cambodia masterplan proposal

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cambodia masterplan proposal
CAMBODIA MASTERPLAN PROPOSAL
Prepared by:
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AKITEK JURURANCANG (MALAYSIA)SDN BHD
AKITEK JURURANCANG (MALAYSIA)SDN BHD
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AKITEK JURURANCANG (MALAYSIA)SDN BHD
INTRODUCTION
2 AKITEK
JURURANCANG (MALAYSIA)SDN BHD
ABOUT CAMBODIA
Official Name
Kingdom of Cambodia
Geography
Area: 181,040 sq. km. (69,900 sq. mi.)
Cities: Capital--Phnom Penh (pop. 1.2 million), Battambang, Siem
Reap, Kompong Cham, Kompong Speu, Kompong Thom.
Terrain: Central plain drained by the Tonle Sap (Great Lake) and
Mekong and Bassac Rivers. Forests away from the rivers and the
lake, mountains in the southwest (Cardamom Mountains) and
north (Dangrek Mountains) along the border with Thailand.
Climate: Tropical monsoon with rainy season June-Oct. and dry
season Nov.-May.
People
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Cambodian(s), Khmer.
Population (2005): 14,071,000.
Avg. annual growth rate (2005) 1.96%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--69/1,000. Life expectancy--57 years
male; 61 years female.
Ethnic groups: Cambodian 90%; Vietnamese 5%; Chinese 1%;
small numbers of hill tribes, Chams, and Laotian.
Ninety percent of Cambodia's population is ethnically Cambodian.
Other ethnic groups include Chinese, Vietnamese, hill tribes,
Chams, and Laotian. Theravada Buddhism is the religion of 95%
of the population; Islam, animism, and Christianity also are
practiced. Khmer is the official language and is spoken by more
than 95% of the population. Some French is still spoken in urban
areas, and English is increasingly popular as a second language.
Religions: Theravada Buddhism 95%; Islam; Christian.
AKITEK JURURANCANG (MALAYSIA)SDN BHD
181,040.0 SQKM
HISTORY OF CAMBODIA
BACKGROUND HISTORY
Archeological evidence indicates that part of the region now called Cambodia were inhabited from
around 1000 -2000 BCE by a Neolithicculture that may have migrated from South Eastern China
to the Indochinese Peninsular. By the end of ce ntury CE the inhabitants had developed relatively
stable, organized societies which had far surpassed the primitive stage in culture and technical
skills. The most advanced groups lived al0ong and in the lower Mekong River valley and delta
regions in hous es constructed on stilts where they cultivated rice, fished and kept domesticated
animals.
The Khmer people were one of the first inhabitants of South East Asia. They were also among
the first in South East Asia to adopt religious ideas and political inst
itutions from India and to
establish centralized kingdoms surrounding large territories. The earliest known kingdom in the
area is Funan flourished from around the first to the sixth century AD. This was succeeded by
Chenia which controlled large part of modern Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and Thailand.
The Funanese Empire rose to eminence from its afflient and powerful home city of Oc Eo ( in
nowadays Vietnam, known in the Roman Empire as Kattigara, meaning the Renowned City. The
empire reached its greatest ex tent under the rule of Fan Shih -man in the early third century CE,
extending as far south as Malaysia and as far as Burma. The Funanese established a strong
system of mercantilism and commercial monopolies that would become a pattern for empires in
the re gion. Fan Shih -man expanded the fleet and improved the Funanese bureaucracy, creating
a quasi -feudal pattern that left local customs and identities largely intact, particularly in the
empire’s farther reaches.
The golden age of Khmer civilization, however , was the period from the ninth to the thirteenth
centuries when the kingdom of Kambuja , which was Kampuchea, or Cambodia, it’s name, ruled
large territories from its capital in the region of Angkor in western Cambodia.
Under Jayavarman VII ( 1181 -ca. 12 18 ), Kambuja reached its zenith of political power and
cultural creativity. Jayavarman VII gained power and territory in a series of successful wars.
Khmer conquest were almost unstoppable as they raided home cities of powerful seafaring
Chams. However, territorial expansion stopped after a defeat by Dai Viet. The battle also
witnessed Suryavarman II;s death. Following Jayavarman VII’s death Kambuja experience a
gradual decline.
The fifteenth to the nineteeth centuries were a period of continued decli
ne and territorial loss.
Cambodia enjoyed a brief of prosperity during the sixteenth century because its kings, who built
their capitals in the region southeast of the Tonie Sap along the Mekong River, promoted trade
with other parts of Asia. The Thai con
quest of the new capital at Lovek in 1594 marked a
downturn in the country’s fortunes and Cambodia.
Cambodia was a French colony between the period of 1863 and 1953. In 1863 King Norodom
signed an agreement with the French to established a protectorate ove r his kingdom and thus
began the gradual process of French colonial domination and began to share the common
experience of French culture.
Shihanouk’s royal crusade for independence resulted in grudging French acquiescence to his
demands for a transfer of sovereignty. A partial agreement was struck in October 1953 which
then declared that independence had been achieved and returned in triumph to Phnom Penh.
Sihanouk was in power between 1955 to 1970. The period after Sihanouk and the current ruling
government were the Dark period in the Cambodian history.
