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Climate Change
and the Internet
Global Access
to Global Issues
Handbook for
Focal Points from
Least Developed Countries
Climate Change
and the Internet
Global Access
to Global Issues
Handbook for
Focal Points from
Least Developed Countries
Brief History of the Internet
How does it work?
How do you get connected to the Internet?
What services are offered?
How is the information classfied?
What are the benefits of Internet?
Tools that you can use
What is an Internet homepage?
How to surf smartly?
Safety against virus is a must!
General information on computer terminology
Technical ICT acronyms
UNFCC secretariat resources
The Global Environment Facility
The World Bank
Other UN organisations
LDC Climate Change websites
Some Non Annex I countries’ climate change websites
Some Annex I countries’ climate change websites
Research networks/NGOs’ climate change websites
Scientific glossaries
he purpose of the manual is to inform the UNFCCC National Focal Points as well as the Climate
Change Teams in countries on how to communicate through the Internet, access information on
the Web and efficiently utilise information on climate change available on different servers, including the
UNFCCC website. The publication is the result of joint efforts between the UNITAR Climate Change and
Information Technologies Programmes, in cooperation with the Secretariat of the UNFCCC and support
of SAFEL, the Swiss Agency for Environment and Landscape.
Special thanks to Janos Pasztor, Kevin Grose, Sharon Taylor and Mamadou Diakhite from the UNFCCC
Secretariat, Michael Williams from UNEP, Ajay Mathur from the World Bank, Avani Vaish from the GEF
Secretariat, Richard Hosier, Rose Diegues and Jamil Bonduki from UNDP, Peter Prembleton from
UNIDO, Jocelyn Fenard, Ron Valerio and Christina Ulardic from UNITAR for their contributions. Odile
Ambry, Pascal Renaud and Annie Roncerel edited translated the manual into French. Brandon Turner
edited the English version.
Printed copies are available at UNITAR and the document is also accessible on the UNITAR website.
Geneva, April 2002
UNDP/GEF Global Enabling Activity GLO/01/G33
Annie Roncerel UNITAR, Project Manager
he Internet is the end result of a long
research and development history that
was possible thanks to a combination
of computer networks and an accommodating
telecommunications infrastructure.
hub, as defined in 1964 by the researcher
Paul Baran. In 1972, 37 laboratories were
connected through what is now known as the
ARPANet. This network used data transmission
technology by packet that was then improved
by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn and finally gave
birth to the Internet Protocol (IP).
In the early seventies, major companies
(particularly banks) developed extensive
computer networks, some of which crossed
the Atlantic. However, these first networks
were centralised: their terminals could only
access databases and sometimes, more rarely,
send electronic messages to other users on the
network. At that time, a network comprised
computers and servers and never extended
beyond 100 users, as a global cross-network
connectivity did not exist.
In 1984, the US National Science Foundation
(NSF) launched a programme aiming at sharing
super-computers among several universities,
thanks to a bandwidth of data that was
considered a high-speed rate of transmission
(56kbs) at that time. The “Transmission
Control Protocol” (TPC) was chosen by
NSFnet as a reference for the overall network
and constitutes the backbone of what is now
called the Internet.
An ever increasing growth of computer
networks operating in an autonomous way
made it imperative to define a communication
standard. Such standards were called protocols.
These first network protocols were “owned”
because they were developed by and for a
company, or a type of computer and were
protected by patents. The first “non-owned”
standard that enabled the connection of a
large number of computers was the “data
communication network by packet”. By the
end of the seventies, its use had spread to most
industrialised countries.
It was finally the creation of the “World Wide
Web” that enabled the Internet to become
what we are familiar with today. Invented at the
CERN (European Centre of Nuclear Research)
in Geneva, by Tim Berners-Lee in 1991, it was
meant to facilitate access to heterogeneous
databases that were spread amongst the various
physics laboratories throughout the world. This
discovery showed great potential and as a result
became the major standard for multimedia.
Thanks to CERN, a few years later, the Internet
reached out beyond the academic world to the
general public.
The French application of this protocol to the
“Minitel” system, which enabled networking
heterogonous computers to other terminals,
was the first synthesis of the current knowledge
in this field. With Minitel, users were connected
through inexpensive, easy to use terminals that
allowed to access an information service (e.g.
railways, airline companies or public services
information) without having to worry neither
about the type of connection nor the type
of computer at the other end. In the early
eighties, several million Minitels were online
in France and in several other French-speaking
countries. This was the first real electronic
network made available to the general public
at a modest price and it took another 15 years
before the Internet definitively replaced it.
The openness of the Internet, publication
of its standards and methods, availability of
free Internet software and free access to its
“codes sources” have considerably stimulated
creativity and innovation. For example, new
services such as “news” (NNTP) and mail
lists (Wais, 1990) were quickly added to the
basic Internet services such as electronic mail,
transfer of file and remote access (through
Telnet for Terminal Network).
The growth of the Internet was, and still is,
exponential. In 1999, there were more than
143 million users worldwide, connecting
universities, governments, businesses, NGOs,
and individuals.
In parallel, in the early seventies, the Advanced
Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S.
Military Services tested a network of computers
linked neither with concentrator nor central
The same year, UNDP estimated that more
than 700 million people would be connected
to the Internet by 2001 (UNDP, Human
Development Report, 1999).
Today, the Internet is a public, cooperative, and
self-sustaining facility accessible to hundreds
of millions of people worldwide. Physically, it
uses public telecommunication networks to link
computers around the world to each other, each of
them being attached to a local computer network
system. Hence the expression, the “network
of networks”. From an institutional point of
view, several international volunteer bodies are
managing it. The IETF (the Internet Engineering
Task Force, a subset of the ISOC - Internet
Society) is managing the protocols TCP/IP.
The W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)
is in charge of multimedia standards used by
the Internet and the ICANN (the Internet
Corporation of Assigned Names and Number)
is managing the allocation of domain names
and IP addresses. Any new standard TCP/IP
is published in a series of papers called “RCF”
(Request for comments”) and classified by
consensus after review by these instances.
rom a technical perspective, the Internet is still
characterised by the set of TCP/IP protocols
(Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet
Protocol) as defined earlier.
IP address interpretation
Every computer linked to a network has an IP
address, or an Internet number. It consists of four
sets of digits, ranging from 0 to 255, separated
by dots or periods. For instance,
is the IP address of the UNITAR Internet server.
Although IP addresses, such as the UNITAR one
listed above, are well understood by machines,
they are meaningless for users. Therefore, a
corresponding alphanumeric Domain Name is also
assigned to help users remember an IP address in
order to communicate with other computers (i.e.
send email or access an Internet site).
Communication protocols
TCP/IP, the basic communication language used
by the Internet, is a two-layered software:
The higher layer, the TCP, manages the
assembling of a message or file into smaller
packets that are transmitted over the Internet
and received by a TCP layer that reassembles
the packets into the original message.
For example, www.unitar.org corresponds to the
IP address This system is called
the Domain Name System – or DNS – which
is the code used by the Internet to locate and
translate IP addresses.
The lower layer, the IP, handles the address
part of each packet so that it reaches the right
Each gateway computer on the network checks
this address to see where to forward the message.
Even though some packets from the same
message are routed differently than others, they
will be reassembled at the destination.
he minimum set of requirements to surf the
Internet is a computer attached to an Internet
entry point (i.e. a service provider) via a telephone
line and a modem.
line is very important. However, some technical
solutions can correct mistakes and remove noise
and disturbances.
Assuming that the Internet entry point is in your
local area, you will not need to pay for an intercity
or international call, but for a local call. This
Internet connection will provide you with access
to the entire world through your local connection.
You are responsible for paying the ISP rate agreed
upon, but you do not pay additional costs for the
time spent while surfing the Internet.
Internet Service Providers
An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a company
that enables access to the Internet. Once you sign
up for a dial-up account to an ISP (usually though
a subscription), you will be able to communicate
through the Internet and use the services they
offer, such as email and Internet access. You will
be provided with email and browser software
to load onto your computer. ISPs also provide
numerous other Internet related services, such as
domain name registration and website hosting.
Dedicated lines
A dedicated line is a telecommunication path
between two points that is available 24 hours a
day for use by a designated user (individual or
company). Unlike dial-up lines, it is not shared
in common among multiple users. A dedicated
line can be a physical path owned by the user or
rented from a telephone company, in which case it
is called a leased line. A synonym is non-switched
line (as opposed to a switched or dial-up line).
