Physics in Canada La Physique au Canada J>



Physics in Canada La Physique au Canada J>
Physics in Canada
La Physique au Canada
Vol. 44 No. 4
July/juillet 1988
1 an4
in spectroscopy
ORTEC's 672
Spectroscopy Amplifier
Automatic Pole-Zero
A d j u s t m e n t * makes setup
w i t h any d e t e c t o r easy.
Automatic noise d i s c r i m iminators o n b o t h t h e p i l e u p
rejector and t h e BLR e l i m i n a t e
all screwdriver a d j u s t m e n t .
Automatic BLR rate for
superior p e r f o r m a n c e at b o t h
l o w and h i g h c o u n t i n g rates.
Automatic c o m p e n s a t i o n
f o r reset recovery w i t h
transistor reset preamplifiers.
C h o i c e of triangular and
Gaussian filters effectively d o u b l e s
t h e n u m b e r of t i m e constants
available — for o p t i m u m r e s o l u t i o n
Differential input for reduction
of g r o u n d l o o p noise.
•Patent applied for
Stop searching for your screwdriver
a n d ask for a free d e m o n s t r a t i o n of t h e 672 Spectroscopy Amplifier.
Call t h e USA HOTLINE, 800-251-9750, or y o u r local representative:
EGc.CS Canada Ltd.
TELEPHONE: (416) 475-8420
TELEX: 06-966615
The Bulletin of The
Canadian Association of
Bulletin de l'Association
canadienne des
Editor/Rédacteur en chef
j. Rolfe
Bank of Canada, 234 Wellington St.,
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0G9
(613) 782-8906
Associate Editor/Rédacteur Associé
M.L. Jento
Physics in Canada
La Physique au Canada
Vol. 44, No. 4
July/juillet 1988
Page N o .
Science Policy
The President W r i t e s / T h e Minister Replies
A t o m i c Energy of Canada L i m i t e d
A p p l i c a t i o n s of Accelerators
by J.H. O r m r o d a n d J. U n g r i n
Intercalation Batteries: P r o b i n g Solid State Physics
Using Electrochemistry
by J.R. D a h n a n d W.R. M c K i n n o n
Book Review Editor/Rédacteur à la
critique des livres
G.R. Hébert
Dept. of Physics, York University
4700 Keele St.
North York, Ont. M3) 1P3
(416) 736-2100 X 3837
A m e r i c a n Association of Physics Teachers
1987 M i l l i k a n Lecture A w a r d
Recipient: D o n a l d G l e n n Ivey
" E d u c a t i o n a l television — A n o x y m o r o n ? "
by D o n a l d C. Ivey
W i t h o u t a Past does Canada have a Future in Physics?
by J. W i l l i a m M c G o w a n
J.C. Cook
Division of Physics,
National Research Council, Montreal
Rd., Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6
(613) 993-9407
Departments/ Rubriques
G. Dolling
Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories,
Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0
(613) 584-3311
CAP Affairs/Affaires de I'ACP
Béla |oos
University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont.
K1N 6N5
(613) 564-3460
C o r p o r a t e M e m b e r s / M e m b r e s Corporatifs
Books Received/Livres reçus
Book Reviews/Critiques des livres
|ohn A Nilson
1778 Gilbert
Ottawa, Ont. K2C 1A4
(613) 225-5426
R.H. Pack wood
Physical Metallurgy
Research Laboratories
568 Booth St. Ottawa, Ont.
(613) 992-2288
René Roy
Département de physique
Université Laval
Cité Universitaire
Québec (Québec) G1K 7P4
(418) 656-2655
Canadian Association of Physicists
Association canadienne des physiciens
Suite 903, 151 Slater Street
Ottawa, Ontario KIP 5H3
Phone: (613) 237-3392
FAX: (613) 238-1677
Front Cover:
Artist: Sekerka
© Sekerka
Typesetting, Layout and Printing: T r i - G r a p h i c P r i n t i n g ( O t t a w a ) L i m i t e d
Advertising Rates
Effective January 1988
Full Page
Half Page
Quarter Page
Fourth Cover
Second & Third Cover
Single Issue
Jan. March
July Sept.
Congress Issue
(6 issues)
Colour, $200.00 each additional colour; Bleed $120.00
Typesetting and art time extra
Deadline for copy — 15th of previous month
Published — |an., March, May (Congress), July, Sept., Nov.
C Canadian Association of Physicists/Association canadienne des physiciens 1988. All rights reserved.
Second Class Mail Registration Number: 5415 ISSN 0031-9147.
^ k ^ M F
TELEPHONE: (613) 237-3392
The H o n o r a b l e Robert de C ô t r e t
M i n i s t e r of Industry, Science a n d T e c h n o l o g y
House of C o m m o n s
Ottawa, O n t a r i o
K1A 0A6
Dear M r . d e Côtret:
T h e Canadian Association of Physicists w o u l d like t o d r a w t o y o u r a t t e n t i o n a serious p r o b l e m facing t h e industrial, scientific
and t e c h n i c a l c o m m u n i t y , w h i c h m i g h t be solved f o l l o w i n g t h e c r e a t i o n of t h e new d e p a r t m e n t D.I.S.T. This p r o b l e m is related
t o t h e h i g h - t e c h subsidies a w a r d e d by many c o u n t r i e s (e.g. U.S.A., Britain, France) w h e n they grant G o v e r n m e n t contracts t o
d o m e s t i c industries in areas c o v e r e d by t h e " N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y " interest. These contracts allow h i g h - t e c h p r o d u c t s t o be d e v e l o p e d ,
a n d n e w - b o r n fragile h i g h - t e c h c o m p a n i e s t o be subsidised in their early years. Because Canada has a largely n o n - m i l i t a r y d o m e s t i c
e c o n o m y it does not use this system of s u p p o r t as w i d e l y as c o u n t r i e s having large military or defense budgets. O n t h e o t h e r
h a n d Canada must be c o m p e t i t i v e in h i g h - t e c h areas, and must t h e r e f o r e e m p l o y equivalent m e t h o d s of f u n d i n g w h i c h w i l l
give t h e same d e g r e e of p r o t e c t i o n t o h i g h - t e c h industries. In o t h e r w o r d s Canadian c o m p a n i e s s h o u l d not be penalised by
Canada's peace-like posture. Thus t h e p r o b l e m is h o w s h o u l d w e p r o v i d e this k i n d of industrial support?
O n e possibility is t o use G o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t e d h i g h - t e c h projects (of a peaceful kind) in a similar m o d e t o t h e " N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y "
contracts in o t h e r countries. Thus if DIST set u p a 'Large Scientific and Industrial Projects Program' t o manage these proposals
a n d t h e resulting projects ( i n c l u d i n g capital and o p e r a t i n g budgets), it c o u l d stipulate that t h e contracts s h o u l d be o p e n in
t h e first place t o Canadian companies. This w o u l d apply t o b o t h t h e initial phase and at t h e t i m e any contracts w e r e renewed.
O n l y if Canadian c o m p a n i e s w e r e unable t o meet t h e h i g h - t e c h r e q u i r e m e n t s or t o d e v e l o p items o n a reasonable t i m e scale
w o u l d these contracts be placed in o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . This e l e m e n t of p r o t e c t i o n is similar t o that used by o t h e r countries, in
t h e i r National Security programs. Thus t h e Large Scientific and Industrial Program of DIST c o u l d be used t o offset t h e National
Security scientific programs of o t h e r c o u n t r i e s especially t h e U.S.A. W e are sure that y o u fully appreciate t h e significance of
this proposal in a l l o w i n g Canadian c o m p a n i e s t o c o m p e t e o n a fair and equitable basis in t h e f o r t h c o m i n g free trade era.
M o r e o v e r t h e above proposal m i g h t be an i t e m w o r t h c o n s i d e r i n g at t h e f o r t h c o m i n g National C o n f e r e n c e o n T e c h n o l o g y
& I n n o v a t i o n t o be h e l d in January 1988.
T h e r e is a n o t h e r p r o b l e m w h i c h m i g h t be solved in part by this n e w program. O u r Association, a m o n g o t h e r organizations
a n d d e p a r t m e n t s in Canada, has n o t i c e d w i t h dismay that d u r i n g t h e past 15 years o u r c o u n t r y has spent a smaller fraction
of its resources o n major high t e c h scientific projects than spent by o t h e r industrialized countries. It seems that a mechanism
is lacking in Canada for g a i n i n g f u n d i n g approval f r o m t h e various agencies of t h e Federal G o v e r n m e n t , o n t h e financial and
t i m e scales in v o g u e in o t h e r W e s t e r n countries. W h i l e w e a p p l a u d t h e initiatives w h i c h have been taken in past years (e.g.
Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, Varennes Tokamak p r o j e c t , Space Agency etc) w e k n o w of many o t h e r g o o d projects p r o d u c e d
by t h e w o r k a n d initiative of Canadians w h i c h are w o r t h s u p p o r t i n g . To keep pace w i t h t h e rest of t h e industrialised w o r l d
in t h e i r c o m b i n e d n o n - m i l i t a r y a n d military scientific e x p e n d i t u r e , w e suggest that DIST set u p a m e c h a n i s m f o r approval and
f u n d i n g of projects in this class w h i c h w o u l d be o u t s i d e t h e NSERC/NRC f u n d i n g scheme (i.e. that s c h e m e successfully e m p l o y e d
f o r many years in t h e f u n d i n g of smaller scale projects). Such a p r o g r a m w o u l d enlarge t h e u n i v e r s i t y / i n d u s t r y interface and
a l l o w a variety of n e w ideas at t h e f o r e f r o n t of science t o be p i c k e d u p a n d e x p l o i t e d by industry, because many of these
projects arise t h r o u g h n e w d e v e l o p m e n t s in University research and involve extensive u n i v e r s i t y / i n d u s t r y c o l l a b o r a t i o n . Thus
t h e y offer an ideal v e h i c l e f o r t h e f u r t h e r a n c e of t h e aims of DIST. The c u r r e n t delays in p r o j e c t approval u n d e r t h e existing
system have led t o Canada a d o p t i n g a b a c k w a r d - l e a n i n g posture in many branches of science, a n d w e feel that f r o m b o t h
t h e scientific a n d industrial points of v i e w this matter is an urgent o n e m e r i t i n g y o u r attention. W e have n o t e d that b o t h t h e
N.R.C. and N.S.E.R.C. have r e c o g n i z e d this p r o b l e m and have w o r k i n g groups studying it. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r ideas however,
p r o j e c t s in this category c o u l d be useful examples u n d e r t h e p r o g r a m p r o p o s e d in t h e s e c o n d paragraph. Thus t h e Large Scientific
a n d Industrial Project Program m i g h t i n c l u d e a section d e v o t e d t o this field.
W e w o u l d of course be p r e p a r e d t o discuss b o t h of these matters f u r t h e r w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e m e m b e r s of y o u r d e p a r t m e n t , if
y o u feel that w o u l d be w o r t h w h i l e .
Yours sincerely,
P.A. Egelstaff, President,
Canadian Association of Physicists.
82 Physics in Canada
July 1988
Ministre de l'Expansion
industrielle régionale
^ ^ ^
Minister of Regional
Industrial Expansion
The Honourable
Robert R. de Cotret
Dr. P.A. Egelstaff
Canadian Association of Physicists
151 Slater Street, Suite 903
Ottawa, O n t a r i o
K1P 5H3
Dear. Dr. Egelstaff:
This is in reply to your letter of December 10, 1987, c o n c e r n i n g the development of the Canadian high-technology industry,
and enclosing a background d o c u m e n t entitled Physics in Canada: A Brief Survey and Outlook.
I have noted the Canadian Association of Physicists' proposals for a Large Scientific and Industrial Projects Program, w h i c h w o u l d
e m p l o y government strategic p r o c u r e m e n t contracts to b u i l d Canadian high-technology capabilities, and for a new mechanism
t o coordinate and expedite federal f u n d i n g approvals for major high-technology scientific projects w h i c h operate at the university/
industry interface.
W i t h regard to the use of strategic purchases, the government advocates the use of federal purchases in a manner similar to
your proposal, and has a n u m b e r of mechanisms in place to ensure the participation of Canada's high-technology companies.
These mechanisms include Procurement Review Committees, full-time project management teams for projects valued at $100
m i l l i o n and above, as well as various contracting policies. These mechanisms are directed at purchases not covered by international
agreements to ensure Canadian industry benefits and participates to the fullest extent possible. The benefits are generally referred
to as industrial benefits and include technology transfers, investments, as well as Canadian content.
The development and application of science and technology to economic renewal is a t o p priority of the government. As the
attached record shows, the federal government has demonstrated leadership and c o m m i t m e n t to this objective, including such
initiatives as the National Science and Technology Policy, a National Advisory Board on Science and Technology (chaired by
the Prime Minister), a House of C o m m o n s Standing C o m m i t t e e on Research, Science and Technology, and the creation of the
government's flagship e c o n o m i c department to ensure the effective integration of advanced science and technology and competitive
industrial capacity.
The new Department of Industry, Science and Technology (DIST) will stimulate, encourage, assist, improve and support the
international competitiveness of Canadian industry; the development, diffusion and application of new technologies; and scientific
research w i t h i n Canada. W o r k is n o w under way to create new policies, programs and services to p r o m o t e a more technologically
sophisticated and internationally competitive industrial base and t o foster excellence in science.
Your comments and suggestions are particularly timely and will be taken into consideration in developing strategies and new
p r o g r a m m i n g for DIST.
Thank you for w r i t i n g to me about these matters.
Yours sincerely,
Robert R. de Côtret
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 83
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
Applications of Accelerators
J.H. Orm rod and /. Ungrin
Accelerator Physics Branch
Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories
Chalk River, Ontario> Canada KOJ I JO
1988 May
Most physicists are aware of the role accelerators play in
research. Many have used an accelerator either in the laboratory they w o r k in or at the university they came from and
many are aware that the Superconducting Super Collider
(SSC), w h e n it is built, may expose fundamentally new physical
phenomena such as the constituents that make up quarks.
What may not be so well known are the significant niches
that accelerators now occupy in other fields such as medicine
or industry and the opportunities for an even greater application of this technology in these fields. The accelerator
characteristics required in medicine or industry often differ
from those normally considered important for research accelerators. This article will discuss some of these differences
and describe some non-research applications.
Accelerators come in a variety of sizes with the size generally
increasing with energy — for example the diameter of the
SSC will be 83 kilometres. They also come in a variety of
types. The simplest is a static voltage across one or more
gaps — the energy acquired from such an accelerator is the
product of the potential difference across the gaps and the
charge on the particle. The energy f r o m such simple machines
(rectifier generators and electrostatic generators in Fig. 1) is
limited. To achieve higher energies, one must use a radiofrequency accelerator in which the particles are not accelerated in a continuous stream but in discrete bunches that
receive a series of relatively modest impulses that can sum
to the very high energies shown in the figure. It is essential
in any radiofrequency accelerator for the bunches to arrive
at the accelerating gaps at the correct phase for acceleration.
The means used to achieve this synchronism depends on
the particle. Electrons, having a small mass, are rapidly
accelerated to near the velocity of light and the synchronism
is maintained by making each accelerating cell (the distance
between adjacent accelerating gaps) of equal length — say
half a wavelength for an accelerator having adjacent cells
180 degrees of phase apart. Accelerated protons or heavy
ions approach the velocity of light much more slowly than
electrons and a variety of strategems are used to ensure that
the particles reach the gap at the correct phase. In a linear
accelerator, the cell length increases with the velocity of the
ion, in an isochronous cyclotron, the combination of the
average magnetic induction and the orbit radius are tailored
to ensure that the time for each revolution is the same and
in a synchrotron, where the path length is the same for each
complete orbit, the frequency is changed to keep the rf in
step with the accelerated bunches. All of these types of
accelerators were developed initially for research and have
f o u n d applications in medicine and industry.
In the research environment, an important parameter is the
'quality' of the beam coming out of the accelerator. The quality
is fully described by the volume in six-dimensional phasespace occupied by the beam, which, according to Liouville's
theorem, is an invariant. Although there is some cross-talk
between the phase-space dimensions, one can normally
separate them into three two-dimensional packages, one
along the beam direction that describes the energy spread
and two in the transverse plane that are usually called the
horizontal and vertical emittances.
84 Physics in Canada
July 1988
The emittance is a measure of the transverse confusion in
a beam. It is an area in transverse phase-space, normally
elliptical, and is usually expressed as a product of the size
and divergence of the beam with units of pi-mm-mrad. It
determines how small a spot one can focus the beam down
to and is often the limitation on the resolution one can achieve
in a given experiment. It is not surprising then that in some
research applications there is great incentive to have a very
small emittance even to the point of introducing ingenious
devices like coolers that can shrink the volume in phase space.
(In beam-beam cooling, the transverse momentum of the
particles in the beam is transferred, via collisions, to particles
in an auxiliary beam. Liouville's theorem is not violated
because it must be applied to the complete interacting system,
cooled beam plus cooling beam.) The reduced emittance
achieved with coolers is essential in attaining acceptable
luminosities for the operation of colliding beam facilities.
The longitudinal phase space describes the energy spread
in the beam. A small energy spread can be important in
experiments involving details of nuclear structure such as
1000 T e V
1 TeV
1 GeV
1 MeV
1 9 4 0 1950
Fig. 1. Livingston Chart that shows how the maximum energy
from accelerators has increased a decade every six years
for the past 50 years.
intrinsic level widths or the study of reactions where several
overlapping channels may exist. The application of electrostatic accelerators to carbon dating imposes stringent requirements on energy stability.
The energy of research accelerators has increased dramatically over the past decades (see Fig. 1) and as higher energy
beams have been attained a greater understanding of the
nature of matter has been achieved. The higher the energy
the smaller the dimension that can be studied — Nobel
laureate Abdus Salam has recommended that accelerator
builders should not ask theorists how high the energy of the
next accelerator should be but to aim for the highest energy
possible. TeV (Tera or million million electron-volt) collisions
have been achieved at Fermilab and the superconducting
super collider is being built to provide 20 TeV on 20 TeV
In industrial applications, exceptionally high energies, good
emittance and small energy spread are, for the most part,
unimportant. Important features are more likely to be simplicity (the accelerator is probably not going to have the highly
skilled technical staff found in a research environment to
nurse it), safety (industrial machines tend to be much closer
to the general public), ruggedness (an oil well is a hostile
environment compared to the relatively antiseptic atmosphere of a research laboratory), reliability (the volume of
product pileup in a high throughput medical disposable
sterilization facility can be staggering if the irradiator is not
working), high average beam power (the economics of some
applications demands a high throughput), efficiency (the
economics of some applications depends on how successfully
mains power is converted to beam power), and cost (the
investment is expected to yield an economic return). As with
research machines, the important characteristics depend on
the application, but there are different priorities.
a) Medical therapy:
modality is still in clinical trials. Both electrons and protons
are characterized as low LET (Linear Energy Transfer) radiation.
Neutrons have a high LET. The centres of tumours are often
anoxic and high LET radiation is more effective in destroying
cancer cells than low LET radiation in the absence of oxygen.
Thus the ratio of tumour destruction to healthy cell destruction is about 60% better for neutrons than for photons.
One factor that has hindered the greater use of neutron
therapy is the lack of a suitable source. Accelerators that
produce 14 MeV neutrons from the T(d,n) 4 He reaction, either
from sealed tubes or from bombarding solid tritiated targets
with deuterons have inadequate source strength and are not
widely accepted because treatment times are too long. Adequate fluxes are available from cyclotrons accelerating protons or deuterons to 20-70 MeV onto beryllium or lithium
targets ['Be(p,nr>B, 'Be(d,n) 1 °B, ?Li(p,nFBe, or 'Li(d,n)<>Be] but
these facilities suffer from the disadvantage of a fixed beam
direction. This deficiency has been overcome in some cases
by an elaborate beam transport system with the final transport
elements in a special gantry to permit multi-port irradiations.
Recently, a small superconducting cyclotron has been built
to accelerate deuterons to 50 MeV for a neutron source. (1)
It has been fitted into a gantry capable of 360 degree rotation
and will soon be installed in a hospital for clinical trials.
Protons and heavy ions, like neutrons, provide high LET and
have the additional advantage of the Bragg peak. This increase
in stopping power at the end of the range provides a depth
dose distribution much more favourable for therapy because
the damage can be concentrated at the t u m o u r location,
unlike the modalities described above that normally give
decreasing damage with increasing penetration. The well
defined range can also be an advantage for treatments where
it is important that there be minimal interaction with nearby
sensitive organs, such as in the treatment of pituitary tumours
or tumours adjacent to the optic nerve.
To provide adequate penetration of the human body by
protons, 250 MeV accelerators are required. Only modest
Most accelerators used in medicine are involved in the direct
treatment of patients and the majority of these are electron
accelerators. Over 2000 medical linear accelerators are in use
worldwide, and for some years sales of accelerators for cancer
therapy have exceeded sales of cobalt therapy units. Figure
2 shows depth-dose curves (the attenuation of dose as a
function of the penetration in the patient or water phantom)
for a cobalt irradiator and photons from electron beams of
several energies. The attenuation of the 4 MeV accelerator
photons is similar to that of 60 Co gamma rays but the harder
photons f r o m the higher energy beams have, as expected,
greater penetrating power and are the preferred modality
for deeper seated tumors. The beam from an electron accelerator can also be used directly, without converting the
beam energy to photons in a heavy metal target, to treat
more easily accessible cancers.
Although betatrons were c o m m o n in the early days of 'Megavolt therapy', in the past two decades they have been supplanted by s-band (3GHz) linear accelerators. In most cases,
the accelerator and its ancillaries are fitted into a rotating
gantry that permits the beam to be directed at the treatment
couch at almost any angle. This allows irradiation of the
t u m o u r t h r o u g h several "ports", thus reducing the damage
to the healthy cells between the skin and the tumour. Most
accelerators deliver electrons at a single energy between 4
and 40 MeV but some offer several choices.
Fast neutrons have been used in radiotherapy since the late
1930's but, for a variety of reasons, have not achieved the
degree of acceptance enjoyed by high energy electrons.
Although fast neutrons have been shown to be superior in
the treatment of some cancers, the greatest use of this
0 E P T H IN W A T E R (cm)
Fig. 2. Depth-dose curves for 60 Co, fast neutrons and photons
from 4 and 25 MeV electrons.
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 85
currents are needed, of the order of 10 nA, and a synchrotron
is probably the most economical realization. Even so, such
a synchrotron is of the order of 10m diameter' 2 ' and the facility
is m u c h more costly than for other modalities. To date, all
p r o t o n treatments have been performed at nuclear physics
facilities but the success of these treatments has precipitated
proposals for dedicated facilities.
Heavier ions have an even greater LET than protons so a higher
energy beam is required to achieve adequate penetration
— for example, 4 GeV for nitrogen. Again, patients have been
treated at physics research facilities.
Pions have also been used for radiotherapy. At the end of
its range, a pion is captured by a nucleus w h i c h then
disintegrates. Most of the energy from the reaction is deposited close to the point of disintegration. O n e might have
expected that pions w o u l d be the ideal particle for radiotherapy, especially for regionally localized cancers, and clinical trials were initiated shortly after commissioning at all three
of the meson factories — TRIUMF in Vancouver, SIN in
Villigen, Switzerland and LAMPF in New Mexico. Because of
l o w meson fluxes, treatment times are about an order of
magnitude longer than for p h o t o n therapy, requiring lengthy
i m m o b i l i z a t i o n of the patient. For some cancers, pion therapy
has been successful but not overly impressive and clinical
trials have been terminated at LAMPF. Thus, pions have not
emerged as clearly superior particles for radiation therapy
and they remain an experimental modality; p r o t o n therapy
may well become the treatment of choice for localized
b) Medical Isotope Production
Radioisotopes, usually p h o t o n or positron emitting, are used
in medicine for a w i d e variety of diagnostic tests including
t u m o u r localization, the study of organ functions and measurements of b l o o d flow. Many of these isotopes are p r o d u c e d
at nuclear reactors either as fission products or by neutron
capture but almost all the neutron deficient species are
accelerator generated.
A l t h o u g h a 45 MeV linear accelerator was built specifically
for the p r o d u c t i o n of radiopharmaceuticals' 3 ', for a variety
of reasons it was never fully commissioned and cyclotrons
c o n t i n u e t o be the accelerator of choice for the p r o d u c t i o n
of radioisotopes for medicine. Research cyclotrons in some
nuclear physics laboratories are used part-time for this w h i l e
others are operated commercially, exclusively for v o l u m e
p r o d u c t i o n of such isotopes. Short-lived isotopes are comm o n l y p r o d u c e d by small cyclotrons located in the hospital.
Shorter half-lives reduce patient dose- for example, the use
of 123 l [T-13 hours] instead of 131 l [T-8 days] reduces the patient
dose almost t w o orders of magnitude.
Typical beams for isotope p r o d u c t i o n are protons, deuterons
or alphas w i t h energies up to tens of MeV. Beam powers
of kilowatts t e n d to be greater than most nuclear physics
requirements. Accelerator reliability is important to ensure
the availability of short half-life radioisotopes. Unscheduled
d o w n time is often only 1-2% (4 ', and a nearby facility is often
contracted as a backup to ensure regular deliveries.
c) Sterilization
Electron accelerators have gained w i d e acceptance in industry
for the sterilization of a considerable range of products. The
largest application by far is the sterilization of disposible
medical supplies such as hypodermic syringes, needles, catheters and sterile dressings. It is estimated that some 500 k W
of electron beam capacity is installed w o r l d w i d e for this
application' 5 '. In addition, electron beams are being used t o
sterilize antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals and to sterilize
b o n e marrow or human organs for immediate transplanting
86 Physics in Canada
July 1988
or for long term storage. Containers for fruit juice and coffee
creamers and a n u m b e r of cosmetic or personal hygiene
products are also being sterilized w i t h electron beams.
Electron accelerators for sterilization range in energy f r o m
0.5 MeV to 15 MeV w i t h average beam powers from 150 k W
at the lower portion of the range to 10 k W at the higher
energies. D.C. accelerators are normally used for sterilization
below about 4.5 MeV while radiofrequency linacs are preferred for the higher energy applications. The radiation dose
needed t o meet the degree of sterilization demanded varies
from country t o country but is typically 25 kGy (2.5 Mrad).
Electron accelerators are used t o provide either the full dose
or to provide an add-on dose to i m p o r t e d materials that have
been treated to lower dosages in the exporting country.
Product t o be sterilized is usually presented to the accelerator
beam on a conveyor belt system. The low penetration of
electrons in the several MeV range means that individual items
are irradiated while above 10 MeV it is often possible to treat
complete cartons of product. Cartons usually receive doublesided irradiations by passing t h e m t h r o u g h the same beam
a second time after rotation outside the shielded irradiation
cell. Typically, packaged disposable medical products have
a relative density of 0.15-0.20 W i t h a 10 MeV electron beam
and d o u b l e sided irradiations an acceptably u n i f o r m dose
distribution can be attained to a thickness equivalent of about
8 grams per cubic centimetre corresponding to carton thicknesses up to 40 cm. In the bremsstrahlung mode w h e r e the
electron beam energy is converted to photons by allowing
it t o impinge o n a thick, heavy element target such as tungsten,
even thicker packages can be treated w i t h an acceptable
uniformity of dose. This latter mode of operation is usually
only considered w i t h high power accelerator at the higher
limits of the energy range since low conversion efficiency
f r o m electron t o p h o t o n energy makes the use of sterilization
w i t h isotopic sources such as 60 Co more economical.
The very high dose rates that can be achieved w i t h electron
beams lead to the use of accelerators instead of isotopes for
irradiating some products even t h o u g h the cost per unit dose
may be slightly higher. Materials such as polypropylene are
f o u n d to degrade due to the actions of various radicals d u r i n g
a long irradiation period but show no significant degradation
w h e n receiving the same total dose at the m u c h higher dose
rates achievable w i t h electron beams.
Radiation is in c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h a number of different physical
and chemical processes for the medical products sterilization
market. A key advantage that both electron and p h o t o n
irradiation hold over other methods is that the products can
be sterilized after packaging thereby avoiding potential recontamination. Two additional advantages are 1) the absence
of residuals (traces of chemicals) from the process thereby
decreasing the h o l d - u p time between sterilization and usage
and 2) the elimination of high temperatures w h i c h can degrade many plastics, thereby precluding their use.
d) Food, Animal Feed and Water
O n e of the potentially most valuable applications of accelerators is for the sterilization, extension of shelf life or
preservation of human and animal foods and for the sterilization of water. Many field trials have taken place over the
past 20 years using radiation f r o m accelerators or isotopes
and although the processes have been well established and
accepted by a w i d e array of government and international
bodies, a large segment of the public remains skeptical about
The use of accelerators in the treatment of f o o d is governed
by the recommendations of the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the United Nations. The Codex is the result of
an exhaustive international study aimed at determining the
radiation dose and irradiator energy that will induce negligible
radioactivity in f o o d (compared to the natural activity) w h i l e
maintaining its wholesomeness.
