SWISS LETTER MAIL TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES

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SWISS LETTER MAIL TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES
SWISS LETTER MAIL TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES
- THE CLASSIC PERIOD 1848 TO 1854 Introduction
and Switzerland and not between the foreign states and the
individual cantons. Under the new republic, the cantons still
This study deals with mail from Switzerland to foreign
destinations, prepaid with adhesive stamps. The period starts
when the Swiss cantons formed a Federal Republic in 1848
and ends with the withdrawal of the first federal stamp issue
on 30 September 1854. This period is referred to in Swiss
philately as the Classic Period, and is the timeframe when
had the right to self-government on local issues. The Federal
Postal Department under the republic was established on 1
January 1849. Since it was not possible to introduce new
uniform tariffs immediately, the canton tariffs remained in
effect for another several months until new treaties could be
executed. The first foreign postal treaties were:
the first foreign postal treaties between the Federal Postal
Administration of Switzerland and foreign states were
Executed
Effective
Country
executed, replacing the earlier Cantonal treaties. The Swiss
02.07.1849
01.09.1849
Austria
12.11.1849
01.07.1850
Belgium
25.11.1849
01.07.1850
France
stamps for the prepayment of foreign mail as of 1 January
21.10.1850
01.04.1851
Sardinia
1852, prior to that partial franking to border with some of the
23.04.1852
15.10.1852
German Postal Union
Postal Administration only granted permission to use postage
neighboring states was possible.
Recorded Destinations
We have so far recorded 713 letters from Switzerland either
partially or fully paid with postage stamps addressed to a
foreign destination:
Denmark
Great Britain
Permission to use adhesive stamps on Foreign Mail
Article 3. Swiss Postal Administration, 29 Christmonat 1851
With the introduction of new postage stamps- imperforated
1
10
Two Sicilies
38
Baden
79
Parma
26
Prussia
14
3
Belgium
1
Modena
92
Hanover
Netherlands
3
Austria
51
Hessen
Liechtenstein
2
Hungary
Russia
1
Lombardia
France
153
Venezia
2
20
1
Free Cities
11
Wuertemberg
49
3
Sachsen
3
1
Nassau
1
Schwerin
1
Sardinia
45
San Marino
Sitting Helvetia on 15 September 1854, the volume of fully
Papal State
46
Bavaria
prepaid foreign mail increased dramatically, since the new
Tuscany
14
Crimean War
1
India
1
values of 20, 40 and 100 Rp were conductive to prepayment.
USA
10
Mexico
1
Brazil
1
Postal Conventions
Organization
In 1848 the Swiss cantons formed a Federal Republic under a
The collection is organized by country and documents the
new federal constitution, thereby reaching a compromise
relevant postal treaties and routes. Included are about 90% of
between central control and cantonal authority. From this
all recorded rarities, collected over a period of almost 40
point, the postal agreements were between the foreign states
years. All letters have expert certificates (attached on back)
38
KINGDOM OF FRANCE
Cantonal Postal Treaty Basel-France: Rate Period 1.4.1848 – 30.9.1849
In 1823 the Nederlandsche Maatschappij Stoomboot (NSM)
began a Rhine river steamboat service, connecting Antwerp with
Rotterdam. Service was expanded already a year later to
Cologne. On 22 September 1825, the Grand Duchy of Baden
Rhine Steamship Company was formed offering passenger,
freight and mail service from Mannheim to Basel, Switzerland.
Competition was increased in 1826 when the Prussian Rhine
Steamship Company (PRDG) was formed. In 1832 the
companies merged and expanded service to Strasbourg under the
Navigation du Rhin par Bateaux a Vapeur. Daily dispatched
with four-river steamer were offered.
Private mail service between Basel and
Strasbourg, France, was arranged by steamboat and
railroad agent Louis Hisenclever
(original document part of this collection)
15 July 1849 Basel to Paris, prepaid 30 Rappen in cash for private service
Cachet of Louis Hisenclever agent, via Navigation du Rhin par Bateaux a Vapeur to Strasburg
15 July 1849 entered mails at Strasbourg for carriage to Paris with France 20 centimes
One reported use of the “Navigation du Rhin par Bateaux a Vapeur” for letter mail to France
KINGDOM OF FRANCE
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: 1 Rate Period 1.7.1850 – 31.12.1851
Border Exchange Offices- Jura, Basel
ex Maurice Burrus
Porrentruy to Besancon, 14 October 1850. Single rate of 25 Rappen, sent via Delle. PD- Paid to Destination
Foreign letters could only be prepaid in cash- franking with postage stamps was not authorized until 1.1.1852
The French post office tolerated the full franking to destination- credit to France 6 Kreuzer (marked on reverse)
First recorded FULLY FRANKED TO DESTINATION letter from Switzerland to France
KINGDOM OF FRANCE
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: 2 Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 14.9.1854
The Franco-Swiss rate tables provided for a reduced rate for letter mail exchanged within a predefined border
zone. The distance from sending to arriving post office could not exceed 30 kilometers. A special annex to the rate
book listed all towns which qualified for the reduced rates. Up to 31 December 1851, the rate was set at 10
Rappen for the single weight (1/2 Loth or 7.5 gr) but increased in the new treaty of 1 January 1852 to 15 Rappen.
Geneva Border-Zone
Basel Border-Zone
Pair of border-zone letters from 1853 from Geneva to St. Claude and Basel to Mulhouse
Both mails qualified for the reduced rate for the single rate of 15 Rappen
Geneva border-zone included:
Collonge, Fernex, Gex, St-Claude, Chatillon
Basel border-zone included:
Mulhouse and St.Louis
One recorded St.Claude border-zone letter and eleven recorded Mulhouse border-zone letters
KINGDOM OF FRANCE
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: 2 Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 14.9.1854
Geneva to Limoux, France, 14 December 1853. Single rate of 35 Rappen, unauthorized use of stamp
Prepaid with 5 Rappen to Swiss Border and 10 Centimes Napoleon for French postage
Marked Timbre Insuffisant (insufficient stamp)- treated as unfranked by France and accessed with 4 decimes
Two recorded combination covers with Rayon and French postage stamps
ex Maurice Burrus
Porrentruy to Paris, 12 September 1852. Quadruple rate of 140 Rappen, via border exchange office Delle
First Swiss Postal Zone (up to 10 hours from border/ 1 hour = 4.8 kilometer) to France
Six reported foreign destination mails prepaid with ten or more Rayon adhesive stamps
KINGDOM OF FRANCE
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: 2 Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 14.9.1854
ex Violand
Breitenbach to Bartenheim, Alsace, 11 April 1853. Double rate of 40 Rappen for registered mail.
Carried via Basel and border exchange St. Louis- paid to destination (PD)
ex Maurice Burrus, Dr. Franz Egger, Pedemonte, Seebub
Neuchatel to Paris, 23 May 1854. Triple rate of 105 Rappen plus 105 Rappen for Registration
Border exchange office Pontarlier. The postal treaty required the double rate for registered mail
Highest recorded use of the Rayon III to a foreign Destination- only two recorded registered letters to France
KINGDOM OF FRANCE
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: 2 Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 14.9.1854
ex Dr. Marcel Kottelat
Porrentruy to Marseille, 3 May 1852. Double rate of 70 Rappen, sent via border exchange office at Delle
Highest recorded usage of the Rayon I lightblue to a foreign Destination
The Wine Merchant from Bellelay
Louis Monnin was a wine merchant
and, from 1852 until his death in 1885
as well the postal clerk of the postal
facility in Bellelay. He manufactured
his own cancel- a blue-dotted grill,
which he applied during 1853/55 to tie
the stamps. Only two uses to a foreign
destination are recorded. It is today
one of the most thought after cancels
of the classic Switzerland.
ex Silvaplana, Seebub
Bellelay to Plancy, 28 July 1854. Single rate of 35 Rappen, via St. Louis border exchange
Louis Monnin was wine merchant and Bellelay postal clerk- he tied the stamps with a private manufacture grill cancel
KINGDOM OF FRANCE
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: 2 Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 14.9.1854
The Swiss Postal Administration informed on 29 January 1854 all regional postal offices:
“…we have noticed that in an increasing number
the public is franking mail with bisected stamps.
This is not tolerated since it cannot ensure proper
cancellation and avoid the re-use of previously
used stamps. Such mail has to be treated as totally
un-franked...”
12. Instructions, regarding the use of bisected postage stamps
29 January 1854
ex Dr. H.C. Leeman; H.H. Landau
Delemont to Paris, 24 April 1854. Single rate of 35 Rappen, insufficient postage, via St.Louis
First Swiss Rate Zone (up to 10 hours from Border) to Other Departments of France
Unauthorized use of bisected stamp- rated at the St.Louis border exchange with 4 decimes due
Three reported letters prepaid with bisect to a foreign destination- one to France
KINGDOM OF FRANCE
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: 3 Rate Period 15.9.1854 – 15.8.1859
Geneva to Paris, 30 September 1854. Single rate of 35 Rappen, via Fernex border exchange, LAST DAY RAYON
The “Rayon” issue was replaced by the “Strubel” issue on 9.15.1854 but remained valid until 9.30.1854
First Swiss Postal Zone to Other Departments of France- PD Paid to Destination
On 15 September 1854 a further simplification reduced the four Swiss postal zones to two. The Rayon stamps were replaced on
15 September 1854 by the imperforated “Sitting Helvetia” (Strubel). The Rayon remained valid until 30 September 1854.
Only recorded Rayon LAST DAY cover to a Foreign Destination
Geneva to Paris, 27 September 1854. Single rate of 35 Rappen, via Fernex
First Swiss Postal Zone (up to 10 hours from Border) to Other Departments of France
Mixed Franking between the Rayon and Strubel, only possible from 15 September1854 to 30 September 1854
KINGDOM OF FRANCE
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: 3 Rate Period 15.9.1854 – 15.8.1859
The public was slow in embracing the use of stamps on foreign mail and discouraged by the lack of sufficiently
high nominal stamps. It was not until the new series of stamps, Strubel, was introduced on 15 September 1854
with higher nominal values, that prepayment of foreign mail with postage stamps was significantly increased. The
Rayon and Strubel could be used together for 15 days from September 15 to September 30, resulting in some rare
mixed franking. By September 30, 1854 the cantonal, transitional, local and Rayon stamps were no longer valid.