A modem (MODulator DEModulator) is a box
(internal or external to your computer) that
translates numerical signals from your computer
(zero or one) into sounds that are acceptable for
an ordinary telephone line.
Before the existence of ADSL technology (see
next paragraph), this kind of line was the only
possibility available to obtain permanent access to
the Internet at a special fixed rate. Such lines are
often used in “cyber cafes” and other places where
the Internet is publicly accessible.
The flow – or bandwidth – determines the speed
at which data circulates through the modem and
the telephone line. The first modems had very
low bandwidth (300 to 1200 bit per second – or
bps). Today, even 2400 bps modems has become
obsolete. 14.4 Kbps (kilobit per second) and 28.8
Kbps modems were the intermediate step towards
systems and networks with higher bandwidth.
Since 1998, most personal computers on the
market are equipped with 56 Kbps modems
(which is the maximum for an ordinary telephone
Using a “Digital Integrated Services Digital
Network” – ISDN adapter – instead of a
conventional modem allows carrying up data at
a much higher speed on an ordinary telephone
wire. ISDN offers a set of standards for digital
transmission over ordinary telephone copper wire
as well as over other media. It is only available
in some countries and some cities. Home and
business users who install an ISDN adapter
(in place of a modem) can see highly graphic
webpages arriving very quickly (up to 128 Kbps).
Since ISDN requires adapters at both ends of
the transmission, your access provider also needs
an ISDN adapter. In some countries, ISDN
is available from phone companies in urban
areas. This new technology is available in most
developing countries.
Connecting to the Internet via telephone lines
The modem must be connected to a telephone line
to dial up your ISP’s computer network. Linking
to the ISP network results in your computer being
connected to the Internet. As with telephone
services, your ISP will offer many different plans
and charging regimes from flat rates to blocks of
time. You must find the plan that works best for
you according to prices that are offered and your
specific needs.
It is always better to connect to the Internet on
a direct telephone line through an automatic
connection system because the quality of the
new technology, ADSL (which stands for
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) offers up streaming bandwidth from 128 to 256
kbps, when your computer sends data, and down
streaming bandwidth from 500 kbps to 1 Mbps
(megabit per second) when your computer receives data. The asymmetric component means
that downstream traffic (data that is loaded on to
your computer from the Internet) is significantly
faster than your upstream (data that is uploaded
to the Internet or another computer via the internet from your local computer).
server locally, ADSL is an ideal solution for residents and small businesses. One of the benefits to
ADSL service is that it runs over an existing phone
line, separating the data traffic from the voice. This
means that you can be connected to the Internet
and downloading at the same time you are on the
phone speaking. In order to utilise ADSL technology, users must meet some technical qualifications.
Qualification is limited to those that are within approximately 18,000 feet of their telephone Central
Office (the location where the local switching
equipment is held). For this reason, ADSL services
are only available in urban areas, provided by a few
ISPs. Installing this kind of technology requires
changing local telecommunication infrastructures
(central and hub-switchers).
Since most home users and small businesses are
primarily concerned with retrieving information
from the Internet rather than running a web
Electronic mail
World Wide Web
lectronic mail (email for short) is the exchange
of computer-stored messages through
telecommunications. Email messages are usually
encoded in ASCII text. However, you can also
send non-text files, such as graphic images and
sound files as attachments sent in binary streams.
Email was one of the first uses of the Internet and
is still the most popular use. A large percentage
of the total traffic on the Internet is composed of
email messages.
ll resources and users connected to the Internet are using Hypertext Transfer Protocol
– HTTP. This is what is called the World Wide
Web. HTTP defines a set of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and
other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.
HTTP is an application protocol compatible with
the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Hypertext is a new
form of text where dynamic links allow traveling
from one place to another – on the same page, to
another page (or file) on the same site, or to a different site. Hypertext allows users to take a nonlinear path by jumping from one site to another.
Email can be distributed to lists of people as well
as to individuals. A shared distribution list can
be managed by using an email reflector. Some
mailing lists allow you to subscribe by sending a
request to the mailing list administrator.
File Transfer Protocol
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard method
used to exchange files between computers
connected to the Internet.
Like HTTP, which transfers displayable
webpages and related files, and the simple mail
transfer protocol (SMTP), which transfers
email, FTP is an application protocol that uses
the Internet TCP/IP protocols. FTP can be used
to transfer information such as files or webpages
that you have found or created and stored on
your local computer hard drive to your ISP’s
server where they can be viewed and accessed
worldwide. This is called uploading a file to the
List server
A mailing list administered automatically is called
a list server. A list server – mailing list server – is
a program that handles subscription requests for
a mailing list and distributes new messages,
newsletters, or other postings from the list’s
members to the entire list of subscribers as they
occur or are scheduled. A list server should not
be mixed up with a mail server, which is the
system handling incoming and outgoing email for
Internet users.
server. FTP is also commonly used to download
files and programs to your computer from other
servers around the world.
These services will be developed under the
WWW section. (see page 19)
• New Generic Domains
Uniform Resource Locator
A Uniform Resource Locator – the URL is the
address of a resource, or file, available on the
Internet. The URL contains the protocol of
the resource, the domain name for the resource
and the hierarchical name for the file (address).
For example, in the URL, http://unfccc.int/
resource/library/index.html the beginning
part, “http://”, provides the protocol, the
main domain is “unfccc.org” while the rest, “/
resources/library/index.html”, is the pointer to
the specific file on that server.
Internet Service Provider
International Organisations
Military institutions
Governmental institutions
In the domain name, http://www.undp.org/, the “org”
part of the domain name reflects the purpose of the
organisation or entity (in this case, a non commercial
organisation) and is called the top-level domain name.
The “undp” part of the domain name defines the
organisation or entity and is called the second-level
domain name.
• Generic TLD
Non-Commercial organisation
The second-level domain name (DNS for Domain
Name System) is in fact the “readable” version of
the Internet address. On the Web, the domain
name is that part of the URL that tells a domain
name server using the DNS (Domain Name
System) whether and where to forward a request
for a webpage. The second-level domain name is
the “readable” version of the Internet address.
A Top-Level Domain – TLD is the portion of
a URL or Internet address that identifies the
general type of Internet domain, such as “com”
for “commercial,” “edu” for “educational,” and
so forth. Where appropriate, a top-level domain
name can be geographic. Currently, most nonU.S. domain names use a top-level domain name
based on the country. TLDs have been grouped
in classes:
The Second-Level Domain Name
Top-Level Domain
Commercial Sector
• Other TLD Exclusively For The USA
Looking more closely at the domain name, one
can see how it provides a meaningful and easy to
remember alphanumeric combination to help the
user locates the address that they are seeking. It is
composed of a top level and second level domain.
On the Web, the domain name is that part of the
URL that tells a domain name server using the
DNS (Domain Name System) whether and where
to forward a request for a webpage. The secondlevel domain name is the “readable” version of the
Internet address.
In the domain name, www.undp.org, the “org” part of the
domain name reflects the purpose of the organisation or
entity (in this case, a non commercial organisation) and
is called the top-level domain name. The “undp” part of
the domain name defines the organisation or entity and is
called the second-level domain name.
National TLD for Least Developed Countries:
Burkina Faso
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Sao Tome and Principe
Democratic Republic of Congo
Sierra Leone
Equatorial Guinea
Solomon Islands
Guinea Bissau
United Republic of Tanzania
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
ompared to other mail services, email has
many benefits.
time. Moreover, you can create discussion
fora or listservers.
Faster: Email is often transmitted
Workable data: The message received
can be annotated, corrected, reedited and
eventually resent.
Asynchronous: It is not necessary that
correspondents are available at the same
Emails can be organised and retrieved
easily: Most email tools provide the
possibility to create folders to organise
your emails and include integrated search
Economic: Once you have subscribed to
an ISP, you pay your communication on
the basis of a local call whether you send
a message locally or to another part of the
Using Internet services requires specific tools that
normally come with your computer at the time of
purchase. You can also find the additional tools on
CD-ROMs. The section below describes some of
Allows improved communication
within a group: A message may be
explicitly sent to several people at the same
Email tools are software that establish a
mail servers in order to send or receive
emails and/or other multimedia documents.
Many of these tools exist, however this document
focuses on those integrated in browsers like
Netscape Messenger, or email providers such as
MSN Hotmail or Yahoo! Mail.