Food can be treated w i t h an electron accelerator either in
the elecron or in the p h o t o n mode. The Codex recommends
that in the electron m o d e the maximum beam energy be
10 MeV w h i l e in the p h o t o n mode the maximum photon,
and therefore the m a x i m u m electron, energy be 5 MeV. The
m a x i m u m p e r m i t t e d dose for f o o d products is countryd e p e n d e n t but typically ranges from 0.1 kCy for inhibiting
sprouting in onions and potatoes to 10 kGy for disinfecting
The first large scale f o o d irradiation trials w i t h an accelerator
were carried out by the U.S. Army at its Food Engineering
Laboratory at Natick, MA. between 1971 and 1974.<6> A 10
MeV, 6 k W electron linac was used to irradiate 51 000 kg
of beef then an exhaustive series of test panel and animal
feeding trials were carried out w i t h this irradiated material.
Since this initial trial numerous smaller scale tests have taken
place. T w o p r o d u c t i o n scale, accelerator-based f o o d irradiation facilities are presently in operation in the world. O n e
is in Brittany, France where mechanically d e b o n e d chicken
is being treated w i t h an 8 MeV electron linac, the other is
at the Russian port of Odessa where i n c o m i n g grain is
disinfected w i t h t w o 1.4 MeV 20 k W accelerators.
The incentive for animal feed irradiation is two-fold. The first
is t o p r o d u c e healthier animals and to destroy contaminants
such as salmonella w h i c h is prevalent in poultry. The second
is to allow the recycling of once-digested food. No industrial
scale accelerator based irradiators are yet in existence for
these applications.
C h l o r i n a t i o n of d r i n k i n g water has been widely accepted as
a safe and e c o n o m i c process. Concern has surfaced over the
last decade over the reaction of chlorine w i t h the residues
of chemicals used in agriculture (fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides etc.) and industry. These reactions can produce
noxious c o m p o u n d s such as halogenated hydrocarbons
w h i c h have toxicities comparable to or greater than those
for w h i c h the chlorination was originally applied.' 7 ' This is
a potentially very large field of application for electron
accelerators — they can replace chlorination, thereby eliminating the process that forms the noxious compounds, and
at the same time destroy the original toxic chemicals. For
a small city w i t h a population of 100,000, 3 to 4 M W of beam
power w o u l d be required to irradiate all of its water needs
to a dose of 10 kGy. Water is an ideal m e d i u m for treatment
w i t h accelerators since it is uniform in density and a flow
system can easily be designed to the w i d t h and thickness
most appropriate to a given accelerator beam.
e) Production and Treatment of Synthetic Materials
The most widely used industrial application of accelerators
is in the p r o d u c t i o n and modification of man made materials.
In excess of 450 electron accelerators are used to generate
the estimated 30 M W of beam presently used in the prod u c t i o n of raw bulk materials or in inducing cross-linking,
c u r i n g or drying of materials in the final p r o d u c t manufact u r i n g stages' 5 '.
The largest industrial application of electron accelerators is
in the wire and cable industry and in the p r o d u c t i o n of heat
shrink t u b i n g . Radiation cross-linked polyvinyl chloride,
w h i c h has excellent electrical insulating properties and a high
resistance t o organic solvents and heat, can be used in thinner
layers than other materials for the same voltage hold-off and
has gained w i d e acceptance in the wire and cable industry.
Radiation cross-linked polyethylene remains functional at a
significantly higher temperature and has a higher dielectric
strength than its non-cross-linked counterpart and has similarly gained w i d e acceptance in the wire industry. Cross-
linked polyethylene is the most popular of several materials
that have an additional valuable property, namely, an elastic
memory. In the electrical industry, this property is used to
manufacture heat-shrink t u b i n g by expanding the irradiated
t u b i n g d u r i n g manufacture. It will then shrink to its original
size if it is heated and allowed to cool.
The energy of the accelerators used in the wire and cable
industry depends on the thickness of dielectric being treated.
For the bulk of the applications m e d i u m voltage (400-3000
keV) accelerators of many types are being used w i t h over
150 accelerators presently installed. Lower voltage accelerators are used in a few applications while higher voltage units
are used in the manufacture of high voltage cables where
higher energies are needed to penetrate the thicker dielectric.
The materials to be irradiated are normally processed in
electron mode by multiple passage on a complicated spooling
system that assures equal dosage to the entire circumference.
The elastic memory of cross-linked polymers is widely used
in the packaging industry where thin heat shrink film is
p r o d u c e d in enormous quantities and irradiated. Approximately 100, mainly low voltage, accelerators are used in this
application. The energy is normally tailored to the film
thickness but has a lower practical limit of about 150 keV
due to losses in the vacuum-air w i n d o w at the exit of the
accelerator. Typical shrink film treatment accelerators operate
at 200 keV w i t h beam powers of 50-100 kW. The electron
beams are either scanned across a 1-2 m wide product w i d t h
or more usually are generated as a curtain beam from a line
Another well established application of low voltage electron
accelerators is in the curing and drying of polymer-based
coatings, adhesives and binders on an increasing range of
products. Electron beams have several advantages over conventional curing and drying processes including speed, lack
of need for solvents, improved chemical and thermal properties and c o n t r o l of the d e p t h of cure. Products treated
include paint on automobile dashboards and doors, magnetic
discs and tapes, high gloss labels for beer bottles, varnishes
on w o o d panels, pressure and heat sensitive tapes and
plywood. Product handling becomes an art in itself for
some of these applications w i t h treatment speeds up to 100
m / m i n . Estimates of the number of accelerators installed for
these applications range from 100 to 400.
The automobile tire industry has used m e d i u m energy elect r o n accelerators for some time to induce partial vulcanization
of the various polymer layers used in the manufacture of
tires. The rapid curing available w i t h electron beam treatment
permits a more uniform distribution of the layers and at the
same time improves the cohesion strength. An estimated 30
accelerators are now in use for this application.
Some less well-established applications of accelerators in the
polymer industry include the treatment of fabrics to improve
resistance to wrinkling, shrinkage or fire, the treatment of
thick walled t u b i n g and pipe to improve mechanical properties, c u r i n g of epoxies and the p r o d u c t i o n of cross-linked
polyolefin foams. A relatively recent application is for the
degradation of Teflon waste. The finely p o w d e r e d irradiated
waste p r o d u c t is used as an additive to lubricants.
The use of accelerators in the p r o d u c t i o n of feed materials
for the plastics industry has been under study for a n u m b e r
of years. Electron beams can initiate chemical reactions w i t h
a m i n i m u m of excess heat, thus offering the possibility of
very energy efficient p r o d u c t i o n processes. Electron beams
can be environmentally attractive as compared w i t h the use
of volatile chemical solvents. Another attractive feature of
electron beam treatment is the deep penetration of the beams
so that the required energy can be deposited at the desired
depth in the product. Few of these applications have yet
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 87
reached large scale industrial implementation but the dev e l o p m e n t of higher energy accelerators w i t h beam powers
of several h u n d r e d k W is expected to provide the impetus
also been used to examine nuclear reactor fuel elements and
t o l o o k f o r inclusions of high neutron absorption cross-section
elements such as b o r o n in zirconium, a l u m i n u m and uranium.
Image resolutions d o w n to 0.1 m m can be achieved w i t h this
f) Radiography
Neutrons for radiography are p r o d u c e d w i t h ion accelerators
using the same family of reactions as those previously listed
for medical therapy. Typical beam currents of several h u n d r e d
microamps are used at beam energies up to 20 MeV.
Radiography was one of the earliest fields of application for
accelerators, w i t h the simplest f o r m of "accelerator" being
a l o w voltage X-ray tube. Numerous radiographic techniques
have been developed in the last forty years using either
primary beams (protons) or secondary beams (MeV X-rays
or neutrons) f r o m a w i d e range of accelerators.
X-ray radiography continues t o be the most widely used
accelerator-based mode, w i t h estimates of more than 200 units
installed in industrial applications.* 8 ' Resonant transformer
and Van de Graaff accelerators are used to generate electron
energies up t o about 4 MeV w h i c h generate X-rays sufficient
t o investigate m e d i u m density materials up to 200 m m in
thickness. Compact linacs and betatrons w i t h energies up
to 35 MeV are used for the radiography of thicker objects.
Since many of the objects t o be examined are bulky and
heavy, almost all X-ray radiography accelerators are m o u n t e d
o n a m o b i l e gantry or hoist that can be moved about the
object. An example of the extreme size of objects examined
by X-ray techniques is the use of a 16 MeV linac t o radiograph
in detail 8 m long fully assembled rocket motors having
diameters of up to 2 m. A defect as small as a 0.08 m m crack
is expected to be detected in this facility.' 1 0 '
The quality of the X-ray radiographs obtained depends on
the energy, power, and spot size of the beam, o n the thickness
and type of material used and on the time of the exposure.
A linac w i t h an energy of 8 MeV and an average power of
several h u n d r e d watts can p r o d u c e a useful image of flaws
in a square metre of 400 m m thick steel plates in about one
hour. Flaw sizes typically 0.2-0.5% of the sample thickness
can be located.
Neutrons (usually at thermal energies) are used in radiography
either in stand alone applications or in c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h
X-rays. The neutron absorption cross-section is dependent
o n nuclear structure in contrast to X-ray absorption w h i c h
essentially depends o n the number of atomic electrons (see
Fig. 3) so that many features that go undetected w i t h X-rays
are observed w i t h high contrast using neutrons. In particular,
the very high neutron absorption cross-section of hydrogen
is used t o g o o d advantage in radiography to detect hydrogenous materials such as explosives. N e u t r o n radiography has
Fig. 3. The variation of neutron and X-ray absorption coefficients
with atomic number of the element.
88 Physics in Canada July 1988
Proton radiography has not received the acceptance that X-ray
or neutron radiography has in industry. The comparatively
low penetration of protons and the complexity and high cost
of the accelerators required to produce usable beams at
energies of 100-200 MeV preclude the rapid acceptance of
this t e c h n i q u e in industry. Applications to date have usually
employed large laboratory-based accelerators. Since the scattering cross-section has an elemental dependence certain
features not seen by other techniques are more easily recognized w i t h protons. Experiments to date show that, at an
energy of 160 MeV, steel plate thickness up t o 75 m m can
be examined w i t h a resolution 1-2%'9>. It is not expected that
p r o t o n radiography will see significant usage in industry until
substantial cost and size reductions of accelerators needed
to produce beams of this order of energy are achieved.
g) Bore Hole Logging
A number of ultra-compact, accelerator based radiation sources have been developed by the mineral and petroleum
industries for bore hole logging. The most advanced and best
k n o w n of these sources are the pulsed, fast n e u t r o n sources
based on compact, low voltage (100-200 keV) ion accelerators
that p r o d u c e 14 MeV neutrons by the T(d,n)*He reaction. The
accelerator, typically a 4-7 cm diameter sealed glass or ceramic
tube, houses under vacuum a reservoir or getter loaded w i t h
a 50%-50% deuterium-tritium gas mixture, a Penning discharge ion source and a target impregnated w i t h deuterium
and tritium. A filament heater in the reservoir liberates the
gas mixture in a controlled manner. The gas is ionized by
an arc in the ion source to produce a mixed beam w h i c h
is then accelerated to the target by a high voltage pulse.
Neutron source strengths of up t o 10 9 /s are obtained w i t h
these accelerators. Typical lifetimes for the sealed t u b e units,
w h i c h must operate at external pressures up to 1500 atmospheres and temperatures up t o 180 degree C, are 100-300 h.
Gamma ray counters, usually Nal or Ge, are lowered w i t h
the neutron sources in the bore hole and are used to
determine the required geological information from the
thermal capture gamma rays or the fission gamma rays that
are p r o d u c e d for several ms after the short neutron pulse.
Compact hard X-ray sources, based on high frequency rf
electron linacs, have been developed for well-logging. These
linacs, w i t h energies up to 4 MeV, are lowered d o w n the
bore hole and produce intense bursts of mainly forward
peaked X-rays from a heavy metal target m o u n t e d off axis
near the bore hole wall. Variations in the density of the
geological m e d i u m surrounding the bore hole are determined
by observing changes in the energy deposited in detectors
in the bore hole positioned to m o n i t o r the scattered radiation.
In field trials' 1 1 ' at depths d o w n to 1000 m density variations
of 0.5-1.0% were observable at scan rates up to 1200 m/h.
An rf linac is clearly a m u c h more complex device than a
sealed tube neutron generator and as such cannot be as easily
packaged to fit into a narrow bore hole. Nevertheless, the
tests reported above were achieved in a bore hole diameter
of only 20 cm. . . a remarkable achievement.
h) Gemstone Colour Changes
Some gemstones occur in a variety of colours w i t h the rarer
colours usually more valuable than their more c o m m o n
counterparts. It is possible to induce c o l o u r centres artificially
in some of the more c o m m o n stones and thereby increase
their value.' 1 2 ' O n e example is topaz, an a l u m i n u m fluorosilicate, that occurs most c o m m o n l y as a clear stone w h i l e
the most valuable colour is pink, f o l l o w e d by various shades
of blue. Irradiation to several tens of MGy (several thousands
of megaRads!) w i t h neutrons, gammas or electrons produces
blue c o l o u r centres that are as stable as the colours that occur
naturally — that is, a temperature of 600 degrees Celsius is
needed to anneal out either the natural or the induced colour
Irradiation in a reactor w i t h fast neutrons produces a darker
shade of blue than irradiation w i t h electrons but has the
disadvantage of activating some of the impurities; the stones
must then be stored for the order of a year to permit the
activity to decay to an acceptable level. Electron irradiation
also creates some activity but it is all f r o m 19 F(gamma,n) 18 F
that has a half-life of 110 minutes, so it decays to a negligible
level in a day. Electron energies in excess of 10 MeV are
required to ensure that most of the current passes t h r o u g h
the gems t o avoid charge accumulation and subsequent
Lichtenberg figures that render the gems valueless. Typically,
energies f r o m 13 to 20 MeV are used at beam powers of
the order of 10 k W to be economic. Of the order of a million
carats per year are processed.
i) Micropore Filters
M i c r o p o r e filters, membranes w i t h circular holes of precise
size, d o w n to diameters smaller than 100 Angstroms or as
large as several h u n d r e d microns, have a variety of applications. The major use is in the cleaning of water used for
washing integrated circuits where minuscule contaminants
c o u l d interfere w i t h the fine current paths. They are also used
in medical diagnosis t o isolate cancer cells in the b l o o d or
measure b l o o d cell deformability. Healthy b l o o d cells are
deformable and can be squeezed t h r o u g h small apertures
whereas some diseased cells are too rigid to pass through.
A n o t h e r application is t o make contact lenses porous so that
they can admit oxygen to the eye, thus p e r m i t t i n g longer
periods of wear. Non-reflecting glass can be made by creating
cylindrical holes, one-half wavelength deep, o n the surface.
The membranes may be used as masks to generate complementary shapes such as metallic surfaces covered by thin,
cylindrical, upright rods that act as excellent emitters in a
strong electric field.' 1 3 '
The filters are manufactured by b o m b a r d i n g a membrane w i t h
energetic heavy ions, then etching it in a caustic solution.
The heavy ion trajectory is characterized by damage for some
distance f r o m the ion's path, the radius d e p e n d i n g o n the
mass and energy of the ion. The etchant dissolves the damaged
material at a rate approximately a h u n d r e d times faster than
the normal material, thus p r o d u c i n g cylindrical holes of
preselected diameter. (See Fig. 4)
a residual activity and the holes have a range of diameters.
The filters p r o d u c e d f r o m accelerated heavy-ion beams are
markedly superior and commercial suppliers are switching
to accelerator-processed membranes.
j) Material Modification
The use of accelerators in the semiconductor industry is well
established. Low energy dc accelerators have been used for
the past t w o decades to implant boron, phosphorus or arsenic
in silicon wafers used for semiconducting devices. M o r e
recently, MeV implanters have been developed and are being
used to fabricate unique semiconductor devices made possible by the greater range of the higher energy particles.
M e d i u m energy oxygen beams have been used to establish
insulated layers in silicon wafers giving better isolation to
integrated circuits. The fluence required in this application
demands high currents. For example, 2 * 10 1 8 /cm 2 of several
h u n d r e d keV oxygen atoms are required to create the insulating layer in silicon-on-insulator devices, and beams of
the order of 100 mA are needed t o achieve acceptable
t h r o u g h p u t . These beam power levels require special equipment to handle the c o o l i n g of the wafers and place severe
demands on ion source technology, not only to deliver the
current but also to ensure adequate lifetimes. The more
c o m m o n d o p i n g implanters are less demanding, and currents
are usually less than 10 mA. The accelerators are invariably
electrostatic even for the MeV implanters although Radio
Frequency Q u a d r u p o l e (RFQ) accelerators are being considered. The commercial sales of implantation e q u i p m e n t have
g r o w n rapidly and exceeded $300M in 1983.' 14 '
Low energy ion beams have also been used to modify the
structure, c o m p o s i t i o n and surface topography of metals,
ceramics and polymers p r o d u c i n g desirable changes in mechanical, chemical, electrical and optical properties. For
example, nitrogen and c h r o m i u m have been implanted in
steel to improve wear and corrosion properties. Taps, dies,
nozzles for injecting plastics, crankshafts, helicopter rotor
ball-bearings, bread-knives and artificial hip joints are a
sample of the items for w h i c h this process has proved cost
effective, w i t h lifetimes improved an order of magnitude and
more. The economics of the process are especially beneficial
w h e n the treated item is buried inside e q u i p m e n t and the
labour c o m p o n e n t in its replacement constitutes a major cost.
The required fluence of implanted atoms is about 10 1 7 /cm 2 ,
therefore high current implanters capable of delivering beams
Heavy ions, such as krypton or xenon, at energies of several
or several tens of MeV per nucléon generated by heavy ion
accelerators such as the UNILAC or GANIL have been used
to create the damage tracks. The current requirements dep e n d o n the density of holes required; this varies f r o m a
single aperture, in applications that involve c o u n t i n g the
particles passing t h r o u g h the hole, up t o 109 holes/cm 2 for
filters. In the cases where a high surface density of holes
are required it is important to have the holes at a variety
of angles to reduce the probability of t w o parallel holes
overlapping, thus p r o d u c i n g an aperture w i t h a greater crosssection than the others. This is readily achieved by presenting
the m e m b r a n e t o the beam on a roller, the radius of w h i c h
is chosen to give penetration angles up to 30 degrees.
The damage tracks can also be p r o d u c e d if the energetic
ions are fission fragments, but then the membranes acquire
Fig. 4. Micropore filter of 5 micron diameter holes. (Photograph
courtesy of Dr. C. Bieth, Cliche GANIL/CIRIL)
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 89
up t o 200 keV are needed. O b l i q u e incidence of the ion beam
can be self defeating because of sputtering, and the mechanisms for presenting spherical or cylindrical products t o the
beam can be quite elaborate t o ensure that beam does not
strike the implanted surface at angles greater than 40 degrees.
This application is relatively new and only a few accelerators
have been sold to industry for treating tooling, but the demand
is expected to g r o w rapidly.
k) Long Wavelength Radiation Generation
A rapid increase has taken place over the last decade in the
use of electron accelerators t o p r o d u c e intense sources of
long wavelength radiation. Both incoherent (synchrotron
radiation) and coherent (free electron laser) sources have
been built at many laboratories and are being adapted t o
a w i d e range of practical applications. Several synchrotron
facilities have been built specifically for this purpose using
large, high energy (GeV range) electron synchrotrons.' 1 5 '
Useful sources n o w exist w i t h p h o t o n energies into the keV
region. A new generation of compact " t a b l e - t o p " synchrotron
radiation sources based o n superconducting magnet technology is now under active development.
Free electron lasers (FEL) were first developed in the late 1970s.
In a FEL, coherent radiation is extracted f r o m an electron
beam by the action of a spatially-periodic magnetic field o n
the beam, usually w i t h i n an optical cavity. (See Fig. 5) The
wavelength of the radiation is d e t e r m i n e d by the energy of
the electron beam and by the period of the magnetic field
in the undulator or " w i g g l e r " . The laser is therefore tunable
and f u r t h e r m o r e , the cavity can act as either an oscillator
or as an amplifier.
M o r e than fifty FEL sources' 1 6 ' over a wide range of wavelength
are either in operation or under development around the
w o r l d . The rapid g r o w t h in the number of sources has been
closely tied to the development of high field permanent
magnet materials for use in compact wigglers. Since the FEL
p h o t o n wavelength is closely related t o the electron beam
energy, the type of accelerator used depends o n the wavelength and o n the source intensity required. Accelerators
presently used range f r o m pulse line diodes and induction
linacs w i t h energies up to several MeV, w h i c h are used for
long wavelength applications (0.1-10 mm), t o high energy
linacs and storage rings in the 50-200 MeV range w h i c h are
needed for FELs designed t o operate in the sub micron
wavelength range.
Existing and potential uses of long wavelength radiation
include tomography, microcircuit manufacture, medicine
(surgery, therapy of tumors and pharmaceutical production),
radar, chemical p r o d u c t i o n and isotope separation. Free
electron lasers are capable of very high peak powers and
levels > 1 0 0 M W have already been achieved. The maximum
average p h o t o n beam powers achieved, however, are still
relatively small (several h u n d r e d watts). The g r o w i n g n u m b e r
Fig. 5. A typical electron beam wiggler interaction geometry. The
output radiation wavelength is proportional to the interaction period and inversely proportional to the square
of the energy.
90 Physics in Canada
July 1988
of industrial and potential military applications will u n d o u b t edly stimulate the development of much higher average
power FELs over the next decade.
I) Sewage Treatment
Accelerators, as potent sources of high dose rate radiation,
have been considered for the disinfection of sewage for many
years.' 17 ' A number of accelerator based pilot plants have
been operated in several countries over the past t w o decades.
Most have been based on relatively l o w power (15-30 kW)
dc accelerators w i t h energies of a few MeV and have treated
sewage w i t h high water content (>80%) in the electron mode.
The results of the field trials have generally been very g o o d
w i t h disinfection levels being achieved at dosages of 4-10 KGy,
orders of magnitude better than achieved by conventional
methods. O n the basis of these trials a number of treatment
plants have been proposed based o n linacs w i t h average
powers in the 200-500 k W range.
The major barrier to large scale implementation of accelerators in sewage treatment has been economic. At present,
many industries and cities are able t o dispose of their sewage
w i t h only minimal treatment. Standard treatment methods
w h i c h achieve lower levels of disinfection and are cheaper,
therefore continue to be acceptable. This situation is expected
to c o n t i n u e unless changes occur in the environmental
regulations of many countries or unless valuable use can be
made of the treated product.
Recent studies in Japan w i t h an accelerator based treatment
plant show that composting of the sewage occurs quicker
w i t h irradiated sewage' 18 ' and that valuable waste storage land
is tied up for shorter periods. In addition, the higher disinfection levels achieved w i t h radiation can allow a more rapid
recycling of this treated material as a fertilizer or, in some
cases, even as animal feed. In many countries, however, the
metal contamination in sewage by effluents from industrial
processes is so high that the disinfected and composted
material has little economic value except as land fill.
m) Stack Gas Cleaning
A potential application for accelerators is the p r o d u c t i o n of
modest energy (100-1000 keV) electron beams for use in a
dry scrubbing process to remove both sulphur and nitrogen
oxides ("SOX and NOX") f r o m coal fired power plant flue
gases. In this process, electron beams are used to ionize and
excite atoms and molecules in the stack gas leading to the
formation of a wide range of radicals, ions and excited
molecules w h i c h react w i t h each other, w i t h water vapour
or w i t h injected chemicals to form precipitates w h i c h can
be readily removed from the gas. In the Ebara process, the
injected dry chemical is ammonia and the resultant precipitates are a m m o n i u m sulphate and a m m o n i u m nitrate w h i c h
have commercial value as fertilizers or general soil conditioners' 1 9 '.
The chemistry of the Ebara process is rather complex and
is the subject of an on-going scientific controversy. Prototype
field trials have, however, been held in Japan, Germany, and
in the U.S.A. and show very promising results w i t h more than
90% of both SOX and NOX removed f r o m the stack gases.
High power, w i d e beam, dc electron accelerators are needed
for the stack gas applications. Since the m e d i u m is of very
low density only modest beam energies are required. Typically
200-300 keV accelerators that p r o d u c e 1.5-3.0 m w i d e " c u r t a i n " electron beams up to 1 A in intensity are being used
in prototype scrubbers. Full scale scrubbers will require many
accelerators w o r k i n g in parallel. Both windowless accelerators
w h i c h use differential p u m p i n g techniques to maintain a good
vacuum in the accelerator volume and t h i n w i n d o w units
are being developed. The hostile environment and the high
Fig. 6. The RFQ accelerator being built at CRIML'24'. Protons are accelerated along the axis of the 238 mm diameter tank in the centre
of the aperture defined by the four vanes. The vane tips are modulated to establish electric fields that focus and accelerate
the beam.
reliability required for these high power (200-1000 kW) accelerators will severely test the ingenuity of their designers.
The e n o r m o u s potential for this accelerator application can
be j u d g e d o n the basis that, d e p e n d i n g on the sulphur content
of the coal being burned, typically 2-5% of the electrical
o u t p u t of a coal fired power plant w o u l d have to be used
in electron beam power to meet current environmental
requirements in a n u m b e r of countries. A single moderately
large 2000 M W e power plant w o u l d , therefore, require 40100 M W of electron beams — more power than is presently
installed for all industrial accelerator applications c o m b i n e d .
n) Electronuclear Breeding
Electronuclear breeding is the term used to describe the
process of using electrically generated neutrons t o transform
fertile isotopes into fissile material, suitable for use as nuclear
reactor fuel. Examples are 238 U into 239 Pu or 232 Th into 233 U.
The world's resources of the above m e n t i o n e d fertile isotopes
exceed by several orders of magnitude those of 235 U, the
fissionable isotope driving today's power reactors, so electronuclear breeding is an alternative approach to breeder
reactors for extending the life of the fission process for
electricity generation.
Accelerators can be used to generate the neutrons required
for fuel breeding t h r o u g h the spallation process w h e r e b y a
single high energy particle can release 20-30 neutrons f r o m
a heavy element target. For example, a 1 GeV p r o t o n o n a
lead-bismuth eutectic target will p r o d u c e 20 neutrons.
The economics of fuel breeding dictate a high average beam
current (typically 0.1-0.5 A) and a high electrical efficiency.
Studies in Canada and the USA over the past 35 years have
all led to the choice of a linear accelerator at 100% duty
factor for this application. Beam powers up to 300 M W (1 GeV
at 300mA) have been considered' 2 0 ' that w o u l d provide a
source strength of 4 * 10 19 n/s.
The e c o n o m i c viability of electronuclear breeding is closely
tied to the w o r l d supply of 235 U. The first large scale electronuclear breeder program was initiated in the USA in the
early 1950's but ended abruptly w h e n new ore bodies were
discovered in Colorado. There was renewed interest in both
Canada and the USA in the late 1970's. However, the rapid
decrease in reactor b u i l d i n g c o u p l e d w i t h the discovery of
more and richer uranium deposits has pushed the need for
obtaining our fissile requirements from other than mining
far in the future and development of accelerator breeding
facilities has been shelved.
A linear accelerator is generally agreed to be the most
electrically efficient means of generating the high current
p r o t o n beam required for fuel breeding. A typical design
w o u l d use a RFQ structure (see Fig. 6) for the first 2 MeV,
then a drift-tube linac up to 200 MeV and finally a coupledcavity linac up to 1 GeV. The three different structures are
used in the velocity range where they are most efficient in
converting radiofrequency power into beam power. This
efficiency dominates the design because by far the largest
estimated cost in the facility is for the radiofrequency power.
o) Strategic Defence Initiative
SDI, better k n o w n as Star Wars, proposes the use of high
power ion accelerators and laser beam systems driven by
electron accelerators as directed energy weapons. In both,
cases, the accelerator parameters are beyond those available
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 91
w i t h current technology and significant advances are needed
to achieve the beams required to satisfy the military demands
of the system.
The directed energy weapon cannot consist of charged
particles because the beam w i l l encounter weak magnetic
fields along its trajectory to the target, so an H- or D-beam
is accelerated and then stripped to give a Neutral Particle
Beam (NPB). An energy of the order of 100 MeV is needed
t o penetrate the target adequately and a current of several
h u n d r e d mA at essentially 100% duty factor is required to
provide adequate damage. (A dwell time of 10 seconds on
an individual target is needed for a "structural kill"' 2 1 '; a
shorter period is required if the beam is used for target
discrimination.) The proposed accelerator system consists of
a RFQ accelerator for the first few MeV of energy gain f o l l o w e d
by a drift t u b e linac t o the final energy. Unlike most nonresearch applications, an important beam parameter is the
emittance, because the beam is required to be only a metre
or so in diameter w h e n it reaches the target a few thousand
kilometres away — that is a divergence of the order of a
microradian. Negative ion sources exist that can deliver beams
w i t h current and emittance near the desired values but
accelerating the beam to the required energy and then
stripping it w i t h o u t phase space deterioration has yet t o be
demonstrated. Development of the large aperture ion optics
and reducing the weight of the radiofrequency power source
will also require significant effort.
