AAZPA. 1972. Transcript and Addendum

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AAZPA. 1972. Transcript and Addendum
AAZPA. 1972. Transcript and Addendum - Reproduction in captive cheetah..
Keywords: Acinonyx jubatus/captive breeding/captivity/cheetah/husbandry/reproduction/sex ratio
Abstract: A cheetah breeding seminar. Theme is the captive reproduction of cheetahs. There is a problem
of a species which is endangered in the wild state. The species is certainly endangered in captivity. We
also have the problem of a poor reproductive history within the zoo environment. Everyone hopes to find
the magic factor. Is it dietary, social, psychological, environmental in the physical sense? Here perhaps we
can identify a scientific approach of experimentally manipulating these factors and, if successful then
identifying the factor or multiplicity of different but inter-related factors which are essential in the successful
breeding of cheetahs. A few of the factors which, to date, seem to be most significant: social environment,
sex ratios, ratios of two males to one female, timing of introduction of the sexes, especially seasonally,
nature of the physical environment, space or area, enclosure shape, nutritional husbandry and physical
condition of the animal. We need also a better understanding of wild cheetah ecology to serve as a key to
successful captive breeding.
l'
ADo!tcrn
q
I
A.rocI.116a
6r zoo1091c.r
ptll(r
r.a
rq!.rjoD.
I3!9Li
Dt!.ctor,
otrahoda city z.o
B!. Phltlp c.
lorgdo zootogic.t palr
Atr1i.t B€h!vio!r.t,
ch..t!b
con.6!v.tton Proj€ct, sa3 Dl€qo 206rosi..r socl.ty
ro!rd {tral1t.
sarr!1
Hot.t ro'!.ra,
1015 c€r!! Bour.v.litl
its
!robr,df,s
' 9 ' " 1 , 2 , i o
nontnator
in AFxir,
inlortant
rhich
the
factor;
j .t s p h y s i o l o , r i c a l
IroF
ltfe
1i
thei! btgeractlve
and,
1n caPtivltY.
to th6 uduar Eedsntary
of vtlit
underst.ndins
a'
a key to
s*"
.h..t;h..
i"""r""a *
;;;.; i.,.
::;.;;i.r".f
th.n
c.pttve
lbe
6:vlnq
5.
;;;ri;i;.';;
inLeqratrn,
chcet6h.
i;; ""; ""'.
eanel nebbe*irr
"";r*";.
iii ,",i.,.r' ." .i. p'"st..
i-i.',1" i.i.l i . . ' , r"*...*a
;-;;;i" ii,.;
fur,l
so
PaPer that
I'rt
natn thtnq
qet soaa settous
Eol{tiong,
discu's b'terrv
a blt€f
hr3-
..h.th1's
!o
ih€ subject 'ith
:"i;;i";;;;r;;"4;;,
rhe
ceedlnss
raceorE
th€l!
".i rr., " "*
i.".-"i.
a;;rodcn
.r'.i"..tt.'t
.
:";;;;;;;,;;
th€ etsniricant
to ide.ttrv
.tu'*sr
ii".r"h"
bore {iII
r {a.
t,n
that
be
not solns
r
vorkins
or
-
orrrce! or the
g".*i *i. r. tn..ai,"itr""
'
t
r
.11
c
r
v
d
e
i""i r" rge;. lou,
.i"i"r.,rt.r'
.." t ara rt.t
;,.. r. "'" s'""
.'t .r eo ,"".
"".*"
;;;-;'?;;
i"""r" ""ra
ii"l'"a r" nr" i"'vev - rscs
r"r"ii"a * r" th€ ";rvev'
r"i" a."".rY rs6?.o You
"ventv-f,iv€
Elehteen or tho'e
ronqevity
bIt
had inc!ca€ed
bur L1e
oe knoe thar
e! Lner rn Eho rtr€r
-dt
lal
srrr ved
{ith,
tr sh€
fcmal€ arrlved
nor€ birth.
i.