Insert this package of information
into an outgoing mailbox
The postal service must
Email is very similar to sending mail through the
post. The sender must:
Write a message including the
purpose and receiver’s name
Insert the message into an envelop
Write information on the envelop:
Sender address (street
address/email address)
Collect mail in the outgoing mailbox and
add a stamp with date and server name.
Transfer the mail
Transmit the package into the entering
mailbox (or inbox) of the receiver.
However, in the case of emails, the receiver can:
Receiver address (street
address/email address)
Open the ingoing mailbox at the
time he chooses; could also be
rung when the mail is arriving
“You have mail!”
Receive an overview of received mails and
open them one by one.
been elaborated called Simple Message Transfer
Protocol – SMTP. A SMTP message is a stream
of characters entailing two parts: the header and
the body
Email’s signature
A Message Transfer Agent – MTA – receives
messages over the Internet and delivers them
locally to receive or transfers them to another
MTA. In order that MTAs can exchange
information over the Internet, a standard has
t is important that the receiver of your message is provided with your full name, address
To: [receiver’s addresses]
Date: [when the message is sent]
From: [sender’s address]
Reply-To: [addresses where responses will be sent]
Subject: [purpose of the message (few words)]
Cc: [addresses where message is sent as a copy]
Bcc: [(hidden) addresses where message is sent as a copy]
Message-Id: [message number and references]
Dear Mr. Pasztor,
I thank you for your previous message. Please find my comments…etc.
Managing emails
and contact numbers (telephone, fax numbers as
well as your title and organisation). This facilitates
communication between worldwide partners that
cannot always identify you through your email
address only. Most software offers this an “email
signature” feature that attaches automatically includes contact details in each new message. Ask
your trainer about this feature in your email software and fill in the details. Usually, this option is
available under a menu called “preferences” where
you can choose the option “signature”. An example of the automatic email message signature used
by the person responsible for documentation and
library at the UNFCCC Secretariat is presented
sing your email often will generate a
long list of messages, and it will be very
important to manage them properly. Most email
tools offer this function; allowing users to create
folders and organise both sent messages and
received messages. Email tools also often offer
the possibility to create (and delete) sub folders
and to move messages to these folders. To store a
file/email message in a specific folder, select, cut
and paste (or drag) it to the desired folder.
It is also possible to attach one or several files or
documents to your email message. To do so (and
depending on the email tool available), find and
select the “attachment” option, which should be
located somewhere in the menu bar. A dialogue
box will open where you can browse your
computer to select the desired file or document.
Double clicking on the file will add it to the list
of attached document(s). You can then send the
email or return to the editing mode in the body
of the message.
Sharon Taylor
Information, Outreach and
Administrative Services
Climate Change Secretariat
Bonn Germany
Tel: (49-228) 815-1003
Fax: (49-228) 815-1999
File formats
dot (e.g. meetingletter.doc). Working under Microsoft Windows, the most common file formats
are the following:
ocuments that you might receive or wish
to generate and send can either be pure
text files, images, tables or a combination of the
above. Depending on the program that you are
using, these files will have different abbreviations
– file extensions – linked to the file name after a
To look up any file extension, you might wish to
visit www.filext.com. This website provides precise
information on the files presented in the following
table as well as many other file formats.
.txt – text file can be opened
in Notepad, WordPad, Word,
or many other programs
.xls – program that helps calculate
.wks – Lotus work sheet for
.doc – text file opened with
word, in particular MS-Word
.rtf – rich text file; saved
with this format, files can be
read by many other software,
including non-Microsoft
.zip – storage file space saving
.tif-Tagged Image File
.gif-Graphic Information File
.jpeg or .jpg- JPEG file format
.ai – Adobe Illustrator Vector Graphic
.pcx- PC Painter interchange format
.png- Portable Network Graphics
.tga -Targa file format
.bmp - Windows bitmap file format
.html or .htm – normal
webpage format
.pdf – ADOBE format to
disseminate (often lengthy)
documents while maintaining
their original layout regardless
of which computer or printer
is used
.wmf - windows metafile format
.pix - SGI/A/W image file format
General Addresses on the Web
to web servers throughout the Internet on behalf
of the browser user. The web browser software
establishes a communication connection with a
website that can download or retrieve for viewing
the requested webpage and/or file. There are
a number of browsers available on the market;
the leaders for PCs are Netscape Navigator/
Communicator and Microsoft Internet Explorer.
iles on the Web may be located by their address or as explained above by their URL. Using HTTP, the file address is composed of a server
name, a “second level domain” name, a “top level
domain” name, followed by the path within the
host computer.
What is an Internet homepage?
A file named “About-internet.html” in the sub/
directory “Climate Change” of the directory “training”
hosted on the “www” server domain in UNITAR
would have the following URL:
www.unitar.org/training/Climate Change/About-
For an Internet user, a homepage is the first
webpage that is displayed after opening the
web browser. It is usually preset so that the
homepage is the first page of the browser
manufacturer. It is also possible to select any
website of your choice. Any website address
can become your homepage if you preselect it. You may also prefer to not display
a homepage, in which case a blank space
(once pre-selected) will be displayed.
For a website developer, a homepage is
the first page presented when a user selects
a website on the World Wide Web. It is
basically the front door of the website that
will lead (down) to other pages stored in
a given directory and sub-directories on a
website. A slash (/) indicates the separation
between the different levels or directories
within a website content hierarchy. Each
webpage on a website has a unique web
address (URL) that can be accessed directly.
Therefore, you do not need to go through
the homepage each time you wish to access
pages on a website, but rather you can
access the desired page directly using the
subdirectory indicated with a slash (/). To
be understood by a browser, a webpage has
to be written in a standard language such as
“HTML” (see next paragraph)
website is a related collection of web files
that include a beginning file known as the
homepage. A company or an individual tells
you how to get to their website by giving you
the address (URL) of their homepage. From the
homepage, you can get to all the other pages on
their site.
The homepage address of the website of UNEP is
www.unep.org. This homepage address actually leads
(via links) to hundreds of other pages.
Warning: As the term “site” in website implies
a geographic location, it can sometimes be
confused with the concept of a server. A server is
a computer in a network that is used to provide
services (such as access to files or shared peripheral
or the routing of electronic mail for one or more
sites), whereas a website, with one address only,
may be spread over a number of several other
servers that are situated in different geographic
Hypertext Mark-up Language
yperText Mark-up Language is the set of
“mark-up” symbols or codes inserted in a
file intended for display on a World Wide Web
browser. The mark-up tells the web browser
how to display a webpage’s words and images
for the user. HTML produces a description of a
page document that can be displayed or printed
independently of material configuration. A webpage in HTML format may be seen on every
browser is an application program that
provides a way to view and interact with all
the information on the World Wide Web. The
word “browser” seems to have originated prior
to the Web as a generic term for user interfaces
that let you browse – i.e. navigate through and
read – files online. Technically, a web browser is a
client program that uses HTTP to make requests
help you find what you are looking for. You can
brand of computer equipped with a web browser.
However, each web browser displays a webpage
according to the capacity of the computer and the
specific user configuration. Therefore, the same
webpage will not be viewed in the same way on
every computer depending on personal settings.
HTML version 4 developed by the W3C (World
Wide Web consortium: www.w3.org) is the official standard. However, most of the browsers can
also understand other versions.
By subject directories or catalogs
By indexes
By keywords
By meta-searching across multiple search
Tips for using search tools in general
hyperlink is a portion of text or an image (also
called icon) that, once selected by clicking
with a mouse, will automatically display another
web document. A hyperlink may point towards
another section of the same page, another page
on the same site, another website (which can be
located anywhere in the world), or launch a script
or an application.
Creating an Internet homepage (using
If you want to create your own homepage – by
applying html – free software is available on the
Internet explaining this program and provides
useful tips. You might put your own climate
information on the Web and therefore create
your on your own webpage. Entire package
can be downloaded for example under the
following addresses: www.virtualmechanics.com
(IMIS Web Dwarf – file size 4.73mb) or under
www.web-studio.cjb.net Web Studio 3 – file size
832kb). Various other tools and software can be
downloaded under www.downloads.com.
Use more than one search tool. No
single search tool keeps track of all
the content on the Web.
Read about the search tool before
you use it. Most search tools have
a link to information on how the
search tool compiles and searches
through information and how to
get the best results.
Be specific. For example: if you
search for the phrase “greenhouse
“greenhouse gas”, your search will
yield fewer sites, but they will be
focused on emissions and not just
greenhouse gases.
Use “advanced research” functions
(e.g. combinations or associations
of keywords).