Laser weapons must also have high brightness t o ensure a
great enough power density o n the target to destroy it. The
brightness of a laser weapon is inversely proportional to the
square of the wavelength so transmission considerations
argue in favour of shorter wavelengths. O n the other hand,
the wavelength f r o m free electron lasers is inversely proportional t o the square of the energy of the electron beam so
the size of the accelerator increases as the wavelength
decreases. A suitable compromise wavelength is 1 micron.
Both i n d u c t i o n linacs and coupled-cavity pulsed radiofrequency linacs have been used to accelerate electrons for FEL's.
A beam energy of 100 MeV and a pulse current of several
h u n d r e d amperes w i t h i n a normalized emittance of 30 pi
m m - m r a d is required for this weapons application. RF linacs
have c o m e close to these parameters but the conversion
efficiency and average current must each be increased by
an order of magnitude to satisfy the accelerator requirements
of the weapons system.' 21 '
p) Rock Spading and Tunneling
I n d u c t i o n accelerators can produce very short multi-kA elect r o n beam pulses at energies of several MeV that have
potential uses in a number of highly specialized applications.
O n e application that was investigated extensively in the early
1970s was the use of electron accelerators to induce rock
spalling.' 2 2 ' Intense beam pulses of 50 to 100 ns were shown
to reduce many types of rock to fine p o w d e r or flakes by
a mechanism called shock spalling. The energy deposited in
the rock by the short pulsed beam generates a shock stress
greater than the tensile strength in a localized area several
m m in depth, and therby induces spalling at the rock surface.
The key to the process is that the energy is deposited in
a time short e n o u g h that the stress waves can not travel
significant distances compared to the dimensions of the
stressed v o l u m e and a very high local stress transient results.
Avery et al' 23 ' showed that a single 64 kj pulse at a nominal
energy of 9 MeV p r o d u c e d spalls 7 to 15 m m deep corresp o n d i n g t o a total v o l u m e of 50 t o 80 cubic centimeters in
a w i d e variety of rock types. These experiments led to a
conceptual design of a t u n n e l i n g device that c o u l d be built
a r o u n d a high power i n d u c t i o n linac. The proposed accelerator w o u l d have an average beam power of 9 M W and
92 Physics in Canada
July 1988
w i t h an appropriate beam scanning system the tunneling
device w o u l d be capable of advancing a 6.4 m diameter t u n n e l
at a rate of 3.2 m per hour. The spalled debris, generally
in the form of sand, dust and small flakes w o u l d be removed
in a slurry. The predicted rock removal rate of approximately
100 cubic meters per hour is about a factor of ten higher
than can be achieved by conventional drill/blast techniques.
The accelerator proposed w o u l d be required to produce 5
MeV, 5 kA pulses per second. Although significant advances
have occured in induction linac technology in the intervening
thirteen years no linacs have yet approached these average
power levels even under ideal conditions. It is highly unlikely
that a practical accelerator-based tunneling device will be
in operation until well into the next century.
Accelerators have been tools in the physicist's arsenal since
the early 1930's and the requirements of the research laboratory have spawned most of the significant advances in the
technology of accelerating charged particles ever closer to
the velocity of light. The characteristics needed in medical
and industrial applications frequently differ considerably from
those in the laboratory but it is from the developments for
scientific goals that the practical applications have sprung.
Some of these applications, for example p h o t o n radiotherapy,
have reached such a degree of maturity that thousands of
machines are in operation and the users have a choice of
commercial suppliers. Others still rely o n accelerators in
research laboratories for the machine time t o prove the
efficacy of the application. The variety of applications, existing
and proposed, ensure a bright future for this fascinating
product of physics research that was developed w i t h o u t
practical applications in mind.
1 H. Blosser et al Proc 11 Int.Conf. Cyclotrons. Tokyo (1985)
p. 157.
2 F.Cole et. al. Proc. 1987 IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference p. 1985.
3 D.D. Comastra Industrial Research and Development,
Sept. 1981 p. 116.
4 J.F. Lamb IEEE Trans. NS-28 1916. (1981).
5 Panel on Prospects for Industrial Electron Beam Processing, 6th International Meeting on Radiation Processing,
Ottawa, 1987.
6 R.W. Baker et al U.S. Dept. Agriculture Rept. PB 84-186998
7 N. Getoff and S. Solar Radiat. Phys. Chem. 31 12, 1987.
8 W . Scharf Particle Accelerators and Their Uses Harwood
Press, p. 890,1986. (This is an excellent general reference
for further reading.)
9 Ibid. p. 900.
10 Varian Radiation Division Newsletter 2 No. 2 (1984).
11 G. King et al Nucl. Inst. Methods B24/25 990, 1987.
12 K. Nassau Gems and Gemology XXI 26, 1985.
13 C. Bieth private c o m m u n i c a t i o n (1987).
14 M.I. Current Nucl. Inst. Methods B-6 9. (1985).
15 H. W i n i c k Nucl. Inst. Methods A261 9, 1987.
16 Proc. 8th Int'l. Free Electron Laser Conf., Glasgow, U.K.
Nucl. Inst. Methods A259 (1986).
17 J.S. Fraser IEEE Trans. NS-26 1455, 1979.
18 S. Hashimoto et al Radiat. Phys. Chem. 31 109, 1988.
19 New Scientist 11 July, 1985 p. 28.
20 S.O. Schriber Atomkernenergie-Kerntechnik 44 177,1984.
21 N. Bloembergen, C.K.N. Patel et. al. Rev. M o d . Phys. 59
No. 3 Pt. 2 (1987).
22 R.T. Avery et al IEEE Trans NS-22 1798, 1975.
23 R.T. Avery et al IEEE Trans NS-20 1010, 1973.
24 G.E. McMichael et. al. Proc. 1987 Particle Accelerator
Conference p. 1875.
Intercalation Batteries: Probing Solid State Physics
Using Electrochemistry
J.R. Dahn
Moli Energy Limited
39S8 Myrtle Street
Burnaby, B.C. VSC 4C2
W.R. Mc Kin non
Division of Chemistry
National Research Council of Canada
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R9
L i t h i u m i n t e r c a l a t i o n batteries, like t h e MOLICEL®, have a
great f u t u r e as rechargeable p o w e r sources w h i c h o p e r a t e
near r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e . Features u n i q u e to these batteries
can be s t u d i e d t o learn a b o u t t h e physics of intercalation.
L i t h i u m i n t e r c a l a t i o n batteries are t h e state-of-the-art in amb i e n t t e m p e r a t u r e rechargeable batteries. For a given mass,
t h e y store m o r e e n e r g y than c o n v e n t i o n a l rechargeable
batteries a n d deliver just as m u c h p o w e r . They can be c h a r g e d
a n d d i s c h a r g e d h u n d r e d s of times, t h e y last for years, a n d
t h e y can be p r o d u c e d cheaply e n o u g h t o c o m p e t e w i t h
c o n v e n t i o n a l systems. They are also a p p e a r i n g in solid state
physics labs, not t o p o w e r t h e e q u i p m e n t but t o be used
in e x p e r i m e n t s t o study t h e physics of intercalation.
Intercalation is t h e reversible insertion of guest atoms i n t o
host solids, p r o v i d e d t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e host is not significantly altered. M a n y solids can be v i e w e d as a host matrix
that contains guest atoms o r molecules. In metal hydrides' 1 ',
t r a n s i t i o n metals a n d their alloys p r o v i d e a lattice of sites
for h y d r o g e n atoms. G r a p h i t e can a c c o m m o d a t e a w i d e
variety of guests b e t w e e n its c a r b o n layers' 2 ' 3 '. Gas hydrates
c o n t a i n m o l e c u l e s of h y d r o c a r b o n s such as m e t h a n e in cages
of water molecules' 4 - 5 '. Historically, these a n d o t h e r classes
of guest-host solids have been s t u d i e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y , because each has a separate application. M e t a l hydrides are
potential storage systems for h y d r o g e n gas. G r a p h i t e intercalation c o m p o u n d s may someday replace c o p p e r for carrying electricity. Gas hydrates in t h e n o r t h a n d u n d e r t h e
oceans are an u n t a p p e d source of natural gas. T h e r e are a
large n u m b e r of terms t o describe these systems: i n c l u s i o n
c o m p o u n d s , insertions c o m p o u n d s , intercalation comp o u n d s , guest-host c o m p o u n d s , a n d solid solutions, t o name
a few. W e shall use t h e t e r m " i n t e r c a l a t i o n c o m p o u n d " t o
refer to any of these systems.
In t h e mid-seventies, it was realized that t h e reversibility of
inserting a n d r e m o v i n g t h e guest f r o m t h e host c o u l d be
e x p l o i t e d t o make rechargeable batteries' 6 '. The most p r o m ising guest a t o m for batteries is l i t h i u m ; l i t h i u m metal electrodes are light, l i t h i u m batteries have h i g h voltage, a n d
l i t h i u m can be e l e c t r o p l a t e d efficiently in some organic
solvents. Figure 1 shows a cell made by M o l i Energy Limited
w i t h n a t u r a l l y - o c c u r r i n g m o l y b d e n u m disulfide ( m o l y b d e nite) as t h e host. This intercalation cell can be recharged
t w o or t h r e e h u n d r e d times over 80% of its range. (In n o r m a l
use, a u t o m o b i l e batteries are c y c l e d o n l y over a small f r a c t i o n
of t h e i r range.) It stores t w o to t h r e e times as m u c h energy
per unit mass as lead-acid or n i c k e l - c a d m i u m batteries, a n d
it can retain its charge for u p t o ten years, c o m p a r e d t o o n l y
a f e w m o n t h s for t h e o t h e r t w o .
A l t h o u g h t h e r e are c o m p l i c a t i o n s in m a k i n g a c o m m e r c i a l
battery that can exploit all t h e potential of this idea, t h e
c o n c e p t of a l i t h i u m intercalation cell is simple (Figure 2).
There are t w o electrodes: o n e is l i t h i u m metal, t h e o t h e r some
host w h i c h can f o r m an intercalation c o m p o u n d w i t h l i t h i u m .
Fig. 1. Commercial Li/MoS 2 intercalation cell manufactured by
Moli Energy Limited, Burnaby, British Columbia (this is
an "AA" cell, about 6 cm high).
MOLI and MOLICEL are registered trademarks of Moli Energy Limited
Fig. 2. Schematic of a LI intercalation cell. The electrolyte is an
organic solvent with a dissolved Li salt.
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 93
Between the electrodes is an electrolyte, a lithium salt dissolved in an organic solvent. The electrolyte provides a
pathway for l i t h i u m ions between the t w o electrodes, and
the external circuit provides a pathway for electrons. As the
cell discharges, lithium atoms are stripped f r o m the lithium
electrode and separated into electrons, w h i c h travel t h r o u g h
the external circuit, and ions, w h i c h travel t h r o u g h the
electrolyte. The electrons and ions rejoin at the surface of
the intercalation c o m p o u n d , and diffuse f r o m the surface into
the bulk. Thus the overall reaction is just a transfer of lithium
atoms f r o m l i t h i u m metal t o the intercalation c o m p o u n d ; the
transfer occurs because the free energy of a l i t h i u m atom
is lower in the intercalation host than in lithium metal. W h e n
the cell is recharged, the reaction reverses; l i t h i u m leaves
the intercalation c o m p o u n d and electroplates o n t o the lit h i u m electrode. It is because the structural changes in the
host are small and because lithium can be made to electroplate efficiently that these cells can be charged and
discharged hundreds of times.
O n e striking feature of intercalation batteries is the large
variation of their voltage w i t h the state of charge. The voltage
of any battery decreases as the battery discharges, but most
of the decrease w e are familiar w i t h (the d i m m i n g of a flashlight as the batteries run d o w n , for instance) is caused by
an increase in the battery's internal impedance. The voltage
measured at low current or on open-circuit varies only by
a few millivolts over most of the life of ordinary batteries.
The voltage of an intercalation battery, o n the other hand,
can vary by volts; as an example, Fig. 3a shows the voltage
of a LLTaS 2 cell as a f u n c t i o n of x, the molar ratio of Li to
TaS 2 (7 '°\ This voltage variation is not caused by varying
impedances; if it were, the data measured d u r i n g a discharge
of the cell w o u l d be different f r o m that d u r i n g a charge.
A l t h o u g h such a variation in voltage is undesirable in some
applications, it does have practical value, for it provides an
instant measure of the state of charge of the cell. It also
contains a great deal of information about the intercalation
process. The derivative -(<9x/<9V)T of Fig. 3a, shown in Fig. 3b,
has a series of peaks and minima, each of w h i c h can be related
t o changes in the host or in the arrangement of the Li atoms
in the host.
It is the use of intercalation batteries as a t o o l in fundamental
research that w e want to stress here. In particular, w e shall
discuss what the voltage of an intercalation battery measures,
and h o w features like those in Fig. 3 can be understood in
terms of simple models of intercalation.
perhaps about the chemical potential of atoms in an ideal
gas, but otherwise they get little exposure to chemical potentials. O n e reason for this lack of instruction is that physicists
generally d o not measure chemical potentials. W i t h intercalation batteries, however, they can. Moreover, the behaviour of the chemical potential of some of the intercalation
c o m p o u n d s is an excellent illustration of h o w the chemical
potential reflects such processes as phase separation and
The simplest way to measure the chemical potential versus
x for an intercalation c o m p o u n d is to charge or discharge
a intercalation cell at a constant current. Then x is proportional
to time, w i t h the constant of proportionality set by the current
and the mass of host in the cell. The currents must be kept
small enough so that the host is always near equilibrium;
if the current is t o o large, concentration gradients of Li
develop in the particles of host in the electrode. Such
gradients cause the voltage to be larger w h e n the cell is
charging and smaller w h e n it is discharging, so a simple check
that the cell is near equilibrium is to compare V(x) measured
on charge and discharge, as in Fig. 3a.
To understand behaviour like that in Fig. 3, we need some
model of intercalation. In many lithium intercalation compounds, the lithium spends most of its time localized on
specific sites in the lattice, only occasionally j u m p i n g between
sites. It is a g o o d approximation to ignore this m o t i o n in
calculating the thermodynamics, and to consider the intercalation c o m p o u n d as a lattice of sites where each site is
either empty or occupied by one atom. The host has t w o
roles in this picture: it provides the lattice of sites where
the guests reside, and it determines the interactions between
the guest atoms. These interactions are complicated: they
consist of C o u l o m b interactions screened by the electrons
in the host, and elastic interactions caused by the distortion
Chemical Potentials and Lattice Gas Models
The voltage of an intercalation cell like that in Fig. 3 is directly
proportional to the chemical potential of the guest in the
host' 9 ', and it is this relationship that makes intercalation cells
useful in studying intercalation. To see h o w this relationship
arises, consider the w o r k done in transferring one lithium
atom between electrodes. The w o r k done o n the cell is the
charge o n an electron, -e, times the potential difference
t h r o u g h w h i c h the electron moves, V. This w o r k is equal to
the change in free energy of the cell, w h i c h is the chemical
potential of l i t h i u m in the host, fi, minus that in lithium metal,
ju0. Therefore,
All it takes to measure the chemical potential of lithium in
the host as a f u n c t i o n of l i t h i u m concentration is an intercalation cell, a voltmeter, and some electronics to measure
and c o n t r o l the charge passed t h r o u g h the cell. (In addition,
the cell's impedance is related to the rate of diffusion of
l i t h i u m in the host' 9 ', but w e will limit our discussion to the
chemical potential in equilibrium.)
At best, physics students learn about the Fermi level of
electrons in solids (the chemical potential of electrons) and
94 Physics in Canada
July 1988
Fig. 3. (a) The voltage V(x); and (b) the inverse derivative of (a),
-(<9x/<9V)T, versus x in LixTaS2 of a Li/LixTaS2 cell.
of sites by t h e guests. It is hard t o calculate such interactions
f r o m first principles, a l t h o u g h there has been some success
in metal hydrides' 1 0 '. M o r e c o m m o n is t o take t h e interactions
as m o d e l parameters. Such models of atoms o n sites are called
lattice-gas models' 1 1 '. They are equivalent t o Ising models' 1 2 ',
w h i c h m o d e l magnetic solids as lattice of spins w h e r e each
spin can p o i n t either up or d o w n . There is a large literature
of w o r k o n Ising models, and this literature can be used as
a basis for u n d e r s t a n d i n g intercalation c o m p o u n d s . W e shall
discuss t w o systems w h e r e these lattice gas models have been
especially successful.
t h e n u m b e r of ways t o r a n d o m l y place n atoms o n t h e lattice,
since the atoms w i l l be randomly d i s t r i b u t e d over the sites
in the absence of interactions. If there are N sites in the lattice
and Nx = n are filled, t h e free energy is
F = N[E 0 x + kTfxlog(x) + (1-x) log(l-x)]]
M = E0 + kT log[x/(1-x)L
-((Jx/<JV)T = e(d\/dfi)T
For Li x Mo 6 Se 8 ' 1 5 - 1 6 ', V(x) is a s m o o t h curve (Fig. 5a) and -(<9x/
<9V)t a single peak (Fig. 5b), simpler than in most intercalation
c o m p o u n d s . This system is thus a simple test for lattice gas
models; if they c a n n o t explain Fig. 5, they are unlikely t o be
useful in m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d cases.
w h i c h leads t o an s-shaped curve for the voltage versus x,
similar t o that in Fig. 5a. The derivative -(dx/<9V)T is
Attractive Interactions and Li x Mo 6 Se 8
W e begin w i t h a system w h e r e the d o m i n a n t interactions
b e t w e e n intercalated Li atoms are long-ranged and attractive.
This is Li x Mo 6 Se 8 , w h o s e structure is s h o w n in Fig. 4. It is
o n e of t h e Chevrel c o m p o u n d s ' 1 3 ' , n a m e d for Roger Chevrel,
w h o r e p o r t e d t h e first of these materials in 1971' 14 '. The host
is made of cubes of Mo 6 Se 8 , w i t h Se o n the corners and
M o in t h e centers of t h e faces. These cubes sit o n a lattice
w h i c h is almost simple cubic, but are rotated about o n e of
t h e b o d y diagonals of the lattice by about 25 degrees. This
r o t a t i o n breaks t h e c u b i c symmetry; Li x Mo 6 Se 8 is r h o m b o hedral for x < 1. The largest sites for guest atoms lie o n this
same b o d y diagonal, and are also s h o w n in Fig. 4. There is
o n e such site for each Mo 6 Se 8 cube, so filling all these sites
w i t h Li gives L^MogSeg. It is possible to prepare Li x Mo 6 Se 8
for 1 < x < 4, b u t w e shall consider o n l y x < 1 here.
w h e r e E0 is t h e energy of a Li atom on the lattice. From (2),
the chemical potential /u is
= x(1-x)/(kT/e)
A graph of Equation (4) is a parabola, w h o s e m a x i m u m at
x = 1/2 is 1/(4kT/e). Since kT/e is 25 mV at r o o m temperature,
this m a x i m u m is 1 0 V ° , t o o small t o explain Fig. 5b.
To make t h e m o d e l m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d (and hence m o r e
flexible), w e can i n t r o d u c e an interaction b e t w e e n Li atoms
o n d i f f e r e n t sites, or an interaction b e t w e e n spins in t h e
equivalent Ising model. It is these interactions that make t h e
Ising m o d e l interesting; unfortunately, it is rarely possible t o
solve t h e m o d e l exactly. A useful a p p r o x i m a t i o n is t h e meanfield a p p r o x i m a t i o n , w h i c h includes the energy of interaction
of the atoms, b u t assumes t h e atoms are still r a n d o m l y
d i s t r i b u t e d even w i t h w i t h the interactions present. (This is
o f t e n a p o o r assumption; if the interactions are o n l y b e t w e e n
nearby atoms, t h e atoms w i l l rearrange themselves t o take
advantage of attractive interactions or to avoid replusive ones.)
The total interaction energy of this r a n d o m arrangement w i l l
be Ux 2 /2, w h e r e U is the total interaction of o n e atom w i t h
all t h e others w h e n t h e lattice is full. I n c l u d i n g this in t h e
W e shall start w i t h t h e simplest case: a n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g lattice
gas, w h e r e there are no interactions b e t w e e n guest atoms
o n d i f f e r e n t sites. The free energy of such a lattice gas is
a sum of t w o terms: t h e energy, w h i c h is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o
t h e n u m b e r of filled sites and hence t o x; and t h e entropy.
The e n t r o p y is just minus the Boltzmann constant, k, times
. 3
x in Lix Mo„Se
6 8
Fig. 4. The structure of the Chevrel compound Li x Mo 6 Se 8 .
Fig. 5. (a) The voltage V(x); and (b) the inverse derivative of (a),
-(<9X/<?V)t versus x in Li x Mo 6 Se 8 of a Li/Li x Mo 6 Se 8 cell.
The solid circles are data from the discharge in (a) (solid
curve), the squares from the charge (dashed curve). The
solid curve in (b) is calculated from the mean-field expression (6).
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 95
expression for the free energy leads to an extra term in the
expression for the chemical potential,
n ' E0 + kT log[x/(1-x)] + Ux
The expression for -(dx/<9V)T becomes
-(<?x/<?V)T - 1/[(kT/e)/[x(1-x)] + U/e]
W i t h this extra term, w e can adjust the slope of the voltage
curve versus x and the height of the peak in -(<9x/<9V)T. Making
U positive (repulsive interactions) causes the voltage t o d r o p
more rapidly w i t h x , because the i n c o m i n g atoms feel more
and more repulsion as the lattice fills. Making U negative
causes the voltage to d r o p less rapidly. W h e n mean-field
theory was first used to describe intercalation batteries,
Equation (5) was used to get a rough estimate of the size
of U f r o m the average slope of V(x); -(<?x/<?V)T, however, was
never accurately described in Equation (6). But for Li x Mo 6 Se 8
mean-field theory is exact w i t h i n experimental error; the solid
curve in Fig. 5b is Equation (6) w i t h U - -0.090 eV. After years
of no better than semi-quantitative agreement between experiment and theory, w e were hardly prepared for the agreement
in Fig. 5.
The shape of -(<9x/(9V)T should be temperature dependent
according to Equation (6), and the maximum at x - 1/2,
(U/e + 4kT/e) -1 , should increase as U becomes more negative.
Figure 6 compares -(dx/dV) T for several temperatures w i t h the
predictions of the mean-field approximation. Eventually the
peak in -(dx/dVYf should diverge at a critical temperature T c
= U/4k, w h i c h is -11 C for U - -0.0904 eV, t o o low t o see
w i t h the electrolyte used in the experiments. This is the same
kind of critical point as in a liquid-gas system; at lower
temperatures, there will be phase separation of a c o m p o u n d
near x - 1/2 into one of lower Li content and one of higher,
w i t h the difference in the Li contents increasing w i t h decreasing temperature. This phase separation has recently been
observed 116 '. For T < T c - 267 K, Li 0 5 Mo 6 Se 8 is comprised
of t w o co-existing phases, whose compositions are well
predicted by the mean-field theory.
W h y does the mean-field theory w o r k so well? Since it is
based on a random distribution of the guest atoms in the
host above T c , the guest atoms probably do have such a
random arrangement. This suggests the interaction between
the Li atoms is long-ranged, for in that case Li atoms c o u l d
not lower their energy by disturbing the random distribution.
In fact, mean-field theory becomes exact w h e n a given atom
interacts equally w i t h all the other atoms in the host. Such
an interaction of infinite range is caused by the elastic
distortions that guest atoms p r o d u c e in the host lattice. The
distortion in the host at one site caused by an atom on another
site has a c o m p o n e n t that arises f r o m the boundary conditions
o n the elastic host' 1 0 '. This c o m p o n e n t depends only weakly
on the distance between the atoms. This c o n t r i b u t i o n to the
interaction energy has been shown to be important in metal
hydrides '10>.
The theory of this elastic interaction relates U t o the expansion
of the lattice caused by the guest atoms. W h e n the lattice
expands linearly w i t h x (as it does in Li x Mo 6 Se 8 for x < 1),
U can be calculated f r o m the lattice expansion and the elastic
constants of the host' 10 '. Such a calculation for Mo 6 Se 6 gives' 15 '
U - -0.05 eV, c o m p a r e d to the experimental value of -0.090
eV. But the experimental value of U might also include
interactions of short range if these are weak enough not to
disturb the random distribution of the atoms. The difference
between the experimental and calculated values of U might
be due to such short-range interactions. At least half of the
total interaction, however, must be of long range; calculations
of lattice gas models w i t h only short-range interactions cannot
r e p r o d u c e the experimental results in Fig. 6.
96 Physics in Canada
July 1988
Short Range Interactions and LixTaS2
In many intercalation hosts, the guest gives up electrons to
the host band structure or accepts electrons f r o m it, residing
in the host as an ion. These ions then interact t h r o u g h a
C o u l o m b interaction. The hosts studied as electrodes in
electrochemical cells must be g o o d conductors so that they
can carry large currents, so ions in these hosts are well
screened. Indeed, in some cases the ion and its screening
c l o u d have almost the same electron distribution as the
neutral atom' 1 8 ', so it is reasonable to refer to the ion and
its screening cloud as intercalated " a t o m s " even w h e n charge
is transferred between the guest and the host.
Short-ranged repulsive interactions such as screened Coul o m b interactions should produce ordered states in w h i c h
the intercalated atoms occupy only a sublattice of the available
sites. Such ordered arrangements are often f o u n d in atoms
adsorbed on surfaces' 19 '. But the effects of short-ranged
interactions can be masked by the long-ranged interactions
caused by the lattice expansion. In Li x Mo 6 Se 8 , where Li atoms
are seprated by at least 6.7 Â for x < 1, the electrostatic
interaction should be well screened The effects of shortranged interactions are best seen in hosts where the lattice
expansion is small and where the Li atoms are separated by
only 3 or 4 Â .
There is a class of hosts where short-range interactions d o
make their presence felt. The layered transition metal dichalcogenides first came to the attention of physicists w h e n it
was f o u n d that in many of t h e m the c o n d u c t i o n electons
have a periodic distribution called a charge-density wave' 19 '.
A solid like TaS2 has a layered structure composed of sandwiches of S-Ta-S. A l t h o u g h each sandwich is tightly held
together, the b o n d i n g between adjacent sandwiches is weak,
so the layers are easily pushed apart by a variety of guest
atoms or molecules. W i t h large organic molecules, the spac-
Fig. 6. -(<9X/<9V)t versus x in LixMo6SeB from Li/Li x Mo 6 Se 8 cells
at several temperatures in degrees Celsius. The solid curves
are calculated from the mean-field expression (6) with
the same value of the interaction paremeter U used in
Figure 5.
ing b e t w e e n sandwiches can reach 50 Â . Even w i t h a small
atom like Li, t h e sandwich spacing increases by 10%.
The lattice expansion, however, is highly non-linear. The first
Li atoms in t h e lattice d o most of the w o r k , and t h e lattice
expands most w h e n t h e first guests enter. The lattice expands
slowly e n o u g h w i t h x for x > 0.3 that the effects of shortrange o r d e r b e c o m e observable. M o r e o v e r , t h e Li atoms
o c c u p y sites separated by o n l y 3.4 Â , close e n o u g h for
C o u l o m b interactions t o be important.
The elastic i n t e r a c t i o n is expected t o be i m p o r t a n t for small
x in Li x TaS 2 , w h i l e the lattice is still e x p a n d i n g as Li is added.
Because most of the expansion is p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o the layers,
t h e r e is an added feature not present in Li x Mo 6 Se 8 : t h e phase
separation can o c c u r separately in different layers. Thus these
layered c o m p o u n d s can show mixtures of layers w h i c h have
almost n o guest atoms and others w h i c h have a higher
c o n c e n t r a t i o n . If t h e r e is even a small repulsion b e t w e e n guest
atoms in d i f f e r e n t layers, the filled layers w i l l move as far
apart as they can, leading to a regular alternation of filled
and e m p t y layers, a p h e n o m e n o n k n o w n as staging. Staging
is f o u n d most dramatically in graphite' 2 * 3 ', w h e r e c o m p o u n d s
up t o a b o u t stage 10 (where each space filled w i t h intercalate
is separated by 10 layers of carbon) have been reported.
Staging has also been in layered transition metal dichalcogenides. In particular, there is a stage 2 structure in Li x TaS 2
near x - ,15' 8 '. The effects of t h e lattice expansion o n -(dx!
<3V)t have been explained using simple models of springs and
rigid plates' 2 0 '.
For x < 0.25, Li x TaS 2 is a stage-one c o m p o u n d — all the layers
are equally and u n i f o r m l y o c c u p i e d by Li — and the effects
of t h e lattice expansion neglected. The principal short-ranged
i n t e r a c t i o n is e x p e c t e d t o be a repulsion b e t w e e n Li atoms
(or ions) o n adjacent sites in the same layer of the TaS2 host.