Geneva to Seyssel, 24 September 1854. Single rate of 25 Rappen, via border exchange at Fernex
First Swiss Postal Zone (up to 10 hours from Border) to Bordering Departments of France
The “Rayon” issue was replaced on 9.15.1854 with the “Strubel” issue but remained valid until 9.30.1854
Postal Circular 103: Introduction of new Postage Stamps
(Swiss Postal Department, Berne, September 1, 1854)
GRAND DUCHY OF BADEN
Cantonal Postal Treaty Zurich-Baden: Rate Period 12.9.1848 – 31.12.1851
Kloten, Canton Zurich to Kadelburg, Baden, 13 July 1851. Single rate to Swiss border of 15 Rappen
Prepaid with stamps to Swiss border, rated by the Baden postoffice with 2 Kreuzer (for mail up to 4 hours)
Zurich handled the mail exchange to the Grand Duchy of Baden for the Cantons of Zug, Schwyz, Thurgau, Luzern, Obwalden
and Nidwalden. The full franking to destination was not possible but partial franking to Swiss-Baden border was possible.
ex Walter Haemmerli
Weinfelden, Thurgau to Konstanz, Baden, 1 April 1851. Single rate to Swiss border 5 Rappen- German rate 2 Kreuzer
Split Franking- domestic rate paid with stamp and foreign rate paid in cash (marked on the back as per convention)
Exclusive to Baden and to Wuertemberg, was the prepayment to border with postage stamps and the prepayment from Swiss-Baden
border to final destination in cash. Referred to as “Split-Franking” the cash prepayment was noticed on the back of the letters.
Only recorded Split-Franking from Switzerland to the Grand Duchy of Baden
GRAND DUCHY OF BADEN
Cantonal Postal Treaty Zurich-Thurn and Taxis: Rate Period 12.9.1848 – 31.12.1851
The Nachnahme (or Cash on Delivery) service for foreign mail only became officially available after the 1863 period. The
much-advanced postal system operated by Thurn and Taxis had however already prior to 1863 certain provisions in place,
which permitted the C.O.D. service but only for mail exchanged between Thurn and Taxis affiliated postal administrations.
The Cantonal Post of Schaffhausen was under the control and influence of Thurn and Taxis and the neighboring Canton of
Thurgau often exchanged mail through Schaffhausen, utilizing the Thurn and Taxis postal services.
Switzerland published articles regulating the treatment
of C.O.D. mail to the Thurn and Taxis controlled
territories. Even though Thurn and Taxis lost its postal
lease for the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1811, it still
allowed the exchange of C.O.D. mail. The articles
stipulated that C.O.D. mail had to be treated as
registered and that the C.O.D. amount could not
exceed 15 Gulden, 10 Thaler or 30 Franken.
Article B: Nachnahme (C.O.D) exchange with Thurn and Taxis
ex Seebub
Mazingen, Canton Thurgau to Konstanz, Baden, 2 November 1850. Single rate of 10 Rappen plus C.O.D.
Rate to Schaffhausen 5 Rappen plus 10 Rappen C.O.D. 6 Kreuzer added to C.O.D. amount of 2 Gulden
Only recorded use of the ORTS-POST adhesive to a foreign Destination and one of four recorded cross border C.O.D. mails
GRAND DUCHY OF BADEN
German Postal Union Treaty with Switzerland: Rate Period 15.10.1852 – 31.8.1868
The Grand Duchy of Baden was one of the initial member states that joined the Kingdom of Prussia in the formation
of the German Postal Union. The provisions of the resulting “Articles to the new Prussian Convention of 1852”
(which were signed on 23 April 1852) took effect on 15 October 1852. Article 3 of the treaty regulated a uniform
postal rate subject to distance as measured in straight line. The rates were set between 20 and 50 Rappen. Article 7
regulated a special border zone rate of 10 Rappen (or 3 Kreuzer) for mail exchanged within a 5-mile radius.
The Grand Duchy of Baden was a pioneer in the development of the railroads with the Mannheim to Heidelberg link
established in 1834. By 1851 there was an uninterrupted line from north to south passing through Carlsruhe, Baden,
Heidelberg, Mannheim, Konstanz, Waldshut and Freiburg connecting with Switzerland and carrying most mai.
Bern to Freiburg, Grand Duchy of Baden, April 1854. Single rate of 30 Rappen, direct exchange.
Second Swiss Postal Zone (over 75 kilometer) into First German Postal Union Zone (up to 10 miles)
To further define specific provisions such as border exchange points, currency conversion and transit routes,
separate treaties were executed between the Swiss Postal Administration and the member states, more specific
with the Grand Duchy of Baden and Switzerland on 6 August 1852, taking effect on 15 October 1852.
One reported three-color franking to the Grand Duchy of Baden
KINGDOM OF BAVARIA
Cantonal Postal Treaty Zurich-Bavaria: Rate Period 1.10.1829 – 14.10.1852
Frauenfeld, Canton Thurgau to Muenchen, Bavaria, 12 September 1851. Single rate of 5 Rappen- paid to Swiss border
Rated by Bavaria with 2 Kreuzer for Lake Constanz steam service Romanshorn-Lindau and 8 Kreuzer domestic rate
The Zurich-Bavaria treaty included as well mail to and from the Canton of Thurgau, Zug, Schwyz, Luzern, Ob- and Nidwalden
Earliest recorded franked correspondence to Bavaria
Erlenbach (Zurich) to Haidhausen, Bavaria, July 1852. Double rate of 32 Kreuzer, registration fee 20 Rappen
As per postal convention the prepayment of the registration fee, set at 20 Rappen, was mandatory
Rated in Bavaria with 32 Kreuzer due as marked on the letter. 16 Kreuzer credit to Zurich and 16 Kreuzer for Bavaria
KINGDOM OF BAVARIA
German Postal Union Treaty with Switzerland: Rate Period 15.10.1852 – 31.8.1868
The Bayerisches Verordnungsblatt, September 30, 1852, permitted the payment of foreign mail with postage stamps
until German border and the foreign portion in cash. Such cash prepayment had to be marked on the reverse. This sort
of prepayment is today referred to as Geteilte Franko Abgeltung (Split Prepayment). The directive included the same
provisions for mail exchanged with Baden, Wuertemberg, Brunswick and Hannover and foreign postal administrations.
Bayerisches Verordnungsblatt, September 30, 1852: Permission for Split Prepayment
ex Gaston Nehrlich (1928), Tamaris, Ticino
Stein a/ Rhein to Schwabmuenchen, Kingdom of Bavaria, 19 March 1854. Split-Franking of 10 Rappen and 6 Kreuzer
Carried via Lake Constanz (Lindau) from the first Swiss Postal Zone into the second Postal Union Zone
The Split Franking was permitted with the 10 Rappen representing the payment to Swiss-German border and the
6 Kreuzer (equal to 20 Rappen), representing the payment of the German postage
Only reported combination franking to any of the German States
Note: See as well letter under “Kingdom of Wuertemberg” with Split Franking where German postage was prepaid in cash
KINGDOM OF BAVARIA
German Postal Union Treaty with Switzerland: Rate Period 15.10.1852 – 31.8.1868
Langenthal to Augsburg, Kingdom of Bavaria, 3 March 1854. Single rate of 40 Rappen, via Lake Konstanz.
Second Swiss Postal Zone (over 75 kilometer) into Second German Postal Union Zone (20 miles)
Oberrieden to Munich, Kingdom of Bavaria, 4 August 1853. Single rate of 40 Rappen plus 20 Rappen Registration
Second Swiss Postal Zone (over 75 kilometer) into Second German Postal Union Zone (20 miles)
Three recorded registered letters to the Kingdom of Bavaria
KINGDOM OF BAVARIA
German Postal Union Treaty with Switzerland: Rate Period 15.10.1852 – 31.8.1868
In addition to the German Post Union Treaty, a separte agreement was signed on 26 April 1852 between the Swiss and
Bavarian postal administrations, to define specific provisions such as border exchange points, currency conversion and transit
routes. Article 12 of said agreement provided that the fee for registered mail was set at 20 Rappen, irrespective of weight.
Article 12 of the Bavaria agreement: Registration fee was 20 Rappen and prepayment was mandatory
ex Bernard Geiser
Weinfelden to Island of Lindau, Lake Constanz, 13 January 1854. Triple rate of 60 Rappen
Carried by Lake Constanz steamship via Romanshorn to Lindau- the registration fee was set at 20 Rappen
Three recorded registered letters to the Kingdom of Bavaria
KINGDOM OF WUERTEMBERG
Cantonal Postal Treaty Zurich-Thurn and Taxis: Rate Period 1.1.1836 – 15.10.1852
During the medieval times, the Italian de Tasso family ran a courier service from Bergamo for the
Habsburg Empire- between their Italian, Austrian and German possessions and those in the Low
Countries. With he Empire approval the de Tasso’s expanded their service to carry as well private letters
and in gratitude changed their name to “von Taxis”. The business prospered and by the eighteenth
century it had 20,000 employees. By 1848 the Taxis post comprised an area of over 56,000 square
miles. The importance of the office started to wane with the birth of the German Postal Union in 1852.
In 1819 the Kingdom of Wuertemberg executed an agreement with the office of Thurn and Taxis
assigning the Wuertemberg postal affairs to Thurn and Taxis. The agreement remained in effect until
1851 when Wuertemberg assumed the its own postal affairs by joining the German Postal Union.
ex Ivan Bally. Seebub
Pfaeffikon (Zurich) to Calw, Wuertemberg, 6 October 1850. Single rate of 40 Rappen.