How to surf smartly?
Searching the Internet will take you from one
page to another, by simply clicking the underlined
(or active) link with your left mouse button. That
means that you might follow a path that takes you,
for example, from the UNFCCC homepage, via
different links, to UNEP Nairobi, the University
of Wisconsin and Greenpeace International.
ecause the amount of information available
on the Internet is growing exponentially, it
can be difficult to find what you are looking for
in a timely manner. Search tools exist to help you
to find exactly what you need. There are a variety
of tools available to suit the type of search you
If you do not know the address of a site that you
want to visit, or if you are looking for information
on a specific subject, you can use search tools to
What if you wish to revise the information
you just went through?
on a page, and to the frequent recurrence (up to
a certain limit) of a word on a page. Each of the
search tools uses a somewhat different indexing
and retrieval scheme (which is likely to be treated
as proprietary information) and each search tool
can change its scheme at any time.
One option is to navigate back and forth using the
arrow directory in the upper left hand corner of
your browser. However, it may also be desirable
Look at different pages at the same
· By subject directory
Access a page that you have previously
At the first level are very generic subject directories
allowing you to access more accurate and detailed
sub-directories. Subject directories are best used
when looking for broad information on a topic,
for example “global warming”. Some people
prefer to use a subject directory as a starting point
for a web search. Subject directories use subject
specialists to classify web documents into subject
classification schemes or taxonomy. Related sites
are linked together under a subject category,
even if these sites do not use the same words
to describe their content. For example: global
warming, climate change, and greenhouse gases.
General subject directories such in a tool such as
Yahoo (www.yahoo.com) post information on
global warming under the heading: Environment
& nature. Specialised directories such as Climate
Ark (www.climateark.org) provide listings and full
text searches of climate change websites (see page
34 for more details)
Different pages or documents can be shown
on your monitor at the same time. If you wish
to open a new window, click your right mouse
button on the chosen link and select the option
“Open in New Window”. You then might go
back to the previous page/window and “jump”
from one page to another. The same procedure
might be applied to your Internet search. You
can also save a webpage that you found while
surfing in order to read the page content at
any time without having to be connected again
(i.e. online).
However, be aware of the fact that when viewing
a saved page offline – although it may still be
scrolled – it will not be possible to surf any further
since all links are disconnected from the server.
Managing Favorite Websites
· With a search engine.
An alternative to saving pages is to save web
addresses. If you want to retain the address
of a website for future reference or speedy
future access, it is useful to store its address in a
“Favorites” or “Bookmarks” list (depending on
the browser used). To open one of your favorites
addresses, go to “Favorites” and simply click on
the saved address.
earch engines use a “robot”, which looks
through millions of webpages with the aim
of building databases of contents. The robot will
then follow the links of each page already indexed
in order to create sub-indexes, and so forth. Most
people use a search engine when they are seeking
specific piece of information. “I need information
on global warming and Small Island Developing
States”, for example, is a double query. Using a
search engine will allow one to search for web
documents relevant to specific words or terms.
Search engines will then use “spiders” or “robots”
to go to the web, find individual webpages listed
in its indexes related to search and present them
to the users.
More about surf tools
Most, if not all major search tools contain software
that works towards indexing the entire content
of the World Wide Web. Once a site’s pages
have been indexed, the search tool will return
periodically to the site to update its index. Some
search tools give special attention to words in the
webpage’s title, in subject descriptions, keywords
listed in HTML META tags, to the first words
These robots are modules of code that have
different approaches. Some place emphasis on
keywords located in the titles of pages or on the
frequency of appearing words, etc. Some robots
• With Meta Search Engines
will create indexes of contents, and other will
develop indexes of significant expressions or
words. Some common search engines are:
Meta-search engines allow you to search across
several search tools at the same time without
having to separately enter the same query into each
search tool. Meta search engines such as Surfwax
(www.surfwax.com), Ixquick (www.ixquick.com)
or Metacrawler (www.metacrawler.com) should be
used when subject directories and search engines
do not provide you with satisfactory results. Other
common meta-search engines are:
Alta Vista – www.altavista.com
Yahoo – www.yahoo.com
Hotbot – www.hotbot.com
Google – www.google.com
Google – www.google.fr (in French)
Infoseek – www.infoseek.com
Ask Jeeves – www.ask.com
Fast-Alltheweb – http://alltheweb.com
In Alta-Vista, you can combine keywords with
“AND” (the search engine will search for all
documents containing all words that are associated
in your request) – for example, global warming
AND small island states – and with “OR” (the
search engine will search for documents having
at least one of the selected keywords). These
search engines allow more specific searches than
the subject directories. Many search tools now
offer both subject directory and search engine
options. The user can choose to browse through
the subject directories or initiate a search using
the advanced features of the search engine. To
effectively use search engines, you should always
read the instructions on how to enter words into
the search box.
Metasearch – http://metasearch.com
– is linked to Yahoo!, WebCrawler,
All4one – www.all4one.com – which is
linked to Yahoo!, AltaVista, Lycos and
The newest versions of browsers allow you to
access a range of search engines and meta-search
engines by clicking on a button.
The results of your search are then displayed with
or without order according to an order function
for specific pre-entered criteria.
To access a search engine, type in its URL
(address) in the location toolbar of your browser.
Type in the search field the words corresponding
to your search. The less precise or general the
word(s) you enter, the larger the number of
results (and the broader the content) the search
engine will provide. It is thus best to refine your
search, entering a more precise stream of words
by adding:
Safety against virus is a must!
How do viruses work?
computer virus is a program written intentionally to alter the way your computer
operates without your permission or knowledge.
A virus attaches copies of itself to other files and,
when activated, may damage files, cause erratic
system behavior, or display messages. Computer
viruses infect system files and documents created
by programs with macro capabilities. Some system
viruses are programmed specifically to corrupt
programs, delete files, or erase your disk.
• Several words having a direct link with
subject of interest
• Expressions qualifying your
• Logical relations between words
by combining searched items with
expressions such as “and”, “or”, “not”
also called “Boolean Operators”
• Upper case letters or accents
Macro viruses
Macros are simple programs that are
used to do things such as automate
repetitive tasks in a document or
perform calculations in a spreadsheet.
Macros are written in files created by
such programs as Microsoft Word
and Microsoft Excel. Macro viruses
are malicious macro programs that
are designed to replicate themselves
from file to file and can often destroy
or change data. Macro viruses can be
transferred across platforms and spread
whenever you open an infected file.
www.symantec.com – Famous and
widely used anti-virus software.
Evaluation version available on the
www.mcafee.com – Includes firewall
and anti-virus protection. An online
virus scanning service is available on
the website.
www.sophos.com – Includes gateway
and network protection. Offers a 30
day trial version from the website.
www.grisoft.com – Free anti-virus
software provided on the website.
Trojan horses
Trojan horses are programs that appear
to serve some useful purpose or provide
entertainment, which encourages you
to run them. But the program also
serves a covert purpose, which may be
to damage files or place a virus on your
computer. A Trojan horse is not a virus
because it does not replicate and spread
like a virus. Because Trojan horses are
not viruses, files that contain them
cannot be repaired.
Files backup
he ability of viruses to damage important files
and possibly lead to a complete loss of your
data or a total breakdown of your equipment are
not the only risks factors that you are faced with.
Mistakes or technical accidents (such as thunder,
fire, or your own error) can also produce very
unfortunate results. For all these reasons, any
work on your computer should be systematically
How do viruses spread?
virus is inactive until you launch an infected
program, start your computer from a disk
that has infected system files, or open an infected
document. For example, if a word processing
program contains a virus, the virus is activated
when you run the program. Once a virus is in
memory, it usually infects any program you run.
Viruses behave in different ways. Some viruses
stay active in memory until you turn off your
computer. Other viruses stay active only as long
as the infected program is running. Turning off
your computer or exiting the program removes
the virus from memory, but does not remove the
virus from the infected file or disk. That is, if the
virus resides in an operating system file, the virus
is the next time you start your computer from
the infected disk. If the virus resides in a program,
the virus is activated the next time you run the
When you are using your computer for professional
purpose, it is recommended to save daily copies of
the files that you have modified and, if possible,
to store them in different locations. Finally, in
general, it is advisable to perform weekly and
monthly backups of your documents in order to
ensure that earlier versions are available.