"btrad.lphla.
ptri,tth
rlrr
K!€fierd:
re5er joined
in 1e6o (Aprill
sprnn€rl:
anlndrs,
tn
just
died
ihe oat6,
naI€ a!!iwed
tbis
fonale alriwed {ith
atound oc!ober I95l he di€d
both iere
v€rr
tiiature
ruo oa1e3.
a rittrr
fhsy
p!t_
,r 1r siv6 you th!€.
lhis
is
jnst
sonethins
to
ttnh dbout.
rhis is just
'€sident
.thoroqt€t,
r€ hav€ r€cetv€d
s5s,o0oro initiate
r€n:dulr
th.d€
arl
not th€.€ in
5an Diego zoo!
ny pny.torogtcar
rltd
five-acre
volk t6 done
cheetahE
pens.
ie
..|:,
!ogt
naru,ar dnvtronnent fo!
in caprivity,
certain !€rhaps pe!tlwhich nay lnitiare
:blnar'.
cheetan
af!{ca indi_
".Y b. ."'."
-.
""tf
in iiosL,oos
!h"t..r:.
!r:ed.:lqs ]n
caettvlN
n.rc.esul'.d
of 3€ruar anxi€blss.
"Frhae n.Les o:'jA-
v"Fl.
frture
*hlch
,i11
sorr€
bloldqy
hare
had sroTrnter6.u
ErEI'
rr
dnrv
f''-caarive
Ff'.ri
rtdtt.d
to.nly
r]!rbecgne
TxnEcr
tn iLiilnd
!da;;d
i;-;;I
ion-l*d
rnc!ea,1nq.v obvrous rn,y
.6t€ctive
---DeceDoer
rt
is
4no-
behaviorar dar.
nar€ and/or
I
two aniiars
th€
tnaL ndle
reiat€
in
tbe
o.
is
this
renale
tneoriz€
lntii.r
conlnq
1sfr.
i5 possibre
.
r^ ."pt,,i.v, r._
necessa!y tn
rl.e'=,'"t.t"*"sieals
{!on
car
(physioroqicar?)
rais€d
ln calrivity
snilsnade,
n€v9t:9bs€rved
ollahona
;ith_
citv
and
tbibk
copulatton.
nale nanaqqnent shoura
the!efore,
r
youtninkthe
subotd.inate
fo,Ld
rilartf.
sala!1,
hi3:?!!oach
of
resea'cb
r did
at
aflale of h:3.tudt€s
just
rtg-:I:ll-:!
'hich
to clarify
rj i9.ll
*r" r. tri.
tn tho rfan
h6 calqntr
crtntnqr
starvtnq
astan .heetahs
indivtiluats
in
ntres rhere
the {i1d
r'r1
-r,oaa
in
jtrEt lrn
rtke to nakc.
an in.reasinqry
se ale soinE
exttnct
rt
is
,sc'dy.rclooin !eoronal
a dtfre!enr
rhls
p!Ey
tben re:ds
they a.e lcreased
don. 1n this
iiro.
rh6r€
possiblo
s0ciart2ed
ro
their.orhe!€
{itr
rlas been
tne nothor
natural
bY Birl 1o!k.
iD vhich cheetahs
r thlnk
rhe riv.
feedlnq:
aqatr.
lnportant.
in sbo.t,
ald probably
Pblr
!€.h
in
sish!
and t hope that
steliion,
tiact,
r tbink nany o!
nor€ p€ople 'trl
rlrd anlnal
noael _ in attEnprlns
the aoledo 2oo, has a fil^
ei$
could Jtrnp or
ou! o! this exhibit
vould Jnnp.
by etthe! ctrnbinq or
jublinq.
thtntr th€y do
that!s flies.
panel
t€n
feet
ite.
ar
rre
frt€.
1n the
ve hawe tro
the ctrbs rere
tigr.
1971 after
I the
?hey ar. physen€lgy lb th€
tly to.
If ve
are sttnuratrn9.
F.11,
{tr€
rlth rhoep3on,6 q:.etre
all evtdanc6 polntE to
r ,ourd
acttvlty
ln cho€rahs vhich !. aI€o plobabry
b6hrviola11y s€a!€d for quit€
loloetcalry
tn.y
..cia1
alrivtns
boln on
caie
"q"
-"
r
!.;.'
they
ouest!on:
0uestt.n
i\.
n€ver
r'
c
c--;;
=:;i;
a!on sourh,est ^fr ica;
interesttn, qoinq
11
--
i."
".";-'
sJ_4 c.
Nhat
dhy
viti]dutqu€5tion
jurpins
au,.sraon:
rihar
!t
it
panel
i
subject.