The franking of foreign mail to Destination was not permitted until 1.1.1852 only cash pre-payment was authorized
Thurn and Taxis accepted the letter and credited Wuertemberg with 8 Kreuzer (marked on reverse)
First fully franked letter from Switzerland to ANY foreign Destination
KINGDOM OF WUERTEMBERG
German Postal Union Treaty: Provisional Rate Period 10.7.1852 – 14.10.1852
The General Postal Union Treaty was signed 23 April 1852, taking effect on 15 October 1852. To
further define specific provisions for mail exchange between Switzerland and the various German
States, additional agreements were signed to regulate border exchange points, currency conversion
and transit routes. All of these supplemental postal treaties took effect as of 15 October 1852, with
the exception of Württemberg, which introduced a provisional treaty already on 10 July 1852.
Teufen to Berg, Stuttgart, 20 August 1852. Single rate of 30 Rappen, paid to destination
Wuertemberg provisional treaty only valid for 3 months- credit to Wuertemberg 6 Kreuzer, marked on back on lettersheet
Provisional Treaty between Switzerland and the Kingdom Wuertemberg
(28 Brachmonat 1852)
One reported cover from the Wuertemberg provisional treaty period
KINGDOM OF WUERTEMBERG
German Postal Union Treaty with Switzerland: 1 Rate Period 15.10.1852 – 31.8.1868
reverse
6 Kreuzer
Weinfelden to Stuttgart, Wuertemberg, 12 November 1853. Single rate of 30 Rappen, split-franking
Rate fully prepaid with stamps (10 Rappen) and cash (6 Kreuzer = 20 Rappen), marked on the reverse
Split Franking (Swiss portion paid with stamps, Wuertemberg portion paid in cash), permitted per treaty
Three reported letters with the “Split-Franking” prepayment
Arau to Tuttlingen, 1 January 1854. Double rate of 40 Rappen plus 20 Rappen registration fee
The pre-philatelic Arau straightline origin postmark was not permitted to tie stamps, therefore cancelled by pen
Two reported registered letters to the Kingdom of Wuertemberg
KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA
French Postal Treaty with Switzerland: Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.9.1854
The disadvantages of an assortment of separate arrangements became apparent soon after the Prussian
Convention of 1846, especially as the volume of mail both to and through Germany was growing by leaps and
bounds. A serious drawback was the lack of a uniform currency. Each state used its own which sometimes did,
but often did not, bear relationship to the value of others. Most of the northern states were in the Groschen area
and the southern in the Kreuzer. Hamburg and Luebeck used the Mark Courant and Schilling while Bremen
employed the Thaler and Grote. It was partly to overcome the complications caused by these differences that
the German Postal Union came into being and Prussia became the spokesman and accountant for it.
ex Maurice Burrus. Dr. Marcel Kottelat
Bad Ragaz to Berlin, Kingdom of Prussia, 2 September 1852. Triple rate of 150 Rappen, sent via closed packet- France
Second Swiss Postal Zone (over 75 kilometer) into the Forth German Postal Zone
Only reported French transit mail from Switzerland to the German States
Highest recorded use of the Rayon III to the German States
THURN AND TAXIS POSTAL DISTRICT
German Postal Union Treaty with Switzerland: Rate Period 15.10.1852- 31.8.1868
During the 1848 to 1854 period the once mighty Thurn and Taxis postal system, which controlled at one point most of the
Continental European postal exchange, was clearly in decline but still commanded an impressive presence. They controlled the
postal affairs for the following independent Duchies and Principalities:
Norther District (Thaler Region): Electorate of Hessen (Kurfuerstentum); Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach;
Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (Landteil Gotha); Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen; Reuss (younger and older line); LippeDetmold and Schaumburg-Lippe; the Free Cities of Bremen, Luebeck and Hamburg
Southern District (Gulden Region): Grand Duchy of Hessen; Duchy of Nassau; Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha
(Landteil Coburg); Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt; Sachen-Meiningen; Duchy of Hessen-Homburg; Hohenzollern
Hechtlingen and Sigmaringen; Free City of Frankfurt am Main.
By the end of 1866 Thurn and Taxis realized that they could no longer effectively compete with the Prussian post and the movement
of a unified German postal administration. On 28 January 1867 Thurn and Taxis sold their remaining postal system to the Prussians.
ex Seebub
Schwanden, Canton Glarus to Hamburg, 25 September 1854. Single rate of 40 Rappen, via Rorschach and Frankfurt
Rate paid postage to destination (PD)- credit to the German Postal Union of 6 Kreuzer (marked on the back)
Thurn and Taxis joined the German Postal Union on 15 October 1852
Only recorded mixed franking Rayon-Strubel to any of the German States
THURN AND TAXIS POSTAL DISTRICT
German Postal Union Treaty with Switerland: Rate Period 15.10.1852- 31.8.1868
Basel to Hamburg, 15 September 1854. Single rate of 40 Rappen, via Frankfurt, arrival postmark T+T on the reverse
Manuscript Franco- indicative of payment to final destination - credit to the German Postal Union of 6 Kreuzer
15 September 1854- first day of the new Strubel issue- however prepaid with still valid Rayon
Glarus to Frankfurt City, 20 September 1854. Single rate of 40 Rappen, sent via Baden
Credit to the German Postal Union was 6 Kreuzer, marked on the back
It appears, that the letter was initially over-franked and later one stamp was removed (left side)
Four reported letters from Switzerland to the Free City of Frankfurt
KINGDOM OF BELGIUM
Postal Treaty Belgium-Switzerland: Rate Period 14.1.1853 – 24.11.1859
Switzerland executed with Belgium one of the first postal treaties on 12 November 1849 (effective as of 1 July
1850), which regulated the direct exchange of mail to Belgium. Postal exchange was conducted by closed mail
packets via France with border exchange in Basel, Geneva or Neuchatel. The Belgium exchange office was located
at Parquieverain, along the Paris-Bruxelles railroad line. Mail could be sent as well via Germany and France.
Switzerlands first Foreign Postal Treaty:
Switzerland and Belgium
12 Wintermonat (November) 1849- effective 1 July 1850
ex Seligson, Rothmayr, Dr. Franz Egger
St. Gallen to Bruxelles, Belgium (Rietmann & Ebinger, textile manufacturer), 23 September 1854. PD- Paid to Destination
Single rate of 75 Rappen for mail from the second Swiss postal zone to “other “Belgium postal offices
Only recorded letter to Belgium from this Period
KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS
French Postal Treaty with Switzerland: Rate Period 10.4.1852 – 15.12.1854
Already the first postal treaty, executed between France and Switzerland on 25 January 1849 permitted in their
transit ratebook the exchange of letter mail to the Netherlands. Periodic updates and changes led to the 10
April 1852 treaty which now permitted the franking of mail to the Netherlands. Such mail had to be marked
with PD (Paid to Destination). The credit to the French post for transit and the Dutch post for delivery were not
marked on the letters but were listed in special waybills. The accounts were settled on a quarterly basis.
ex Iwan Bally, Gerhard Oeschger
Geneva to Jargtlust, Holland, 27 September 1854. Single rate of 65 Rappen, sent via Fernex, Paris
Manuscript marking Par la France and marked with PD- indicative of full payment to Jargtlust, Utrecht
The newly issued 40 Rappen stamp allowed for the franking of the higher rates to foreign countries
On September 15, 1854 the Federal Postal Administration introduced a new series of postage stamps, the
Imperforated Sitting Helvetia, or more commonly known as Strubel. The new series of adhesives introduced a new
20, 40 and 100 Rappen stamp, to accommodate the growing need of higher denominated postage stamps paying the
rates for foreign letter exchange. The previous issues (Rayon I, II and III) remained valid until September 30, 1854.
Only reported mixed franking Rayon-Strubel to Netherlands
KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS
German Postal Union Treaty with Switzerland. Rate Period: 14.1.1853 – 17.6.1864
The German Postal Union treaty, executed with Switzerland, provided for the transit of mail to Netherlands as
of 14 January 1853. The rate provisions required mail to be sent via the Grand Duchy of Baden. A reduced
rate of 55/65 Rappen (1 and 2 Swiss Zones) was in place for mail destined to the Dutch border post offices
while the rate to all other Dutch destinations was set at 65/75 Rappen. A direct exchange was only possible
starting on 1 September 1868 when the first treaty between Switzerland and the Netherlands was executed.
ex Silvaplana, Seebub
Glarus to Amsterdam, 29 March 1853. Single rate of 75 Rappen, sent via Baden and Prussia
Rated by the Prussian Postal Administration with 7w- indicative of 7 Groschen Weiterfranko
Carried by the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railway (Großherzoglich Badische Staatseisenbahnen or G.Bad.St.E.)
Marked by the Baden post office with FRANCO (indicative of prepayment) and BADEN (indicative of transit)
Three reported letters from Switzerland to the Kingdom of the Netherlands
UNITED KINGDOM: ENGLAND
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: 2 Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
ex Ivan Bally
Lausanne to Leamington, 18 September 1854. Single rate of 60 Rappen, via France
By railroad via Geneva-Lyon-Paris to Calais and Dover Royal Mail Packet Company from Calais to Dover
South Eastern Railway to London and on to Leamington- a famous Spa resort dating back to the 18th century
Two recorded block-of-four franking of the Rayon III to a foreign Destination
ex Maurice Burrus
Lausanne to London, 3 May 1854. Double rate of 120 Rappen via France.
Carried by Dover Royal Mail Packet Company from Calais to Dover and South Eastern Railway to London.
Highest recorded franked letter from Switzerland to England
UNITED KINGDOM: ENGLAND
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: 2 Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
ex John Seybold, Peter Brodtbeck
Concize to London, 25 September 1854. Single rate of 60 Rappen via France.
Carried by French Government mail packet from Calais to Dover and South Eastern Railway from Dover to London.
St. Aubin to Barnet, Hertfordshire, 19 May 1854. Single rate of 60 Rappen via France.
Carried by French Government Packet from Calais to Dover and South Eastern Railway to London.