I work on a file, mywork_01mar.doc, but have earlier
versions saved on a disc – or better, saved on another
computer – that are called mywork_28feb.doc, mywork27fev.doc, etc. If my doc01 mar.doc is destroyed by a
virus or by accident, I will at least be able to start working
with the previous version that is one or two days old. If I
notice that the virus was present the day before, I can ask a
technician for assistance before accessing the earlier file.
Anti Virus Software
It is worth noting that banks save their activities
for 15 days in three copies, kept in three different
locations. UNFCCC National Focal Points should
adopt a similar sense of caution.
n order to prevent this kind of risks, anti virus
software must be installed on your computer
and should be regularly updated. Most anti virus
software can also be downloaded.
In English:
In French:
In Spanish:
In Portuguese:
ASCII text
Text in “American Standard Code for Information Interchange” - It is the oldest
codification system that does not include any layout element. This code gives
numerical values for each letter, digit, punctuation sign or any other character. Such
a numerical code for each ASCII sign allows computers and software to exchange
A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of data in a computer.
A bit has a single binary value, either 0 or 1. Although computers usually
provide instructions that can test and manipulate bits, they generally are
designed to store data and execute instructions in bit multiples called
bytes. In most computer systems, there are eight bits in a byte. In telecommunication,
the bit rate is the number of bits that are
transmitted in a given time period, usually a second.
bites per second - It quantifies the size of the data stream that can be transported.
In most computer systems, a byte is a unit of data that is eight binary
digits long. A byte is the unit most computers use to represent a
character such as a letter, number, or typographic symbol (for example,
“g”, “5”, or “?”).
Domain Name System - Code used as equivalent to translate the IP address.
Fully Qualified Domain Name - The full Internet address.
File Transfer Protocol - A system using TCP/IP protocols to transfer files or webpages
between a local computer and another remote computer.
Hypertext markup language - Language used to write webpages. It allows adding to
the text layout codes, images and hypertext links. It also allows combining text with
pictures, sounds and videos that are linked together.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol - Application used in the World Wide Web to transfer
webpages on the network.
Internet Protocol - See TCP/IP.
Integrated Services Digital Network - Adapter that carries more information than a
conventional modem.
kilo bites per second - It quantifies the size of the data stream that can be
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol - Method used to transfer emails.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol - Reference to a series of standards
that allows communicating in heterogeneous environment.
Top Level Domain - Portion of the Internet address that identifies the general type of
the Internet domain, e.g. institutions.
Uniform Resource Locator - Address of a file available on the Internet.
his section provides a non-exhaustive list of useful links to websites related to climate change issues.
You should be aware that such a static list becomes quickly outdated. However, since access to
Internet remains a challenge in many Least Developing Countries due to technical shortcomings, such
a printed list can help you save time online by going straight to the addresses provided below that you
are interested in. As described in the technical part of the manual, you can select the most important
websites and save them in your own list of “Favorites” websites. In the longer term, the best source of
information remains the website of the UNFCCC Secretariat (See: Library on Line address page 24)
that is constantly updated and provides links to the most useful sites.
UNFCCC secretariat resources
When opening the UNFCCC secretariat website
(http://unfccc.int), you have direct access to
several sub-sections:
What’s new includes all the latest
additions to the UNFCCC website. It
is located at http://unfccc.int/wnew/
Basic background information includes
a guide to the climate change negotiating
process and climate change information
kit. It is located at http://unfccc.int/
Texts of the Convention and the
Kyoto Protocol includes the Status of
Signatories & Ratification, located at http:
UNFCCC official documents can be
found through a specialised search screen
located at http://maindb.unfccc.int/
library/. Tips on how to quickly locate
an official document are available on
this webpage. Official documents are
issued under a masthead bearing the UN
and UNFCCC logos and have a unique
UNFCCC document symbol. UNFCCC
document symbols (for example, FCCC/
CP/2001/6) begin with FCCC and
include designators for the relevant
Convention Body (e.g. “CP” for the
COP, “SBI” or “SBSTA” for one of the
subsidiary bodies, “SB” for documents
prepared for both subsidiary bodies)
and the year in which the document was
SBI meeting, usually in all six official
UN languages (Arabic, Chinese,
English, French, Russian, Spanish).
Post-session documents, normally the
reports of a session, are also available
in all six official UN languages.
In-session documents are available only
during meetings (CRPs, Ls, MISCs).
L documents are normally translated.
CRPs and MISCs are available only in
the original language of issue. Decisions,
recommendations and resolutions of
the Conference of the Parties (COP)
are contained in the second part of the
COP reports. The first part of the report
contains the report of the proceedings of
the session.
The following designators are used for both presession and final documents:
/INF. – This suffix denotes the
Information series. These documents
are not translated and are available in
the original language of issue for general
distribution. For example: FCCC/CP/
/MISC. – This suffix denotes
documents are not translated and are
issued on plain paper (without the UN
masthead) and are available for general
distribution. In the UNFCCC process,
submissions by Parties are normally issued
as miscellaneous documents. For example:
UNFCCC Official pre-session documents
are available before a COP, SBSTA or
/Add. – This suffix indicates an addition
of text to the main document. The
distribution category depends on the
parent document. For example: FCCC/
/Rev. – This indicates a new text
(Revision) superseding and replacing
that of a previously issued document. For
example: FCCC/CP/2001/L.27/Rev.1
/Corr. – This suffix denotes corrigendum
documents. It indicates modification of
any specific part of an existing document
to correct errors, revise wording or
reorganise text, whether for substantive
or technical reasons. Scope of circulation
depends on the parent document. For
Webcasts of meetings, including a
video archive of key meetings, press
conferences of UNFCCC, delegations,
NGOs, and selected side-events, are
located at
/TP. – This denotes technical papers. For
example: FCCC/TP/2001/2
/L. – This suffix denotes limited
distribution documents. They are usually
translated. The distribution in hard copy
is limited to those likely to be immediately
interested in the work of the body
concerned (however, these documents
are usually available on the secretariat
Session, workshops and meeting
information, including date and
location; agenda and daily programme;
contact information; documents and
other information, are located at:
/CRP – This indicates Conference
Room Papers, a category of in-session
documents containing new proposals
or outcomes of in-session work for use
only during the session. The distribution
in hard copy is limited to those likely to
be immediately interested in the work
of the body concerned (however, these
documents are usually available on the
secretariat website). For example: FCCC/
Calendar of submission deadlines,
upcoming events and other information
are located at
Press information, including the latest
headlines covering climate change issues
are located at
Secretariat information, including
vacancies, fellowship programme, contact
and other information, are located at
Nonpapers – In-session documents made available
informally to facilitate negotiations.
Issues in the negotiating process,
including information relating to
implementation of the Convention;
implementation of the Kyoto Protocol
and; institutional issues, are located at
Country information, including links to
national communications, national focal
points, in-depth reviews and national
climate change websites, is located at
Library online, including access to
the library catalogue and other sources
of climate-change related information
such as: glossaries, bookstores, journals,
directories, search engines and portals,
etc., is located at
as Progress Reports, Technical paper on coastal
adaptation technologies (FCCC/TP/1999/1),
and an external link to a pilot project to develop
additional webpages related to technology.
Information is located at
UNFCCC Workprogramme website
The Annex I Implementation subprogramme
is responsible for processing national communications of Annex I Parties and coordinating
in-depth reviews thereof and facilitating the exchange of information among Parties. These page
contain executive summaries of the first national
communications, in-depth reviews of the national
communications and the latest list of greenhouse
gas inventory submissions. Information is located
Methodologies and Tools to Evaluate Climate
Change Impacts and Adaptation. The decision
9/CP.3 requested the Convention secretariat
“to work on the synthesis and dissemination
of information on environmentally sound
technologies and know-how conducive to
mitigating, and adapting to, climate change;
for example by accelerating the development of
methodologies for adaptation technologies, in
particular decision tools to evaluate alternative
adaptation strategies”. As a first step to understand
the availability and current use of such decision
tools, an initial compendium of decision tools to
evaluate strategies for adaptation to climate change
was made. A form for making submissions is also
available on the site. Information is located at
subprogramme is responsible for facilitating
technical support and capacity building activities
relevant to the implementation of the Convention
by Non-Annex I Parties; supporting and followingup the negotiations of possible procedures to
be used in preparing and considering national
communications; and providing support on
matters related to the operation of the financial
mechanisms. Information is located at
Roster of Experts. The Subsidiary Body for
Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), at
its eleventh session (FCCC/SBSTA/1999/14,
para. 108 (b)), noted that the various rosters of
experts should respond to the evolving needs of
the Convention bodies. Instructions for updating
information and submitting new nominees are
contained on the page entitled “Guidance to
Parties: Updating of the UNFCCC roster of
experts”. Technical instructions on how to submit
the information electronically are given on the
page including instructions for online nomination.