6es3:on to discusst.n,
Befo!e
r rourd
Just 'ant
.ulrey
rh!ouql'
4o6t of south
stlrl
contln6htal
survoy ln a
ha. bade observatlons 0f hts ovn 1n ihe fi€rtt
sane officlars,
.o it is pr.babr,y
fhele
a'e
no bo'€.
tine.
has !a!ts
Boueve!,
be
anir
offict.Is
.'a
h€ estinares,
of the .ontinent,
bur thlt
of arlica
tn
'e najo!ity
td south aflica
cocrs€,
tn Afrlca,
eI!.94!C_l!!!
1! solthr€.t
_ri!eq.
41!!r9la!!
v€lnln 1n south'e.t
Ehe6! or
fhis
is
Alltca
int6r€.t
Africa,
anluls,
accofdrns
and erserhele.
ro 3af:ri
lb havinq a
the ones shich
rt
seens
sos6rhlnq,
htrnt rb.r,ttb
tbey are hunttng
ferentlar
1n
that's
pa.tEr
g-
o!
ftqu!6
ts
t!!o
fo!
selvlce
ju.t
{e xnor at
of naitrter!nc€lnsn.qen
nany aroa3 tn
cohBisslon
'bt.h ras pa.seal
the ruc{ anil entte r aonri hav€
rhingeI
rn
car15 for
a
..' ,.'.
.."=..,"1.
be -Dfopaqated. !hat neans jusr
b.ins rn raree
rirr
. ' ',..;..
cr rr." "i-a
not h,ve
so, r juEr
.t!";q1y._
as*inq in
then.
!esorurt.n
be rosponE rt€
!a!ki
a u E s r r o N s_ h o d
Do you
9j
a (Eaton and Eerdnan) :
^
any orhar
(skeldon),
9:
seen ir.
a probtcn a
besides
:abbit?
contd you desclibe
h
fact
cats
sone
behavlorrsms
th13
*ey
all
t
are co!trratinq.
forro{lbs
on her b:ck,
.h6
a (Heldnarr) :
exPcrience,
ro{
b-L4:19!41..
actrarly
coinea the
carr xhich ls
speed, 1t u6ua11y tndlcares
qet a tlomendous anount of.trbniBsiven66s
l!-
s_!r-e!19- !h{c
a lEatonl :
duiing
-q:q.e.a
Lo be aqsrcabtw
"9ft
ci,nc; anto t
ts very obvi.uE.
rn6
out,
glllrE
rctr'ity
! hato
ro
dlling
you
lhich
stlck
behavtor
dicar,ly
.".*-
tattl
cutte!a1.
Rob,
a_3!319!34E
ih j"jcr.r
that
my
b€ slqniflcanr
a Ehnrftiaq
readiry.
r
tho ta.r rro
ttn65
o,
it
lbar
t
r h.u. inL;od"..d.h.D.
thcaa {iptnqs.
in no'na1 delecacion
tt
thtbt
of, thar
brinq
in
re
same thinq
rh€ rtpln9
b" LL".I
i r or r o v e r e d .
^"'",|'y
.;
13 an
be virr
E3j9!]j
ls
b.hrvlo!
ls
the
he is
ln conract vith the
ht6 nounil and thon
rast
tvo
inrloduc!1ons,
ln
th€.nly
olu.
r bav6 b6€n ustrs
ou€stion !nd
on lsrand3
{B'.rnswilre)
a scven to ntnc
'irhour
touc!rtne it.
so it
rt 13 0ftsn
€rcolrent
and they
jun! a.d crer!
gives
crtnbers
a
as rer].
of phedor€na t.
ro ericit
brecdinq
ro do to elicit
brccdinq, actual
u! into a r.vet or
acttvlty!
to
son€thilr
(rauqhtc!).
a fenare,
vhcther
pioblens,
the
various
it
noi
cop-
1n-
is
had 1n keclins
rdcattohs,
(Eaton) t
I havo
ject,
it,6
Ledn
but thar
Lqo'as):
brouqht
tnto
Fbat
car€ sholril
bo tak6n
rney wele
rdxy r.mote
connent (crvrc Hitrr:
f,lrd
! have d
or ;ixr
vero
r did
^frlcan
huntine
r trrinr
subjecr.
and r
lurposes
1r shourd be
ahe
39q!9!i9_l-qe.l4I]_:
tie
(cu!tis):
Re3!on3e (Earon):
biEtoric'1ly
fr6n
Randy.
