Institutionalism Revisited - Copenhagen Business School

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Institutionalism Revisited - Copenhagen Business School
InstitutionalismRevisited
ExplainingtheInstitutionalFragmentationof
GlobalEnvironmentalGovernance
Dr.FariborzZelli,
LundUniversity
CopenhagenBusinessSchool,20November2015
MainArguments
1. 
InsDtuDonalfragmentaDonkeepsincreasing.
2. 
InsDtuDonalfragmentaDonlacksadeepertheoreDcal
framework.
3. 
InsDtuDonalfragmentaDoncanbebuiltintotenetsof
differentstrandsofinsDtuDonalism.
Outline
1. 
IntroducDon&RaDonale
2. 
TakingStock:theNAVIGOVProject
3. 
TheoreDcalFramework:ExplainingFragmentaDonandits
Consequences
1IntroductionandRationale
Whatisinstitutionalfragmentation?
= DiversityofinternaDonalandtransnaDonal
insDtuDons
withdifferentlegalstatus,consDtuencies,spaDalscopes
orpredominantsubjectmaXers,
whichoverlapintheirmandatesandfuncDonsfor
addressingagivenissuearea.
Fromregime...
UNFCCC/
KyotoProtocol
…toregimecomplex...
Bilateral
iniDaDves
AdaptaDon
iniDaDves
UNFCCC/
Kyoto
Protocol
Expert
assessments
(IPCC)
Investment
(BITs)
Adaptedfrom:Keohane&Victor2010
Ozone
(Montreal
Protocol)
Clubs(G8+5;
G20;MEF;
APP)
SubnaDonal
acDon(RGGI;
California)
Trade
(WTO;NAFTA)
Source:Keohane&Victor2011
…toafragmentedgovernancearchitecture.
I: UN Climate Regime
(different working and contact groups)
II: Multilateral climate & energy partn.
(APP, GMI, CSLF, IPHE, ICAP, PPPs, etc.)
III: Other int. environmental institutions
(CBD, Montreal Protocol, UNCCD, CSD)
IV: Int. non-environmental institutions
(WTO, WHO, UN Security Council, G8)
Source:Zelli2010
Source:Biermannetal.2009
Theactorsoftheplay…
Source:Abbot2012
…andtheplot
Source:Widerberg2014(conferencepaper)
GlobalClimateFinanceArchitecture(Nakhoodaetal.2013)
Stateoftheart:conceptualfragmenta2on
•  Ins$tu$onalfragmenta$on
•  Regimecomplexes
•  Polycentricgovernance
•  Polyarchicgovernance
__________________________
•  Orchestra$on
•  Bandwagoning
•  Governanceexperiments
•  Ins$tu$onaldiffusion
Norma2vedivide…?
Institutionalfragmentationis…
…astructuralcharacterisDcoftoday‘sglobal
governancearchitectures.
2TakingStock
TheNAVIGOVproject
Aim:Togeneratenewinsightsintotheshape,causesandconsequences
ofins$tu$onalcomplexityofglobalclimategovernance
1.  MappingtheinsDtuDonalcomplexityinthreekeypolicydomains
2.  ExplainingvaryinglevelsofinsDtuDonalcomplexity
3.  AnalysingtheconsequencesforlegiDmacy,effecDvenessandfor
specificgroupsofactors
ThreefocusareasinCCpolicy
REDD+
SHORT LIVED
CLIMATE
POLLUTANTS
potenDaloverlapson…
MARINE
CLIMATE
ADAPTATION GOVERNANCE CHANGE
BIODIVERSITY
2a REDD
Institutionalarrangementsonforests->evolutionovertime
UNREDD
REDD+
Mandatefocusedonforestsandforestproducts
Globallevel
partnership
ITTO
FSC
PEFC
UNFF
CPF
Mandaterelatedtoforests/indirectimpactonforests
WTO
WHC
CBD
FAO
CITES
UNFCCC
IMF
UNEP
UNCCD
Ramsar
GEF
World
Bank
ILO
UNDP
UNPFII
19401950196019701980199020002010
Institutionalarrangementsonforests–addingtheregionallevel
Mandatefocusedonforestsandforestproducts
REDD+