Sorted at the London General Post Office and placed on the Great Northern Railway to Barnet, Herts
Nine recorded franked letters to England from this Period
UNITED KINGDOM: SCOTLAND
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: 2 Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
ex Maurice Burrus
Lausanne to Edinburgh, 5 January 1852. Single rate of 60 Centimes via France.
Carried by Dover Royal Mail Packet Company from Calais to Dover and South Eastern Railway to London
By London and North Western Railroad via Newcastle to Edinburgh
The Swiss Postal Administration only permitted the franking of foreign mail to Destination as of 1.1.1852.
The letter to Scotland from 5 January 1852 is the first recorded fully franked letter to a foreign Destination
The London and North Western Railroad en route to Edinburgh, circa 1852
First reported fully franked letter from Switzerland to a Foreign Destination and only letter to Scotland
DUCHY OF SAVOY
Postal Treaty Sardinia-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.4.1851 – 30.6.1859
Rue/Fribourg to Bonneville, Savoy, 1 November 1853. RL Border Zone. Double weight required 40 Rappen
Marked with boxed Timres Insuffisant by the Geneva post office and rated with 2 decimes due by the Sardinian post
ex Seebub
Yverdon to Thonon, Savoy, 12 March 1853. Double rate of 80 Rappen, Paid to Destination (PD)
Only reported vertical strip of four Rayon III to the Italian States
DUCHY OF SAVOY
Postal Treaty Sardinia-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.4.1851 – 30.6.1859
Geneva to St. Julien, Savoy, 29 November 1855. Single border zone rate of 20 Rappen- insufficient franking
Rayon stamps were no longer valid, thus treated as un-franked and accessed by the Sardinian post with 2 decimes
Only reported Rayon-Strubel mixed franking to the Duchy of Savoy
Geneva to Thonon, Duchy of Savoy, 12 May 1853. Double borderzone rate of 40 Rappen- rare block franking
Carried by Compagnie Genevoise des Bateux a Vapeur Reunis Geneva-Thonon
Four reported block-of-four franking of Rayon II to a foreign Destination
DUCHY OF PIEDMONT
Postal Treaty Sardinia-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.4.1851 – 30.6.1859
The beginning of steam navigation on the Northern Italian Lakes of Maggiore, Garda and Como dates back to 1825. At that time the
industrial and commercial development around the Lakes gave birth to need for faster and more reliable means of transportation. In
1825 the duke Carlo Visconti di Modrone and count Vitaliano Borromeo formed the "Società Privilegiata" based in Milano . Duke
Carlo Visconti di Modrone was the president and the goal of the newly formed enterprise was to explore and establish steam
navigation on the Northern Italian lakes. On February 8 1825 the "Società Privilegiata" got the exclusive right for 15 years to
operate steam-navigation on lakes and rivers of Lombardo-Veneto. The company started immediately to build steamers and on
February 1826 the paddle steamer "Verbano" was launched on Lago Maggiore operating for the newly formed Lombardo-SardoTicinese Society. In 1853 the company collapsed but the Sardinian government assumed control and continued to operate.
ex Fritz Kirchner
Chur to Torino, Piedmont, 29 July 1853. Single rate of 50 Rappen, via Lake steamship Verbano, Lago Maggiore
The rate would have only required 40 Rappen for mail to any destination within the Kingdom of Sardinia
The Il Verbano was a flush deck paddle steamer,
sailed under a British Captain, providing postal service
between Magadino and Sesto Calende. The trip across
the 100-mile long lake took up to 6 hours.
Nine reported letters carried by the Lago Maggiore Steam Navigation Company
REPUBLIC OF GENOA
Postal Treaty Sardinia-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.4.1851 – 30.6.1859
Lake Steamship Marking
VERBANO
(1851 – 1855)
Postal Announcement, 1 January 1844: Introduction of Mail Service of the Lago Maggiore
The Cantonal Postal Administration Ticino executed a postal agreement with the Kingdom of Sardinia
regulating the postal dispatch of mail by steamers of the Lago Maggiore Steam Navigation Company. The
daily dispatch was from Magadino to Sesto Calende via Lugano. Mail was carried by the local postal clerks
(Gilardi Francesco in Magadino and Molo Floriano in Lugano) to and from the steamships. Letters carried
by this service were marked with the cancel “VERBANO” (1851-1855), indicative of the steamship.
Zurich to Genova, Liguria, 20 August 1852. Single rate of 60 Rappen (rate position Tuscany instead of Sardinia)
Carried by Lake Steamer Il Verbano (ship cancel 20 AGO 52) via Torino to Genova
Nine recorded letters carried by the Lago Maggiore Steam Navigation Company
KINGDOM OF THE TWO SICILIES
Postal Treaty Austria-Switzerland: 1 Rate Period 1.9.1849 – 10.1.1852
Mail to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies could be sent by three principal transit routes, based on the relevant treaties:
Austrian Transit. Transit and exchange points where based on the first postal treaty with Austria, executed on 2 July 1849,
taking effect as of 1 September 1849. The treaty was replaced by the German-Postal Union treaty on 1 November 1852,
Sardinian Transit. A treaty with Sardinia was executed on 21 October 1850, taking effect as of 1 April 1851. Mail exchange
was through the Savoy-Mont Cenis route (see following pages).
French Transit. The first postal treaty with France was executed on 25 November 1849, taking effect as of 1 July 1850 and
included as well transit regulations and rates for mail to Italy with mail packets from Marseille.
ex Silvaplana, Seebub
Obwalden to Naples, January 1851. Single rate of 20 Rappen to Border, via Lombardy and Papal States.
Carried overland to Rom, where marked Transito per lo Stato Pontificio (via Papal State transit)
In Rom the letter was placed on a coastal steamship which carried the mail to Naples
The postal Administration of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies applied the A.G.D.P. (Amministratione Generale Delle Poste)
The letter originated in the rural postal depot of Kerns, Canton Obwalden, where the stamps were annulled with
red ink, due to the lack of a proper cancel. In the next closest post office in Beckenried, the stamps were tied with
the PP cancel and placed on a lake steamship to Stans, where the letter was marked OBWALDEN and placed on
the mail coach to Chiasso on the Swiss-Lombardian border.
Only recorded block of four franking Rayon I darkblue to a foreign Destination
KINGDOM OF THE TWO SICILIES
Postal Treaty Sardinia-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.4.1851 – 30.6.1859
Zurich to Naples, 27 September 1853. Single rate of 50 Rappen, paid to border of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Rated by the Naples post office with 20 Grana- the 50 Rappen rate wa effective for mail sent to Naples by steamship
3-Ring from Biel
(one recorded on foreign mail)
ex Walter Haemmerli
Ligerz/Biel to Napoli, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, 4 August 1851. Single rate of 20 Rappen to Border, via Sardinia.
Unlike the Austria treaty (see above) the Sardinian treaty did not permit franking to border, thus returned
Marked “muss mit 21 Kreuzer bar frankiert werden” (must be paid with 21 Kreuzer), collected from the sender
Transit Tuscany Corispondenza Esta da Genova and Papal States Transito per lo Stato di Pontificio
KINGDOM OF THE TWO SICILIES
Postal Treaty Sardinia-Switzerland: 1.4.1851 – 30.6.1859
ex Champery, Seebub
Glarus to Naples, 15 October 1852. Single rate of 70 Rappen, via Lake Steamship Verbano, Lago Maggiore
Manuscript marking franco frontiere Siciliana (paid to Sicilian border) and PF (Payee Frontiere) as required by treaty
Rated in Naples with 20 (grana) due and marked with A.G.D.P. (Amministratione Generale Delle Poste)
The sender in Glarus intended to send the letter partially franked to Swiss border with the required 20
Rappen. The partial franking for mail to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was however not permitted. The
letter was returned and had to be supplemented with an additional 50 Rappen postage, representing payment
for the Overland rate to Naples, as per postal treaty with Sardinia.
Only reported three color franking to the Italian States
SWISS FOREIGN LEGION NAPLES
Postal Treaty Austria-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.11.1852 – 31.8.1868
Following the defeat of Napoleonic France, the Congress of Vienna was convened in 1815 to redraw the European
continent. In Italy the Congress restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, either directly ruled
or strongly influenced by the prevailing European powers, particularly Austria. But groups in several Italian states began
to push the idea of a unified Italian state again, feeding the flames of nationalism that had already been ignited by
populace. At the time, the struggle for Italian unification was perceived to be waged primarily against the Austrian
Empire and the Habsburgs, since they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of present
day Italy and were the single most powerful force against unification. First revolutions broke out in 1848 and led to the
first War of Independence in 1849. Continued unrests remained and the fear was that the hostilities in the North would
soon spread to the South. This prompted King Ferdinand II of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies to expand his foreign
mercenary regiments, which traditionally had been recruited from predominantly Catholic cantons in Switzerland.
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was able to count on four Swiss regiments based on cantonal origins:
Regiment 1: Luzern, Uri, Unterwalden, Appenzell; Regiment 2: Fribourg, Solothurn;
Regiment 3: Valais, Grison, Schwyz and Regiment 4: Bern, Vaud.
Chur to Napoli, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, 25 September 1854. Single rate of 50 Rappen, paid to Roman border.
Overland mail route via Lombardy- accessed by the post of the Papal States with 20 grana domestic postage
Addressed to Enrico de Blumenthal, official delegate of the 3 rd Swiss Regiment at Naples
Only reported letter to the Swiss Foreign Legion in Naples
SWISS FOREIGN LEGION SICILY
Postal Treaty Sardinia-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.4.1851 – 31.10.1859
ex Seebub
Thusis to Palermo, 15 May 1853. Single rate of 50 Rappen.
Carried by Sardinian merchant ship via Genoa-Civitavecchia-Naples to Palermo- rated with 27 Grana due
Addressed to Anton de Blumenthal, Commander of the 3 rd Swiss Regiment at Palermo
ex Walter Haemmerli
Thusis to Palermo, 22 June 1853. Single rate of 50 Rappen.