!cs.
Phir ositvie
to t6r1
no!1d wtrdrife
you sonethin!.
srr.n6or€a by !ion
!o!1d
rlldlife
second Intorlati.bar
think
tit'oducrions
to reploductive
bloloqy
rhe lroceadinqs
(rcL!on):
ne hrve
/,
anythibq
crsetahs
a'tificiar
stl'ur1
operatin9
90t oxctted
!;ter
object
start
r tke
tbe vrctntty
rlnntns
srid.
R.dFon.€ (qe.dnan) :
on afr€r
scens
rhis jusr lndicates
to rtrs that it
a.d that soncthins is drasricatry
thrt nat6s hare
dliw€r
but ve
dir.ction
of
!9js:ji__!!3ie!L
(tra.16n
conn6nt
rhonaE) I
p"-'*"...e,
l,n.fraid,
"*--,,..
ih. t
nrsjrdq€nerr,
ev€r tt
nay
the olirlnat
!su!!ei,
and !ot
just
.srsll::_q9sl3!3:!
ry-g3l!!.L
i6
fai!l]'
lfcdi.t:rra
ue af,e tiylnq
vhlcrr oe rhink xtlr
'o!k
for
you can find
anyaninarpopulatl.on
*no{
auestio'
rhat
fire
(poqlayon) :
nares at san Dleqo?
(d.rdnan) :
Iu
r]]e tnc!€a5ed
notlvation
not
p!€rinin'ly
say that thc
r'n just
trylns
!ir1
vo!k.
on tbe n.u,d
buildtns
a.
io
sayine
rhe srgnirlca'ce
is
lnrer!'et
and say
to bs 3on€ sort or
yet to D€ identr-
s!!EE9!--!393!i!4
!ea!
fehare i.
Rone {hieh
nare5, are srirl {itn the
considered 3te!tr6 no{.
sbe is past r3
sur6 rron sohatllrand. yhtcrr is in rhe pen vith
an rnte!esrtnq ove,_.exeil
n"'t"t,...p,',c"a
of the f!€qlort
ib the interp'etation,
lirc!
and srishrly less f,equdnt rrdney airn€n16
4gg:l-il9!-e-:li
i"rare,
ro! :nstance.
pubrisr,ed on
(crrtis):
r
froiL - ir
ansuei
(iatob)
:
y.u
livet
1€ a rantastic
in!orted,
vrty
tn captivity
is
somehov posttlrely
Peihals a rack of actl_
rctared to rtve! disease.
tor..d
for
rn rhts
with
wation
!ie
it and wirl
thPorr€d cheetatrr
laner
Eo aro solnq
the h€rri
to have
connitto€.
to do, stnce
and the 6!bj€ct
nininar ciiteita
tr.
N. coutd use rhls
rrir cheet.h,
each laner
S9s9g!__!9sEj!
s!,ecif,ic
fl.rttnq
crose
nenber
quesrtonE
tn !!ereseond
1!
cohnent
(Baysinqerl:
i!
(lauqhte!) .
ve introduced
connent (cu!tis):
rhis
heotrnq
I/2
!€€pon6c of
to O!63ttonE
g!!!jM_!l
tn ,hlch
(a)
plopasdtton
clirat€
trou1d app€a! ltkel,y?
sp€cificrlly:
r
extr6n€.r
lb)
(nore th,n
{hat
ld)
Fa.iIiti€d'
le)
staff
Ia)
plobabr.y
aitequat€ itennlns
Pai!!
abolt
noi
fivel ?
Ar€
he have a !l,ace?
dire,
tyle
(cas€6 v€. 'yalds(,,
etc.
conpetence.
ooder:te
cord
rev€rely
.!e
roulil
I
ale
(c)
etc,
Nunbe! of
(c)
lb)
lru4tdttyt
n.t
u€rs
illscoulage
rnd/.!
arythtns
equt!!.it
th€
nar€s and fenarer
6l,nc€ they nlsbt
flqrlt
anit
scar one anothe!
adrlse u5!.rIy
vho t. unquallri..ar
r'.atin9
(d)
I !€conr€na
ihould be d€sren€d
flon att otb6r
exce!t
f€dar€ a!€a ( s)
contact,
coo.s
tor
exoticE.
fiv6
ilu!Ins
5lnc6 barravior bl
rneieupon
acr.5
n.tins
area for
a conpound, rhlcb
na16s and f.har..
actiwlty.
rhe fenar.
can
tbe ..paratton
feDce
arc na16. 6hou1d b. ru'
I
Ea!onr
corrlnued
t601stton r!6a sbo!rir
potelttar
denning eLt€s, !ref.!abty
snrrt cove!eir
n'xi&qa vt.abilirr.