The Li atoams in layered c o m p o u n d s o c c u p y a close-packed
o r triangular lattice in each layer, w h e r e each site has six
nearest neighbours. Such a lattice has t h e p r o p e r t y that it
can be d e c o m p o s e d i n t o three interpenetrating sublattices,
as illustrated in t h e inset to Fig. 7, so that t h e nearest
n e i g h b o u r s of t h e sites o n o n e sublattice are all o n t h e o t h e r
t w o sublattices. If atoms are placed o n l y o n o n e sublattice,
1/3 of t h e sites o n the lattice can be filled w i t h o u t placing
any atoms o n adjacent sites. If the interaction is large c o m pared t o kT, this is the arrangement expected at x = 1/3.
Similarly an o r d e r e d state is e x p e c t e d at x « 2/3 w h e r e t w o
of t h e t h r e e sublattices are filled. (There is a particle-hole
s y m m e t r y in lattice gas models w i t h pairwise interactions,
equivalent t o t h e u p - d o w n spin symmetry of t h e Ising model.)
O n t h e o t h e r hand, w h e n kT is large c o m p a r e d to t h e nearestn e i g h b o u r interaction U ^ e n t r o p y w i l l suppress t h e order,
so t h e t h r e e sublattices of sites w i l l be equally filled. Thus
t h e r e w i l l be an o r d e r - d i s o r d e r transition as a f u n c t i o n of
There w i l l be a similar transition as a f u n c t i o n of x. At l o w
x, atoms can be far apart o n t h e lattice, so the system can
avoid m a k i n g nearest-neighbour pairs w i t h o u t d e v e l o p i n g
long-range o r d e r , short range o r d e r alone is e n o u g h . As x
approaches 1/3, however, having no nearest-neighbour pairs
is o n l y possible for a state of long-range o r d e r . A similar
p r o b l e m arises if w e imagine taking atoms o u t of the system
near x = 1. They system can maximize t h e n u m b e r of bonds
b r o k e n by e n s u r i n g that atoms are never r e m o v e d from
adjacent sites. This can be d o n e w i t h o u t long-range o r d e r
near x » 1, but n o t near x » 2/3.
The simplest m o d e l that w o u l d show such o r d e r is again a
lattice-gas m o d e l , this t i m e w i t h nearest-neighbour interactions. This m o d e l can be solved in various approximations;
t h e phase diagram is s h o w n in Fig. 7' 21 '. The b o u n d a r y of
Fig. 7 is phase transition f r o m t h e d i s o r d e r e d t o t h e o r d e r e d
state; for this particular model, it is a higher o r d e r or con-
t i n u o u s transition. Such phase diagrams are seen in adsorbed
systems' 22 ', b u t there t h e measurements are usually made are
as a f u n c t i o n of temperature, m o v i n g vertically in a diagram
like Fig. 7. W i t h intercalation c o m p o u n d s w e can m o v e
horizontally in t h e diagram.
Suppose w e consider the chemical potential of this m o d e l
at l o w temperatures. Below x = 1/3, each Li atom can f i n d
a site w i t h no nearest neighbours, first because of short-range
order, eventually because of long-range order. Thus t h e
chemical potential is just E0, t h e energy of an isolated Li atom
in the lattice. W h e n x increases past x = 1/3, o n e of t h e
sublattices fills c o m p l e t e l y , so the Li must o c c u p y sites in
o n e of t h e o t h e r sublattices. Each Li added n o w is repelled
by three nearest neighbours, so the chemical potential rises
t o E0 + 31^. Similarly at x = 2/3, the n u m b e r of nearest
n e i g h b o u r pairs f o r m e d goes f r o m 3 to 6, so n j u m p s by
a n o t h e r 3U 1 to E0 + 61^. The inverse derivative -(<9x/3V)T thus
shows t w o minima, o n e at x = 1/3 and the o t h e r at x =
2/3. These m i n i m a disappear at high temperatures, w h e r e t h e
Li are r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d over the sites, because t h e n t h e
mean-field expression (Equation (4)), w h i c h shows no m i n i m a
for 0 < x < 1, is valid.
The o t h e r feature expected f r o m an o r d e r - d i s o r d e r transition
is a peak in -(<9x/<9V)T at t h e transition, w h e n the system crosses
t h e phase b o u n d a r y in Fig. 7. Such peaks are a general feature
of so-called t h e r m o d y n a m i c response functions like compressibility or magnetic susceptibility, and arise f r o m the t h e r m o dynamic fluctuations near a phase transition. W e plot the
inverse derivative of V(x), -(<9x/<9V)T, t o exploit the analogy
between intercalation c o m p o u n d s and o t h e r m o r e familiar
systems. THe free energy F of an intercalation c o m p o u n d
changes as Li is added a c c o r d i n g to
dF = v dx
For a gas w i t h specific v o l u m e v at presssure p, t h e free energy
changes w i t h v a c c o r d i n g t o
dF = p dv
H e n c e n of an intercalation system is analogous p a gas, and
x is analogous t o v. C o n s e q u e n t l y -(<9x/<9V)T is analogous t o
(<9v/<9p)T, w h i c h is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e compressibility. Similarly, t h e free energy of a magnet in a magnetic field H
Fig. 7. Phase diagram for a lattice gas with nearest-neighbour
repulsive interactions U 1 on a triangular lattice. The inset
shows the decomposition of a triangular lattice into three
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 97
changes in response t o changes in the magnetization m per
spin according to
dF = H d m
so v is analogous to H, x to m and -<(9x/(9V)T to the magnetic
susceptibility ((5m/<9H)T.
W e d o indeed see an order-disorder transition in LixTaS2.
The voltage V versus x in Fig. 3a has t w o small steps near
x = 1/3 and x » 2/3, and -(<5x/<?V)T in Fig. 3b has corresponding
minima. Fig. 8 shows the inverse derivative -(dx/<9V)T near x
= 2/3 (7) . The m i n i m u m is p r o d u c e d by the ordered arrangement of Li near x « 2/3, and the peaks o n either side by
the phase transition as the system crosses the phase boundary
seperating the ordered and disordered states. These t w o peaks
move together as the temperature rises, because the phase
diagram closes near x = 2/3. From the positions of these peaks
as a f u n c t i o n of temperature, we constructed the phase
diagram in Fig. 9, the first phase diagram to be f o u n d in this
way. Fig. 10 shows -(d\/dV)j calculated from a lattice gas model
w i t h nearest neighbour interaction using M o n t e Carlo methods, showing semi-quantitative agreement w i t h the results
of Fig. 8.
These t w o systems, Li x Mo 6 Se 8 and LixTaS2, provide the prettiest illustations so far of how intercalation batteries can be
used to study the behaviour of Li intercalation compounds.
The behaviour of these c o m p o u n d s has been studied by
measuring the chemical potential, a measurement w h i c h is
rare in physics. Even more powerful tools can be obtained
by c o m b i n i n g this m e t h o d w i t h other measurements made
in-situ in intercalation cells. To date, such in-situ measurements have been made of structure of the intercalation
c o m p o u n d w i t h powder x-ray diffraction' 2 3 ' 2 4 ' and of the
electric field gradients near the Li atom w i t h perturbed angular
correlation' 2 5 ). W i t h such in-situ methods, changing the composition of a c o m p o u n d is as easy as changing the temperature
in a traditional solid-state experiment.
The chemical potential is a neglected quantity in physics.
W i t h the development of electrochemical methods to study
intercalation compounds, it should take its rightful place in
undergraduate physics and chemistry courses. Intercalation
c o m p o u n d s like those discussed in this article provide simple
examples of h o w chemical potentials behave, and the lattice
gas models used to describe the results are simple alternatives
to the Ising model of magnetism in i n t r o d u c i n g students to
statistical mechanics.
W e acknowledge helpful comments from R.R. Haering, C.M.
Hurd, K. Brandt and J.A. Stiles.
V (Volts)
Fig. 8. -(<9x/<9V)T versus V for a Li/LixTaS2 cell at several temperatures in degrees Celsius.
1.0 -
• û
x i n Li„TaSFig. 9. Phase diagram for the order-disorder transition of Li in
LixTaS2. The circles are from the values of x of the peaks
in figure 9, the squares from Monte Carlo calculations.
The solid curve is a guide to the eye.
98 Physics in Canada
July 1988
*a °
• * tS a °
q_ û •
r. if
V (Volts)
Fig. 10. -(dx/<?V)T calculated by Monte Carlo techniques for a
lattice gas on a triangular lattice. The nearest-neighbour
repulsions are the same as those in Figure 9.
1. D.G. Westlake, C.B. Satterwaite, and J.H. Weaver, Physics
Today, November 1978, p. 32.
14. R. Chevrel, M. Sergent, and J. Pringent, J. Solid State Chem.
3, 515 (1971).
2. J.E. Fischer and T.E. Thompson, Physics Today, July 1978,
p. 36.
15. S.T. Coleman, W.R. M c K i n n o n and J.R. Dahn, Phys. Rev.
B 29, 4147 (1984).
3. M.S. Dresselhaus, Physics Today, March 1984, p. 60.
16. J.R. Dahn and W.R. McKinnon, Phys. Rev. B 32, 3003 (1985).
4. D.W. Davidson, in "Water: A Comprehensive Treatise",
Vol. 2, Plenum, New-York (1973), p. 115.
17. J.R. Dahn, W.R. M c K i n n o n , and S.T. Coleman, Phys. Rev.
B 31, 484 (1985).
5. J.L. Cox (ed), Natural Gas Hydrates: Properties, Occurence and Recovery, Butterworth, Boston (1983).
18. N.A.W. Holzwarth, S.G. Louie, and S. Rabii, Phys. Rev.
B 28, 1013 (1983).
6. M.S. W h i t t i n g h a m , Science 192, 1126 (1976).
19. F.J. DiSalvo and T.M. Rice, Physics Today, April 1979, p. 32.
7. J.R. Dahn and W.R. M c K i n n o n , Solid State C o m m u n . 48,
43 (1983).
20. J.R. Dahn, D.C. Dahn, and R.R. Haering, Solid State
C o m m u n . 44, 29 (1984).
8. J.R. Dahn and W.R. M c K i n n o n , J. Phys. C. 17, 4231 (1984).
21. M. Schick, J.S. Walker, and M. Wortis, Phys. Rev. B 16,
2205 (1977).
9. W.R. M c K i n n o n and R.R. Haering, M o d e r n Aspects of
Electrochemistry, Vol. 15 ed. by R.E. White, J. O ' M . Bockris,
and B.E. Conway (plenum, N.V., 1983), p. 235.
22. M.W. Cole, F. Toigo, and E. Tosatti (guest editors), in
Surface Science 125, 1-326 (1983).
10. H. Wagner, in " H y d r o g e n in Metals" Vol. 1, G. Alefeld
and J. Volkl, (ed.), Springer, Berlin (1978), p. 5.
23. R.R. Chianelli, J.C. Scanlon, and B.M.L. Rao, J. Electrochem.
Soc. 125, 1563 (1978).
11. T.D. Lee and C.N. Yang, Phys. Rev. 87, 410 (1952).
24. J.R. Dahn, M.A. Py, and R.R. Haering, Can. J. Phys. 60,
307 (1982).
12. E. Ising, Z. Phys. 31, 253 (1952).
13. O. Fischer and M.B. Maple (ed.), "Superconductivity in
Ternary C o m p o u n d s I", Topics in Current Physics Vol. 32,
Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1982), p. 165.
25. T. Butz, A. Lerf, and J.O. Besenhard, Rev. Chim. Min. 21,
556 (1984).
- Physics students from across Canada are invited to attend the four day
conference and are encouraged to present a short talk, a poster or a major
- 7 invited guest speakers will talk on diverse physics related fields.
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 99
American Association of Physics Teachers
1987 Millikan Lecture Award
Recipient: Donald Glenn Ivey
The Robert A. Millikan Lecture Award is presented by
the AAPT for "notable and creative contributions to
the teaching of physics." There are few who have made
more notable, creative, and visible contributions to the
teaching of introductory physics than Donald Glenn
Ivey. Donald Ivey was born in Clanwilliam, Manitoba,
reared and educated from the primary grades through
the masters degree level in Vancouver, received his
Ph.D. at the University of Notre Dame, and has devoted
38 years of his life as a faculty member and administrator
at the University of Toronto, where he has served as
the Principal of New College and Vice-President for
Institutional Affairs.
Author, lecturer, and communicator of physics, he is
probably most familiar for his memorable role with
J.N.P. Hume in the ubiquitous PSSC teaching films
"Frames of Reference," "Universal Gravitation," "Periodic Motion," and "Random Events." It may be less
well known to the younger members of the physics
teaching community that from 1958 to 1966 Ivey and
Hume also prepared and presented over 100 half-hour
television programs on physics for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and a series of shorter productions
for the National Educational Television and Radio Corporation in the United States.
Writing has also played an important part of Don Ivey's
life. In 1955 he co-authored a physics text for high
schools with R.W. McKay which was widely used. Ivey
and Hume again joined forces in 1974 to write a twovolume introductory level college physics text published by Ronald Press.
Dame and in 1975 the New College Library at the
University of Toronto was named the Donald Glenn
Ivey Library. In 1979 the AAPT bestowed upon him a
Distinguished Service Citation.
His contributions to the teaching and the public understanding of physics have earned him the respect
and admiration of colleagues throughout the world.
In the words of one, Don Ivey is
"A teacher, a colleague, an administrator, a friend,
a model for the public and for all of us. All that
talent, but much too likeable to envy. Frequently
upside down, but somehow always landing on his
An ever popular speaker, he has given dozens of
lectures per year in locations as diverse as Thunder
Bay, Oakville, New York, and Nanjing. Whether it be
a keynote address, graduation talk, or school career
day, he confesses that in 38 years he has never passed
up the opportunity to speak to a teacher or student
Mr. President, the Awards Committee is proud at this
time to present the 1987 Robert A. Milikan Lecture
Award to Donald G. Ivey.
He has not been without honor in his own, or other
countries. "Frames of Reference" won the Edison Award
for the "best science education film of 1962." "Random
Events" won a silver medal from the Science Institute
in Rome. In 1965 he won an Award of Honor from Notre
Reprinted with permission from American Journal of
Physics 55, 12, December 1987
© American Association of Physics Teachers
100 Physics in Canada
July 1988
"Educational television — An oxymoron?" Donald Glenn Ivey's
acceptance speech for the 1987 Millikan Lecture Award presented
by the American Association of Physics Teachers, 18 June 1987
Donald G. Ivey
Department of Physics,
University of Toronto,
Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7, Canada
Author's note: These words were intended to be said, not
read, so please read t h e m w i t h this in mind. You had to be
(After the citation, curtain opens to reveal D.G.I, hanging
inverted. R.B.C. walks around him, says "You're upside d o w n "
and D.G.I, replies " N o , you're upside d o w n , " and then t o
audience "He's the one w h o is upside d o w n , isn't he?"
Dismounts, moves t o podium.)
Mr. President, distinguished guests, if any, ladies and gentlemen. Thank you Robert. I enjoyed the citation. I'm glad
I came.
As Gypsy Rose Lee or some other ecdysiast once observed,
in order t o get the attention of an audience "Ya gotta have
a g i m m i c k ! " M y g i m m i c k has been to start an address while
upside d o w n . I started this nearly 30 years ago, and I'll tell
you the truth, I'm not sure h o w m u c h longer I can keep
it up!
I'm w o r k i n g on something new (juggle one, two, then three
oranges) but it still needs a little work.
A second ecdysiastical principle is that to keep the attention
of an audience y o u have t o reveal yourself, preferably gradually and gracefully, and I hope to d o that as well today —
although perhaps in revealing my beautiful internal thoughts
rather than my external physical charms.
W h e n one receives an award that is deserved because of
long and devoted service, it is a rewarding experience. O n
the other hand, w h e n one receives a totally undeserved award,
it is truly delightful!! I k n o w as you d o that there are many
other members of AAPT w h o are m u c h more deserving of
this award than I am — after all, I have spent nearly half
of my 40 years as a physics teacher being a university
administrator as well, and we all k n o w how little administrators
c o n t r i b u t e to the basic educational enterprise. Anyway, I am
absolutely delighted that this time the awards c o m m i t t e e has
made a mistake. In order to let t h e m off the hook I decided
the t h i n g to d o was present a brilliant, thoughtful, literate,
p r o f o u n d address — my second t h o u g h t was t o try to distract
your attention by t h r o w i n g in words like "ecdysiast" and
" o x y m o r o n . " As some wise man, probably Casey Stengel, once
said, "I've got n o t h i n ' to say, and I'm only going to say it
"Educational Televison — An O x y m o r o n ? " Of course a literate
audience like this knows what an o x y m o r o n is. For those of
you w h o d i d n ' t look it up, it juxtaposes contradictory terms.
The most popular example is "military intelligence," although
in Canada "postal service" is providing stiff c o m p e t i t i o n . W e
also have a political party, now in power, called the "Progressive Conservatives."
From the title y o u deduce that I may say something about
the question "Is educational television educational?" and I
probably will, but as I am an academic you will not expect
a simple clear-cut answer — you k n o w you will get an
unequivocal " m a y b e . " (Is that another oxymoron?)
W h a t I am really going to d o is tell you something about
my o w n television experience, and hope that some useful
messages emerge — or if not, that you don't notice. As Robert
has noted in the citation, once upon a time, in the early
days of television, w h e n it was black and w h i t e and live, my
friend and colleague Pat H u m e and I prepared and presented
about a h u n d r e d half-hour television programs. Have you
ever observed the difficulty that people have in identifying
as individuals pairs that come as a matched set? Those of
you w h o have w o r k e d as half of a team or w h o have at least
t w o children will be familiar w i t h this p h e n o m e n o n . W e had
producers w h o after 12 programs still had troubles w i t h w h i c h
was w h o m of us, particularly under stress. W h e n you yell
at your kids d o you mix up their names? I digress.
The team of H u m e and Ivey became quite well k n o w n in
Canada and even in some parts of the United States. I often
questioned the order of these names, and usually spoke of
Ivey and Hume, although I p r o n o u n c e d it Ivey and whom?
Incidentally, as many of you know Bob Resnick sometimes
suggests that there is no Halliday — he just made him up
for tax purposes. I have never denied the existence of Pat
H u m e — I can't, because most of you have seen him in living
celluloid. He always argued that H u m e and Ivey was e u p h o n ious, sounding like an a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c green wall vine
" h u m a n ivy." His more c o m p e l l i n g argument was that the
labeling of all famous teams was always alphabetical. You
remember Allen & Burns, perhaps you even go back to Hardy
& Laurel or TV's Martin & Rowan. In Canada our most famous
team is Shuster & Wayne, often seen on Ed Sullivan. In music
w h o c o u l d forget Hammerstein & Rogers, or even Garfunkel
& Simon. In literature we had Juliet & Romeo (being p r o d u c e d
in this theater this week) and Delilah & Sampson, but of course
these were female-male teams, and the female naturally came
first. I have to admit that Pat is right — alphabetical is
sacrosanct and irrevocable!
As I said, t h r o u g h o u t the length and breadth of Canada, H u m e
and Ivey were household words. Actually in some households
they were four-letter words because this was in the early
days of TV and in many places only CBC-TV was available,
so it was us or nothing, and some viewers t h o u g h t nothing
w o u l d have been preferable. O n the w h o l e t h o u g h we were
amazed at h o w many people were prepared to watch a
program about pure physics — and even be enthusiastic about
This was all so long ago and far away that most of you w i l l
not have seen any of our epics, so before trying to tell you
what I think their effect was, I am going to summarize what
w e did, and show an excerpt.
It started nearly 30 years ago w i t h a series we called Focus
on Physics (Fig. 1); this was a joint venture — the University
provided us, and the CBC provided p r o d u c t i o n facilities. The
programs were live in the T o r o n t o area, and later shown on
kinescope in other parts of Canada. As you may know, a
kinescope recording is a m o t i o n picture of a TV screen, and
the quality of r e p r o d u c t i o n is abysmal — that's w h y most
programs in those days were live. TV tape recording was
developed before the end of our TV careers, but in the early
days of tape it was very difficult to edit, so all of our halfhour programs were shot in the real time of 26 min or so.
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 101
Focus o n Physics was so successful that the next year the
CBC approached us privately, independent of the University,
t o d o a series o n the national network, in p r i m e time, f r o m
10:30 t o 11:00 p.m. o n Thursdays f r o m July t h r o u g h September.
W e called this series T w o for Physics, in part because it
sounded like a n u m b e r series, 2,4,5,6, but mainly because
w e were t w o for physics. W e had been unhappy about the
image of physics (or science in general) that w e had perceived
as being fostered by television. Scientists were usually presented as eccentric weirdos in w h i t e lab coats w i t h w i l d hair,
w h e t h e r in commercials or in educational programs, and what
was stressed was the mystery and the w o n d e r of science,
making it seem like black magic. From the outset w e tried
to present physics as a reasonable human activity carried o n
by normal individuals in gray flannel suits.
I'll c o m e back t o T w o for Physics in a moment, because I
want to give y o u some idea of the sort of topics w e dealt
with, but first I'll c o m p l e t e the summary of the series w e
This series was successful enough that the CBC decided t o
present a regular science series; they called it The Nature
of Things. It began in 1960 and has been r u n n i n g continuously
ever since, one of the longest r u n n i n g shows in TV anywhere.
W e d i d programs as part of this series until 1965 — I'll show
y o u a list of titles shortly. The first year of this series I acted
as a host for all of the programs, but I was uncomfortable
being the front man for programs I had no hand in preparing,
so I stopped, even t h o u g h the CBC pressed me very hard
t o c o n t i n u e because they recognized the importance of a
c o n t i n u i n g face on this type of series. I was fortunate that
my first affiliation was w i t h the University, so I could afford
not t o d o whatever the Corporation demanded. For several
years The Nature of Things f u n c t i o n e d w i t h o u t a permanent
host, but for a long time n o w a w e l l - k n o w n Canadian geneticist, Dr. David Suzuki, has been the host. Like me, he
agonized about w h e t h e r or not t o leave a university career
to become a media personality, and I guess he ultimately
d e c i d e d that he c o u l d make a significant c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the
public understanding of science by this move; perhaps his
b u m p of conscience is larger than mine.
1958 FOCUS O N PHYSICS — 13 half-hour programs produced
live in Toronto and recorded on kinescope for use in other
regions of the country.
1959 T W O FOR PHYSICS — 12 half-hour programs produced
live for the CBC national network, 10:30-11:00 p.m. Thursdays, July-September. Later shown on kinescope on public
broadcasting stations in the U.S.
1960 THE NATURE OF THINGS — Series began in 1960 and
continues today. We did programs in the series until 1965.
Early shows done live. Later videotape introduced, but not
1962 THE IDEAS OF PHYSICS - One of three mini-series
prepared for the Schools Broadcasts Dept. of the CBC:
Time and Space
Waves or Particles?
Order or Chaos?
Atoms and Nuclei
(rebroadcast in 1965)
1963 THE NATURE OF PHYSICS - Rebroadcast on Schools
Telecasts of five programs from The Nature of Things.
G — The Gravitational Constant
c — The Speed of Light
e — The Fundamental Charge
h — The Quantum Constant
Fig. 1. TV series prepared and presented by D.G. Ivey and J.N.P.
Hume for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
102 Physics in Canada
July 1988
N o w w e have in Ontario an educational network called TV
Ontario, but this did not exist in the 60s, so the CBC had
a Schools Broadcasting Department, and we d i d three short
series for them, The Ideas of Physics in 1962, The Nature
of Physics in 1963, and The Constants of Physics in 1965.
The program titles are listed.
W e really did not modify our approach because these programs were supposed t o be aimed at school children rather
than a general audience, except that we tried t o be a little
more subtle in our humor! W e often w o n d e r e d w h o watched
these programs, broadcast d u r i n g school hours, because
many schools d i d not have TV sets, and if they d i d the odds
were against broadcast times coinciding w i t h physics class
times — don't forget, VCRs had not been invented. W e
suspected that daytime TV viewers t h o u g h t this was a rather
dull soap opera w i t h a very small cast — The O d d Couple
hadn't been invented yet either.
This list covers the programs w e made for the CBC. Some
were used in other countries including the United States and
Australia. In addition, w e did a number of short segments
for use by public broadcasting stations in the U.S. The public
broadcasters [I think the organization was called NETRC
(National Educational Television and Radio Corporation)]
approached the CBC and suggested a joint venture — they
w o u l d pay us, and the CBC w o u l d provide p r o d u c t i o n
facilities. It t u r n e d out they paid us very well, but w e never
f o u n d out if the programs were used in the U.S.
I made reference to humor. W e r e our programs intended
to be funny? Did we tell jokes? Certainly not. But people
were so used to science courses and programs that were
deadly serious that they thought we were hilarious just
because w e didn't take ourselves seriously all the time. W e
laughed at ourselves a little, but basically w e are pedagogues
and w e tried never to let these self-deprecating attempts
interfere w i t h our message.
The program titles give you some idea of the sort of messages
we tried to put across. We were not d o i n g applied physics
— h o w the telephone works, or what t o d o until the plumber
comes — but rather were attempting to explain the fundamental ideas of our subject.
Here are the programs that w e d i d on T w o for Physics (Fig. 2),
w i t h the titles and a few words about each one. To try to
give you some idea of the kind of t h i n g we said I pulled
out the o l d scripts, yellowed and mellowed w i t h age, and
picked out one sentence from each to quote to you. It is
impossible to convey m u c h in one sentence, but I hope these
will show you that w e really were attempting to grapple w i t h
the fundamentals of physics.
You may w o n d e r w h y we had scripts, and there were several
reasons. O n e was to clean up our language; in physics as
in any other field w e use a lot of shorthand — words that
have meaning for other physicists but not m u c h for outsiders.
W e never used a technical w o r d unless s o m e h o w w e had
defined it — and usually it turns out you can get along w i t h o u t
it. Sometimes w h e n w e examined the cherished phrases that
w e used for our classes, and t h o u g h t about what we were
really saying, the answer was " n o t m u c h . " In addition, we
were attempting to present physics w i t h o u t using what is often
called the language of physics, mathematics, and that was
a challenging constraint. Another important reason for a script
was so that the producer w o u l d know exactly what w e were
d o i n g at all times. The quality of the image in black and white
TV is poor, and even w i t h color it is not marvelous, limited
by the number of lines — and that is why you so often find
a face filling the screen — you need this kind of close-up
to really see expression. In our studios there were three
cameras, each w i t h four lenses, and it was essential that the
right camera w i t h the right lens and the right lighting be
in place for every shot — and this is only possible w i t h a
detailed script. You can't afford to wait w i t h n o t h i n g happening — after about 3s you have "egg on your face," as
you will all have observed in the rare bits of live TV, like
newscasts, that you see today. W e felt it important that our
programs be as professional in appearance as any others, so
that " e d u c a t i o n a l " TV was not seen by the viewers as a secondclass version of " r e a l " TV.
To prepare a program w e picked out a few pieces of simple
e q u i p m e n t that seemed relevant, roughed out a story line,
and then divided it up into segments assigned to each of
us. Then w e each w r o t e out the script for our segment and
m e m o r i z e d it. W e c o u l d not use cue cards or teleprompters
effectively because most of the time we were w o r k i n g w i t h
bits of e q u i p m e n t , and it w o u l d have looked o d d to be peering
resolutely in the direction of the camera. It was not particularly
difficult t o memorize our o w n words, and we didn't have
to be perfect, provided the producer knew precisely w h e n
t o cut to close-ups of equipment, and w h e n w e had finished
o u r segment. The only p r o b l e m was the modifications w e
had to make d u r i n g rehearsals in the studio. A r u n - t h r o u g h
w o u l d show that w e had written 35 min of material for a
26-min show. I was always the w o r d y one, taking up more
than my share of time, so I w o u l d have to make the cuts
— and that was difficult, removing great chunks of my
immortal prose and remembering to unremember them.
For each program w e normally d i d three rehearsals: first a
" w a l k - t h r o u g h " w i t h o u t lines so that the producer w o u l d
k n o w about lighting and cameras, then one w i t h lines for
timing, w h e n w e w o u l d f i n d we were m u c h t o o long (we
were never t o o short), and finally a complete dress rehearsal.
W e w o u l d be in the studio for about 4 h altogether — a
very exhausting 4 h.
Let me get back to the one-sentence quotations I threatened
you with. In the first program on Two for Physics I said, " A
scientist hopes that he is moving in the direction of absolute
truth, but he never expects to complete the journey." I was
so pleased w i t h this pompous p r o n o u n c e m e n t that I used
it verbatim in my textbook.
In The Beginning of Confusion I c o n c l u d e d w i t h "Max Planck
had drilled a hole in the dam that was physics, and this led
to the f l o o d that is physics in this century." Isn't that colorful?
In Atoms and Orbits I said "The way man thinks about the
structure of atoms has been influenced by his long experience
in thinking about orbits of planets and moons." I had a
marvelous time here swinging a pail of water in a circle in
a c r o w d e d TV studio.