It is located at
Details on the Activities Implemented
Jointly under the pilot phase (AIJ), including
background information, contact information on
Designated National Authorities for AIJ, a list of
projects, a project search function, documents on
methodological issues, the Uniform Reporting
Format and National Programmes on AIJ, and
UNFCCC documents relating to AIJ can be
found at
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). This
section of the UNFCCC website, which includes
background information and details on the CDM
institutions, description of project activity cycle in
CDM, and an NGO Kiosk, is located at
The climate change technology webpages
include information and documents related to:
the consultative process referred to in decision
4/CP.4, wrap up Bonn meeting of 7 June
2000, African Regional Workshop, Asia and
Pacific Regional Workshop, Latin America and
Caribbean Regional workshop, Submissions from
Parties, and TT:CLEAR (UNFCCC prototype
technology information clearing house), as well
Joint Calendar of Events relevant to the
United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC), the United
Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
(UNCCD) and the Convention on Biological
Diversity (CBD), is located at
the Earth Summit – is a major force in promoting renewable energy technologies and the chief
driver and catalyst among development agencies
through its three implementing agencies: the UN
Development Programme, the UN Environment
Programme, and the World Bank. GEF’s executing agencies are the UN Food and Agricultural
Organization, the UN Industrial Development
Organization, the African Development Bank,
the Asian Development Bank, the European Bank
for Reconstruction and Development, the InterAmerican Development Bank, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development.
2002 Responding to Climate Change Calendar
was published on the occasion of the tenth
anniversary of the signing of the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change. This
electronic version of the calendar complements
the printed calendar that was produced for
participants at the Seventh Conference of the
Parties held in Marrakesh in 2001. This electronic
calendar includes important dates in the climate
change process and is available at
LDCs’ webpages will be available soon and will
be located at
The GEF website – www.gefweb.org – includes a
collection of information on GEF climate change
activities. Click on Outreach and Publications, then
on Publications, for GEF thematic publications,
working papers, and monitoring and evaluations
reports on climate change. You can also click on
Documents, then on Work Programs, to find the
list of all GEF climate change projects organised
by year. This site is of course linked to all other
GEF implementing and executing agencies.
For more information, please contact:
GEF Secretariat
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
For more information please contact:
UNFCCC Secretariat
Martin-Luther-King Strasse 8
D - 53175 Bonn
Tel.: +1 202 473 0508
Fax: +1 202 522 3240/3245
Email: [email protected]
Tel +49 228 815 1000
Fax +49 228 815 1999
Email: [email protected]
UNEP provides a range of Web-based climate
change information. The UNEP.Net climate
change portal is the authoritative source of climate
change information used by UNEP and its
partners for integrated environment assessments as
part of the Global Environmental Outlook (GEO)
process – see http://climatechange.unep.net.
UNEP’s projects and involvement with the
Global Environmental Facility (GEF) are
described at www.unep.org/GEF/. Its energy
and technology transfer activities are presented at
www.uneptie.org/home.html (with translations
into French and Spanish). Public information
products – including a kit containing 30 fact
sheets on the science and politics of climate
change plus a Beginner’s Guide to the Climate
The Global Environment Facility
ollowing a three-year pilot phase, the Global
Environment Facility (GEF) was formally
launched in 1994 to forge cooperation and finance actions addressing four critical threats to
the global environment: biodiversity loss, climate
change, degradation of international waters, and
ozone depletion. Today, GEF is the designated
financial mechanism for international agreements
on biodiversity, climate change, and persistent organic pollutant. It also supports the work of global
agreements to combat desertification and project
international waters and the ozone layer. GEF
– the only new funding source to emerge from
Change Convention and the Kyoto Protocol
– are posted at www.unep.ch/conventions/. Vital
Climate Graphics on impacts and on emissions
trends are posted at www.grida.no/climate/.
Further information and links are available at
UNEP’s homepage, www.unep.org. In addition,
UNEP launched and now hosts the website of
the UNEP/WMO Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC), at www.ipcc.ch. This
website contains the full text and graphics for the
four climate change 2001 reports by the IPCC’s
Working Groups.
programmes include the following:
For more information, please contact:
United Nations Environment Programme
Information Unit for Conventions
International Environment House
15, Chemin des Anémones
CH - 1219 Châtelaine, Switzerland
GEF Small Grants Programme (SGP) was
established in 1992. It provides financial
and technical support to projects in
developing countries that conserve and
restore the natural world while enhancing
well-being and livelihoods, and demonstrates
that community action can maintain the
fine balance between human needs and
environmental imperatives. SGP links global,
national and local-level issues through a
transparent, participatory and country-driven
approach to project planning, design and
implementation. Additional information,
including contacts, can be accessed at
Programme (CDW). The CDW is one of the
major components of the new GEF outreach
and communications strategy. It focuses
on fostering an ongoing two-way dialogue
between the GEF and member countries,
and seeks to strengthen the grassroots
character of GEF’s work. See the CDW
for workshop materials, schedules, reports,
contact information, and other links.
GEF National Communications Support
Programme (NCSP). The NCSP was
launched by UNDP and UNEP, in cooperation with the Secretariat of UNFCCC,
and works with over 130 participating
countries from around the world to
provide technical support to enhance the
capacity of non-Annex I parties to prepare
their initial National Communications.
The NCSP website (www.undp.org/
cc/) provides information on training
materials, publications, models and data,
COP decisions, GEF documents, phase II
enabling activities, contacts, and links to
several national, regional and governmental
websites on climate change.
Tel:+41 22 917 8242 / 8244 / 8196 +41 79
409 1528 (cell)
Fax: +41 22 797 3464
Email: [email protected]
The United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP) – a trusted source of knowledge-based
advice and an advocate of a more inclusive global
economy – provides funds; helps developing
countries attract and use aid effectively; and
promotes South-South cooperation. It seeks
to address the many causes of poverty and to
promote development, and includes Energy and
Environment as part of its strategic focus (see
www.undp.org). For the period between 1965
and 2000, the UNDP’s Sustainable Energy and
Climate Change Portfolio reached a total of US$
1,651 million. Climate change work is undertaken
both through the UNDP’s participation with the
Global Environment Facility (GEF), and the
UNDP work on Sustainable Energy.
The UNDP-GEF website (www.undp.org/gef/)
highlights the US$ 669 million portfolio of GEF
climate change projects between 1991 and 2000.
The website provides project titles, descriptions
and allocations presented both by region and
project type. Also provided are GEF operational
policies, references, tools, and UNDP-GEF’s
corporate programmes. UNDP-GEF’s corporate
For more information, please contact:
304 East 45th Street
New York, NY 10017- USA
Tel.: +1 212 906 5004
Fax: +1 212 906 6998
production and energy efficiency. More recently,
with the advent of UNIDO’s more extensive
involvement in the Climate Convention
webpages on the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean
Development Mechanism were established to
present the results of the work on industry and
the CDM. The starting point for this information
is www.unido.org/doc/310797.htmls.
Email: [email protected]
The UNDP’s Energy and Atmosphere
Programme (EAP) was created in 1994 with
the objective of focusing UNDP supported
activities in the field of energy, linking energy
and environment, and energy and socioeconomic development, as well as looking
at how energy and atmospheric pollution
issues relate. It was recognised that energy
is essential to achieve development goals
focusing on poverty elimination. UNDP’s
Energy for Sustainable Development Group,
which started in 1997, focuses on support for
energy programme development, fundraising
and strategic initiatives showing energy
linkages with sustainable human development
(SHD). The website www.undp.org/seed/
eap/ hosts information on the concept
of sustainable energy; an overview of
UNDP’s contribution to climate change
policies, including the Clean Development
Mechanism and UNDP’s task force on
climate change; UNDP’s sustainable energy
projects; recent events; contact information;
and publications, including summaries,
ordering information and downloads
However, as this information grew, as a result
of the increase in network partners and project
activities, the information was moved into a
new Web-based search engine known as KNITT
www.unido.org/knitt/. Some background on the
application and some hints on searching can be
found at www.unido.org/doc/481791.htmls.
For more information please contact
Vienna International Centre
A-1400 Vienna - Austria
Tel: +43 1 26026/3705
Fax: +43 1 21346/3705
Email: [email protected]
The World Bank
Climate Change has emerged as a key concern for
the World Bank and its clients in the 21st century.
