12,Nos. 1 &.2).
First, an apology: as the author of Mozart: A
Guide to Researcft(New York: Garland, 1989) I
was unable to include a reference to M. Marty's
comprehensive The Tempo Indications of Mozart
(New Haven: Yale [Jniv. Press,1988).I did refer
to his book prior to conducting a recent performance of.Thamos, a work I first conducted in the
1960s.Also, I reauditionedthe splendidrecorded
performance of Dr. Bernhard Paumgartner,one
of my revered mentors. I agree that for the most
part the tempos I selectedare slower than those
recorded by Dr. Paumgartnerand recommended
by Maestro Marty. Nevertheless,I do believe my
tempos reflect authenticity and logic. A number
of distinguished scholars have recommended
brisk Mozart tempos and have offered useful
guidelines. The reason these guidelinescannot
be etched in stone include the widely varied
dramatic situationswhich theatre works embody,
as M. Marty realizes. The musical elements do
not exist in a vacuum, especially if one takes
into accountthe characterof various scenes.
I am aware that the use of spoken text greatly
enhancesperformancesof works suchasThamos,,
L'Arlesienne, Peer Gynt, Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme, etc., although I have some reservations
"narrators." In ll
l S Mozartwrote of
about using
admiring Medea and Aiadne,, successfulmelodramasby the CzechoslovakiancomposerGeorg
(21210
orchestral
sonorities
12,21213,timpani,
strings)wasdeletedin the editorial process,which
alsoproducedshorteneddescriptionsof the various changing moods, perhaps causing them to
appear overly simplistic.
I agree with M. Marty's outline of Mozart's
compositionof the Thamosmusic. (I includedthis
information in the program notes of my recent
"complete" performance,
copies of which are
availableto any interestedparties). I understand
precedent for the use of K.161a as Overture is
likely rather than proven; and I know that
K.161a was also used in productionsof Pliimicke'sLanassa.
I acceptthe "spirit" of M. Marty's comments,
"letter" which infusedmy recentperformbut the
ance of. Thamos in a church seating about 900
seemedto fulfill the work's destiny. Beyondthat,
a number of musicians and conductors have
"Guide"
toward renderingan
thanked me for the
appropriate performance, even if it is only a
guide, not a blueprint.
66
proved by making "'piano-borne' the second
movement of the Second Concerto,, by
Tchaikowsky. It would be more accurate to
describe Siloti's well-intentioned, albeit misguided, effort to make the score more "rewardi.tg" as a mutilation.
One of the more drastic alterations Sitoti
initiallyproposedwasto shift the placementof the
first movement cadenza,,to which Tchaikowsky
responded,"my . . . hair stood on end at your
idea.
." Siloti's revised, sharply truncated
version of the concerto was eventuallypublished,
the most egregiousaspectof which is the butchery
of the unorthodox secondmovement. Tchaikowskyoriginally conceivedthis expansivemovement
in a large A-B-A form, a virtual triple concertofor
piano, violin and cello. In eliminating about half
of the music, Siloti evisceratedthe distinctive
roles of the solo violin and cello, and reducedthe
movementto little more than a double statement
of the main theme. The larger formal design of
the whole concerto was thereby skewed,
producing, among other anomalies,an odd and
unsatisfyingsequence of movement lengths: a
gargantuan first, followed by a rather brief
secondand third.
Fortunately,most current performancesand
recordingshave returned to Tchaikowsky'soriginal score,revelingin its grandeur and large-scale
sweep;Siloti'seditorial methodology,like that of
so many others who honestlyintended to "help"
a composer,is being relegatedto the archivesand
library shelves. Alexander Siloti was a truly
distinguishedartist,but his work on this concerto
does a disserviceto both editor and composer.
As a matter of record, in addition to referring
to Mozart's letters, and The Tempo Indications of
Mozart and its bibliography, I consulted writings
by Hans Albrecht, Harold Heckman, Alfred Orel,
H.C. Robbins Landon, and Max Rudolf in his
superbdiscussion of Le nozzedi Figaro (JCG,Vol.
11,Nos.3&4).
When we note that Mozart liked fast but not
"scrambling"
finales, let us remember that
"speed"
can be suggestedby lightness and staccAto, and that relative speed is probably more
important than actual speed. Thus, rather than
trying to bring Mozartto modern audiences,I try
to bring modern audiencesto Mozart (and indeed
make the same kind of effort for every composer
whose works I conduct). For well over three
decadesI have used various procedu res:stacca/os, subtle rubatos, dynamic variations and contrasts, (particularly in repeats, and when indicated), etc. Sometimesmy approach has been
modified by the acousticsof a particular hall. In
sum,I do agreethat certainMozart temposcanbe
absolute,while others must be determined and
influenced by "circumstances."
Yours faithfully, for full discussion of and
devotion to the Music of Mozart. and others.
Baird Hastings, Music Director/Conductor,
Mozart, Festival Orchestra (lr{Y).
* * * * * * * * * *
To the Editor:
In his otherwisesplendidarticle, "Lost in the
Stars:A Forgotten Career in Conducting" (Vol.
12, Nos. 3 & 4), Charles Barber unfortunately
perpetuatesthe misconceptionthat the eminent
pianist and conductor, Alexander Siloti, im-
Michael Boiskin, pianist, Danbury , Connecticut
67
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