partnership
Globallevel
FSC
ITTO
UNFF
UNREDD
PEFC
CPF
Mandaterelatedtoforests/indirectimpactonforests
WTO
IUCN
WHC
FAO
CITES
UNFCCC
IMF
UNEP
UNCCD
Ramsar
GEF
World
Bank
ILO
UNDP
CBD
UNPFII
19401950196019701980199020002010
Regionallevel
Mandatefocusedonforestsandforestproducts
C&Iprocesses
AFP
AFP
C&I
FLEG
Processes
ATO CBFP processes
COMIFAC
CACF
FLEG
Mandaterelatedtoforestsorwithanindirectimpactonforests
Western
Hemisphere
ConvenDon
ASEAN
ACTO
COMIFAC
ATO CACF
SADC
2bShort-livedClimate
Pollutants
TypesofSLCPs
Main
anthropogenic
emissionsources
Blackcarbon
Residentbiofueland
coalcookingand
heaDng;Diesel
engines;
Openbiomass
burning
Troposphericozone
NotdirectlyemiXed,
butaresultofa
reacDonbetween
ozoneprecursors
Methane
Fossilfuel
extracDon;
Agriculture;
Sewageandwaste
HFCs
AircondiDoningand
refrigeraDon;
Mobileair
condiDoning;Foam
agents;
Aerosols;
FireexDnguishers
andsolvents
Atmospheric
life2me
3-8days
4-18days
9.1years
1.5-222years,
CCAC2014;
dependingonthe
Hartmannet
typeofHFC;15years al.2013
average
Near-termclimate
impactsof
mi2ga2onac2on
Measurescanreduce -warmingby0.19°Cby
2050
Measurescan
reducewarmingby
0.28°Cby2050
0.1°Cby2050
Longer-term
climateimpactsof
mi2ga2onac2on
- 
Non-climate
benefitsof
mi2ga2onac2on
Humanhealth
improvements;
Enhancedcropyields
- 
Undera2°C
scenario:0.1°C
Undera“no
miDgaDon”
scenario:
<0.05°C
--
- 
- 
Humanhealth
improvements;
Enhancedcropyields
Undera2°C
- 
scenario:0.7°C
Undera“no
- 
miDgaDon”
scenario:
<0.4°C
Seetropospheric
ozone(with
methanebeingthe
mainprecursor)
--
Sources
CCAC2014;
UNEP2011a;
UNEPand
WMO2011
Shindelletal.
2012;
Xuetal.2013
Undera2°C
Rogeljetal.
scenario:0.2°C 2014
Undera“no
miDgaDon”
scenario:0.1°C
Shindelletal.
2012;
UNEPand
WMO2011
InstitutionsGoverningSLCPs
Ins2tu2on
Year
Membership
197parDes
Scope
Global
Legalstatus
Public/
private
Legallybinding Public
instrument
Objec2ve
Montreal
Protocol
1987
LRTAP
Conven2on
(Gothenburg
Protocol)
IMO
1979(1999)
51parDes
Regional
Legallybinding Public
instrument
1948
171members
Employslegally Public
binding
instruments
Ensuresafetyand
InformaDon
securityofshipping; sharing;
preventmarine
Ruledevelopment
polluDonbyships
Arc2cCouncil
1996
8ArcDcstates
(plus12nonArcDcstatesas
observers)
Regional
Notlegally
binding
Public
DiscussArcDcissues Agenda-sepng;
(mainlyrelatedto
InformaDonsharing
environment/
sustainable
development)
CCAC
2012
Global
Notlegally
binding
Publicprivate
PromoteacDonto
addressSLCPs
GMI
2004(as
Methaneto
Markets)
42countries(plus Global
theEuropean
Commission),and
1300+non-state
actors
Notlegally
binding
Publicprivate
UNFCCC
1992
196parDes
Public
Global
Protecttheozone
layer
Governance
func2ons
Financing;
Goalsepng;
InformaDon
sharing;
Ruledevelopment
Protectthe
InformaDon
environment
sharing;
againstairpolluDon
Ruledevelopment
Agenda-sepng;
InformaDon
sharing;
ImplementaDon
Reducemethane
InformaDon
emissions;enhance sharing;Financing;
methanerecovery; ImplementaDon
usemethaneas
cleanenergy
resource
Avoiddangerous
Financing;
climatechange
InformaDon
sharing;
Ruledevelopment