Sea level rise, warming temperatures, uncertain
effects on forest and agricultural systems, and
increased variability and volatility in weather
patterns are expected to have a significant and
disproportionate impact in the developing world,
where the world’s poor remain most susceptible to
the potential damages and uncertainties inherent
in a changing climate. The Bank seeks to help
the developing world benefit from the enormous
investments required by the developed countries
to combat this global problem – by incorporating
these considerations into its development
operations, advising clients on options, helping
promote sectoral efficiency and clean energy
alternatives and assisting its clients in adapting
to foreseeable impacts while seeking globally
equitable responses to the challenge.
For more information, please contact:
UNDP Bureau for Development Policy
Sustainable Energy Programme
304 East 45th St.
New York, NY 10017 - USA
Fax: +1 212 906 5148
UNIDO has been providing industrial energy
and environment information since the early
1980s, being one of the first UN agencies to
make extensive use of the World Wide Web,
originally posting the Environmental Awareness
Bulletin that ran for over five years. Subsequently,
UNIDO initiated the ‘Energy and Environment’
webpages, now available at www.unido.org/doc/
50285.htmls that includes technical information
on a range of industrial sectors covering cleaner
The Climate Change Team within the Bank’s
Environment Department coordinates the
strategic and projects-based dialogue on
climate change issues within the Bank and
provides technical support to the World
Bank–GEF Program. Further information
on key themes (mitigation, vulnerability and
adaptation), instruments (GEF, PCF and
NSS), and publications and other resources
can be found at www.worldbank.org/
projects designed to produce emission
reductions fully consistent with the
emerging Kyoto Protocol rules. Funded
under a public-private partnership with
companies and governments, the PCF will
develop high-quality emission reduction
projects, and build and share the experience
developed on investment decisions, baseline
determinations, and monitoring and
evaluation. (See: www.prototypecarbonfund
The World Bank and the Global Environment
Facility (www.worldbank.org/gef/) have
worked together over the last decade on the
development and implementation of over
100 GHG mitigation projects in energy
efficiency and renewable energy, mobilising
over $5 billion in total funding. This work
has been instrumental in opening up new
prospects for energy efficiency, distributed
supply, and off-grid service delivery, especially
in remote rural areas. It has also generated
key lessons of experience; namely that
policy reforms are essential for mobilising
private capital, fostering competition, and
promoting alternative approaches to energy
service, and that many cost effective options
for reducing GHG emissions in developing
countries also have substantial economic and
local environmental benefits.
The National Strategy Studies Program at
the World Bank (www.worldbank.org/nss/)
is a collaborative effort whose initial part was
launched in 1997 between the Government
of Switzerland and the World Bank. Its
objective is to provide a capacity building
assistance to the JI/CDM host countries
regarding the application of the Kyoto
Protocol flexible mechanisms that promote
trade of greenhouse gas emission reductions.
With Germany, Australia, Finland and
Canada joining donor support, the NSS
Program targets nearly 30 of the Bank’s
client countries and promotes the integration
of global climate change issues into their
sustainable development....
CDM Assist - The Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM, Art. 12 Kyoto Protocol)
allows developing countries to reduce their
emissions of greenhouse gases and sell the
related reductions to OECD countries at
a market price while benefiting from local
environmental improvements, technology
transfer and the generation of foreign
income. CDM has entered into a stage
of early implementation, but there is an
overall lack of regional balance with respect
to the involvement of African countries
in preparing for the CDM. CDM Assist
enhance Africa’s ability to attract CDM
projects and build capacity in Africa to
develop and manage such projects.
The Energy Sector Management Assistance
Programme (ESMAP) is a global technical
assistance program sponsored by the World
Bank and UNDP and managed by the World
Bank. ESMAP focuses on the role of energy
in economic development with the objective of
contributing to poverty alleviation and economic
development, improving living conditions,
and preserving the environment in developing
countries and economies in transition. Further
information on themes related to climate change
can be found at
For more information, please contact:
Prototype Carbon Fund - Recognising that
global warming will have the greatest impact
on its borrowing client countries, on July
20th, 1999 the Executive Directors of the
World Bank approved the establishment
of the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF).
The PCF, with the operational objective
of mitigating climate change, will support
The World Bank
1818 ‘H’ Street NW
Washington, D.C. 20433 USA
Tel.+1 202 473 1000
Fax +1 202 477 6391
Email: [email protected]
LDC Climate Change websites
Other UN organisations
CBD – Secretariat of the Convention on
Biological Diversity Montreal, Quebec, Canada
CITES – Secretariat of the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of
Wild Fauna and Flora: www.cites.org
FAO – Sustainable Development Dimensions:
www.fao.org/sd/index_en.htm (with French
and Spanish translations)
MP – Secretariat of the Multilateral Fund for
the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol
Montreal, Quebec, Canada: www.unmfs.org
Cape Verde: www.sepa-cv.org/clima/index.html
Haiti: http://unfccc.int/resource/ccsites/haiti/
Senegal: http://unfccc.int/resource/ccsites/
Tanzania: http://unfccc.int/resource/ccsites/
Zambia: http://unfccc.int/resource/ccsites/
Some Non Annex 1 countries’ climate
change websites
SIDS – Small Islands Developing States Unit,
New York, NY, USA: www.sidsnet.org/h.html
UN – World Summit on Sustainable
Development (UN official website): www.johan
UNCCD – Secretariat of the Convention
to Combat Desertification, Bonn, Germany:
UNESCO – Intergovernmental Oceanographic
Commission (IOC), Paris, France:
UNU – United Nations University, Global
Environment Information Centre, Tokyo, Japan:
UNITAR – United Nations Institute for
Training and Research: www.unitar.org
WCCMS – Secretariat to the Convention on
the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild
Animals, Bonn, Germany: www.wcmc.org.uk/
WHO – World Health Organization:
WMO – Global Climate Observing System
(GCOS), Geneva, Switzerland: www.wmo.ch/
Brazil: Ministry of Science and Technology and
Climate Change:
Cuba: www.centre.unep.net/Cuba/AMA/
Ghana: Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA): www.epa.gov.gh
Zimbabwe: http://unfccc.int/resource/ccsites/
Some Annex 1 countries’ climate change
Australia: www.brs.gov.au/greenhouse/
Austria: www.accc.gv.at
Belgium: www.environment.fgov.be/Root/
Canada: www.climatechange.gc.ca
European Community:
www.climnet.org/resources/resources.htm euenergy and the latest news on climate change
in Europe: www.climnet.org/news/news.htm
Mission Interministérielle Effet de Serre:
Agence française de Développement/
Fonds français pour l’environnement
mondial : www.ffem.net
Ministère de l’environnement:
USA Environmental Protection
Agency Global Warming:
USA Environmental Protection
Agency GHG Emissions database/
reports from Developed Countries:
Netherlands: www.nop.nl
United Kingdom: www.defra.gov.uk
New Zealand: http://aqdb.niwa.cri.nz/
Research networks / NGOs’
climate change websites
Switzerland: http://www.proclim.unibe.ch/
United States of America:
Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Global
Climate Change: www.cpacc.org
CDIAC Oak Ridge National
Laboratory, The Carbon Dioxide
Information Analysis Center
including the World Data Center
for Atmospheric Trace Gases: http:
Centre for Climate and Global Change
Research (Canada), McGill University,
Montreal: http://ww2.mcgill.ca/ccgcr/
Cicero: Center for International Climate
and Environmental Research, Oslo:
The primary global-change data and
information analysis centre of the
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE):
Climate Action Network: www.climnet.org
Climate Change and Human Health
Homepage (USA): www.psr.org/
Global Change Research Information
Office: www.gcrio.org/index.shtml
Global Change Research Program:
Climate Change Campaign WWF:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration: www.ogp.noaa.gov
Climate Change World Resource Institute
(USA): www.wri.org
The Ecological Society of America:
Climate Institute (USA): www.climate.org
Coastal Zone Management Centre (NL):
Global Change Master directory
NASA: http://gcmd.nasa.gov
Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands:
Global Climate Change Briefing
Book, Congressional Research
Service National Library for the
Environmental Defense (USA): www.environ
Environnement et Développement du Tiers
Monde Energie Programme (Senegal):
Environment & Societal Impact
Group (ESIG) of the National Center
for Atmospheric Research (NCAR),
Boulder Colorado (USA), created the
“Fragilecologies” website, a public
service to those interested in climatesociety-environment interactions:
ENWORK is a research development
organisation based in Islamabad (Pakistan).