In The Wave-Particle Dilemma I said, "The story is more
fascinating than fiction — and it's probably true." Pat used
a q u o t e f r o m Louis de Broglie, "These more or less schematic
idealizations w h i c h our m i n d constructs are capable of representing certain aspects of things but they have their limits
and cannot incorporate into their rigid forms all the richness
of reality." In this program one way we tried to illustrate the
dual nature of nature was to introduce the dual nature of
man t h r o u g h Stevenson's Dr. Jeckyll and Mr. Hyde. I was both
of t h e m — it took 3 h to make me up as Mr. Hyde (Fig. 3).
Pat said I never looked better.
The title of the next program you will recognize as being
from the limerick about "The y o u n g lady named Bright, W h o
c o u l d travel faster than light. She set out one day, In a relative
way. A n d returned the previous night." We discovered all
about relativity by doing experiments on a flat car on a train
that moves at 100 000 miles/s. It wasn't a real train. At the
end of my remarks, I'm going to show a videotape of this
program, for those of you w h o want to stay.
In Man in the M i d d l e I asked, " A r e our ideas as to h o w things
work, ideas f o r m e d in our world, valid in the other worlds
— of things m u c h smaller or much larger?"
— the scope of physics
— physics based on experimental observations
— introduction of quantum ideas early in this century
— the solar system and the Bohr model of the atom
— the dual nature of matter and radiation
— comparison of Newtonian and Einsteinian mechanics
— the limitations of man's experience, and his attempts to
deal with phenomena outside the range of his senses
— the effects of gravity, air, and electromagnetic radiation
— energy a useful concept invented by man — forms of
energy — the laws of thermodynamics
— how we find out about the nucleus
— radioactivity, accelerators, fundamental particles
— comparison of chemical and nuclear energy
— natural and artificial radioactivity
— review of all programs
— consideration of the randomness that underlines the
orderly behaviour we observe
Fig. 2. Two for physics. Program titles and brief summary of topics
Let me digress a m o m e n t to tell you about the problems
of publicity for programs like these. A young w o m a n from
the CBC publicity department was talking to us, hoping to
f i n d something she c o u l d use. W e were trying to explain
about things outside the range of man's senses, and ment i o n e d ultrasonic d o g whistles. W i t h enthusiasm she reacted
"Dogs — you're going to talk about dogs!" This became a
cherished phrase for us. Whenever w e were having t r o u b l e
explaining our aims to the publicists — for example, w h e n
they wanted to illustrate publicity material by using either
a picture of a nuclear explosion or a rocket blasting off (as
they always did, these in their belief symbolizing science)
w e amused ourselves by muttering "Dogs — you're going
to talk about dogs!"
In O u r Invisible Environment w e asked, "Gravity, air, radiation
— we've talked about t h e m separately, but are they separate,
or are there interactions between them?" and then we
discussed some of the ways they interact.
In Degradation of the Universe we never used the w o r d
" t h e r m o d y n a m i c s " but w e did try to indicate what " e n t r o p y "
measured. W i t h respect to energy, w e said, "Energy is one
of the most useful concepts that man ever c o n c o c t e d to
describe the w o r l d to himself — that's w h y the idea of energy
has spread beyond the realms of science and become part
of everyone's t h i n k i n g . "
In Probing the Nucleus we started by p r o b i n g the nucleus
of a canteloupe, and then ate it. After talking about all the
particles and antiparticles w e said "This is a fascinating time
for physicists — some believe most of the fundamental
particles have been detected and w e are just around the
corner from f o r m i n g a theory that will tie it all together, w h i l e
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 103
In Conservation Laws we started w i t h conservation of things
and ended w i t h conservation of mass-energy. In a m o m e n t
I'll show you the beginning of this one.
Science Teaching Today was mostly about the PSSC course,
w i t h a description of it and emphasis on its goals.
W e had been doing programs o n physics w i t h o u t mathematics. In The Language of Physics w e tried doing a program
o n mathematics w i t h o u t mathematics. Basically it was about
the calculus operations of differentiation and integration, and
what they did for physics.
A Prize for the Lowest was a little about the Nobel Prize
in general, but focused on Kamerlingh Onnes and his w o r k
o n p r o d u c i n g low temperatures. W e described the fascinating
p h e n o m e n o n of superconductivity, w h i c h of course is back
in the news now w i t h the development of high-temperature
superconductors. " D r i n k i n g " liquid air is always an effective
demonstration, but it's dangerous, not so m u c h because of
the danger of freezing your face as because of losing your
audience; if they spend the next few minutes w o n d e r i n g why
you d i d n ' t freeze your face, you lose t h e m for whatever
important messages you are trying to impart. O n e of our
precepts was " D o something, but not m u c h , " meaning that
w e tried t o use lots of demonstrations, keeping t h e m simple,
like d r o p p i n g a ball, rather than trying to use sophisticated
apparatus w h i c h was t o o intrinsically interesting. No mysterious black boxes for us.
Fig. 3. Dr. Ivey as Mr. Hyde.
others believe the end of the story is m u c h farther away."
W o u l d w e say anything different today, nearly 30 years later?
In Fission and Fusion one statement was, "Energy is released
in the process of rearranging things — if the things w e
rearrange are atoms w e talk about chemical energy, if w e
rearrange the nuclei of atoms w e call it nuclear energy."
In Decaying Atoms w e said, " N o reason can be given for
an atom t o disintegrate at a particular instant and not at some
other t i m e — this was an example of something new in physics,
an event w i t h o u t a cause."
In t h e final program w e q u o t e d Whitehead, "Systems, scientific and philosophic, c o m e and go. Each m e t h o d of limited
understanding is at length exhausted. In the end — t h o u g h
there is no end — what is achieved is w i d t h of view." W e
ended up by p o i n t i n g out, "This has been a series on physics
appreciation. Just as talks o n music appreciation don't teach
you to play an instrument, w e haven't tried to make you a
physicist. W e have i n t r o d u c e d you to many of the great
composers of physics, and hope that w e have been g o o d
This is a list of the programs that we did in The Nature of
Things series (Fig. 4).
In Observation and Experiment w e summarized some of the
experiments that led to our understanding of matter and
radiation. W e started w i t h Aladdin's Law — whenever Pat
r u b b e d a lamp, I appeared.
In Physics and Games we distinguished between games of
skill — skill that can be acquired because of the predictability
of nature — and games of chance — where the only kind
of skill is knowledge, knowledge of the probabilities involved.
W e ended w i t h the question, is nature basically unpredictable? I o p e n e d this program talking while playing ping-pong,
w h i c h was a challenge.
The Speed of Light of course was another shot at explaining
the concepts of relativity, w h i c h is always fun.
104 Physics in Canada
July 1988
W e used the title Count on Me for the program on computers,
in part because people more and more were c o u n t i n g on
computers, but primarily to emphasize the fact that that is
all computers really d o — count.
Instant Electricity was about energy conversion in general,
and thermoelectric devices in particular.
Tubes to Transistors was really about c o m m u n i c a t i o n — the
transfer of information from place to place, whether by sound,
or light signals, or a boy on a bicycle.
Pat was interested in the rapidly developing field of c o m p u t e r
science, and we had done a program o n computers. As a
polymer physicist, I demanded equal time, so w e did one
o n rubber, The Way the Ball Bounces, examining, for example,
the different molecular mechanisms involved w h e n the
bounce of a steel ball and rubber ball are compared, and
noting the anomalous thermoelastic behavior of rubber. Of
course w e didn't use those words. At one point in this program
I gave Pat one end of a long piece of rubber t o hold, and
then I walked away pulling o n the other end until the rubber
band was stretched and Pat was off camera. I used a heat
lamp t o warm up the rubber and pointed out that it was
pulling harder, trying to contract, not expand as normal solids
d o w h e n heated. Just as I finish my message, Pat appears,
Fig. 4. The nature of Things.
peering over my shoulder. I ask " W h o ' s h o l d i n g the other
end?" and he replies " N o b o d y ! " and the rubber band snaps
into my hand. I did not try to relate this delayed reaction
to relaxation times in viscoelastic materials. If I had, the
message w o u l d have been lost.
Naturally in New Atoms for O l d w e started out as alchemists
— unsuccessful ones.
In Fact and Fiction we had fun sitting around the office talking
about creating a program in w h i c h we w o u l d try to distinguish
between facts — experimental observations — and theories
devised to explain the facts — w e called these fiction because
the laws of physics are creations of the mind, and that's the
definition of fiction. W e decided we c o u l d n ' t d o the program
for reasons that w o u l d only make sense if you saw the
As you all k n o w there is a great deal of physics involved
in the creation and maintenance of standards, and w e dealt
w i t h a lot of it in Standards for Comparison.
In Laser Light it was a real challenge to explain what coherent,
collimated, and m o n o c h r o m a t i c meant, and it didn't get any
easier w h e n w e got to things like m o d u l a t i o n or energy levels.
You can probably guess what Lies, Damn Lies, and Statistics
was about, more or less. W e didn't want to mess around
w i t h the sensitive question of the relationship between
cigarette smoking and lung cancer, because we w o u l d have
had to have our facts right, so instead w e dealt w i t h the
relationship between g u m c h e w i n g and the c o m m o n cold,
w h e r e w e c o u l d invent the statistics. This is an example w h e r e
a g i m m i c k had another purpose as well as comic relief. W e
did a little playlet where w e were interviewed — one of us
a g u m addict, the other a reformed addict, and all the pro
and con cliches translated perfectly: " H a d an uncle lived to
96 — c h e w e d g u m all his life — of course he never swallowed
the j u i c e " and " I d o n ' t believe the animal experiments —
h o w d o they get the mice to chew the gum?'" or " Y o u can
see t h e m on the way to school — c h e w i n g away like mad
— disgusting — the girls are as bad as the boys." W e t h o u g h t
this was a real tour de force, and w e did manage to w o r k
in some physics.
(At this p o i n t showed videotape of first few minutes of
"Conservation Laws" in order to illustrate t w o or three points.)
I have spent some time indicating the kind of things w e did
because I t h o u g h t it important for you to have some idea
of the " f l a v o r " of our efforts before I tried to address any
questions like " W h o watched?," " W h o benefited?," "Was it
worthwhile?," "Whas it educational?"
Most of o u r programs were on the national network, so a
lot of people watched. Even if the fraction of viewers was
small, w e had an o p p o r t u n i t y in every program to talk to
several h u n d r e d thousand people, more than we w o u l d reach
in a w h o l e lifetime of classroom teaching, so if n o t h i n g else
it means w e had to give it " o u r best shot," as ecdysiasts and
others might say. A l t h o u g h we didn't consciously think about
it, I guess our priorities w e n t like this (Fig. 5): O u r first
responsibility was to our subject, physics, and to the scientific
c o m m u n i t y . None of our colleagues ever criticized us for
getting o u r facts wrong, or even for misrepresenting the
— Accuracy?
— Respectability?
— Acceptability?
— Responsibility?
Fig. 5. Priorities.
subject by over-simplifying, and we were very p r o u d of that.
M i n d you one colleague did disagree on an historical date
— by one year.
O u r second responsibility was to the University; w e advertised
ourselves as Professors at the University of Toronto, and felt
an obligation not to d o anything that w o u l d discredit the
institution. Certainly w e did not want to accentuate the
oddball professor image, even t h o u g h w e did not take
ourselves totally seriously. W h i l e our attempts at h u m o r may
sometimes have been a little corny, they were never malicious
— the only people we laughed at were ourselves. A n d w e
tried very hard not to let the h u m o r interfere w i t h our story
line — one viewer called us didactic, and I took that as a
c o m p l i m e n t as soon as I f o u n d out what it meant.
O u r t h i r d responsibility was to the viewers — the public.
Anyone w i l l i n g to watch a half-hour o n physics deserved the
best w e c o u l d do. W e w o r k e d very hard to present physics,
warts and all, as accurately, as coherently, and as interestingly
as w e possibly could. W e were amazed by the enormous
variety of people w h o watched — a complete spectrum of
ages from 8 to 80, of educational backgrounds, and of
vocations. Because of this, even t h o u g h each program had
a strong story line w e adopted a buckshot approach, operating
at a variety of levels, so that viewers w i t h different backgrounds
were given different things to think about. W e tried to include
something for everybody — the professional scientist, the
humanities graduate, or the interested layman, because we
discovered that this worked. About the only criticisms w e
had came from professional educators, w h o t o l d us they were
not sure what level we were aiming at. W e were very pleased.
O u r f o u r t h and last responsibility was to the CBC, the
organization e m p l o y i n g us. W h i l e we were delighted to be
d o i n g the shows, and to be paid for it, w e t e n d e d not to
accept the conventional wisdom of broadcasters. W e were
told, for example, that the average viewer was capable of
assimilating only X bits of information in a half-hour, w h e r e
X was 1 or some other small integer. W e consistently ignored
this dictum, packing in as m u c h information as we t h o u g h t
was palatable, believing that each viewer might take somet h i n g different f r o m the program, d e p e n d i n g on his or her
background, as I said. Another area where w e differed f r o m
our media peers had to d o w i t h the use of material p r o d u c e d
by others. They were always showing us bits of film that they
t h o u g h t w o u l d be just right for us to use. W e never used
any. This was of course pure arrogance on our part — w e
always t h o u g h t w e could say things better. At least I'm
consistent — I never used films in my classroom either, not
even PSSC films, not even our PSSC films, although I confess
I did once show Frames of Reference d u b b e d in Italian
because I wanted to prove that Pat H u m e lip-synched better
in Italian than in English.
I suppose our relationship w i t h the CBC was a little odd,
because we t h o u g h t we were in charge — and w e were. W e
totally created the shows — w r o t e the scripts, provided the
e q u i p m e n t (borrowed from the University, w i t h our o w n
technician to handle it), w o r k e d w i t h the graphic artist to
p r o d u c e any diagrams or photographs w e needed, and so
on. W e may have been somewhat frustrating for our producers, because naturally a producer wants to produce. W e
were fortunate in that we kept being involved w i t h new ones,
w h o at least at first were prepared to accept that w e were
the experts. Our gradual separation f r o m the CBC took place
because of many factors, mainly related to the evolution of
television. The time came that they wanted us to do things
we were not prepared to do, because they were not consistent
w i t h our underlying philosophy. I hope this philosophy,
nebulous as it is, has been revealed in what I have said so
far today. W e never really sat d o w n and said "This is what
we believe, and this is what w e are trying to achieve," but
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 105
w e d i d have a few prejudices, as you have seen. W e were
not stressing the utility of science, the "better things for better
living" approach, although, w h e n appropriate w e w o u l d
m e n t i o n applications. W e assiduously avoided the "scientific
p r i e s t h o o d " approach, suggesting that if scientists ran the
w o r l d everything w o u l d be better, if not perfect. W e talked
about atomic energy but not about atomic bombs, not
because bombs d o n ' t exist but because w e felt they already
had their fair share of publicity. O u r main aim was t o improve
public scientific literacy, whatever that means.
Back t o the questions. W h o benefited? Certainly at least t w o
people did. W e did. W e learned a great deal about our subject,
about each other, and about the public. W e had great fun
d o i n g the programs, and what's more w e t h o u g h t w e were
d o i n g a lot t o improve scientific literacy. In retrospect, I
w o n d e r , and I'll c o m e back to this point. It was rather exciting
t o be a TV personality, stopped on the street, asked for
autographs, invited to address all sorts of groups. Like all
professors w e were naturally rather reticent, modest, and
retiring, loath to express o u r opinions o n matters outside
o u r areas of expertise, but of course as an administrator I
had no such hang-ups.
Those of y o u in universities may w o n d e r what the effect of
such an external activity might be on an academic career.
For several years our principal "scholarly activity," apart from
o u r teaching, was the presentation of TV programs, and we
w o n d e r e d what effect this was having on our "career profiles."
W h i l e w e seemed to receive a g o o d deal of favorable publicity
f r o m many other sources, our University was almost totally
silent. As is often the case, w e appeared to be heros everyw h e r e except at home, and w e suspected that w e were
d o o m e d t o be Associate Professors for ever. However, it
t u r n e d out that apparently our efforts were noted and approved by somebody, because w e were p r o m o t e d d u r i n g this
O u r feelings about public reaction were based on some
personal contacts of course, but primarily on the mail — bags
of mail. W e were surprised and gratified by the very large
numbers of viewers w h o w r o t e in about the shows, usually
enthusiastically. I used t o take the best letters h o m e for my
wife to read, just in case she didn't appreciate what a fine
fellow I was. A standard theme of the letters was " I t h o u g h t
I was going t o go to my grave not understanding physics,
but now, thanks t o you, I d o . " This w o u l d have been very
encouraging, except for one thing. W h e n w e w o u l d meet
someone personally, he or she w o u l d say something like " I
saw y o u o n TV, and I t h o u g h t the show was just great." W e
w o u l d say "That's nice, what did you think of the content?"
and the reply w o u l d be " Y o u seemed so relaxed and natural,
just as t h o u g h you were talking to m e " and w e w o u l d persist
"But what did you think of the content?" and get the response
" I really enjoy that kind of educational program," and we
w o u l d try again " W h a t did you think of the content?" Finally
p i n n e d d o w n , perhaps afraid there w o u l d ba a quiz, the viewer
w o u l d say " I d i d n ' t understand a w o r d you said." Since w e
had w o r k e d very hard to make all the words ones that could
be understood, you can appreciate that we f o u n d this a mite
discouraging. Presumably what was meant was that they did
not understand everything that w e said, but that's not the
way it came out.
Unfortunately I think this type of response is typical of the
way the public reacts t o science — they expect not to
understand it. What have w e done to deserve this? W h i l e
there are many answers, let me remind you of one, the
existense of a highly efficient feedback system in our educational process. Young children, w h e n they are in elementary school and at their most impressionable, make their first
contact w i t h science under the guidance of someone w h o
106 Physics in Canada
July 1988
is likely to be a typical member of the public as far as science
is concerned. Let me emphasize at once that this is not a
criticism of elementary school teachers, w h o cannot be
expected to be experts on everything. A l t h o u g h I don't think
it w o u l d be a bad idea if more exposure to science was a
required part of the training of all teachers, I'm not sure this
is the answer. Sometimes I think it w o u l d be better if science
was treated like a foreign language or music, often handled,
at least in Canadian schools, by specialists, while the regular
classroom teachers handle the three Rs (which I just realized
are actually an R, a W, and an A). Regular teachers often
are not expected to deal w i t h French, for example, because
even t h o u g h they could cover basic vocabulary and grammar,
their accents might not be right. Since I believe that the
" a c c e n t " or " f l a v o r " of science is more important than the
"facts" of science I w o u l d be happier if science received the
same special treatment. Then perhaps the feedback cycle
could be broken, and we c o u l d gradually develop a public
that c o u l d be described as scientifically literate. I seem to
be off topic again — I t o l d you I was an expert on everything.
Since I am off topic, I'm going to c o n t i n u e by exposing this
captive audience to some of my naive thoughts about education. What do w e mean by education? Different things
at different stages of development, I suppose. At some stages,
teachers impart facts to students, drill t h e m on these, and
test that they have been assimilated — rote learning. As well,
physics teachers usually expect students to solve problems;
sometimes these are real problems, meaning the students
have to think t o solve them, but sometimes they are "type
problems," meaning the students solve t h e m by rote because
they have seen t h e m before. (Is " t y p e p r o b l e m " an oxymoron?)
Is there any point to rote learning in science? Drill in spelling,
in grammar, in arithmetic probably makes sense because we
all have to speak and write and calculate (although w i t h the
advent of pocket calculators, this may be a vanishing skill).
Drill in geography and history may make sense because w e
all live in the world. But drill in science? Do students really
need to know about the habits of the fruit fly, or the properties
of chlorine, or even the laws of Newton, to live in the world?
It seems to me that the study of science should d o t w o things
— assist the students in learning to think, and lead t h e m
to an understanding of the nature of science — and I'm not
convinced that we d o very well on either of these. O n e reason
is that these goals are rather nebulous, and it is difficult,
perhaps impossible, to measure whether or not w e are
successful. O n e of the tenets of m o d e r n physics is that if
something cannot be measured, or ever expect to be measured, then it has no place in o u r theories. Unfortunately,
there seems to be a similar principle in education. W e feel
obliged to test our students — or the system demands that
w e d o — so w e may not feel comfortable about spending
time on the unexaminable aspects of our subject. I teach
a first year class of about 170 Engineering Science students,
I w o u l d guess that I spend at least half of my time talking
about things that I regard as unexaminable. I can d o this
because I set my o w n exam, but if I was preparing them to
w r i t e some sort of external examination, I d o u b t that I w o u l d
have the courage to "waste" so m u c h time. M y exam is totally
problems, because I am not interested in the rote learning
ability of my students — that has already been exhaustively
tested. Every once in a while for my o w n interest I put on
something in the unexaminable category — for example:
"Physics does not deal w i t h reality." C o m m e n t . The quotation
was from me — that way you get just what you want in a
quotation. There were t w o categories of answers, those that
said the statement was true because physics deals w i t h models
or idealizations of reality, and those that said the statement
was false because physics is based o n measurements in the
real world. Everybody got full marks for the question (two
marks), including one student w h o said that this was a deep
philosophical question w o r t h m u c h more than t w o marks.
The p r o b l e m w i t h asking an o p i n i o n is that whatever is said
has to be considered correct!
Let me get back to o u r programs. W e r e they educational?
Certainly not, if by education w e mean imparting useful skills.
You only really learn something by d o i n g it, and sitting in
front of a TV set makes you an expert — o n sitting. O n the
other hand, we do k n o w a few people w h o have stated that
our programs influenced t h e m to study physics seriously, t o
become physics teachers or other professional scientists —
if w e k n o w some, perhaps there are many. Does that mean
the programs were educational — or just propaganda? What
about the people w h o claimed on the basis of our programs
t o at last understand science? I wish I c o u l d say I believe
them, but I suspect w e p r o d u c e d not understanding, but the
myth of understanding. But does it matter? Certainly to the
extent that w e may have influenced a few, perhaps even quite
a few, t o dig deeper, to really learn about science, I am happy,
and I d o n ' t care if it's called education or not. W e always
argued that w e were d o i n g education under the guide of
entertainment; one of my problems w i t h the CBC was that
I felt they sometimes wanted to d o entertainment under the
guise of education, and this difference in attitude is important.
A b o u t now you may well be w o n d e r i n g h o w I have the
temerity to spend all this time telling you about what w e
d i d 30 years ago. O n e reason is that I felt I should talk about
something I know about, and that limits me terribly. W h a t
is more, w h i l e the pace of change in technology is enormous,
the pace of change in human institutions like education is
notoriously slow, and I hope that some of the lessons w e
learned in the dark ages of TV still have some relevance.
Some of these have been obvious in what I have said, others
are subliminal.
If I try t o pull this p o t p o u r r i of random thoughts together,
perhaps what I am trying to say is this. Programs of the kind
w e d i d help t o provide something that the regular school
system often does not — the unexaminable part, the part
that many teachers may not f i n d the time for. So of course
I believe that everyone should be exposed to this kind of
experience, as part of the educational process. But can w e
arrange this? W e were very fortunate to be allowed to d o
what w e d i d o n national television, and I d o u b t that it c o u l d
happen today. This is an age of experts, and the media experts
have taken over — the ones w h o I think underestimate public
intelligence, w h o think the public attention span 3 min, max.
All public affairs programs t e n d to be in a magazine format,
w i t h a snippet of this, and a tad of that, and it is most unusual
t o f i n d a w h o l e half-hour devoted to developing a theme.
There are t w o problems about my suggestion that everyone
should be exposed to this kind of knowledge — integrating
experience — one is that such programs are unlikely to be
shown at all and that second is, even if they are, w i t h so
many other commercial programs to choose from now, w i l l
anyone watch? In o u r free society, are we likely to f i n d people
o p t i n g for things w e think are good for them? Mostly the
answer is emphatically NO. There are of course many examples of successful c o n t i n u i n g education projects, but the
goals of these are usually specific — they are designed to
assist people in i m p r o v i n g their performance and enhancing
their career opportunities. There are projects like The Mechanical Universe series, w h i c h are broadly educational, but
my fear is that those w h o are most likely to watch are those
w h o need to least. H o w do w e get at the silent majority?
I am pessimistic about the possibilities of markedly increasing
public scientific literacy t h r o u g h the m e d i u m of optional TV.
This leads me to argue that w e must try to do better t h r o u g h
the educational system, where w e d o have all the people
as a more or less captive audience. This is precisely the
business that AAPT is in — improving physics education. You
mostly agree that there is r o o m for improvement, and are
w o r k i n g hard on a variety of fronts to achieve this. W i t h
m o d e r n technology there is n o w the possibility of using easily
the kind of material I have been talking about in the classroom
— on tape, disk, or film. Many teachers expressed a desire
to use our programs as films for their classes, but the CBC
w o u l d not allow this — they were not in the film business,
and of course the quality of kinescopes was not something
to be p r o u d of. But now the situation is totally different.
Various agencies are p r o d u c i n g material for use in classes.
In Ontario our public system TV Ontario provides material
in a variety of ways — some of it very good, and some not
so good. I confess to being horrified by some of the material
prepared for physics education — not by the technical quality,
w h i c h was superb, but the scientific quality. It was not that
the facts were wrong, but that the accent was wrong. So one
plea I make is that all of us must not allow to go unchallenged
material w i t h the w r o n g accent, the w r o n g flavor.
If I was a teacher in a school, w o u l d I use material that might
help enhance the scientific understanding of my students,
but w o u l d not necessarily assist them in passing the tests
or examinations set by me or someone else? That is a very
difficult question, one that I refuse to answer on the grounds
that my time is nearly up, and I want to c o n c l u d e by showing
you another segment.
A n d finally, if you are unhappy about my presentation here
today, d o n ' t blame me — blame them. I t o l d you the Awards
C o m m i t t e e made a mistake.
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 107
Without a Past does Canada have a Future in Physics?
/. William McCowan
Past Director
National Museum of Science and Technology
The f o l l o w i n g article is based u p o n addresses given at the
University of Toronto, Carleton University, Ottawa, and the
meeting of the Division of Atomic and Molecular Physics,
CAP, Fredericton, N.B. Ed.
It is my thesis, borne out of my experience as the Director
of the National M u s e u m of Science and Technology, that
Canadians have little knowledge of, nor pride in, the technological accomplishments that have o c c u r e d in our country
t h r o u g h the hard w o r k and dedication of Canadian scientists.
Extrapolating f r o m this thesis, Canadians are not aware of
the significant contributions physicists have made to the
advancement of technology in Canada.
There are few countries in the w o r l d that d e p e n d more
critically u p o n technology and its supporting sciences than
does Canada. The vastness of the land alone demands a
superior telecommunications system. Yet, there is no country
to my knowledge w h i c h downplays its scientific accomplishments and role in the development of technology more
completely than w e d o — h o w Canadian!
Ask any Canadian about our hockey heroes, capitals of our
provinces or the states of the United States, or movie personalities — more likely than not they will be able to list
most of them. But, ask about our Nobel Prize winners, of
w h i c h Canada has t w o still living, Gerhard Herzberg and John
Polanyi, both chemical physicists; about our involvement in
the development of communications satellites t h r o u g h the
visionary w o r k of Dr. John H. Chapman, w h o is n o w recognized as the father of the Canadian space program; about
Reginald Aubrey Fessenden, a Canadian w h o was the inventor
of radio and was the first to broadcast voice, but w h o f o u n d
no support then, or recognition now, for his w o r k so that
credit is given t o Marconi; and about physicist Hugh Lecaine,
father of m u c h of our m o d e r n day electronic music and w h o ,
w i t h Paul Redhead of the National Research Council, built
the first M i c r o t r o n Electron Accelerator, and I can assure you
that the response t o questions of this nature will be poor.
Few people k n o w of the accomplishments of these outstanding Canadians. These people are part of a rich heritage which,
if recognized by Canadians, w o u l d clearly identify for them
the leadership many of our forefathers provided in some areas
of science and technology not only w i t h i n our country but
around the w o r l d .
O n l y a handful of Canadians ever knew, or cared, about
TRIUMF, or TASCC, or the Canada-France-Hawaii infrared
telescope, or the potential of INC, or the Canadian long baseline array, or the Canadian Synchrotron Radiation Facility in
Madison, Wisconsin, or of the proposed Canadian Microelectronics Corporation Laboratory.
In addition, very few Canadians knows about the early developments of oil in this country, our role in the developments
of nuclear spectroscopy, the role Canadian physicists have
played in developing nuclear medicine and are playing today
in the development of medical scanners. Furthermore, the
d e v e l o p m e n t of nuclear power, the Canadian a u t o m o b i l e
industry, and the development of the hydrofoil remain a
mystery t o many Canadians.