Carried by Sardinian merchant ship via Genoa-Civitavecchia-Naples to Palermo- rated with 27 Grana due
Addressed to Anton de Blumenthal, Commander of the 3 rd Swiss Regiment at Palermo
Two reported letters to the Swiss Foreign Legion in Sicily
STATE OF THE CHURCH (PAPAL STATE)
Postal Treaty Austria-Switzerland: 1 Rate Period 1.9.1849 – 31.10.1851
In 1850 the Papal States comprised Rome, the Duchy of Ferrara, the Provinces of Romagna, the Marches
and Umbria. The States of the Church, together with Parma, Modena and Tuscany were partners with
Austria in the Austria-Italian Postal Union. They became part of the Union on October 1,1852 and ceased
to be a member on December 1,1858.
The routes available from Switzerland to the Roman States were the same as to the Kingdom of the Two
Sicilies, or through Sardinia, France and Austria. Overland routes existed through Sardinia and Austrian
Lombardy. A combination of land and sea transport to the Papal port of Civitavecchia existed from the
Sardinian port of Genoa and the French port of Marseille; the Adriatic port of Ancona could be reached
from the Austrian port of Trieste.
Locarno to Roma, States of the Church, February 1851. Single weight to border- paid with 5 Rappen.
Payment to Swiss/Italian border for mail from the second Swiss Postal Zone- rated in Rome with Bajocchi
Two recorded letters to Rome franked with Post Locale stamps
STATE OF THE CHURCH (PAPAL STATE)
Postal Treaty German-Austrian-Italian Postal Union: 1 Rate Period 1.11.1851 – 31.8.1868
Porrentruy to Rome, Patrimony of St. Peter, 16 July 1854. Single rate of 50 Rappen, sent via Lombardy
Manuscript crossed lines indicate that the letter was fully paid to Austrian exit border (Lombardy)
ex Ivan Bally
Basel to Rome, Patrimony of St. Peter, 19 December 1853. Single rate of 50 Rappen for Sample without Value
Samples without value enjoyed a higher single weight progression than letter mail (2 Loth)
Manuscript crossed lines indicate that the letter was fully paid- to Austrian exit border (Lombardy)
STATE OF THE CHURCH (PAPAL STATE)
Postal Treaty Sardinia-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.4.1851 – 30.6.1859
Geneva to Rome, Patrimony of St. Peter, 26 September 1854. Single rate of 55 Rappen, paid to Roman border
Accessed by the post of the States of the Church with 7 bajocchi domestic postage due
On September 15, 1854 the Federal Postal Administration introduced a new series of postage
stamps, the Imperforated Sitting Helvetia, or more commonly known as Strubel. The new series
of adhesives introduced a new 20, 40 and 100 Rappen stamp, to accommodate the growing need
of higher denominated postage stamps paying the rates for foreign letter exchange.
previous issues (Rayon I, II and III) remained valid until September 30, 1854.
Two reported mixed franking Rayon-Strubel to the State of the Church
The
STATE OF THE CHURCH (PAPAL STATE)
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
Merchants returning to southern France and Italy in 1854 are believed to have brought cholera from Palestine and
Syria. Quarantine policies in Europe had developed over the previous centuries in response to largely local crises. In
1834 France proposed a meeting of representatives of various countries to discuss ways that the transmission of
disease between countries could best be prevented. The first meeting of the International Sanitary Conference was
eventually held in Paris in 1851. Twelve nations participated, each sending a politician and a physician in an attempt to
establish guidelines for minimum maritime quarantine requirements but only five of the powers signed the convention
– France, Portugal, Sardinia, the Sublime Porte, and Tuscany. Only France and Sardinia eventually ratified the
agreements 1852. In 1854, following the outbreak of cholera in both Italy and France, France had to consider the effect
of possible quarantine restrictions from both a military and health perspective since large garrisons of troops were
stationed in Civitavecchia and Rome. A quarantine station was set up at the port of Civitavecchia.
ex Luder-Edelmann (1925); Charlotte Hassel (1952); Ivan Bally; Dr. Marcel Kottelat
Geneva to Rome, 16 September 1854. Double rate of 110 Rappen via France.
Carried by Messageries Imperiales, Direct Line from Marseille to the Papal Port, Civitavecchia
Due to Cholera epidemic, disinfected in fumigation chamber (two vertical slits)
Mail sent via France to Italy was by steamers of the French Messageries Imperiales Italy Direct Line, which operated
weekly between Marseille and Naples with an intermediate stop at Civitavecchia. In Civitavecchia the letter received a
“Via Di Mare” handstamp. It was carried onward to Rome by rail. Civitavecchia was the port of entry for all mail addressed
to Rome that was carried by French steamers throughout this period. The cover was disinfected with slits at Civitavecchia
Two reported Rayon-Strubel mixed franking to the State of the Church and only CHOLERA letter from this period
GRAND DUCHY OF ROMAGNA
Postal Treaty Austria-Switzerland: 2 Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 30.10.1852
15 Centimes
15 Rappen
Initial prepaid on 24 April 1852 in Bern with
Rayon III- 15 Centimes. The postal treaty with
Austria required a rate of 30 for prepayment to
Roman border. Therefore returned to Bern and
supplemented with a Rayon III- 15 Rappen, on 10
May 1852- recognized as one of the most
important letters from Classic Switzerland.
Unique Mixed Franking
ex Dr. H.C. Leemann
Bern to Ravenna, States of the Church, 24 April and 10 May 1852. Single rate of 30 Rappen, paid to Roman border
Initially prepaid with 15 Centimes (April 24) sent back to Bern and supplemented with 15 Rappen (May 10)
Accessed by the post of the State of the Church with 16 bajocchi domestic postage due
Only reported combination franking of the Rayon III Rappen and Rayon III Centimes
GRAND DUCHY OF ROMAGNA
Postal Treaty German-Austria-Italian Postal Union: 1 Rate Period 1.11.1852 – 31.8.1868
Several of the independent Italian States joined in 1851/1852 the German-Austrian postal union:
Tuscany (1 April 1851); Parma (1 June 1852); Modena 1 June 1852) and the Papal States,
including the Grand Duchy of Romagna (1 November 1852). The new treaty stipulated the rates
based on Distance (german geographical miles) and weight considerations (Wienergewicht), all
different currencies were converted to Konventions-Kreuzer. The Austrian transit rate was
eliminated since the Austrian-Italian Union rates included the forced franking to Swiss border).
‘
Glarus to Forli, Duchy of Romagna, 25 March 1854. Single rate of 50 Rappen, paid to destination
Manuscript cross- indicative of full payment to destination- as per German-Austrian-Italian postal treaty
Three reported franked letters to Forli
DUCHY OF PARMA-PIACENZA
Postal Treaty Austria-Switzerland: 1 Rate Period 1.9.1849 – 31.12.1851
The House of Bourbon is a European Royal House of French origin. Bourbon Kings first ruled Navarre and France
in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Bourbon dynasty also held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily
and Parma-Piacenza. In 1796, the duchy was occupied by French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1814, the
duchies were restored under Napoleon's Habsburg wife, Marie Louise, who was to rule them for her lifetime. After
Marie Louise's death in 1847, the Duchy was restored to the Bourbon-Parma line, which had been ruling the tiny
Duchy of Lucca. In this context, The Bourbons ruled until 1859, when they were driven out by a revolution
following the French and Sardinian victory in the war against Austria (called Austrian War in France and Second
War of Independence in Italy). The Duchy of Parma and Piacenza joined with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the
Duchy of Modena to form the United Provinces of Central Italy in December 1859, and merged with the Kingdom
of Sardinia into the Kingdom of Italy in March 1860 after holding a referendum.
Post Office in Piacenza, circa 1851
Lugano to Piacenza, 15 June 1851, Duchy of Parma-Piacenza. Single rate of 5 Rappen, paid to Swiss border
Partial franking to border was permitted while full franking to destination was not possible
Rated in Piacenza with 8 decimi for Swiss border (Chiasso) to Piacenza
Only recorded franked letter from Switzerland to the Duchy of Piacenza
DUCHY OF PARMA-PIACENZA
Postal Treaty Austria-Switzerland: 1 Rate Period 1.9.1849 – 31.12.1851
R.L. Rayon Limithrophe
Lugano to Parma, Duchy of Parma, 16 April 1851. Single rate of 5 Rappen, paid to Swiss border, via Lombardy
Accessed by the Parma post with 4 decimi or 40 centesimi for Chiasso-Parma
Only recorded Rayon letter tied with the rare RL (Rayon Limithrophe) handstamp
DUCHY OF PARMA-PIACENZA
Postal Treaty German-Austrian-Italian Postal Union: Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 31.8.1868
Lugano to Parma, Duchy of Parma, 22 July 1851. Double rate of 10 Rappen for Sample Without Value, paid to border
Franked as per domestic treaty, rate position Sample Without Value up to 1 pound, first Swiss postal zone
Accessed in Parma with 8 decimi or 80 centesimi for Chiasso-Parma
Price list with samples from the silk ribbon manufacturer Giacomo Nussbaum, Lugano (reduced content of letter above)
One of four recorded franked “sample without value” to the Italian States
KINGDOM OF LOMBARDIA
Postal Treaty Austria-Switzerland: 1 Rate Period 1.9.1849 – 31.12.1851
Following the defeat of Napoleon and according to the decisions of the Congress of Vienna on June 9, 1815, certain parts of
Northern Italy were awarded to the Austrian Empire and included: Lombardia, Venetia and under indirect control the Habsburg Este
(Modena and Reggio) and Austria Lorraine (Grand Duchy of Tuscany).
On March 18, 1848, the Milanese rebelled against Austrian rule and
Feldmarshall Radetzky was forced to withdraw from the city. Following
victory over the Sardinian forces in July, Austrian rule was restored but
nationalistic sentiment continued leading to the Battle of Solferino in
1859 where the Austrian lost against an alliance of French and Sardinian
troops. In 1861 Lombardy was incorporated into the newly formed
Kingdom of Italy.