The website www.envork.org is dedicated to
research on environment policies and project
development, in particular CDM projects in the
Asian region.
Global Climate Change Information
Programme, Manchester Metropolitan University
(UK): www.doc.mmu.ac.uk/aric/arichome.html
Global Climate Change, A review of
climate change and ozone depletion (USA):
Pew Center on Global Climate Change (USA):
RIVM, National Institute of Public Health and
the Environment (NL): http://rivm.nl
Sierra Club Global Warming and Energy
Program (USA): www.toowarm.org
South Pacific Regional Envrionmental
Programme : www.sprep.org.ws
Stockholm Environment Institute (Sweden):
www.sei.se (Stockholm office) and www.seib.org
(Boston office)
TERI (India) ,www.ccasia.teri.res.in
The Ultimate Heating Season, University
of Wisconsin (USA): http://whyfiles.org/
UK Climate Impact Programme:
World Climate Report: www.nhes.com
Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment
and Energy (Germany): www.wupperinst.org
Global Warming International Center,
Mississippi State University (USA): http:
Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and
Research, (UK): www.metoffice.com
Helio International Sustainable Energy Watch:
International Institute for Sustainable
Development (CN): www.iisd.org
International Union for the Conservation of
Nature: http://iucn.org
Natural Resources Defense Council, (USA):
Greenpeace International, www.greenpeace.org/
~climate/ (archives) and www.greenpeace.org/
%7Eclimate/climatecountdown/ (regularly
Acronyms related to science and government,
Free University of Berlin, Germany (More than
12,000 entries): www.chemie.fu-berlin.de/cgibin/acronym/
Eco-Portal search engine that allows users
to search the entire content of thousands
of environmental Internet sites: www.ecoportal.com
Climate and Development Acronyms, Climatic
Research Unit, University of East Anglia, UK
– The Tiempo Climate Cyberlibrary is an
electronic information service covering global
warming, climate change, sea-level rise and
related issues: www.cru.uea.ac.uk/tiempo/
Ecosustainable Hub is a comprehensive onestop web connection to resources and tools on
the environment and sustainability:
Climate Ark allows full text searches of climate
change websites: www.climateark.org – A MOST
Forest Conservation Portal provides a vast range
of rainforest, forest and biodiversity conservation
news and information:
The Climate Ark is the first of its kind portal and search
engine – integrating and making more accessible the
best-reviewed climate change and renewable energy news
and information on the Internet. The website is dedicated
to promoting public policy that addresses global climate
change through reductions in carbon dioxide and other
emissions, energy conservation, renewable energy sources
and ending deforestation. Climate Ark’s search engine
makes the entire content of the linked sites fully searchable
– over 100,000 URLs.
Glossary of Atmospheric Chemistry Terms,
provided by the International Union of Pure and
Applied Chemistry and the Environment Division
Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry, lists
scientific terms in alphabetical order, together with
explanations. Documents can be downloaded at:
The Climate Ark also features extensive links to current
climate change news that are updated several times daily,
a massive archive of non-permanent climate change news
(currently approximately 10,500 items over past 3 years,
provided for educational purposes), a collection of over 500
climate change and renewable energy links, opportunities
to take action, and a discussion forum. There is no
comparable site on the Internet.
Glossary of Climate Change Terms provided
by the Center for Sustainable Development in
the Americas (CSDA). Terminology used in the
international climate change regime are defined
with the source of each these definitions:
Climate Change Glossary produced by the
Cooler Heads Coalition formed May 6, 1997 to
dispel the myths of global warming by exposing
flawed economic, scientific, and risk analysis:
Glossary of International Climate Policy
Terms, International Climate Policy Research
Programme, Hamburg Institute of International
Economics, Neuer Jungfernstieg 21,20347
Hamburg, Germany:
Climate Change Glossary produced by the Tata
Energy Research Institute (TERI):
Climate Change Resource Glossary produced
by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
US Government:
Glossary of Terms Related to the Convention
on Biological Diversity:
International Development Acronyms
(USAID), acronyms and terminology:
ISO Country Codes (English & French) DIN
Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V., 10772
Berlin: www.din.de/gremien/nas/nabd/
Lourenco Barao da Costa
[email protected]
Sunil Kanti Bose
Fax +880 2 861
[email protected]
Jeanne Josette Acacha Akoha
+229 31 5058
[email protected]
Yangki T. Wangchuk Dechen
[email protected]
Burkina Faso
Mamadou Honadia
+226 31 2464
[email protected]
Ferdinand Nderagakura
+257 221649
[email protected]
He Khieu Muth
+85523 213 908
Tin Ponlok
[email protected]
Cape Verde
Manuel Leao Silva de Carvalho
+238 61 5716
[email protected]
Central African
Lambert Gnapelet
Moussa Tchitchaou
Fax +235 522031
Youssouf Hamadi
+269 736388
[email protected]
[email protected]
Republic of
Kasulu Seya Makonga
[email protected]
+243 34390
Moussa Ahmed Hassan
Fax +253 351020
[email protected]
[email protected]
+291 1120311
Tekleab Mesghena
[email protected]
Bekuretsion Kassahun
+251 1517066
[email protected]
Bubu Pateh Jallow
[email protected]
Toure Idiatou Camara
[email protected]
[email protected]
Guinea Bissau *
+245 202452
Malam da Silva
[email protected]
+509 2457585
Gabriel Nicolas
Moise Jean-Pierre
[email protected]
Karibaiti Taoaba
[email protected]
Lao People’s
Dem. Republic
Xayaveth Vixay
Bruno Sekoli
+856-21 218712
[email protected]
+226 317325
[email protected]
Lebohang Bulane
[email protected]
Randriassandratana Germain
[email protected]
Legend: Working languages
Fax +265773637
[email protected]
+960 324861
Mohamed Khaleel
[email protected]
Mama Konaté
[email protected]
Oumar Fall
[email protected]
Evaristo Florentina Baquete
+258 1465843
Marilia Telma Antonio Manjate
[email protected]
U Thane Myint
Than Htoo
[email protected]
Purushottam Kunwar
[email protected]
Janak Raj Joshi
[email protected]
Hassane Saley
[email protected]
Phocus Ntayombya
[email protected]
Sao Tome and
Adérito Santana
Violet Wulf
+239 1221975
[email protected]
Fax +685 25856
[email protected]
Legend: Working languages
Fatima Dia Toure
+221 8226211
Ndiaye Cheikh Sylla
[email protected]
Sierra Leone
Denis Lansana
+232 22226692
[email protected]
Solomon Islands
+677 21757
Chanel Iroi
[email protected]
Nadir Mohamed Awad
Fax +249 11
[email protected]
Richard S. Muyungi
[email protected]
Awadi Abi Egbare
+228 224836
[email protected]
Fax +688 20178
Poni Faavae
[email protected]
Phillip Gwage
+256 41233559
[email protected]
Johnson Naviti
Fax +678 22310
Rarua J. Nelson
[email protected]
Mohamed Said El-Mashjary
Fax +967 12073
Anwar Abdulaziz Noaman
[email protected]
Aongola Lubinda
+260 1229410
[email protected]
Legend: Working languages
he United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) was established
in 1965 as an autonomous body within the United Nations with the purpose of
enhancing the effectiveness of the United Nations through appropriate training and
research. UNITAR is governed by a Board of Trustees and is headed by an Executive
Director. The Institute is supported by voluntary contributions from governments, intergovernmental organizations, foundations, and other non-governmental sources.
UNITAR has the following functions:
To conduct training programmes in multilateral diplomacy and international
cooperation for diplomats accredited to the United Nations and national
officials involved in work related to United Nations activities.
To carry out a wide range of training programmes in the field of social and
economic development (training in the field of environmental management
has become the fastest growing sector of UNITAR’s work).
To carry out result-oriented research, in particular, research on and for
training and to develop pedagogical materials including distance learning
training packages, work books, as well as software and video training
To establish and strengthen cooperation with faculties and academic
institutions, in particular for the development of research on and for
Postal Address :
Palais des Nations
CH 1211 Geneva 10
Tel: +(41-22) 917 85 82
Fax: +(41-22) 917 80 47
e-mail: [email protected]
Street Address :
International Environment House
Chemin des Anémones 11-13
1219 Châtelaine, Geneva
website: http://www.unitar.org