W e can also add to this list Frank's flight suit, high
lasers, the High Altitude Research Project (HARP)
often referred t o as the "Bull Shoot" after Dr. Jerry
his program at M c G i l l University, and the early
108 Physics in Canada
July 1988
w h i c h is
Bull and
days in
biotechnology. You will find that Canadians are virtually out
of t o u c h w i t h these things many of w h i c h affect their daily
What are the factors that have c o n t r i b u t e d t o this lack of
awareness, and for that matter, lack of respect for the major
accomplishments w h i c h our Canadian physicists have pioneered? Some time ago I took h o m e f r o m our research library
at the National Museum of Science and Technology, 15 years
of Physics in Canada, five years of Physics Today and all the
books the librarian could find that covered Canada's past
in physics.
I was not really surprised w i t h what I found. There were only
a few books on the history of the National Research Council,
something o n Rutherford at McGill, and very little o n the
development of nuclear power from Rutherford t h r o u g h to
the Candu Reactor, w h i c h I maintain is the world's finest
reactor system.
There were also some references to low temperature physics
at Toronto, and the commemorative volume for Herzberg,
but I f o u n d little on our great accomplishments in medical
physics or atmospheric physics. I was aslo extremely disappointed by the lack of material w h i c h appeared in Physics
in Canada and the near total lack of reference to Canadian
physicists and their accomplishments in Physics Today.
Turning up inadequate information in the literature, I began
to w o n d e r where I had learned of Canadian accomplishments.
Though I have never thought of it before, it occurred to me
that most of what I know I have learned f r o m colleagues
abroad, people w h o were NRC fellows, and Canadians w h o m
I have w o r k e d w i t h at Westinghouse in Pittsburgh, General
A t o m i c in San Diego, friends and Colleagues in Stanford,
Wisconsin and Hamburg, Germany where w e carried out our
synchrotron radiation experiments and others I have w o r k e d
w i t h in places as far away as Namur and Louvain in Belgium,
Madras and New Delhi in India and Bariloche in Argentina.
Stories of good Canadian science and excellent scientists
a b o u n d abroad but are too seldom referred to at home.
The way in w h i c h w e present Canada to the rest of the w o r l d
also has an impact on the way Canadians see themselves.
For example, I visited the Canadian pavilion at Expo '85 in
Tsukuba, Japan. It was beautiful to behold, but w e presented
Canada in low tech films — not in a Canadian made Imax
of O m n i m a x theatre — as a vast land w i t h prairies and oceans,
and as a land of beautiful mountains w i t h Indians and Eskimos.
The Japanese, in contrast, emphasized everywhere the importance of fundamental science as a necessary ingredient
of their rapid technological growth.
Unfortunately, I f o u n d the situation at our Expo '86 only a
little better. A l t h o u g h w e did an excelllent j o b of entertaining
22 million people in Vancouver, I found, as a scientist and
a person c o m m i t t e d to publicizing of the good scientific
research in Canada and how it has led to excellent technological development — that w e again undersold ourselves.
W e missed our greatest o p p o r t u n i t y to bring the best of
Canadian science and technology to a large segment of society
and to many others abroad. No w o n d e r the ministers of
government find it difficult to maintain meaningful science
policy in Canada.
The lack of support from the government has, historically,
plagued the public awareness of science and technology in
Canada. The few dollars MOSST has set aside to bring
1.1 Executive and Council
1.2 Division Executives
1.3 Committees and Representatives to other Organizations
2.1 Division of Aeronomy and Space Physics
2.2 Division of Atomic and Molecular Physics
2.3 Canadian Geophysical Union
2.4 Division of Condensed Matter Physics
2.5 Division de physique medicale et biologique
2.6 Division of nuclear Physics
2.7 Division de physique optique
2.8 Division of Particle Physics
2.9 Division of Physics Education
2.10 Division de physique des plasmas
2.11 Division of Theoretical Physics
2.12 Division of Industrial and Applied Physics
2.13 Division of Surface Science
3.1 Categories of Membership in CAP
3.2 Membership Campaign
3.3 Current Membership
4.1 Corporate Members' Meeting
4.2 Current Corporate Membership
5.1 Educational Trust Fund
5.2 The CAP Lecture tours
5.3 CAP University Prize Examination
5.4 The Undergraduate Physics Conference
5.5 Youth Science Foundation and
Canada-Wide Science Fair
5.6 CAP Secondary School Physics Prize Examination
5.7 Table
6.1 Annual Congress
7.1 Canadian Journal of Physics
7.2 PhysiC3 in Canada
7.3 Journal Subscriptions
8.1 Science Policy Committee
8.2 Phy3ic3 and Society
8.3 Honorary Advisory Council of Past Presidents
8.4 Employment Opportunities Committee
8.5 Committee of University Physics Department
Heads and Chairmen
8.6 The Directory of Canadian Physicists
8.7 Committee on Professionalism
8.8 Committee to Encourage Women in Physics
8.9 Committee on Undergraduate Student Affairs
8.10 Radiation Regulations Committee
8.11 Sub-Committee of the Executive on Finance
10.1 CNC/International Union of Crystallography
10.2 Technical Advisory Committee to AECL
on the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program
All departments of our Association have had good programs this year, and their work demonstrates the scope
of our activities. Divisional reports are given elsewhere. The Fall topical meetings have continued to be attractive
and, for example, the DCMP meeting on high temperature superconductors was an exciting, well attended
meeting and will be repeated next year. Our Committees have continued to work on many technical issues.
The Education Division, for example, has a joint committee with the AAPT and STAO in Ontario working on
matters connected with the physics teaching and liaison with teachers. The Council has discussed the
reinstatement of local sections which would encourage members from all parts of physics to meet together.
The Science Policy Committee has finalised its initial agenda and its report "Physics in Canada: A Brief Survey
and Outlook" was published in the March issue of Physics in Canada. It is our first piece of publicity work.
The Corporate Members held a successful meeting on "Centres of Excellence" in April which was attended
by 90 people from Government, Industry and Universities. A Directory of Employers of Physicists is nearing
completion. DIAP held a successful meeting on "Sensors Technology" in May, attended by 65 people from
Industry, Universities and Government Laboratories. Both these meetings have had an excellent impact on
the scientific community. Our annual congresses in 1987 and 1988 have been marked by high attendance
figures and the high quality of the presentations. Overall our Association is showing both vigour and maturity,
and is serving the Physics Community well.
In spite of the excellent work being done and the numerous activities of our Association, the membership
is steadily falling year by year. In 1978 the membership peaked at 1941 and has fallen each year, until in this
report a figure of 1587 is given.
The number of members recruited each year has been somewhat less than those who do not renew their
membership. Along with this fall in numbers, there has been a fall in revenue and we are begining to run
deficits on each year's operations. Because of the healthy condition of our reserves this does not create an
immediate problem, but the situation must be changed as quickly as possible. The Council has decided to
run a new membership campaign in which all members will be asked to participate. Each member will receive
a package of material explaining how he/she can help and providing suggestions and publicity materials. Members
will be asked to work with their friends to turn this problem around. Council is also planning another membership
drive to increase the number of corporate members, and we hope that these two steps will produce results
during the next year or so.
It has been a pleasure to work with our Executive and Council during the past year and I wish to thank them
for their cooperation and devoted efforts. The central office staff are devoted to our association and I thank
them for their cooperation also, which makes the work of our association so straightforward.
I have enjoyed working with them, and we all owe them our gratitude.
P.A. Egelstaff
CAP Council and Division Executives 1987-88
1.1 1987-88 Council
President, P.A. Egelstaff", University of Cuelph
Past President, J.S.C. McKee*, University of Manitoba
Vice-President, L.C. Caron*, Université de Sherbrooke
Vice-President Elect, A.A. Offenberger*, Univesity of Alberta
Honorary Secretary-Treasurer, R.L. Clarke*, Carleton University
Director — Full Members, ). Vanier, Conseil National de Recherches
Director — Affiliate Members, T.W. East, Self Employed
Director — Student Members, T. Haglund, University of Calgary
Director — Corporate Members, J.W.Y. Lit,Wilfrid Laurier University
Division Chairmen
Aeronomy & Space Physics, J.C. Samson, University of Alberta
Atomic & Molecular Physics, E.H. Pinnington, University of Alberta
Canadian Geographical Union, P. Vanicek, University of New
Condensed Matter Physics, J. Franck, University of Alberta
Medical and Biological Physics, R.L. Carrier, Hôpital Notre Dame
Nuclear Physics, P. Taras, Université de Montréal
Optical Physics, P.A. Belanger, Université Laval
Particle Physics, H.C. Lee, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories
Physics Education, I.K. Dean, George Brown College
Plasma Physics, B. Stansfield, Université du Québec
Theoretical Physics, C. Leibbrandt, University of Cuelph
Industrial and Applied Physics, C.H. Mackenzie, TRIUMF
Surface Science, D.C. Frost, University of British Columbia
British Columbia
C. Jones, (1) University of British Columbia
D. Boal, (2) Simon Fraser University
D. Venkatesan, (1) University of Calgary
W.C. Olsen, (2) University of Alberta
Saskatchewan and Manitoba
G. Kunstatter, (1) University of Winnipeg
G.J. Lolos, (2) University of Regina
Ontario — Southwest
J.A. Kuehner, (1) McMaster University
G.W.F. Drake, (2) University of Windsor
Ontario — Central and North
E.D. Hallman, (1) Laurentian University
D.C. Bailey, (2) University of Toronto
Ontario — East
P. Bernard, (1) Université d'Ottawa
B.K. Mukherjee, (2) Royal Military College, Kingston
Québec — Nort et Ouest
D.S. Hanna, (1) McCill University
A. Yelon, (2) École Polytechnique
Québec — Sud et Est
L. Lamarre, (1) Hydro Québec — IREQ
M. Piché, (2) Université Laval
New Brunswick & Newfoundland
F. Girouard, (1) Université de Moncton
D.H. Rendell, (2) Memorial University
Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island
C. MacLatchy, (1) Acadia University
G. Stroink, (2) Dalhousie University
At Large
P. Kirkby, (1) Ontario Hydro
H. Buijs, (2) Bomem Inc.
Editor — Canadian Journal of Physics:
R. Nicholls, York University
Editor — Physics in Canada/La Physique au Canada:
J. Rolfe, Bank of Canada, Ottawa
Executive Secretary — Secretaire Exécutif:
M.L. Jento
•Member of Executive Committee
(1) Term ends June 1988 (2) Term ends June 1989
1.2 Division Executives
1. Division of Aeronomy & Space Physics
J.C. Samson, Chairman, University of Alberta
R.P. Lowe, Past-Chairman, University of Western Ontario
H.G. James, Vice-Chairman, Communications Research Centre
R.A. Koehler, Secretary-Treasurer, York University
2. Division of Atomic & Molecular Physics
E.H. Pinnington, Chairman, University of Alberta
R.M. Lees, Past-Chairman, University of New Brunswick
F.W. Dalby, Vice-Chairman, University of British Columbia
Y.N. Joshi, Secretary-Treasurer, St. Francis Xavier University
3. Canadian Geophysical Union
P. Vanicek, President, University of New Brunswick
D.J. Dunlop, Past-President, University of Toronto
D.E. Smylie, Vice-President, York University
P.A. Camfield, Secretary-Treasurer, Geological Survey of Canada
R.M. Farquhar, Newsletter Ed., University of Toronto
4. Division of Condensed Matter Physics
J. Franck, Chairman, University of Alberta
A.H. MacDonald, Past-Chairman, Indiana University
G. Williams, Vice-Chairman, University of Manitoba
B. Southern, Secretary-Treasurer, University of Manitoba
5. Division of Medical and Biological Physics
R.L. Carrier, Chairman, Hôpital Notre Dame
).J. Battista, Past-Chairman, Cross Cancer Institute
R.M. Henkelman, Vice-Chairman, Ontario Cancer Institute
S. Connors, Secretary-Treasurer, Cross Cancer Institute
W. Huda, Councillor
6. Division of Nuclear Physics
P. Taras, Chairman,Université de Montréal
W.P. Alford, Past-Chairman, University of Western Ontario
E. Mathie, Vice-Chairman, University of Regina
7. Division of Optical Physics
P.A. Belanger, Chairman, Université Laval
K.O. Hill, Past-Chairman, Communications Research Centre
J.W.Y. Lit, Vice-Chairman, Wilfrid Laurier University
R.A. Lessard, Secretary-Treasurer, Université Laval
8. Division of Particle Physics
H.C. Lee, Chairman, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories
R.J. Hemingway, Past-Chairman, Carleton University
R. Orr, Vice-Chairman, University of Toronto
J. Trischuk, Secretary-Treasurer, McGill University
9. Division of Physics Education
I.K. Dean, Chairman, George Brown College
G. Faucher, Past-Chairman, École Polytechnique
B. Mukherjee, Vice-Chairman, Royal Military College
A. Biffi, Secretary-Treasurer, College Militaire Royal de SaintJean
F. Girouard, Councillor, Université de Moncton
P. Kirkby, Councillor, Ontario Hydro
10. Division of Plasma Physics
B. Stansfield, Chairman, Université du Québec
J. Meyer, Past-Chairman, University of British Columbia
A. Ng, University of British Columbia
C. Boucher, Université du Québec
11. Division of Theoretical Physics
G. Leibbrandt, Chairman, University of Cuelph
R. Taylor, Past-Chairman, National Reserch Council
D. Pink, Vice-Chairman, St. Francis Xavier University
W.J. Romo, Secretary-Treasurer, Carleton University
12. Division of Industrial and Applied Physics
G.H. Mackenzie, Chairman, TRIUMF
J. Judah, Past-Chairman, Ontario Hydro
B. Paton, Vice-Chairman, Dalhousie University
J.F. Bussière, Secretary-Treasurer, NRC, Boucherville, P.Q.
13. Division of Surface Science (Joint with C.I.C.)
D.C. Frost, Chairman, University of British Columbia
D.R. Salahub, Past-Chairman, Université de Montréal
R. Tapping, Vice-Chairman, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories
T.E. Jackman, Secretary-Treasurer, National Research Council
1. Science Policy
J.S.C. McKee (c)
L.C. Caron
A.I. Carswell
2. Editorial Board
J. Rolfe, Editor
M.L. Jento
J.P. Svenne
3. Publications
R.W. Nicholls (c)
D.D. Betts
W.R. Datars
C. Delisle
PA. Forsyth
R.R. Haering
4. Membership
R.L. Clarke (c)
M.L. jento
C. Dolling
P.A. Egelstaff
Physics in Canada
J.G. Cook
G. Dolling
B. Joos
G. Herzberg
G.W.F. Drake
W. Israel
B.K. Jennings
B.P. Stoicheff
T.W. Johnston
B. Margolis
P. Kitching
P. Kirkby
).A. Nilson
J .A. Nilson
R.H. Packwood
R. Roy
A.V. Jones
B. Joos
J.A. Coxon
P. Marmet
W.P. Alford
P.R. Wallace
G. Rostoker
J. Vanier
A. Okazaki
H.E. Duckworth
E.R. Pounder
G.M. Volkoff
G.G. Cloutier
A.T. Stewart
A.H. Morrish
G.C. Hanna
A.I. Carswell
14. Teller Committee
Members to be appointed by the Executive when required
15. Committee of University Physics Department Heads
J.E. Hardy
D. Murty
M.B. Walker (c)
R. Harris-Love
S.I.H. Naqvi
M.R. Anderson
D. Hunter
E. Auld
C.A. Plint
J.C. Irwin
R.C. Barber
J. Reed
S. jandl
R. Bishop
D.H. Rendell
K. Jeffrey
J.A. Blackburn
G. Rose
C. Bland
C. Kalman
G. Rubin
I. Cameron
W.J. Keeler
M. Schlesinger
G.L. Cumming
D. Kraul
A. Schultz
C. Demers
R.M. Lees
A. Slavin
J.R. Derome
H.M. Love
R. Slobodrian
M.G. Faucher
M. Madan
R.C. Smith
A. Filion
B. Marinier
M. Suquet
D.J.W. Geldart
S.K. Mark
P.G. Sutherland
F. Girouard
J.H. Matthews
E. Tomchuk
R.A. Giles
W.J. Megaw
B.C. Rurrell
J. Grindlay
R. Montalbetti
J.T. Weaver
16. Employment Opportunities
5. Awards
M.P. Bachynski (c)
W. Israel
6. Annual Congress
L.G. Caron (c)
J.G. Samson
E.H. Pinnington
P. Vanicek
J. Franck
M.R. Carrier
R.R. Haering
P.A. Egelstaff
- Program
P. Taras
P.A. Belanger
H.C. Lee
I.K. Dean
B. Stansfield
C.C. Costain
G. Liebbrandt
G.H. Mackenzie
D.C. Frost
G. Beaudet
M.L. Jento
7. Annual Congress — Local Committee
G. Beaudet (c)
M.L. Jento
with power to add
M. Bergevin
with power to add
9. Nominating
J.S.C. McKee (c)
P.A. Egelstaff
A.A. Offenberger
with power to add
10. Membership Campaign
A.A. Offenberger (c) G.W.F. Drake
G. Jones
D.G. Hallman
D. Boal
D.C. Bailey
D. Venkatesan
P. Bernard
B.K. Mukherjee
W.C. Olsen
D.S. Hanna
G. Kunstater
A. Yelon
G.J. Lolos
J.A. Kuehner
L. Lamarre
11. Corporate Members
G.H. MacKenzie
B. Paton
J. Lit (c)
J. Judah
with power to add
17. Directory of Canadian Physicists
D.S. Hanna
M.L. Jento
W.J.L. Buyers
with power to add
18. Professionalism
P. Kirkby (c)
B. Ahlborn
K.E. Breitman
F.J. Morgan
I. Vanier
M.J. Bronskill
C.S. MacLatchy
19. To Encourage Women in Physics
A. McMillan (c)
M.L. Jento
I. Buckiewicz
W.J. Megaw
M.A. Jenkins
8. Secondary School Physics Examination
V.S. Rao (c)
L.G. Caron (c)
M.L. Jento
R. Petrovich
J.D. Prentice
20. Undergraduate Affairs
E.D. Hallman (c)
T. Haglund
L.G. Caron
with power to add
21. Radiation Regulations
G.W. Douglas (c)
W. Huda
J. Robins
C.W. Webber
M. Piché
F. Girouard
D.H. Rendell
C. MacLatchy
G. Stroink
P Kirkby
H. Buijs
J. Vanier
J.F. Bussière
12. Physics and Society
T.W. Johnston (c)
with power to add
13. Honorary Advisory Council of Past Presidents
R.J.A. Levesque
L. Katz
J.S. McKee (c)
H.E. Johns
P. Lorrain
D.C. Rose
R.R. Haering
R.E. Bell
J.S. Marshall
P.A. Forsyth
J.M. Robson
A.D. Misener
C.C. Costain
H.E. Petch
G.C. Laurence
P. Marmet
M.P. Bachynski
J.L. Kerwin
D.D. Betts
A.R. Crawford
B.W. Sargent
E.W. Vogt
G. Herzberg
B.P. Stoicheff
Ad Hoc Committee
Finance Sub Committee of the Executive
R.L. Clark (c)
).E. Hardy
M.L. Jento
power to add one
Official CAP Delegates to other Organizations
1. Canadian Committee for IUPAP
A. Caillé
M. Jericho
H.M. Skarsgard
2. Youth Science Foundation
M.A.R. LeBlanc
3. International Organization for Medical Physics
R.L. Clarke
M. Cohen
4. Canadian Commission for UNESCO
B.K. Mukherjee
5. CNC/lnternational Union of Crystallography
B. Powell
6. Technical Advisory Committee to A.E.C.L. on Nuclear Fuel Waste
M.H.L. Pryce
C.W. Volkoff
Educational Trust Fund Trustees
D. Betts
G.C. Hanna
W.A. Pieczonka
of the
are an important part of the affairs of the
The reports from our thirteen Divisions
are summarized
The officers of
the Divisions are listed in Section 1.2. The membership figures are given in the Annual Report
Division of Aeronomy and Space Physics
This year has been a period of waiting for many members of DASP. We still wait for the final
word on a Space Agency for Canada, and look with
interest to the participation of Canadian
scientists in programs for the Space Shuttle and the Space
Station to be constructed
by the
United States.
The Standing
Committee on Research, Science and Technology, which was given a mandate to study
Canada's science and technology policy, with special reference to the
Space program, submitted
it's third
report "Canada's
Space Program:
A Voyage to the Future" in June, 1987. The DASP
Community contributed to a brief entitled "The Canadian Space Program" which was
submitted to
the standing
committee on April 30, 1987. This brief seems to have had some tangible effects
on the committee as many of their recommendations were in line with material in that brief.
Some of the more
important recommendations
(for the
scientific community) are based on the
observation "that a substantial increase in funding for space science is needed if Canada is to
be able to participate
effectively in international space projects of the future".
In the
committee's report, the DASP brief was quoted directly in order to emphasize the relevance of
these observations.
The award
for the best student paper in the DASP session of the CAP Congress in Toronto (1987)
was won by Mr. E. R. Donovan from the Department of Physics, University of Western Ontario.
award will be given this year because of the limited number of papers submitted to the DASP
session of the Congress.
While the DASP component of the CAP Congress in Toronto was well attended,
the situation does
not look as bright
for the Montréal Congress.
Only four contributed papers are scheduled for
the DASP session.
This limited
number of presentations gives
some reason
for concern, and
that the DASP community must
look at methods to generate interest in its own
scientific meetings.
No DASP winter workshop was scheduled this year.
Division of Atomic and Molecular Physics
Following the custom of recent years, the Divisional activities during
1987-88 centred
on the
C.A.P, Congress
and the Annual Fall Meeting.
The Division organized four sessions at the 1987
C.A.P. Congress in Toronto, beginning with the D.A.M.P. Symposium on the Monday morning, which
featured excellent talks by
S.R. Lundeen, H.G. Berry, P.R. Bunker and J. Reid/K. Siemsen on a
variety of topics in atomic and molecular
It was perhaps unfortunate
that the
beginning of this Symposium coincided with the Toronto morning rush-hour, with the consequence
that many members missed some of the first-class presentation by
S.R. Lundeen.
It is hoped
that such occurrences can be avoided
in the future.
In addition to the Symposium of invited
talks, three sessions of contributed papers were held, two for poster papers
(16 papers in
total) and one for oral presentations
(5 papers).
The Annual General Meeting was also held
during the Congress, at which the 1987-88 Executive was elected, consisting of Eric Pinnington
of the University of Alberta as chairman and Bill Dalby of the University of British Columbia
as Vice-chairman, with Yogi Joshi of St. Francis Xavier University
his term as
Secretary/Treasurer and Ron Lees of the University of New Brunswick becoming Past-Chairman.
The 1987 Annual Fall Meeting was held at the University of New Brunswick during October 23-24,
with about 50 members in attendance.
The Meeting was a great success.
It began with a talk by
our own Nobel Laureate,
Dr. Gerhard
Herzberg, followed
by nine other invited talks by T.F.
Gallagher, P. Lambropoulos, R.D. Verma, R.M.
Field, F. Grein, E. Herbst, K.K.
Innés, J.W.C.
Johns and H. Kiefte.
There was also an excellent poster session containing 29 contributions.
Other memorable events included
a generous
portion of
"vintage" Bill McGowan as the afterdinner speaker and a demonstration of western initiative
by Bill Dalby, who dealt with the
problem of a locked door in truly
staging of
such an
It was decided at the Business Meeting to
increase the annual fee to $10 to permit a greater level of
support for such meetings
in the
for the
1988 C.A.P.
in Montréal was complicated
by the
announcement by the C.A.P.
Office that is was to be a joint meeting with the A.P.S. and would
involve participation
by D.A.M.O.P.
Dr. David Golden of North Texas State University has
generously organized a Symposium entitled "Electron-Ion and Electron-Atom
Interactions", which
will feature
invited talks
by G.H.
Dunn, P.F. Dittner, R.A. Phaneuf and J.W. McConkey.
regular D.A.M.P. Symposium on Atomic and Molecular Physics will consist of invited
talks by A.
Van Wijngaarden,
A. Dalgarno,
B.P. Stoicheff
and R.M. Lees.
In addition, there will be one
session of contributed oral papers and one of contributed posters.
Looking to the future, the 1988 Annual Fall Meeting will be held at N.R.C., Ottawa, on November
4-5, while the long-awaited
Joint Meeting with the A.P.S. Division of Atomic, Molecular and
Optical PhysiC3 will be held at the University
of Windsor
on May
17-19, 1989.
Since that
meeting will
be followed
almost immediately
by the 1989 C.A.P. Congress at the University of
Guelph, it has been decided that the May meeting in Windsor will replace the usual Annual Fall
Meeting for
Certainly 1988-99 promises to be an exceptionally active and interesting
year for the Division.
Canadian Geophysical Union
The CGU, with a current membership
of just over 300, decided not to hold its own scientific
meeting in 1987 in order to encourage Canadian attendance at the XIX General Assembly
of the
Union of Geodesy
and Geophysics.
At the Assembly, in Vancouver in August,
Canadian participation was evident in the
by the constituent
to CGU members:
geodesy, seismology and physics of the Earth's
interior, geomagnetism and agronomy, and that on the lithosphere.
The Union held its annual general meeting and banquet during
the Assembly.
At the latter,
attended by about 50 members, the Union awarded its J. Tuzo Wilson Medal to David W. Strangway,
now president of the University
of British Columbia,
in recognition
of his outstanding
contribution to Canadian geophysics.
In his acceptance, Dr. Strangway sketched the evolution
of Dr. Wilson's thinking about the Earth; he drew attention
the important
attributes (openmindedness,
and ability
to change
one's mind) that
exemplify Dr. Wilson's career.
At the annual general meeting, attended by 25 members, discussion focussed on the relationship
between CGU and its parent organizations,
the Geological Association of Canada (GAC) and the
Canadian Association of Physicists
The members
the negotiations
undertaken by the executive
to establish the Union as an independent society, able to set its
own criteria for membership
but affiliated
closely with
November, the GAC Council for its part approved the dissolution of the GAC division joint with
CAP entitled Canadian Geophysical Union and moved to establish in its place its own Geophysical
Division whose
affairs will
in practice be run by a newly-constituted CGU.
Negotiations have
been started with CAP in search of similar approval from you, our other parent.
The CGU executive is planning a number of
initiatives to enhance the visibility of the new
Union and to place it on a firm footing - a Founding Members program, a membership drive among
Canadian members of the American Geophysical Union, an offer of associate membership
in CGU to
members of the Canadian Meterological and Oceanographic Society, etc.
The term of office
in 1987 and 1989.
of the present CGU executive covers the period between the annual meetings
Division of Condensed Matter Physics
See report p.110 of Physics in Canada, July
Division de physique medicale et biologique
L'année précédente avait été une année préparatoire à la réorganisation de la physique médicale
au Canada.
les discussions
sont poursuivies à l'Exécutif, à l'assemblée
générale des membres, et aussi, aux réunions du Bureau du Collège des Physiciens en Médecine.
De3 opinions variées ont paru dans
le Newsletter
de la Division et des commentaires ont été
sollicités de toutes parts.
Un comité de
10 physiciens médicaux
réuni en avril dernier réunissant
la DMBP et
le Board
du Collège.
Un accord fortement majoritaire est alors
Cet accord vise à la formation d'une organisation unique et autonome de physique
qu'on désignera
COMP pour
"Candian Organisation
of Medical
organisation gérera toutes les affaires de la physique médicale au Canada à l'exception de la
certification qui demeurera l'activité unique du Collège des Physiciens en Médecine (CCPM).
Il est certain que
les physiciens médicaux
adhéreront en tout premier lieu à la COMP et
qu'ainsi la DMBP souffrira
d'un problème
sérieux de membership.
Sans dissoudre
la DMBP le
se donner un mandat
trè3 simple, c'est-à-dire celui d'assurer la
liaison entre COMP et CAP
Au-delà de ces discussions, il y a eu de membreuses activités courantes au niveau
des comités,
notamment :
(1) la préparation d'un questionnaire sur la rémunération, pour répéter un inventaire;
la formation
sur l'enseignement
Radiologie, Radio-oncologie et Médecine nucléaire;
de la physique aux résidents en
(3) les échanges d'idées avec l'Association Canadienne de Radiologie,
l'Association Canadienne
des Radio-oncologues,
l'Association Canadienne
d'ingénieurs biomédicaux, et l'Association
Américaine des Physiciens en Médecine.
Bref, une année très active dont
le bilan
final sera certainement critiqué
néanmoins à la communauté de physique médicale un meilleur avenir.
mais qui assure
Division of Nuclear Physics
No report received.
Division de physique optique
Aucune activité spéciale n'a été tunue cette année.
ont été organisées
applications industrielles de l'optique.
Pour le congrès de Montréal trois sessions
L'exécutif a consacré ses efforts à l'élaboration d'une stratégie de recrutement de nouveaux
A cette fin nous avons dressé
la liste
complète de tous les membres canadiens des
associations scientifiques américaines liées au domaine de l'optique et des lasers soit:
Optical Society of America
Laser Institute of America
(OSA), Lasers and Electro-optics Society (LEOS-IEEE),
(LIA), et International Society of Optical Engineering
De plus cette liste comprend tous les membres du répertiore des physiciens canadiens (CAP) et
du bottin de la recherche (ACFAS) qui ont indiqué que
leurs activités principales étaient du
domaine de l'optique.