Northern Italy under the Influence of Austria (dates of loss)
Note: Largest recorded Block of the Poste Locale
The block presented on this page, is the largest recorded multiple of this stamp used
or unused. The Alfred Lichtenstein collection described another “used block of 8
Poste Locale with blue PD cancel” (Zentrale fuer Briefmarken-Projektionsbilder des
Philatelisten Vereins St.Gallen, 1920). The “Lichtenstein Block” was sold during the
64th Corinphila Auction in 1981 (Lot 2998), however it was described as “zwei
waagrechte
Viererstreifen
mit
Falz
als
urspruenglicher
Achterblock
zusammengefuegt”’. The block appeared again at the Cuche Auction in 2013.
As well in mint condition no larger units are recorded. A previously offered block of
6 (11. Mueller Auktion, December 1946) was sold in the Burrus Auction (1964) as a
block of 4. During 1946 and 1964 two stamps “went missing” most likely cut off by
the previous owner due to aesthetic reasons, quite common at the time for larger
blocks.
The legendary “Seebub” Block
Letter fragment from Chur (blue PD from Chur) to Milano, Kingdom of Lombardia. Single rate of 20 Rappen.
Marked upon arrival with Milano and Lettere distribuz” – the letter was paid from Chur to Swiss/Italian border
Largest reported block of the POSTE LOCALE adhesive
KINGDOM OF LOMBARDIA
Postal Treaty Austria-Switzerland: 2 Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 31.10.1852
Prior to the formation of the Austrian-German Postal Union and the execution of a new treaty with the Swiss Federal
postal administration, Switzerland signed a provisional convention with Austria reflecting the changed rates due to the
currency revision. On 1 January 1852, the old Swiss currency was revalued for postal purposes. The new currency was
valued at 1:1.43 (new to old values). As a result, 100 Rappen of the old currency was now worth 70 Rappen. This
transition treaty only remained in effect for 10 months from 1.1.1852 to 10.31.1852- we have recorded one letter:
Rayon III- Small Numeral
Rare triple use on Foreign Mail
(four recorded)
Poschiavo to Brescia, Kingdom of Lombardia, 13 January 1852. Single rate 50 Rappen.
Treated under the transition treaty with Austria (prior to Postal Union) from the 10 months currency revision period
Austrian Ambulant railway post office- on the Lombardian route Milan-Bresco, circa 1852
Only reported letter handled under the Austrian-Swiss transition postal treaty
KINGDOM OF LOMBARDIA
Postal Treaty German-Austrian Postal Union: Rate Period 1.11.1852 – 31.8.1868
ex Limmat
Horgen to Milano, Kingdom of Lombardy, 29 July 1854. Single rate of 40 Rappen, sent in direct exchange
Manuscript crossed lines indicate that the letter was fully paid- credit to Austria 3 Kreuzer CM (marked on reverse)
Four recorded block-of-four franking to a foreign destination with Rayon II
ex Spalentor
St.Gallen to Milano, Kingdom of Lombardy, 12 July 1854. Single rate of 40 Rappen plus 20 Rappen for registration
Two recorded block-of-four franking to a foreign destination with Rayon III
KINGDOM OF LOMBARDIA
Postal Treaty German-Austrian Postal Union: Rate Period 1.11.1852 – 31.8.1868
Poschiavo to Como, Kingdom of Lombardia, 13 July 1853. Single rate of 35 Rappen, paid to destination
Prepaid under the old treaty- the correct rate would have been 40 Rappen- the letter was delivered without postage due
Carried by the Società privilegiata per l'impresa dei battelli a vapore nel Regno Lombardo Veneto steamship company
Early Steam Navigation on the Lago di Como, circa 1853
The Lake Como steam navigation service began in 1826 when a steamship with sails, the “Lario”, was
launched by the newly established Società privilegiata per l'impresa dei battelli a vapore nel Regno Lombardo
Veneto. The enterprise had a mail contract from the Lombardian government and carried mail from Switzerland.
Only reported letter from Switzerland to Como
KINGDOM OF LOMBARDIA
Postal Treaty German-Austrian Postal Union: Rate Period 1.11.1852 – 31.8.1868
The postal dispatch from Basel to Italy was by stage coach via Olten and Zofingen to Luzern. In Luzern the mail was
placed on a Lake steamship and carried to Fluelen where placed on the legendary St. Gotthard stage coach to Camerlata
and by train to Milan. The St. Gotthard mail diligence, stage coach service route was from Fluelen via Gotthard Hospiz and
Airolo, Faido, Bellinzona, Brionico, Lugano, Mendrisio to Camerlata. At each stop the horses were changed to ensure a
faster service. The total travel time from Basel to Milan was 49 hours and 25 minutes. This North-South route remained in
effect until the opening of the St. Gotthard tunnel in 1882 which permitted for a more efficient and shorter exchange.
Basel to Milano, Kingdom of Lombardy, 26 September 1854. Single rate of 40 Rappen, sent in direct exchange
Manuscript crossed lines indicate that the letter was fully paid- credit to Austria 3 Kreuzer CM (marked on reverse)
On September 15, 1854 the Federal Postal Administration introduced a new series of postage stamps, the
Imperforated Sitting Helvetia, or more commonly known as Strubel. The new series of adhesives introduced a new
20, 40 and 100 Rappen stamp, to accommodate the growing need of higher denominated postage stamps paying the
rates for foreign letter exchange. The previous issues (Rayon I, II and III) remained valid until September 30, 1854.
One reported Rayon-Strubel mixed franking with two different Rayon adhesives
DUCHY OF MODENA
Postal Treaty Austria-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.9.1849 – 31.12.1851
In 1796 the long lasting rule of the House of Este in the northern Italian duchies of Modena, Reggio and Ferrara
came to an end when they were incorporated into the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. However in 1814, when the
French rule was abolished in Italy, Modena and Reggio where returned to Archduke Francis of Austria-Este. The
family ruled the duchy again until 1859 using the names Asburgo-Este (Habsburg-Este) and Austria-Este. In 1859
the duchy lost its independence to the new united Italy and Francis V, Duke of Modena, was deposed.
TABAK
YELLOW
The Rayon II was printed on white wove paper in three colors- black and red
on a yellow background. The printing of the yellow background proved to be
more challenging and expensive than initially anticipated resulting in
different shades of yellow. The so called “Tabak” color is today considered
as one of the most elusive of the Durheim issues. As per Gottfried Honegger,
Durheim mixed the colors by hand and added too much red, resulting in the
Tabak-color, recognized by small red particles under the microscope.
Zurich to Grand Duchy of Modena, 28 December 1850. Single rate of 20 Rappen to Swiss border (Chiasso)
Sent via Milano (marked on back- Milano 30 Dic) and rated with 8 Soldi (40 centesimi) for Chiasso-Modena
UNIQUE mixed franking with the rare TABAK and regular Rayon II
DUCHY OF MODENA
Postal Treaty Austria-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.9.1849 – 31.12.1851
Lugano to Modena, 27 October 1850. Single rate of 5 Rappen, paid to Swiss border, via Lombardy
Accessed by the Modena post with 8 soldi for Chiasso-Modena.
Four reported letters franked with POSTE LOCALE adhesive stamps to Modena
Zurich Rosette
(two recorded on foreign mail)
ex Seebub
Zurich to Modena, 4 February 1851. Single rate of 20 Rappen, prepaid to Swiss border, via Lombardy
Accessed by the Modena post with 8 soldi for Chiasso-Modena.
From January 1851 to 6 August 1851 the Zurich Post Office used again the earlier Cantonal Zurich Rosette to cancel
DUCHY OF REGGIO
Postal Treaty Austria-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.9.1849 – 31.12.1851
Mail exchange between Switzerland and the Duchy of Reggio was identical to its associated Duchy of
Modena. After the French rule under Napoleon, the Duchy was returned to the House of Este during the
Congress of Vienna in 1815. In 1848 Duke Francisco IV d”Este left the Duchy fearing a revolution.
Reggio proclaimed its annexation to Piedmont but the latters defeat at Novara brought the city back
under the Estense sway. In 1859 Reggio, under dictator Luigi Carlo Farini united again to Italy.
Lugano to Reggio, 18 November 1850. Single rate of 5 Rappen, paid to Swiss border, via Lombardy
Manuscript marking S8 (8 soldi) by the Reggio-Modena post office for transit and local postage in Italy
The stamps of the first Durheim issue, Orts Post and Poste Locale, were intended to pay postage for local postal
exchange. Given the low nominal value of 2 ½ Rappen they were not intended for foreign mail. Some letters,
particularly from the Italian part of Switzerland (Canton Ticino) are recorded where these stamps were used for
partial franking to Swiss border, a practice which was authorized by the corresponding treaties. All these letters
are considered major rarities- we have only recorded 15 Poste Locale and 1 Orts Post to foreign destinations.
First recorded franked letter from Switzerland to the Duchy of Reggio- three recorded letters with Poste Locale
KINGDOM OF VENETIA
Postal Treaty German-Austrian Postal Union: Rate Period 1.11.1852 – 31.8.1868
The Kingdom of Venetia included the provinces of Venice, Verona, Padova, Vicenza, Treviso, Rovigo, Belluno
and Udine. Following the popular revolt in the neighboring Lombardy on March 22, 1848, the Kingdom of Venetia
followed the next day and arose against the Austrian occupation, forming the Governo Provisorio di Venezia
(Provisional Government of Venice). The Austrians, after defeating the Sardinian troops at the battle of Custoza,
entered Venice on August 24, 1849, restoring Austrian rule. Venice was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy in 1866.
Basel to Venetia, 21 November 1853. Single rate of 50 Rappen, sent in direct exchange via Lombardia
Second Swiss Postal Zone (over 10 miles) to Second Austrian Zone (20 miles)
Manuscript crossed lines indicate that the letter was fully paid- credit to Austria 6 Kreuzer CM (marked on reverse)
Mail dispatch from the Cantons of Basel, Solothurn, Aarau to Northern Italy and the Kingdoms of Lombardia and Venetia was
via Luzern and Lake Luzern steamship service to Fluelen where the mail was placed on the St. Gotthard stage coach. The route
over the Gotthard Hospiz carried mail and passengers to Camerlata on the Swiss-Italian border. There the mail was placed on the
train to Milan and on to Venice. The total travel time from Basel to Milan was 49 hours and 25 minutes. This North-South route
remained in effect until the opening of the St. Gotthard tunnel in 1882 which permitted for a more efficient and shorter exchange.