2c ClimateEngineering
TypesofClimateEngineering
InstitutionsGoverningClimateEngineering
ENMOD
ConvenDon
Mapping-Comparison
Commonali6es
•  lackofaninsDtuDonalcore
•  strongoverlapsbetweenenvironmentalinsDtuDonsof
differentdomains
Differences
•  numberandimportanceofpublicinternaDonal
insDtuDons
•  levelofinsDtuDonalintegraDon
Mapping–NextSteps
UseSocialNetwork
Analysis(SNA)to
assessfragmentaDon
andvisualizethe
insDtuDonal
architectureof
differentpolicyareas
Mapping–NextSteps
Comparecasesusing
QualitaDveComparaDve
Analysis(QCA)
à  Betweendifferent
policyareasin
ClimateChange
governance
3TheoreticalFramework
Fragmentationasaninterveningvariable
Dependent Variables
Independent Variables
Power
Structure
Embedded
in
Knowledge
Structure
Effectiveness
Degree
Legitimacy
of
Complexity
Inclusion /
Exclusion
Thedegreeofins2tu2onalfragmenta2oninagiven
issueareadependsupon…
-  …thepreferencesofpowerfulactors(instrumental
mul6lateralism/hegemonicstabilitytheory);
Thedegreeofins2tu2onalfragmenta2oninagiven
issueareadependsupon…
-  …thepreferencesofpowerfulactors(instrumental
mul6lateralism/hegemonicstabilitytheory);
-  …theasymmetryofpreferencesofdifferentactors(neoliberal
ins6tu6onalism/situa6on-structuralapproach);
REDDinPeru(Zellietal.,fc.)
Exclusionacrosslevels
Thedegreeofins2tu2onalfragmenta2oninagiven
issueareadependsupon…
-  …thepreferencesofpowerfulactors(instrumental
mul6lateralism/hegemonicstabilitytheory);
-  …theasymmetryofpreferences(neoliberalins6tu6onalism/
situa6on-structuralapproach);
-  …thedegreeofuncertaintyand/orasymmetryofknowledge
bases(cogni6vism/epistemiccommuni6es).
Thedegreeofinstitutionalfragmentationina
givenissueareadependsupon…
-  …theasymmetry/compeDDonofnorms(sociological
ins6tu6onalism);
Globalegovernanceofplantgeneticresources
Na2onalsovereignty:
Private/patents:
CBD
WIPO
AUModelLaw
WTO-TRIPS
AndeanCommunity
bilateral‘TRIPSplus’agreements
OAS
Bilateralagreementson
‘bioprospecDng’
BonnGuidelines(PIC)
EUDirecDveonPatentsin
Biotechnology
Thedegreeofinstitutionalfragmentationina
givenissueareadependsupon…
-  …theasymmetry/compeDDonofnorms(sociological
ins6tu6onalism);
-  …theasymmetry/compeDDonofdiscourses(discursive
ins6tu6onalism);
Global Forestry Governance: Centres of Gravity
Global Forestry Governance: Centres of Gravity
Thedegreeofinstitutionalfragmentationina
givenissueareadependsupon…
-  …theasymmetry/compeDDonofnorms(sociological
ins6tu6onalism);
-  …theasymmetry/compeDDonofdiscourses(discursive
ins6tu6onalism);
-  …thehegemonyof(neo-)liberalvaluesandlogics(cri6cal
interna6onalpoli6caleconomy;neo-Gramsciansim).
Thankyouforyourattention
[email protected]
---------------------------------
Fariborz Zelli and Harro van Asselt (eds.). 2013: The Institutional Fragmentation of
Global Environmental Governance. Special Issue of Global Environmental
Politics vol. 13:3 (The MIT Press).
‘Navigating the institutional complexity of global climate governance’ (NAVIGOV) –
Formas-funded research project (2014-17)

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