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JURURANCANG (MALAYSIA)SDN BHD
ARCHITECTURE OF CAMBODIA
The 12th century temple of Angkor Wat is the masterpiece of Angkorian architectural. Consruction
under the direction of Khmer King Suryavarman II, t was serve as the monarch’s personal
mausoleum and as a temle to Hindugod Vishnu. It was designed as a pyramid reoresenting the
structure of the universe, the highest level at the centre of the temple represented Mount Meru,
the home of the hindu gods, with the five towers on the highest level representing the five peaks
of the mountain.The moat around the complex represented the oceans that surround the world.
The period of Angkor from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A>D. to the first half of
the 15th century. If precise dates are required, the beginning may be set in 802 A.D., when the
king Khmer King Jayavarman II pronounced himself universal monarch and declared
independence from Java and the end may be set in 1431 A.D. when Thai invaders from the
kingdom of Ayutthaya sacked Angkor and caused the Khmer elite to migrate to Phnom Penh.
In any study of Angkorian architecture, the emphasis is necessarily on religious architecture, since
the only remaining Angkorian buildings are religious in nature. During the period of Angkor, only
temples and other religious buildings were constructed of perishable material such as wood, and
as such have not survived.
The Architecture of Cambodia at the later dates were greatly influenced by the French
Architecture. Evidence of buildings reflecting French Architecture are much in evidence scattered
mainly around the capital city of Phnom Penh and at some other major towns around Cambodia.
Domestic buildings are built in more the traditional Cambodian style. The nuclear family, in rural
Cambodia, typical lives in a rectangular house that may vary in size from four by six meters by ten
meters.it is constructed of a wooden frame with gabled thatch roof and walls of woven bamboo.
Khmer houses typically are raised on stilts as much as three meters for protection from annual
floods. Two ladders or wooden staircases provide access to the house. The steep thatch roof
overhanging the house walls protects the interior from rain. Typically a house contains three
rooms separated by partitions of woven bamboo. The front room serves as a living room used to
receive visitors, the next room ia the parents’ bedroom, and the third is for unmarried daughters.
Sons sleep anywhere they can find space. Family members and neighbours work together to build
the house, and a house raising ceremony is held upon its completion. Chinese and Vietnamese
houses in Cambodian town and villages typically are built directly on the ground and have earthen,
cement, or floor tiles, depending upon the economic status of the owner. Urban housing and
commercial building may be made from brick, masonry or wood.
SOME OF THE KNOWN HISTORICAL SITES
Preah Ko Style ( 877 – 886 A.D. )
Bakheng Style ( 889 – 923 )
Koh Ker Style ( 921 – 944 )
Pre Rup Style ( 944 – 968 )
Banteay Srei Style ( 967 – 1000 )
LOCATION
Khleang ( 968 – 1010 )
Baphuon Style ( 1243 – 1431 )
Classical or Angkor Wat Style ( 1080 – 1175 )
Baroque or Bayon
Style ( 1181 – 1243 )
AKITEK JURURANCANG (MALAYSIA)SDN BHD
Post Bayon Style ( 1243 – 1431 )
Cambodia is strategically located in between Thailand, Loas and Vietnam and the Gulf of
Thailand. Cambodia can be developed to be the main trading hub for this region for air
and sea freight.
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JURURANCANG (MALAYSIA)SDN BHD
>> CAMBODIA PROVINCES
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>> SCALE & DISTANCES
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>> LAND PROFILE
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>> TOPOGRAPHY
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>> LAND USE & ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
SITE
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ANALYSIS
>> FOREST RESERVE
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>> ROAD & TRANSPORT NETWORK
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>> RAILWAY LINE
CAMBODIA BAMBOO TRAIN CURRENT SITUATION
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JURURANCANG (MALAYSIA)SDN BHD
ANALYSIS & DEVELOPMENT
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>> MAINTOWN LINKAGES
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>> DEVELOPMENT TRIANGLE
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>> POTENTIAL GROWTH AREA
LEGEND
MAIN HIGHWAY
UPGRADING OF
RAILWAY LINE
MAIN TOWN
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JURURANCANG (MALAYSIA)SDN BHD
>> IMMEDIATE DEVELOPMENT ZONE
20 AKITEK
JURURANCANG (MALAYSIA)SDN BHD
>> IMMEDIATE DEVELOPMENT ZONE
FREE TRADE
ZONE
AIRPORT CITY
TOURISM HUB
RESORT CITY
LAKE TOWN
DEVELOPMENT
AGRO BASE
COMMERCIAL ZONE
ACADEMIC &
MEDICAL HUB
SPORT CITY
ADMINISTRATIVE
CENTRE
TECHNOLOGY CITY
BUSINESS CENTRE
LIGHT INDUSTRY
ZONE
HEAVY INDUSTRY
ZONE
HARBOUR CITY
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>> THE NEW INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
EXTENSION / RELOCATION
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JURURANCANG (MALAYSIA)SDN BHD
>> THE NEW INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
EXTENSION / RELOCATION
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>> PORT DEVELOPMENT/EXPANSION
PORT
DEVELOPMENT
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>> PORT DEVELOPMENT/EXPANSION
DUTY FREE
COMPLEXES
CUSTOM AND
DUTY FREE
COMPLEXES
COMMERCIAL
COMPLEXES
MARINA BAY
DEVELOPMENT
ISLAND RESORT
DEVELOPMENT
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RESORT BAY
JURURANCANG (MALAYSIA)SDN BHD
COMMERCIALS & RESIDENTIALS
MIXED DEVELOPMENT
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>> PORT DEVELOPMENT/EXPANSION
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>> FREE TRADE ZONE
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>> FREE TRADE ZONE
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>> LAKE TOWN DEVELOPMENT
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