Cette liste a été complétée récemment grâce à la collaboration de l'Institut national d'optique
qui a fourni les services de secrétariat.
Nous avons maintenant le nom et l'adresse de prè3 de
800 scientifiques qui oeuvrent au Canada dans le vaste domaine de l'optique et des lasers.
le vice-président élu, M. John Lit, disposera cette année de toutes les information nécessaires
pour poursuivre cette compagne de recrutement.
On espère si le nombre de membres de notre
division devient
100 actuellement) pouvoir tenir des activités dans
certaines régions du pays plus régulièrement.
Division of Particle Physics
As in past years the affairs
of the Particle Physics
Particle Physics have been closely connected.
Division of
CAP and
the Institute of
NSERC continues to give
firm support to the three large
international projects with strong
Canadian contingents:
the OPAL project for the LEP facility at CERN, the ZEUS project for the
HERA facility
at DESY and the SLD project for the SLC facility at SLAC. At the same time, the
medium projects that are being replaced by the big three are producing
rich crops of analyzed
data, including
results on B-meson physics by the ARGUS group (DESY), photon physics by the
Tagged Photon group (Fermilab), p-nucleus collisions by the HELIOS group
(CERN), and harmonium
physics from the E-705 group (Fermilab).
A new and massive
initiative is the proposal to establish the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory
(SNO), which is currently under study by NSERC.
The facility, if built, will have a dramatic
among other things,
on the
"solar neutrino problem". Members interested in the
proposal should contact G. Ewan of Queen's University.
TRIUMF's funding campaign for the KAON
Factory is proceeding well.
Already the proposal Is
strongly backed
by the B.C. government with a pledge of $87 M and has obtained a substantial
monetary commitment from the Federal Republic of Germany.
Belgium, China, Israel and U.K. have
also expressed
in participating
in the project.
Proponents are optimistic in
obtaining this summer $11 M for pre-construction R&D.
Proponents of the Superconducting
(SSC) in the US have
formally requested
support from the Canadian Federal Government, and we understand MOSST is leading an interagency
committee including NSERC, NRC and AECL to draft a position paper by August.
IPP has served
notice to NSERC requesting to be consulted on the matter and is preparing a comprehensive paper
urging to be consulted on the matter and is preparing a comprehensive
paper urging
support of
the initiative for submission to government and other interested parties.
Two meetings/institutes
of Interest
to members
of PPD were held
in Canada.
Summer Theoretical Institute on methods of quantum field theory and on field theories in two
dimensions was
held at the University of Alberta from July 10-24, 1987. The Third Lake Louise
Winter Institute on high and low energy particle physics was held at Lake Louise
from March 712, 1988.
year's Banff
Summer Institute on Particle and Fields is scheduled for August
14—27; it is again organized by A.N. Kamal of the University of Alberta.
See the
report from
the Theoretical
for more
descriptions of these institutes.
Depommier of University of Montréal
is planning
a conference
on Weak
and Electromagnetic
Interaction in Nuclei for May 15-19, 1989.
This year the Canadian
Invitation Committee
for International
Conferences had to select
delegates to only one conference, the
26th International
Conference on High Energy Physics,
The number of applicants wishing to attend was less than the
Canadian quota so all applicants were given invitations.
Even so, invites who now do not
intend to attend the Conference should so inform the organizers.
The PPD is offering a full scientific program at this year's Congress.
With one exception, big
Canadian HEP experiments with new data will be reporting their results.
The exception
is the
harmonium project at
S. Conetti of McGill), whose
results emerged
unexpectedly soon after analysis began. Three invited speaker sessions with a total of eleven
talks, 3ix experimental and five theoretical, have been scheduled.
Once again the Nuclear
Physics and
Particle Physics Divisions have
scheduled a joint session at thi3 year's Congress.
from MOSST and NSERC will
be present to explain policies and answer questions from members.
The PPD heartily congratulates
Erich Vogt, Director of TRIUMF, for being the recipient of the
1988 CAP Medal and Claude Leroy, IPP Research Scientist at McGill and U. Montréal,
for being
the recipient of the 1988 Rutherford Medal.
The PPD Executive thanks members for the generous
support given to it, and invites them to
attend the Annual Meeting at the June Congress to vote in a new team.
Division of Physics Education
The division organized the 1987-88 CAP Lecture Tour (see the report in Section 5.2).
Joint Committee of CAP-0APT-STA0
This is a Committee with members
from three associations:
P. Levan and D. McKay from the
Ontario Association
of Physics
E. Dunning and A. Geddi3 from the Science
Teachers' Association of Ontario (STAO), and I. Dean and P. Kirkby from the CAP.
A report
is being developed
secondary school levels.
teachers and other matters, at the elementary and
The Committee sees a need for strengthening the teaching of physics.
For example,
it appears
that most of the teaching of physics at the elementary and secondary levels, in Ontario, is
done by teachers with a background in biology!
The committee considers that there should
interest in physics.
There have been four meetings of the Committee
in the
report has been prepared and should be finalized
for the
report will be published in Physics in Canada.
a common
period May '87 - April '88. A draft
June '88 CAP Council Meeting.
Division de physique des plasmas
See p.Ill of Physics in Canada, July
Division of Theoretical
The Division
of Theoretical
has enjoyed another successful year; it continues its
strong leadership in the organization of various summer schools.
The 1987 CAP-NSERC
in Theoretical
Physics was
10-24 at the
University of Alberta and attracted about 100 participants.
The Institute, organized by F.C.
Khanna, G. Kunstatter, H.C.
Lee and
H. Umezawa,
consisted of the following
Quantum Field Theory as an Interdisciplinary Basis (major topics:
topological objects, models,
stochastic processes); (2)
Field Theory
in Two Dimensions (major topics:
nonlinear sigma
The two programs, held concurrently,
featured approximately 20 invited speakers and
40 talks.
The Proceedings
of this Summer
Institute are already available
in two volumes (World Scientific) at the reduced rate of U.S.
$30. - for both volumes.
The 1987 CAP-NATO Advanced Study Institute on Interfaces,
Quantum Wells and Superlattices was
held at Banff during
August 16-29.
It was organized by Roger Taylor (Director), E.W. Fenton,
C.R. Leavens and A.H. MacDonald,
and attracted
16 lecturers
80 participants
from 13
ran very
and was well received by both participants and
Two sessions are planned for the Annual
in Montréal.
is on
3 speakers:
B. Tupper
(New Brunswick) on
"Introduction to
Cosmological Models", R. Wald
(Chicago) on
Hole Thermodynamics"
and R.P. Kirshner
(Harvard) on
A second
session has been organized jointly with the Divisions of
Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics.
The sixth CAP-NSERC Summer Workshops will be held at Queen's University, Kingston,
during July
5-24, 1988.
The two concurrent
programs are:
(1) Physics of Disordered Matter (Directors:
A.E. Jacobs and A-M.S.
Symmetry Violation
Effects in Atomic, Nuclear and
Particle Physics (Directors:
G. Karl and B. Castel).
The Banff
Summer Institute (CAP) 1988 on Particles and Fields in Banff, August 14-27, is being
organized by A.N. Kamal and sponsored by the Theoretical Physics
Division of the CAP, NSERC,
The University of Alberta, IPP, TRIUMF and AECL.
The list of speakers includes:
(i) 4 hours each:
D. Hitlin
(Caltech) - Charm Experiments: J.D. Prentice (Toronto) - Beauty
(Caltech) - Superstrings;
unconfirmed) - Recent Developments
in Field
Theory; J. Ro3ner (Chicago) - Heavy Flavour
Theory; G.C. Ross (Oxford) - Superstring Phenomenology; speaker to be confirmed - Conformai
Field Theory.
(ii)3 hours
M.D. Shapiro
(Harvard) - pp Tevatron Results; G.T. Ewen (Queen's) - Passive
Experiments and SNO; A. Maki
(iii) 2 hours:
(iv)l hour:
T. Himel
S. Coleman
(KEK) - TRISTAN Results.
(SLAC) - SLC Results.
(Harvard) - Cosmological Constants.
In addition, there will be 14 one-hour seminars given by participants.
H.C. Lee and G. Kunstatter
have agreed
to organize
a Summer
School on Geometrical and
Topological Methods
in Physics to be held at Banff, August
13-25, 1989, while D. Pink has
agreed to organize the 1990 Summer School on Statistical Physics.
The Division would
like to
see established
an efficient mechanism to organize Topical
Conferences on "new aspects" in physics on short notice.
(This idea has been advanced by David
Pink.) The typical notice time for these special conferences,
which might
last anywhere from
one day to three days, is envisaged to be about three months.
The purpose of such a mechanism,
applicable to all Divisions within the CAP, would
be to give potential organizers reasonably
swift access to the necessary funding (e.g. from NSERC) and to administrative support from the
Division of Industrial and Applied
See p.Ill of Physics in Canada, July 1988.
Division of Surface Science
The Division of Surface Science remains a joint division of the Canadian Society for Chemistry
and the Canadian Association of Physicists with a membership of over 150.
In June, Dr. David
Frost (UBC Chemistry) assumed the role of chairman replacing Dr. Dennis Salahub (U. Montreal
Chemistry) and Dr. Robert Tapping (Chalk River Nuclear Labs) was elected Vice Chairman.
Thomas Jackman
(NRC Ottawa) assumed the role of Secretary/Treasurer in October replacing Dr.
David Creber (ALCAN Kingston) who retired after 3 years in the position.
The Division was very active in promoting
in Canada.
Together with the
Catalysis, Theoretical
and Physical Chemistry Divisions a joint symposium was organized at the
CIC annual meeting held in Quebec
The title
of Surface
Science in
Catalysis' reflects the interdisciplinary theme of the symposium.
The Division is grateful to
Serge Kaliaguine and Stewart Mclntyre for their roles in the organization.
At the CAP Congress
in Toronto,
a symposium
emphasizing semiconductor growth techniques for
producing multilayer
structures was held.
The symposium was organized by Derek Houghton and
consisted of five invited talks [Iyer (IBM Yorktown), Houghton (NRCC), 3pringThorpe (BNR), Putz
(BNR) and Park
Attendance was excellent averaging nearly three times the Physics
membership of the Division.
In addition, a well attended poster session was also organized.
Finally, the Division again financially aided the LASST/ACSIS annual workshop on Campobello
Island in August.
The topic in 1987 was 'Diffusion at Interfaces: Microscopic Concepts'.
There are three categories of membership
in CAP.
Full membership is available to anyone who
holds a bachelor's degree in Physics or a related subject.
Thus graduate students
belong as
full members.
Full members are entitled to all the rights and privileges of the Association.
The category of affiliate membership is intended for those whose primary professional interest
is in a field
other than physics.
Student membership is available only to undergraduate
students in physics.
Full members
in good
standing may, upon
retirement, take
advantage of reduced fees.
Members of the Canadian Association of Physicists may become members of the Chemical Institute
of Canada and pay a special combined fee. The fee payable by such persons is 70% of the total
applicable fees for both organizations.
Report of the Director of Members
The duty of the Director - Full members is essentially to review and approve applications for
membership in the Association.
the exercise consists
in verifying
if the candidate applying
for membership satisfies the general criteria listed in the CAP By-laws.
In the applications received
particular attention was paid to the declaration of the sponsor.
In most cases the sponsor
named was a CAP member and the application was automatically
If the sponsor was not a CAP member I would normally contact him.
If no sponsor'3
name was given I contacted the applicant and tried to resolve the difficulty with him.
thi3 was done rapidly.
In 1987,
156 applications were received:
32 full members, 70 graduate students, 3 affiliates,
37 students, 12 re-instatement and 2 joint memberships.
In the first part of 1988, 69 applications were
26 full
students, 16 students, 2 affiliates, 1 joint and 6 re-instatements.
18 graduate
There are questions
relative to the
for a sponsor's signature on the
application form, and some candidates find it somewhat inappropriate.
Personally I find that
it is of great
importance that the Association rely on some kind of reference that can answer
for the qualifications of applicants.
The Association
needs members
active in the field of
Its credibility relies on these members.
Of course other means could be found.
example only the name of a reference could be required.
If needed the
reference could be
At this time this approach would appear to be the simplest one.
I have been most
happy to
serve in
the function
for the last years and wish the best to my
Report of the Membership Committee
The Committee was asked to consider whether the by-laws of the CAP conflict In any way with the
current legislation
on rights,
particularly with respect to the explicit specification of the
age, 65 years, at which members may be considered to be retired.
The existing regulations were
found to be satisfactory; no action was recommended to the Executive.
The Membership
Campaign Committee
consists of the Vice-President
Elect as chairman and the
the various
the Association.
heads/chairmen of Canadian university physics departments al30 assist in recruiting members in
their universities.
Membership Report
A total of 145 new members joined the Association and 12 members were reinstated in 1987. There were 15 resignations and
198 suspensions.
Members in arrears are kept on C A P records but no longer receive C A P publications or other mailings; they are suspended when they
are more than one year in arrears. The details of membership are given in the table below.
Membership Report for 1987
as of December 31, 1987
Paid up
In Arrears
Paid up
Graduate Students
Affiliate Members
Retired Members
Without Fees
Full Members
Joint Members
Student Members
Membership in Divisions
As of
Aeronomy and Space Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics
Canadian Geophysical Union
Condensed Matter Physics
Medical & Biological Physics
Nuclear Physics
Optical Physics
Particle Physics
Physics Education
Plasma Physics
Theoretical Physics
Industrial & Applied Physics
Surface Science
As of
As of
As of
Journal Subscriptions
Canadian Journal of Physics
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences
Contemporary Physics
Physics in Medicine & Biology
The Physics Teacher
Québec Science
Physics Today
Physical Review Letters
Medical Physics
Physics Bulletin
Physics Education
Physics in Technology
Report of the Honorary Secretary-Treasurer
A t the end of the 1987 financial year the General Fund has a
surplus of $13,961, down $15,217 from last year. The interest on
the Reserve Fund over the year ($4,522) was added to this fund
increasing it to $79,885. The Educational Trust Fund remains
healthy with a surplus of $47,182.
The audited financial statements and balance sheet for the twelve
month period January 1 to December 31, 1987 with comparative
figures for 1986 follow.
Clarkson Gordon
Chartered Accountants
Suite 1600
55 Metcalfe Street
Ottawa, Canada K1P 6L5
Telephone: (613)232-1511
Telex: 053-4206
To the Members of
The Canadian Association of Physicists:
We have examined the balance sheet of The Canadian Association
of Physicists as at December 31, 1987 and the statement of revenue and expense
and surplus for the year then ended.
Our examination was made in accordance
with generally accepted auditing standards, and accordingly included such
tests and other procedures as ve considered necessary in the circumstances,
except as explained in the following paragraph.
In common with many not-for-profit organizations, the
Association derives revenue from meetings and donations the completeness of
which is not susceptible of satisfactory audit verification.
Accordingly, we
were unable to determine whether any adjustments for unrecorded revenue might
be necessary to annual meeting revenue, donation revenue, excess of revenue
over expense (expense over revenue) for the year and surplus.
In our opinion, except for the effect of any adjustments which
might have been required had we been able to satisfy ourselves with respect to
the revenue described in the preceding paragraph, these financial statements
present fairly the financial position of the Association as at December 31,
1987 and the results of its operations for the year then ended in accordance
with the accounting principles described in note 1 to the financial statements
applied on a basis consistent with that of the preceding year.
Ottawa, Canada,
April 7, 1988.
Chartered Accountants
Comptables agréés
Clarkson Gordon
55, rue Metcalfe, bureau 1600
Ottawa, Canada K1P 6L5
Téléphone: (613) 232-1511
Télex: 053-4206
Alix membres de l'Association
canadienne des physiciens,
Nous avons vérifié le bilan de l'Association canadienne des
physiciens au 31 décembre 1987, ainsi que l'état des revenus et dépenses et du
surplus pour l'exercice terminé à cette date.
Notre vérification a été
effectuée conformément aux normes de vérification généralement reconnues, et a
comporté par conséquent les sondages et autres procédés que nous avons jugés
nécessaires dans les circonstances, à l'exception des limites mentionnées au
paragraphe suivant.
Comme beaucoup d'organisations à but non lucratif, l'Association
génère des revenus de réunions et de dons dont l'intégralité n'est pas
susceptible à une vérification satisfaisante.
Par conséquent, il ne nous a
pas été possible d'établir si des redressements dus à des revenus non
enregistrés auraient été requis aux revenus provenant de la réunion annuelle,
revenus de dons, à l'excédent des revenus sur les dépenses (des dépenses sur
les revenus) pour l'exercice et au surplus.
A notre avis, à l'exception de la possibilité de redressements
qui auraient pu être requis s'il nous avait été possible de nous satisfaire
quant aux revenus mentionnés au paragraphe précédent, ces états financiers
présentent fidèlement la situation financière de l'Association au 31 décembre
1987 ainsi que les résultats de son exploitation et l'évolution de sa
situation financière pour l'exercice terminé à cette date selon les principes
comptables décrits dans la note 1 afférente aux états financiers appliqués de
la même manière qu'au cours de l'exercice précédent.
Ottawa, Canada,
le 7 avril 1988,
Comptables agréés
(Incorpo rated under the
$ 43,658
$ 16,381
Fixed, at cost:
Office furniture and equipment
Less accumulated depreciation
Current :
Term deposits (at cost which approximates market)
Advertising revenue receivable
Other receivables
Prepaid expenses
Due from Educational Trust Fund
Term deposits
Accrued interest receivable
i 14,609
i 12,527
j 59.729
j 48.954
On behalf of the Council:
(See accompanying notes to
Laws of Canada)
Current :
Accounts payable and accrued charges
Deferred revenue
Due to divisions
i 12,031
* 6,,123
14, 582
75, 363
Members' Equity:
Science Policy Fund
Reserve (note 5)
Deferred donation revenue
Due to General Fund
the financial statements)
j 59.729
$ 48,954
Revenue :
Membership fees
Physics in Canada - advertising
- subscriptions
Annual meeting (net)
Journal subscriptions
Contract services
Investment income
Careers in Physics (net)
Industrial Course (net)
Corporate members conference (net)
Gain on sale of fixed assets
Physics in Canada
Data processing and related maintenance and
supplies (note 1(e))
Printing and postage
Employee benefits
Legal, audit and accounting
Directory of Physicists (net)
Exchange loss
$ 89,236
$ 89,547
Excess of expense over revenue for the year
Surplus, beginning of year
Transfer to reserve (note 5)
186 r487
Surplus, end of year
& 13.961
(See accompanying notes to the financial statements)
j 29.178
Revenue :
Donations - members
- corporations
- universities
- other
Interest and miscellaneous
Lecture tours
Undergraduate physics conference
$ 6,937
$ 6,867
Excess of revenue over expense
(expense over revenue) for the year
Surplus, beginning of year
Surplus, end of year
(See accompanying notes to the financial statements)
DECEMBER 31. 1987
Accounting Policies
The financial statements of the Association have been prepared by
management in accordance with accounting principles that are considered
appropriate for organizations of this type.
Revenue and expense of the
Divisions and the Science Policy Fund are not reflected in the Statement
of Revenue and Expense and Surplus of the Association.
The more
significant accounting policies are summarized below:
(a) Membership Fees:
Annual membership fees pertaining to the current year are
recorded in income as received.
These fees include a subscription to the
Association's bulletin - Physics in Canada.
The portion of fees paid by
members on account of the Physics in Canada subscription is included in
membership fees revenue.
Subscription fees purchased by non-members are
included in subscriptions revenue.
(b) Donations Revenue:
Donations revenue is recorded as income when received.
which are specified for the following year are included in deferred
donation revenue.
(c) Deferred Revenue:
Revenue received pertaining to future years' is recorded as
deferred revenue.
(d) Expense:
Expenses are recorded on the accrual basis of accounting, except
that costs of publications are charged to expense as incurred.
DECEMBER 31, 1987
Accounting Policies (Cont'd)
(e) Fixed Assets and Depreciation:
Commencing in 1987, all equipment lease costs are charged to
expense when paid.
In 1986 and prior years, computers under capital
lease were carried as a fixed asset and the related lease obligation was
carried as a liability in the balance sheet.
The effect of this change
in accounting on the results of operations is that data processing
expense for 1987 has been increased by $1,088 to $21,795.
Purchased fixed assets are recorded at cost and are depreciated
over the estimated useful life of the asset using the following rates:
Furniture and equipment
Computer equipment
- 20% declining balance
- 20% straight-line
s m v g
The Association is a non-profit organization as defined in
Section 149(1)(1) of the Income Tax Act and, as such, is exempt from
income taxes.
The Association has leased office space for a period of ten years
expiring in May, 1996 for a basic annual rental of $13,693 for the first
five years and $16,914 for the subsequent five years.
Computer lease
commitments total $13,720 for 1988 and 1989 and $6,371 for 1990.
DECEMBER 31. 1987
Statement of Changes In Financial Position
A statement of changes in financial position is not presented
since it would not provide any additional useful information.
During 1982 the Council approved the establishment of a reserve
of $65,000, which is not to be encroached upon without formal approval of
the Council.
Interest earned on reserve funds is transferred to the
Educational Trust Fund
The Educational Trust Fund is intended to further the education
of physicists ««id increase public awareness of the work and roles of the
physicist through the sponsorship of seminars and granting of achievement
C o m p a r a t i v e Amountg
Certain 1986 comparative amounts have been reclassified to conform
with the presentation adopted in 1987.
The membership campaign for 1987/88 targeted four groups:
university physicists who are not members of CAP
previous members who had allowed their membership to lapse
physicists (especially Canadians) working in the United States
physicists working in national research centres such as TRIUMPH, NRC AND CRC
The campaign message
for physicists to become more actively engaged,
especially through the Association, in promoting the role of science and technology
in Canada,
while the campaign for the current
year i3 not yet over, preliminary statistics show 110 new
members and 378 not renewing membership.
The paid
up membership
1987, together with
comparative figures for 1986 are given in the annual report.
The current membership represents
a net decline of nearly 300 over the past 7 years.
reverse this trend, all members of CAP will have to assist in recruiting physicists to join the
It is particularly important that increased efforts be made to solicit physicists working
in industry
and in teaching to encourage them to become more involved
in the professional
activities of the Association.
Council is currently considering a new approach for recruitment
which will be discussed at the annual Congress in June.
Details of the paid up membership for 1987 with comparative figures for
Annual Report p.2.
1986 are
given in the
The category of corporate member is established for those institutions with a responsibility or
a desire to promote and support the science of physics in Canada through the activities of the
The corporate membership
is particularly
sought among those
organizations, government laboratories and universities
which employ
numbers of
The corporate "membership
of public-spirited organizations which do not employ
physicists is also appreciated.
Corporate membership fees of private business and industry are
deposited in the tax-exempt Educational Trust Fund.
Following the formation of the Division of Applied Physics (DIAP) in 1979 it was evident that a
sizeable portion of the
had an interest
in the
applications of physics.
Steps were taken to try to bring about closer interaction between the
members of DIAP and the Corporate
steps were to automatically
extend DIAP
membership to a designated representative of a Corporate member and to hold joint meetings when
and where practicable.
4. 1
The Corporate
group organizes
a one day meeting
representatives of industry, government and the universities.
bring together
The corporate members held
their annual
conference on April 12, 1988 at the Toronto Airport
Skyline Hotel.
The theme was Centres of Excellence in Canada.
The invited speakers were:
R. Boorman,
Director, New Brunswick
Research and
Productivity Council:
"The Role of a Provincial Research Orga nization in Promoting a Strong
Canadian Economy through High Technology"; P. Lavigne, Directeur,
Institut National d'Optique:
of Government-Established
Resea rch Centres with Industry and
University"; R. Woodbridge, President, Canadian Advanced
Technol ogy Association:
"The Centre
of Excellence
Proposal and
the Funding of Industrial R & D"; T. R. Pryor, President, Diffracto
"Needs of
Small and Medium
High Technology
Compan ies
in Canada";
J.E. Pinel,
Director, University
Interaction Bell Northern Research:
"Cen très of Excellence:
Pro3 and
Cons"; J.B. Salley, Deputy Secretary Industry and Intergovernment Relations:
"New Directions
in Federal
Science and Technology Policy:
of Excelle nee"; M.F. Walmsley, Director,
Premier's Council
Excellence in Ontario";
J. L'Ecuyer,
des Universités
du Québec:
"Centres of Excellence in Québec and their
Effectiveness in Promoting High Technology Industries".
The panelists in the discussion session were:
Walmsley and R. Woodbridge.
Current Corporate
Pryor, M.F.
Education Activities
of CAP are defined as the activities which contribute to the education in
physics of the general public and of students up to graduation at the B.Sc.
which are of direct benefit to our full members, including graduate students, are by contrast
called professional activities.
include the CAP secondary school
the CAP university
prize examination,
CAP lecture tours and publications on
educational subjects.
Educational Trust Fund
The Educational Trust Fund (ETF) is a tax exempt fund in which donations from Corporate Members
and individual members are accumulated to support the educational activities of the CAP.
fund is administered by a board of three trustees appointed by the CAP Executive.
The donations of individual members to December 31, 1987 and to date
in the
1988 fiscal year,
have been very encouraging.
A total of $6937 was contributed by members when they renewed
their membership in 1987.
The CAP Lecture Tours
The CAP Lecture Tour for 1987/88 was coordinated
by the chairman of the Division of Physics
A letter was sent to all the physics departments asking for suggestions for CAP
A list of speakers was then selected and circulated to all physics
departments in
It was then the
of each chairman, or his/her delegate, to make
arrangements with the speaker that the department chose to be their CAP Lecturer.
It was
suggested that,
in order to facilitate travel arrangements, two or more departments might like
to get together and agree on one speaker.
In general, CAP supported transportation costs
whereas the departments covered
local expenses.
Of the 20 speakers suggested thi3 year, the
following 9 speakers delivered 26 different CAP lectures.
There may have been others.
M.J. Bronskill
C. Burgess (McGill)
Bruce Campbell
spoke at Western Ontario
spoke at
Regina, Saskatchewan,
U.N.B., St.
Francis Xavier,
Acadia and
3poke at Winnipeg, Manitoba and Brandon.
G.T. Ewan
spoke at Université de Montréal, Waterloo, Simon Fraser, University of
British Columbia, Malaspina College, Royal Roads and Victoria.
F.T. Hedgcock
Allan Jacob
spoke at McMaster University.
spoke at Trent and Brock.
M.A.R. LeBlanc
spoke at Concordia and Lakehead.
W.H. Lehn (Manitoba)
G. Roy (Alberta)
spoke at Western Ontario.
3poke at Calgary, and Red Deer and Mount Royal Colleges.
CAP University Prize Examination
The CAP University Prize Examination
studying physics.
The Educational
Prize, of $605.00; a second prize of
winner of the first prize receives
prize at the banquet.
is a nation-wide
competition among
senior undergraduates
Fund provides
a first prize, The Lloyd G. Elliott
$363.00, and a third prize of $171.50.
In addition, the
an expense-paid trip to the Annual Congress to receive his
The Committee of Heads of Physics Departments
University Prize Exam.
of the
This year's examination was prepared and marked by a group from the University of Regina.
examination was written by 152 students from 27 different institutions.
The three prize winners were:
First Prize:
Second Prize:
Third Prize:
Christopher Neufeld, McGill University
Ernest Pun Chan, University of Toronto
Krishna Rajagopal, Queen's University
The Undergraduate Physics Conference
The 23nd Canadian Undergraduate Physics Conference was held
in October,
was organized by a group of students from the University of Calgary.
1987 in
The 24th Conference will be held at Dalhousie University, in the fall of 1988.
Youth Science Foundation and the Canada-Wide Science Fair
The youth Science Foundation continues to provide excellent support in various areas to promote
science among the youth in Canada.
The major emphasis continues to be the
Science Fairs, with
the 27th annual Canada-Wide
Fair being
held in Winnipeg during May of this year.
increased government
support has enabled the
Foundation to expand
in other areas, and
investigate the
development of new programs.
include an increased number of science
awards in many areas: wider distribution of the Youth Science News and an improvement in its
format; "Flabbergast",
a science magazine for youth from 7 to 14 years; and reorganization of
the national Students' Science Council into the Young
Scientists of Canada.
The Science
Olympics program
has been
expanded with
the first
national Science
Olympics to
be held in
Ottawa on December 6-8, 1988, and additional resource materials have been developed for science
teachers and students in all program areas.
still relies heavily on its volunteer network, and continues to encourage teachers
scientists to become more involved in helping young people to channel their activities.
CAP Secondary School Physics Prize
The Secondary School Examinations continue to
in the Provinces
across Canada.
Certificates of merit are now awarded as a means of encouraging those students
who did well but not well enough to receive a prize, and have been awarded again this year.