Only recorded franked letter from Switzerland to Venetia
GRAND DUCHY OF TUSCANY
Postal Treaty Austria-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.9.1849 – 31.12.1851
In the 16th century, the Medicis , rulers of Florence, annexed the Republic of Siena, creating the Grand
Duchy of Tuscany. The Medici family became extinct in 1737 with the death of Gian Gastone, and Tuscany
was transferred to Francis, Duke of Lorraine and husband of Austrian Empress Maria Theresa, who let rule
the country by his son. The dynasty of the Lorraine ruled Tuscany until 1860, with the exception of the
Napoleonic period, when most of the country was annexed to the French Empire. After the Second Italian
War of Independence, a revolution evicted the last Grand Duke, and after a plebiscite Tuscany became part of
the new Kingdom of Italy. From 1864 to 1870 Florence became the second capital of the kingdom.
Locarno to Livorno, Duchy of Tuscany, 21 November 1850. Single rate of 10 Rappen for payment to Swiss border.
Accessed by the Tuscan post office with 10 crazie for Chiasso-Livorno
Three reported letters franked with four POSTE LOCALE adhesive stamps to a foreign Destination
First recorded franked letter from Switzerland to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
GRAND DUCHY OF TUSCANY
Postal Treaty Austria-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.9.1849 – 31.12.1851
PP from Mendrisio
(one recorded on foreign mail)
Mendrisio to Pisa, Tuscany, 10 March 1851. Single rate of 5 Rappen for payment to Swiss border
Accessed by the Tuscan post office with 6 crazie for Chiasso-Pisa
Two recorded letters to Pisa franked with Rayon- only one with Rayon I darkblue
Locarno to Firenze, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, 11 March 1851. Single rate of 10 Rappen to Swiss Border
Rated upon arrival with 10 crazie for Austrian transit and local delivery
The transit cancel AUSTRIA NO 2 is indicative of mail exchanged through the Milan/Lombardian post
Two recorded letters to Firenze franked with Rayon- only with Rayon I darkblue
AUSTRIAN EMPIRE
Postal Treaty German-Austrian Postal Union: Rate Period 1.11.1852 – 31.8.1868
According to the treaties of 1815 the Austrian Empire consisted of Austria herself, Bohemia, Moravia, Hungary,
Galicia, Silesia, Transylvania, Croatia and Dalmatia, as well as Lombardy and Venetia. The last two became part of
Italy in 1859 respecively 1866. Hungary, having failed to gain her independence in 1848-49, remained strictly within
the Austrian Empire until she became part of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary in 1867.
The postal relations with Austria date back to the establishment of the Cantonal post in Switzerland in 1803.
Subsequent modifications to these early treaties resulted in the execution of a new treaty on 15 June 1847, which was
adopted by 14 cantonal administrations. The treaties dealt with direct exchange, border zones as well as transit
regulations for mail to third countries. The particulars of these contracts were heavily in favor of Austria, it is
estimated that the Cantons lost several hundred thousands of francs in potential transit revenues.
The first Swiss post master general, Benedict La-Roche Staehelin immediately canceled the Austria treaties when he
assumed control of the newly formed Swiss Federal Post on 1 January 1849 and notified the Austrians that the old
treaties were no longer valid. Passionate negotiations resulted on 2 July 1849 with the execution of a new treaty with
Austria, which became effective as of 1 September 1849. The treaty remained in force until 31 October 1852 when it
was replaced with a new postal convention with the German-Austrian Postal Union.
Basel to Vienna, 7 December 1852. Single rate of 40 Rappen, sent via Baden and Bavaria (German Transit)
First Swiss Postal Zone (up to 10 miles) to Third Austrian-German Zone (over 20 miles)
Credit to Austria: 9 Kreuzer (equal to 30 Swiss Rappen)- marked on the reverse
Thirteen reported letters from Switzerland to Vienna
AUSTRIAN EMPIRE
Postal Treaty German-Austrian Postal Union: Rate Period 1.11.1852 – 31.8.1868
ex Silvaplana
Partial letter to Vienna, circa 1852. Single rate of 40 Rappen, sent via Baden and Bavaria (German Transit)
First Swiss Postal Zone (up to 10 miles) to Third Austrian-German Zone (over 20 miles)
Credit to Austria: 9 Kreuzer (equal to 30 Swiss Rappen)
Second highest recorded use of the Rayon I light-blue on foreign destination mail
Bern to Vienna, 22 April 1853. Double rate of 100 Rappen, sent via Baden and Bavaria (German Transit)
Second Swiss Postal Zone (over 10 miles) to Third Austrian-German Zone (over 20 miles)
Highest reported franking to the Austrian Empire- one of two three-color frankings
AUSTRIAN EMPIRE: VORARLBERG
Postal Treaty German-Austrian Postal Union: Rate Period 1.11.1852 – 31.8.1868
St. Gallen Initial Raute
(three recorded on foreign mail)
St.Gallen to Dornbirn, Duchy of Vorarlberg, 16 July 1854. Reduced single rate of 10 Rappen for Border Zone
Credit to the Swiss and Austrian postal administrations was 5 Rappen each, marked fco (Franco)
One of three recorded Border Zone mails with the Duchy of Vorarlberg
Chur to Feldkirch, 23 June 1854. Single rate of 20 RappenFirst Swiss Postal Zone up to Miles (75km) until border into First Austrian Zone
The 20 Rappen rate was split equally between the two Postal Administrations
Marked on the back with 3 Kreuzer Konventionsmuenze (equal to 10 Rappen) credit to Austria
AUSTRIAN EMPIRE: VORARLBERG
Postal Treaty German-Austrian Postal Union: Rate Period 1.11.1852 – 31.8.1868
On September 15, 1854 the Federal Postal Administration introduced a new series of postage
stamps, the Imperforated Sitting Helvetia, or more commonly known as Strubel. The purpose was to
introduce higher denominated stamps to accommodate the growing foreign letter exchange and the
now mandatory requirement to prepay foreign mail with postage stamps. The previous issues (Rayon
I, II and III) remained valid until September 30, 1854, resulting in some rare mixed frankings. As of
today only twenty-two such mixed frankings, used to a foreign destination are reported.
Chur to Bregenz, September 1854. Single rate of 20 Rappen, sent in direct exchange
First Swiss Postal Zone (up to 10 miles/75 kilometer) to First Austrian Zone (up to 10 miles)
15 September 1854 Introducition of new Postage Stamps and permission to use Rayon until 30 September 1854
The new adhesive stamps introduced a 40 Rappen nominal value to the public in September 1854 (the 20 Rappen and 100 Rappen
values were only available in 1855). Since the 5 Rappen Rayon I lightblue was still available in September 1854, the use of the 5
Rappen Strubel in mixed franking with Rayon is very uncommon
Only reported use of the 5 Rappen Strubel in combination with Rayon to a foreign Destination
AUSTRIAN EMPIRE: BOHEMIA
Postal Treaty German-Austrian Postal Union: Rate Period 1.11.1852 – 31.8.1868
In 1562 Archduke Ferdinand of Austria became King of Bohemia and the country became a constituent state
of the Habsburg monarchy. The Kingdom occupied the western two thirds of the traditional Czech lands with
Prag being its capitol. During the 1848 revolution many Bohemian-Czech nationalists called for autonomy
from the Habsburg Austria, but the revoloutionaries were defeated and Bohemia remained part of the
Austrian Empire until following Word War II when it became the core of the newly formed Czechoslovakia.
Rapperswyl to Schlan bei Prag, Bohemia (present day: Czechoslovakia), 12 April 1854. Single rate of 50 Rappen, sent via Vienna
Second Swiss Postal Zone (over 10 miles) to Third Austrian Zone (over 20 miles)
Credit to Austria: 9 Kreuzer (equal to 30 Swiss Rappen)- marked on the reverse
Two recorded franked letters from Switzerland to Bohemia (present day Czechoslovakia)
CRIMEAN WAR
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
Russia and Turkey were at war by October 1853 and on 30 November the Russian fleet emerged from Sebastopol and devastated
the Turkish at Sinope. England remained neutral, although with a mounting sense of anger, until 28 March 1853 when national
feeling could be contained no longer.
Crimean War: The Black Sea Fleet
The naval operations of the Crimean war commenced with the dispatch,
in summer of 1853, of the French and British fleets sailed to the Black
Sea region, in order to support the Ottomans and to dissuade the
Russians from encroachment. By June 1853 both fleets were stationed
at Besikas bay, outside the Dardanelles. With the Russian occupation of
the Danube Principalities in October they moved to the Bosphorus and
in November entered the Black Sea. During September 1854 the allied
forces advanced into the Crimean. But it was not until 9 September
1855 that they were able to capture Sebastopol.
The treatment of English mail to the British troops was directed to be sent under French transit via Marseille in closed mailbags.
Because there was no means of knowing the whereabouts of divisions, it was considered necessary to send everything to
Constantinople where a British post office had been opened in June.
ex Dr, Marcel Kottelat
Geneva to Armee de la Grande Bretagne, La Crimee, 30 September 1854. Single rate of 95 Rappen. Rayon LAST DAY
Carried by Messageries Imperiales- Ligne Levant to Constantinople. Delivered to the British Post Office.
Carried by British Naval Packet to the British Forces in the Crimean
Addressed to Lenox Pendergast with the Royal Scots Greys, Armee de la Grande Bretagne, Crimea
(Pendergast was Lieutenant Colonel and was later admitted to the House of Parliament)
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
The first postal convention between the United States and Switzerland did not go into effect until 1 April 1868.