.ho 16tr.1. in the e1ld
avair.birity
o{
otrrer d€n3 .ho{1d .pievenr abandontrent.
hawe 3.v.lar
te ard others,
r.nc6 p.rfectly
po.sibirilte3
borh tn th.
aa€qu.t€.
ir hlt by !
of inju!y,
chatn llnk f€.ces,
cheetah, thu! ntni'irins
lunntns
Blnc.
B!!lapr
rwatrabre in 1oo ya!!:r
q!€at .ia rn htillnq
cheetah, che.rah r!o' peopt6
ch€€tahs snoultt
1...,
.ontacr *ith
contact vtrh
I)ulttc tE .ut.
Ehouta b. at
htniEus.
obseivrtron
. prltlorar
brind or oih€ri sqlalry
recrudea location.
l.)
Dlfficurt
tnar
e,
.iite
tt
of
!aca,
Iiw6-f6.dlnq
lndividual
tait)
te li!,elattv€
rhar
a gooa
rh6 s.n.
tnte!sction3,
(to be kept a,
1d€ntitrer
char?e€ ra lctivttr.
r
pe'son(3)
16 rtitrula16 !'hy3j..l
condition.
!€quiarty
anil rar.ltns,
shoutil b.
acrtvity anit €uortonlr
.h.{rd
b. lrovtded,
e.ch b€trs q!€at.r
rhan
tnlee pens .rrourd b6 plovtdedr
one p.n
anil an introducrolt.i
pen.
trarolntr,
b€ ovellookec as 1.n9 as vltrt€!
rs hrshry unrtk.ty
pa1!1,n9 of :nlnat..
- ;
houBtng 1e pr.wid€d.
that 1u€r tro Eni6.ts gIII
brosd.
€ffolr
anonE a las .006
a rininlE
of .1* cheehh .borld
a *ar1-!r€€snt€d
6hou1a acconlany alpttc.tlon
fo! p€!rtti
a r . o a c 6 r p r . r e 1 t 3 t o f p e o p r . cotrtact.it
coDcertrlnq tha br€€ittrg
cheetab should only b€
a 36!lorE.ttoDpt.r
..prottlotl,ob {trr b6 car!i€d our.
I
san {r/4 trne)
{h6 alowe nuEt
P!tvato tnaividual.
ne€tins
g!--E!:f1!-.9le-]ge-E
than one Da1€ tn th. gloup
hr1e6 and th!.6 f€!a1,.. anat
th.t
the
nutrbe!
Eto!ld.uffic6
of
th€ lntt€it
vher.
(b)
r have 61red
ba31. paddocrr that
no tess
lhrt
c€ltatn
8€eo eors
cheetah 1iv€.
'ot1d
ro betl€v€
that
tt
th.n
d€p€nil6 on rhai
hold
*ourd be necessaly.
eradtcatl,on tn southrest Afl1ca,
pe!!.ct
ie
Asatn,
iiteal
health
!€eo!d
abd knorinq
tn A!6!lca
l.ad6
r..hoqld
not,runllinq
livlnq
5lturti.n
h.
{.1
t vould
li.s
Bat r trintnutr 61 2/{
*ou1a
a plat
starf conpetence
Iton !a!k have
in the la€tr
bo!6 they rlrr
itoae o! 13 beiag
tllllns
to tlt
Just
or
a nlnl4un
for
lehale.
femare.t
breedinq/bordlre
encro6utes (.ne for mles'
pl!s thdtvidual
cnbbins 6nclosures foi each
rhe
!ho b!eedins/holarns
.41!.1€
t.
to
bresdinq/holdtns
liritins
factor
cheetah b'eeatng,
ln ca9tive
thu.
vould
three.
Ho{ever,
fton
x.pt
aaail'bte
say !n
untir
estabrish
lt
t3 ny oplnlot
It
body heat i.
is
of
ren.
too
.ucc€6.fu].copu.
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