Before 1840, mail between the two countries was exchanged by sailing ships from Europe, primarily the United
Kingdom and France. The captain of the vessel carrying the letter was obliged to turn it into the post office at the
port of arrival. After this date most mail was carried via the United Kingdom by contract mail steamships, first by
British and later by American steamships. Some mail was exchanged through Bremen and Prussia after their
postal conventions went into effect. Most mail to the United States, however, went via the British open mail and
was exchanged through existing conventions between the United Kingdom and France and between France and
the Swiss cantons, later unified into Switzerland. In the absence of a convention between the United States and
Switzerland, mail could not be fully prepaid and postage was always collected at destination.
ex Maurice Burrus; Limmat
Porrentruy to Galena, State of Illinois, 3 June 1852. Single rate of 60 Rappen- payment to port (PP)- Le Havre
By Ocean Steam Navigation Company from Havre via Southampton to Boston, rated with 5 cents open mail rate.
Rayon III stamps were printed in three different designs: 15 Rp (small numerals); 15 Rp (large numerals) and 15 Rp. Cts
The use of the small numerals and centimes values are substantially rarer
Two reported quadruple uses of the Rayon III Centimes to a foreign Destination
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
The French were interested in competing with the British for transatlantic mail service to the United States. On 5 October
1850, the New York & Havre Line steamship Franklin departed New York carrying the first mail for the U.S. government
directly to France stopping off Cowes, Isle of Wight, for British mail. Soon a monthly service operated between New York
and Havre, which lasted for seventeen years, interrupted only during the American Civil War.
Mail to and from the United States had to be paid the prevailing American packet letter rates.
Letters to the United States usually will show the circular datestamp of the Bureau Maritime
in Havre. Mail was subject to the PP marking, indicative of payment to port (Le Havre) only,
leaving the French or American packet rate to be collected in the United States.
Bureau Maritime Havre
Sissach, Baselland to Delaware, Ohio, 28 April 1852. Single rate of 60 Rappen for payment to Le Havre (fco Havre)
Carried by Havre Line steamer Humboldt (see picture below) from Le Havre to New York (arrival 21 May)
Rated by the New York port exchange office with the 20 cents packet rate for French service from Le Havre
Franked with a UNIQUE strip of four of the Rayon III small numerals
FIRST REPORTED OVERSEAS LETTER from Switzerland prepaid with adhesive stamps
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
New Orleans to Niederutzwyl, September 1852. Single rate of 10 Rappen domestic delivery, via forwarding agent
Cotton report from New Orleans, sent in closed mail bag (bulk) via coastal steamer to New York
Carried by Havre Line, steamer Franklin to Le Havre and by forwarding agent Landerer & Merkle to Basel
Entered the Swiss mail at Basel where franked with 10 Rappen for domestic postage
Although this collection does not include incoming mail, the unique and early Cotton report is documented above.
Cotton Fields in New Orleans, circa 1852
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
Arnold Guyot was born at Boudevilliers, near Neuchatel, Switzerland. In 1838 he visited the Swiss glaciers and
communicated the results of his six weeks' investigation to the Geological Society of France. In 1848 Guyot
immigrated to the United States, where he settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was occupied with this work until
his appointment, in 1854, as professor of physical geography and geology at Princeton University, which office he
retained until his death in 1884. His scientific work in the United States included the perfection of plans for a national
system of meteorological observations. Most of these were conducted under the auspices of the Smithsonian
Institution. His extensive meteorological observations led to the establishment of the United States Weather Bureau.
The four recorded “Guyot” letters have graced the legendary collections of Alfred Lichtenstein, Maurice Burrus and Ivan Ballyfor the first time they are now re-united within this collection and exhibited on the following pages
Arnold Guyot (1838-1884)
ex Ivan Bally; Silvaplana; Seebub
Neuchatel to Cambridge, Massachusetts, 30 September 1853. Single rate of 130 Rappen, via New York
Carried by Cunard Line from Liverpool to New York where rated with 5 cents British open mail rate
Ten reported franked letters from Switzerland to the United States- highest recorded “block” of the Rayon III on foreign letter mail
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
ex Alfred Lichtenstein
Neuchatel to Cambridge, Massachusetts, 28 September 1854. Single rate of 130 Rappen, via New York
Carried by Cunard Line from Liverpool to New York where rated with 5 cents British open mail rate
ex Charlotte Hassel; Maurice Burrus; Walter Haemmerli
Neuchatel to Cambridge, Massachusetts, 20 February 1854. Single rate of 130 Rappen, via New York
Carried by Cunard Line from Liverpool to New York where rated with 5 cents British open mail rate
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
Geneva to Maryland, 26 September 1854. Single rate of 130 Rappen, via Liverpool and Boston
Carried by Cunard Steamer to Boston, where the letter entered the United States mail on 13 October
Marked by the Boston port exchange office with the BrPkt (British Packet) cancel and carried by U.S. overland mail
Three reported Rayon- Strubel mixed franking to the United States of America
ex Alfred Lichtenstein; Seebub
Neuchatel to Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1 March 1853. Single rate of 130 Rappen, via New York
Carried by Cunard Line from Liverpool to New York where rated with 5 cents British open mail rate
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
Dissatisfied with the dominance of British companies in the transatlantic mail packet trade, the US Congress decided to begin a
state-subsidized service of their own. In 1849, the US Postmaster General Office invited companies to submit bids for a ten-year
federal government-subsidized mail service contract between New York and Liverpool, in direct competition with Cunard, which
had opened a similar service in 1848. Collins submitted his ambitious plan to operate a weekly service on the route with five ships
superior to those of Cunard. Collins' proposal convinced the authorities and the tender was awarded to his New York & Liverpool
United States Mail Steamship Company, known as the Collins Line.
…per Collins Steamer of 20th September via Liverpool...
The Collins steamer Arctic departed Liverpool on 20 September 1854 with
233 passengers and a crew of 135, including Collins' wife, their only
daughter 19-year-old Mary Ann and youngest son 15-year-old Henry Coit.
The ship had a good crossing until she encountered thick fog sixty miles from the US coast.
In the fog off Cape Race,
Newfoundland, she collided on 27 September with the 250-ton French iron propeller ship SS Vesta, and was holed in three places.
The Arctic had no watertight compartments and began to fill with water. The captain tried to reach land before the ship sank, but
only fifteen miles from shore, the ship rolled over and sank. 322 passengers are said to have perished, including Collins’ family….
ex Seebub
Geneva to New York, 15 September 1854- STRUBEL FIRST DAY. Single rate of 130 Rappen, via Liverpool
Manuscript per Collins Steamer of 20th September via Liverpool- the Arctic sank off the coast of Newfoundland
The letter missed the Arctic and was instead carried on the Baltic- dep Liverpool on 10/4 and arrival in NY 10/16
Intended to be on the ill fated trip of the Collins Steamer ARCTIC which sank off the coast of Newfoundland
MEXICAN REPUBLIC
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
The Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico were serviced by the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company (RMSP) through a
main line and auxiliary feeder routes. St. Thomas, the Caribbean headquarters of the RMSP, became the first port
of call for the mainline packets all West Indian destinations were served, directly or indirectly, from St. Thomas.
In February 1852 amendments were made to the schedule to reflect the capabilities of new ships coming into
service. The time out to St. Thomas was reduced from seventeen days to fifteen and the mainline packet line was
extended to Vera Cruz and Tampico, allowing for a substantially faster delivery of the Mexico mails.
Basel to Vera Cruz, Mexico, 16 September 1854. Single rate of 130 Rappen, sent via Southampton
Sent un-franked; returned to sender with manuscript marking “muss frankiert werden” since prepayment was mandatory
Royal Mail Steam Packet via Southampton- Left London 23 September 1854 - arrival in Vera Cruz 20 October 1854
RMSP re-coaling at St. Thomas, en route to Vera Cruz, 1854
Only recorded franked correspondence to the West Indies, Central America or Mexico- UNIQUE mixed franking Rayon-Strubel
KINGDOM OF BRAZIL
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
The Royal Mail Steam Packet (RMSP) was awarded a royal charter to carry mail to South America in 1851.
The vessels were to sail from Southampton on the 9 th of each month, and were to make Rio in twenty-six days,
calling at Lisbon, Cape de Verde, Pernambuco and Bahia. The service was inaugurated by Teviot in January
1851. Coincident with the RMSP steam service, Great Britain entered into negotiations with Brazil for a new
postal agreement that was finally signed on 12th January 1853. The rates became part of the French-British
treaty and as a consequence established the rates for mail from Switzerland to Brazil under French transit.
Koepplishaus to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4 June 1854. Single rate of 145 Rappen, sent with RMSP
Carried by Royal Mail Steam Packet, TEVIOT from Southampton via Pernambucco-Bahia to Rio de Janeiro
The inward conveyance by land or sea to any part of the empire was set at 240 reis (manuscript marking)
Highest reported use of the Rayon II adhesive on foreign letter mail
One reported franked letter from Switzerland to South America
BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY
Postal Treaty France-Switzerland: Rate Period 1.1.1852 – 15.12.1854
Mail to the British East India Company could be sent through Marseille by
French or British steamers to Alexandria or via the Southampton route with
British steamers to Alexandria. After overland mail transit AlexandriaCairo-Suez mail was sent through the Peninsular & Orient Line via Aden to
Bombay. In January 1853 the East India packet was expanded for both
Southampton and Marseille departure: Twice monthly from Southampton
via Gibraltar and Malta to Alexandria or Twice weekly from Marseille with
P&O steamers to Malta where mail was fed into the steamer service from
Southampton. The service from Suez to Aden, Point de Galle, Madras and
Calcutta was increased to twice-weekly.
ex Tamaris; Ticino
Lausanne to Bombay, 19 September 1854. Single rate of 110 Rappen.
By Messageries Imperiales to Alexandria and overland from Alexandria to Suez
Peninsular & Oriental Line from Suez to Bombay- upon arrival rated with 1 s (shilling) for maritime sea conveyance
One reported franked letter from Switzerland to Asia

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