The CAP owes a vote of thanks to those who conduct the examinations.
It involves
a great deal
of time and the financial generosity of the organizers' Physics Departments.
In each
province a total of
$770 was offered by the CAP, to be divided among the winners, at
the discretion of the provincial examiner.
The name of each principal examiner is
given below
in parentheses along with the names of the winners.
Additional prizes
were offered
in some provinces by the University Physics Departments, which
are gratefully acknowledged.
For example:
University provided
$400 for honorable
Mentions; Québec
universities $890 for additional ca3h prizes; the University of Winnipeg $130
and Winnipeg, Manitoba and Brandon 50% fee reduction (1st y e a r ) to the
top 5 winners; Alberta
about $230; S.F.U. and U.B.C. $150 for additional prizes.
There may have been others.
Newfoundland (R.B. Bishop)
1. Liam Keliher, Vater's Collegiate, St. John's
Cory Pye, Cabrini High School, Corner Brook
3. Natalie Baddour, Holy Heart of Mary, St. John's
David Bryant, Brother Rice High School, St. John's
Nova Scotia and Prince Edward
New Brunswick (B. Hede)
Todd Wood, Miramichi Valley
Kirk Reid, Saint John High
Tom Lees, Fredericton High
David Gay, Miramichi Valley
High School
High School
Québec (J.R. Derome)
1. Luc Tremblay, CEGEP Sorel
Pierre-Paul Renaud, Semainaire de Québec
David Faubert, Champlain Regional College
Ontario (W.J. Megaw)
1. Michael de Lind Van Wijngaarden, Nepean High School
Trevor Blackwell, Gloucester High School
Garth Mayville, Bradford District High School
Jim Carlyle, Martingrove Collegiate Institute
Manitoba (G. Kunstatter)
Rick Chartrand, Miles Macdonell
Kohji Suzuki, Grant Park
Patrick Bowman, Miles Macdonell
Nicholas Hesse, St. John's Ravenscourt
Diego Ng, Nelson Mclntyre
Saskatchewan (R. Montalbetti)
1. Darrell Harrington, Aden Bowman Collegiate,
Aaron Phoenix, Thorn Collegiate, Regina
Ken Cole, Balfour Collegiate, Regina
Alberta (T. M a t h e w 3 )
Richard Wan, Strathcona Composite High School
Graham Denham, Old Scona Academic High
3. Kevin Oler, McNally Composite High School
David Hwang, Sir Winston Churchill High School
Stephen Chen, Sir Winston Churchill High School
British Columbia (D.J. Huntley)
Dennis Chow, Burnaby South
Peter Madden, Sir Winston Churchill
Howard Semenoff, Grand Forks
Grade XI
Erick Wong, Sir Winston Churchill
50. 00
50. 00
R.B. Bishop
New Brunswick
B. Hede
J.-R. Derome
w. J. Megaw
Nova Scotia and
Prince Edward Island
G. Kunstatter
R. Montalbetti
T. Mathews
British Columbia
D.J. Huntley
CAP has been holding an Annual Congress ever since the Association was founded.
The first CAP
summer school, in theoretical physics, «as held in Edmonton in 1957.
Scientific meetings and
are among the most
important of CAP activities.
Details of 3ome of these
meetings are given in the reports of the divisions.
Annual Congress
The Annual CAP Congress is the most important
event of the year
for the Canadian Physics
Here each year the vast majority of Canada's leading physicists meet to communicate
the results of their research, learn of the
research of their colleagues,
discuss science
policy, promote
physics education and conduct the affairs of the Association.
Some statistics
on recent congresses are given in the following table.
Number of Papers
Number of
For the tripartite meeting of 1976 the number in brackets is the
from Canadian institutions.
number of
Future congresses have been scheduled as follows:
1989 - University of Guelph, June 26-28
1990 - Memorial University of Newfoundland, June 18-20
1991 - University of Manitoba, June
Canadian Journal of Physics
In addition to
its normal publications
the Canadian Journal of Physics has
a number of Special
from conferences
and workshops,
and as
Festschrifts in honour of distinguished colleagues) during the years.
Other special issues
(including one sponsored
by the Optics Division of CAP) are currently
being processed.
Regrettably a major publications
hiatus of a few months took place when the Ottawa printing
firm which handled the production of the journal under NRC supervision, went into receivership.
The journal
is now printed by the University of Toronto Press, and the production delays are
almost caught up. The panel of expert associate editors has been augmented by two to cover the
topics of Gas Dynamics
J. Gottlieb
UTIAS) and
(Prof. R. McPhie,
Prof. Claude
Delisle (Laval) recently retired as Associate Editor (Optics) after
many years of much appreciated service.
Prof. M. Piché
(Laval) has assumed responsibility as
Associate Editor (Optics).
Physics in Canada
This report
of activities
of "Physics
in Canada"
is really
redundant since our activity is
evident in each issue.
However for the record here is the official report:
"Six issues of "Physics in Canada" were produced in 1987-8 by the team of professionals at the
office of the Canadian Association of Physicists with the help of the amateurs of the Editorial
With the appearance of this issue we say
farewell to Juris
Gerard Hébert of York University has taken over this position."
Review Editor.
As one of its services to members, CAP acts as "Subscription Agent" for technical publications
of other organizations.
This year twelve
(12) publications were
to members at
reduced subscription rates.
Statistics are given in the Annual Report.
Science Policy Committee
The Science
Policy Committee,
chaired by the President,
at the
request of Council and the
Annual General Meeting, has completed its agenda with the publication
of the
in Canada:
A Brief Survey and Outlook.
Physics and Society
The main
activity was the chairman's organization of the next Physics and Society session at
the CAP Congress, the topic this year being Canadian Space Science:
Its Impact on Society and
on the
Physics Community.
In March the Committee chairman and the C.A.P. Executive Secretary
participated in the Royal Society's Workshop on Public Awareness of Science.
A presentation on
that topic
followed by a discussion on implications for the CAP will be an agenda item on June
21, 1988 at the Annual General Meeting.
Honorary Advisory Council of Past Presidents
The Honorary Advisory Council of past Presidents, constituted of all the former presidents of
CAP was officially established
at the Annual General
Meeting in June 1970.
It has held a
meeting at each subsequent Congress and will be holding one again thi3 year at the Université
de Montréal.
Employment Opportunities Committee
The Employment
Contact Service whereby those
seeking jobs and those with positions available
could register their respective information was continued at the CAP office.
This information
is distributed
request to those who contact the service.
At last year's Congress the
Committee operated a Job Placement Centre
at which
jobs were
advertised and
facilities were
provided for
It is intended to again provide this service
at the congress in
The annual survey of graduate students in Canadian Universities was carried out and the results
were published in the March 1988 issue of Physics in Canada.
Committee of University Physics Department Heads and Chairmen
The annual meeting was
held on Monday, June 15, 1987 at the Faculty Club of the University of
Toronto and was chaired by Professor
R. E. Azuma.
Items discussed
included agreement
on a
maximum stipend
for summer
students of
$1,500 per month, ways of encouraging more graduate
students to become members
of CAP, workshops, science
and society
recommendations, and the
collection of career profiles
for a new edition of Careers in Physics.
A total of 25 physics
heads (or representatives) attended the meeting.
I am told that it is the custom that the
Head of the Department
hosting the Annual Congress
should be Chair of the Committee
of Heads
for the
following year.
I would thus suggest to
council that the Head of the Department of Physics of the University
of Montreal
be asked to
serve as Chair of the Committee of Heads.
M. B. W.
The Directory of Canadian
The first edition of the Directory was published in January 1986.
copy of the Directory.
CAP members have received a
The volume contains, in alphabetical order, biographical sketches of 1500 Canadian physicists,
and the classification of
individuals by their main
area of
A questionnaire is
available for members of CAP who chose not to submit an entry for the
first Directory
but who
wish to be included in further editions of the Directory.
The Committee is now working on plans to publish a second edition.
Committee or. Professionalism
The 7-member Committee has had an active year as can be seen from the following
1987 Congress on Professionalism.
There were 60
individuals at the session even though
it was
in competition
session on
prepared a
15-page Discussion
Document, "The Professional Scientist in Canada".
been addressed by Council.
Further work is to be done by the Committee;
arranged a session at the 1988 Congress on the Discussion Document;
This has
These would infringe on the practice of the natural scientist.
Ongoing activities of the Committee include the
developing a
CAP membership
certificate and guidelines on the issuing of the
providing the occasional item on professional matters to Physics in Canada.
A separate committee, consisting of A. Olin, A. Yelon, and P. Kirkby, has provided to Council a
short report on the steps that are proposed for the Discussion Document.
Their report outlined
the actions that the Committee on
Professionalism will
be undertaking,
with the
approval of
Council, including:
publishing the
Discussion Document,
with the
set of
questions and answers in Physics
organizing a questionnaire on
elements of
the Discussion
Document for
assessment of the
response of
the CAP membership to the proposal of the establishment of professional bodies
covering natural scientists; and
providing the Discussion Document to other scientific societies with the
object of further
development of the Discussion Document to reflect the wishes of the scientific community.
Should any member of
the CAP
wish to
assist the Committee please write to any member of the
B. Ahlborn, H.J. Bronskill, K.E. Breitman, C.S. MacLatchy, F.J. Morgan,
J. Vanier,
P. Kirkby (Chairman).
Committee to Encourage Women in Physics
The members
of the committee have pursued individual efforts through informal consultation and
discussion within organizations including:
York University,
University of Toronto, Toronto School Board, CAP Itself.
In addition,
a number
of career
talks and presentations have been made by Committee members.
presentation and display at Science Teachers' Association conference
participation in the WISH
(Women In Science, Hopefully) Program at York
presentation as part of Richview Collegiate's Career Day
in Toronto in November
in a Career activity at Northview Heights Secondary
participation in Horizons, a career conference
in Toronto
participation in a career day at Guelph University for high school
participation in a panel discussion
Centre in Toronto
"What's my Line" as part of a Career Day at the
a Workshop
students held at Ontario Hydro's Research Division
to your Future" for high
Data collected from the survey of universities, carried
in the
has been
compared to
data collected
in 1985.
strong trends were established and participation of
young women in Physics at the University level remains low.
The Committee continues to maintain interest in
the membership
provinces and organizations is recommended.
the members
willing to
members" from other
A continuation of the present mode of operation seems to
allow members
of the
group to focus
their efforts
in areas
of mo3t
significance to them.
In 1988/89 it is planned to 3urvey the
universities again.
physics Workshop
Is planned
at York
University (contingent on
finding funding).
There is
interest in putting together a directory of women in physics, however this would
require funding.
The current members of the Committee:
Halliwell, Mary-Ann
Lister, Ann McMillan, Jim Megaw and Jim Prentice.
Jenkins, Mona
A proposal
for a study entitled
"Women in Physics - Why Not?" which had been considered by
Council was resubmitted to the Science Council with a request for financial support.
Committee on Undergraduate Student Affairs
The Committee's mandate is the encouragement
of undergraduate
students in physiC3 and their
involvement in the CAP, through liaison and support for university physics club3.
This support
is to include the sharing of ideas and information, affiliate club membership
in the CAP, and
some financial assistance for club activities as required.
Radiation Regulations Committee
The Radiation
Regulations Committee
is a standing committee
of the C.A.P. which reviews and
comments on legislation dealing with
radioactive material,
or producing
devices and guidelines or
standards for protection from radiation.
Members of the committee
have traditionally been Medical Physicists drawn
from the Division of Medical and Biological
Since June
1987 the activities have been very limited as the Radiation Regulations, with which
this committee has been so actively involved, are still being reprocessed by various government
Sub Committee of the Executive on Finance
Some consideration
was given to changing the pattern of investment of the reserves of the CAP.
These considerations were overtaken by the events of last October, so it was recommended that a
very conservative policy be continued.
After some examination of alternatives it was agreed to
recommend that Clarkson Gordon continue as the auditors for the Association.
The Awards Committee, chaired by M.P. Bachynski, has recommended that:
The 1988 Medal for Achievement in Physics be awarded to Dr. E.W. Vogt, TRIUMF.
The 1988 Herzberg Medal be awarded to Dr. F. Wesemael, Université de Montréal.
CN<"Vinternational Union of Crystallography
At the meeting of the Committee in December 1987, a report on the XIV Congress of the I.U.Cr.
was presented by the Chairman.
He remarked that the Congress, rather smaller than other recent
ones, was very well run. A large Canadian contingent
attended, among
them the
five students
who received financial assistance from the Committee.
They all presented excellent posters and
were seen to be actively involved in discussions.
The evening meetings of the General Assembly
were attended
by the three Canadian
delegates, G. Ferguson, J. Trotter and B.M. Powell.
meetings were characterized by a notable lack of discussion.
A new Commission of the I.U.Cr.
was created for Powder Diffraction and a working group was 3et up to examine the feasibility of
merging into a single Commission, the three Commissions
which are
responsible at present for
crystallographic information.
The newly formed Asian Crystallography Association was formally
affiliated with the I.U.Cr.
The next Congress in 1990 will be
in Bordeaux
and that
in 1993
will be
in Beijing.
The capital in the Trust Fund is intact and it is hoped that financial
assistance can he offered to more students for the Bordeaux Congress.
At this meeting of the
Ferguson retired
as Chairman and A. Beachamp, R. Ferguson, G. Bushnell and 0. Knop as
The new chairman ir. J. Trotter, vice-chairman is B.M. Powell and F. Rochon, P. White,
Y. LePage and N. Payne are the new committee members.
The low esteem in which the CGSC appears
to hold crystallography is exemplified by its classification as a branch of inorganic chemistry
for funding purposes.
The Committee has written to NSERC suggesting a re-classification scheme
for crystallography more appropriate to the actual
of the practitioners among
Concern was expressed
about the increasing number of papers published which
contain crystallographic data in which the results or data are
incomplete, improperly reported
or even
It wag
felt that the editorial boards of the appropriate journals should
insist on more stringent criteria for the acceptance
such papers.
N. Payne
agreed to
formulate a set of criteria for consideration for the Committee and subsequent distribution to
the relevant editorial boards.
Technical Advisory Committee to AECL on the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management
The principal activity of TAC consists
of a continuing
of the
progress being
made in the course
of each year in the research relevant to the NFWMP and the
preparation of the documentation leading
to the Concept
in the
of the TAC Annual Report representing TAC's
evaluation of the current status of the program, with recommendations for future work.
The Structure of TAC was described
in a note in the July
1986 "Physics
in Canada"
(4_2, 78
is composed
13 members
by eight technical and
professional societies.
In its gathering
and preliminary
evaluation of
information on the
NFWMP, TAC operates through
four subcommittees:
1. Geoscience, 2. Engineered Barriers, 3.
Bioscience, and 1. Systems Analysis and Assessment.
Of the current 13 members of TAC, each of
seven members
participates iri the work
of one subcommittee which is particularly relevant to
his professional discipline.
The remaining six,
the two CAP
are each
of two
is a member of the Geoscience, and Systems Analysis
groups, and Volkoff is in the
Engineered Barriers,
and Systems Analysis subcommittees.
in accumulated
by the
by site visits, attendance at specialized
workshops, and study of documentation prepared
by AECL.
on the
relative standing
of the Canadian program on the international scene is derived by individual
members attending international conferences devoted to various aspects of the NFWM programs of
many countries.
The subcommittees
prepare their draft evaluation
reports which are then discussed and agreed
upon at meetings of the full committee.
Four such TAC meetings of the
full committee, each
lasting two days, were held in 1987/88.
The annual
report is then compiled on the basis of the agreed-upon subcommittee submissions by
the Chairman and the Science Secretary.
At present, work
is in progress on the ninth annual
report, TAC-9.
TAC-8 and earlier
reports can be obtained from the Chairman of TAC, Dr. L.W.
Shemilt, c/o McMaster University, General Sciences Building, Room
216, Hamilton,
Ontario, L8S
In our note
in "Physics
in Canada"
in July
1986, we indicated that the formal Concept
Assessment Document was, at that time,
scheduled for completion in the fall of 1988, with
Because of
some budget restrictions imposed by the
Government since then, and the
lack of action to date by the Government
in naming an
Environmental Assessment
Panel to initiate the public review process, the scheduled date for
the completion of CAD has been delayed to 1991, with public hearings to follow.
There has been considerable discussion within TAC concerning
the necessity
of maintaining
continuity of the committee's collective comprehensive grasp of the material to be embodied in
CAD. This requires the retention on the committee of a number of its present members until the
public review
is over.
At the same time, it is realized that injection of new blood into TAC
is highly desirable.
Both aims can be achieved by scheduling new appointments to TAC in such a
manner that
an incoming
new member overlaps for at least a year with current members of his
discipline prior to their retirement.
A TAC recommendation to this effect has been accepted by
Of the two CAP nominees who
have been
serving on TAC since
its inception in 1979, Pryce's
current term expires in July 1988, and Volkoff's in 1989. Pryce has indicated
his willingness
to be renominated, while Volkoff has expressed to the Chairman his wish to leave the Committee
on the expiration of his present term. A request to CAP to nominate
a replacement
has gone
forward from TAC, via AECL.
Early responses
by CAP will ensure
an overlap with both CAP
nominees on TAC.
We have given some thought as to the desirable qualification
for CAP nominees in order that
they can serve on the committee with maximum effectiveness.
The role of the physicists on TAC
is somewhat special.
The fact that mathematics and physics are basic disciplines whose use can
hardly be avoided in any engineering or scientific enterprise, results in physicists becoming
involved as connecting links between more
in the waste disposal
research program.
The problem of the permanent disposal of highly radioactive waste is one
which has no exact precedent in technology.
It calls for an evaluation of situations in which
a considerable
number of
factors interact under conditions which have not been encountered in
quite the same relation before.
The nominees of CAP can best serve the aims of TAC if they can
gather together
the relevance
of results from widely different areas of investigation, and so
assist in harnessing apparently
diverse activities
for a common purpose,
rather than by
their expertise
in any particular
of physics.
The analysis of general
principles is, at the present
as urgently
as is the adaptation
of known
techniques to possible lines of attack on new but well recognized problems.
The present. AECL research makes extensive and sophisticated use of computation.
While TAC does
have one member
by the
Society who
is highly
knowledgeable about
the more sophisticated aspects of computerization, it would seem desirable
for the next CAP nominee to have some personal experience in the use of large-scale computing,
if that could be combined with an appreciation of the wide diversity of the problems facing the
NFWMP, and we so recommend to Council.
With respect to increasing the visibility
offer the following suggestions:
of the
activities of
the CAP
nominees on
TAC, we
Schedule an invited paper on the current status of the Canadian NFWMP at the 1989 CAP
annual Meeting bringing up-to-date the report Pryce gave at the Halifax Annual meeting in
Possibly have
or 1990.
one of the CAP nominees on TAC serve as a CAP lecturer across Canada in 1989
Publish a sequel to the 1986
becomes a public document.
article in
"Physics in
Canada" at
the time
the formal CAD
The revised
Group Insurance
Plan continues to be offered to members.
The Term Life and
Health improvements include a new rate schedule for Member term Life and
Spouse Term Life,
with rates for males and females, and special non-smoker rates, as well as increases in the
maximum for Member Term Life and
Spouse Term Life coverage,
the maximum
for Accidental
Death and Dismemberment,
for Dependent Children's Term Life, the maximum for
Income Protection Insurance coverage,
and the
of Office
Overhead Expense
In addition
to low
premium rates,
the plan
has the
added advantage of being completely
12 .
Suggestions were
for nominations
by the Nominating Committee from members of the
Executive and Council.
Nominations were proposed
for all vacant offices
by the Nominating
Committee and
additional nominations
were solicited from the membership at large. The list of
nominations for the various offices, for which no additional nominations were received, follows.
1988-89 COUNCIL
*Past President
•Vice-President Elect
•Honorary Secretary-Treasurer
Director - Full Members
Director - Affiliate Members
Director - Student Members
Director - Corporate Members
L.,G. Caron
P.,A. Egelstaff
A. A. Offenberger
R. L. Armstrong
R. L. Clarke
R. C. Barber
P. Charlesworth
L. Gates
R. J. Kriegler
Univers ité de Sherbrooke
Univers ity of Guelph
Univers ity of Alberta
Univers ity of Toronto
Carleto n University
Univers ity of Manitoba
Energy 1Mines and Research
Dalhous ie University
Bell No rthern Research
Aeronomy S Space Physics
Atomic & Molecular Physics
Canadian Geophysical Union
Condensed Matter Physics
Medical & Biological Physics
Nuclear Physics
Optical Physics
Particle Physics
Phyr:ics Education
Plasma Physics
Theoretical Physics
Industrial & Applied Physics
Surface Science
British Columbia
1) D. Boal
2) R. Keeler
Simon Fraser University
University of Victoria
1) W.C. Olsen
2) H.A. Buckmaster
University of Alberta
University of Calgary
Saskatchewan and Manitoba
1) G.J. Lolos
2) J. Vail
University of Regina
University of Manitoba
D G . W . F . Drake
2)F.S. Razavi
University of Windsor
Brock University
Ontario - Central and North
1)D.C. Bailey
2)P. Kirkby
University of Toronto
Ontario Hydro
Ontario - East
1)B.K. Mukherjee
2)P.A. Kalyniak
Royal Military College,
Carleton University
Québec - Nord et Ouest
1)A. Yelon
2)M. Sutton
Ecole Polytechnique
McGill University
Québec - Sud et Est
1)M. Piché
2)R. Marchand
Université Laval
INRS - Energie
New Brunswick & newfoundland
1)D.H. Rendell
2)W.R. Ross
Memorial University
University of
Nova Scotia and
Prince Edward Island
1)G. Stroink
2)Y.N. Joshi
Dalhousie University
St Francis Xavier University
At Large
1)H. Buijs
2)A.C. McMillan
2)C. Samson
Bomem Inc.
Ontario Hydro
University of Toronto
Editor - Candian Journal of Physics:
R. Nicholls, York University
Editor - Physics in Canada/La Physique au Canada:
J. Rolfe, Bank of Canada, Ott.
Executive Secretary - Secrétaire exécutif:
M.L. Jento
• Member of Executive Committee
•• To be elected by their respective
(1) Term ends June 1989
(2) Term ends June 1990
awareness to a whole nation is pitifully small. However, their
recent announcement by The Prime Minister, of his commitment to Science and Technology, his recognition of its
importance to Canada's future as a trading nation, and his
commitment of 1.3 billion dollars represents a major change
in policy. W e will have to see if this is a lasting change.
Another factor contributing to this lack of public awareness
for Canadian scientific accomplishment is Canada's history
of dependence on our natural resources. Up until now, we
have been able to maintain our seemingly advanced social
level by virtue of an incredible bounty of natural resources.
However, this situation is fast changing. The copper we mine
that once went into telephone lines, will soon be replaced
by threads of glass. Soon many of the resources sold as raw
material around the w o r l d which have supported our extravagant standard of living will no longer be needed in vast
quantities. Special products from laboratories will be replacing them. What then?
Furthermore, unlike the traditional third w o r l d country, we
have a very high level of literacy and affluence. However,
like many banana republics, we sell our basic resources abroad
and we do very little research to develop these resources
into marketable products. Resource industries now realize
that this situation must change if they are to prosper.
David Suzuki, w h o has received two major prizes as a science
communicator, argues that "Canadians live under the remarkable delusion that we are a technologically advanced people
but that everything around us denies that assumption." In
many respects, what David says is true — our consumer
scientific goods are largely bought from abroad and the few
that have the "Made in Canada" stamp are more often than
not produced by branch plants of a multinational company
which has its home abroad. However, it is uplifting to be
able to note that there are exceptions, such as the Canadarm
which was largely invented at NRC and manufactured by Spar
Aerospace, a Canadian shareholder-owned company.
In addition, the spinoff companies from Northern Telecom,
like Mitel, and other knowledge-based industries in Canada's
silicon valley north and silicon valley north west are exciting.
But, w h o but those w h o belong to the " i n " group know of
these things? Certainly not the majority of the public — not
the lawyers, and businessmen and women, who, for the most
part, represent us in our parliaments. Parliamentarians, like
ex-professors Bill Tupper and Howard McCurdy understand,
but they are in the minority.
I am however encouraged by the recent development of some
selected technologies here, and by the number of physicists
w h o have successfully taken what they have found in the
laboratory to the market place. The field of laser technology
is an example, where people like Jacques Bouleau, Boris
Stoicheff, Steve Wallace, A.I. Carswell, Morel Bachynski and
John Polanyi, among others, have made their mark.
It is also uplifting to see fellow physicists following in the
footsteps of David Suzuki and making the effort to share with
the public their experiences and commitments as scientists.
In addition, many colleagues in the world of science are now
speaking out on matters related to science policy and science
in society — either independently or through groups such
as Science for Peace and the Canadian Council of Scientists
and Scholars.
The response shown by educators and provincial governments to the Science Council report on education is encouraging. Complementing this, I can see clearly the value of
institutions such as the National Museum of Science and
Technology, as an educational institution, helping young
children, their parents and grandparents understand the
importance of science, of physics, in supporting technological
development and strengthening our culture.
To respond to the question raised by the title of this article
— without a past, or for that matter a present, does Canada's
youth have a future in physics? The answer, in my opinion,
is no — not until all Canadians know about what we have
been able to accomplish. We, as physicists, and scientists,
must w o r k together to market ourselves and transmit the
excitement of our accomplishments to our Canadian community.
C A P offers a service to b r i n g together carter
seekers and employers in the physical sciences.
Interested candidates should request an inform a t i o n f o r m and return it to
Canadian Association of Physicists
I 5 I Slater St., Suite 903
Ottawa, Ontario, K I P 5 H 3
This i n f o r m a t i o n will be kept on file and made
available to all prospective employers.
Employers should contact the above address
and provide a brief description o f the position
and the skills required.
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 109
CAP Affairs/Affaires de l'ACP
Je constate qu'il m'a fallu q u e l q u e deux ans à l'exécutif de
l'Association pour pouvoir apprécier t o u t ce que l'A.C.P. fait
p o u r ses membres et, surtout, pour la c o m m u n a u t é de
physique. O n parle souvent de problème de visibilité de
l'A.C.P. : visibilité politique, visibilité scientifique, visibilité
publique. Je dois avouer que même les membres d u conseil
ont régulièrement besoin de munitions lors des campagnes
de recrutement p o u r vendre notre Association à des n o n
membres. Faut-il croire que même nos membres sont mal
informés sur ce que fait l'A.C.P.? Je crois que l'information
est là puisqu'en lecteur aguerri de la Physique au Canada,
que tous nos membres reçoivent d'ailleurs, je sais l'y retrouver. Mais voilà bien une partie du problème; c'est qu'il faut
la vouloir cette information p o u r la trouver. Elle n'arrive pas
en pleine face des gens. C'est dans ce sens qu'il y a problème
de visibilité : c'est un problème de marketing de l'information.
Et plus j'y pense, plus cela m'apparaît normal. Il est en effet
normal que la masse des physiciens canadiens aient autre
chose à faire que de se préoccuper des aspects plus politiques
o u politicailleux de la science. N'est-ce pas plutôt leur j o b
d'être des professionnels compétents de physique, de faire
de la b o n n e recherche, de bons enseignements o u de bonnes
études? C'est d'ailleurs pour cela qu'il y a des associations
professionnelles et des sociétés savantes afin que celles-ci
s'occupent justement de ces aspects disons socio-politicoscientifiques. Et c'est bien à ce niveau que je me trouve en
ce m o m e n t avec une poignée de collègues sensibilisés et
dévoués qui, Dieu merci, seront là pour m'épauler pendant
m o n mandat. Mais q u ' e n était-il il y a une dizaine d'années?
Je dois avouer que ces considérations étaient très loin de
m o n quotidien. Car il y a aussi un apsect maturité (vieillesse
peut-être) qui intervient dans la quête d'information. Et ceci
rejoint le p r o b l è m e de recrutement, p r o b l è m e aigu qu'a bien
indentifié m o n prédécesseur P. Egelstaff. En effet, pour que
l'A.C.P. renseigne mieux, pour qu'elle ait plus d'activités sur
q u o i renseigner, il faut des sous. Vous me direz que la
cotisation est assez élevée et c'est donc qu'il faut plus de
membres. J'accorderai la priorité cette année à la politique
scientifique, ce qui aidera à avoir d u matériel pour renseigner
et aider au recrutement, et à la c o m m u n a u t é des étudiants
gradués, ce q u i nous apportera plus de membres à long terme.
Je crois que c'est là un investissement pour l'avenir non
seulement de la physique mais aussi de l'A.C.P.. Je vais
travailler en ce sens avec la nouvelle représentante des
étudiants gradués au conseil, M m e Claire Samson. Q u o i
d'autre: l'A.C.P. appuiera ceci par une bonne campagne de
recrutement dans tous les secteurs servant aussi de campagne
d ' i n f o r m a t i o n avec l'aide de A. Offenberger et R.L. Armstrong,
je suivrai de près le rapprochement avec les professeurs du
secondaire qu'a amorcé la division d'éducation de l'A.C.P.
en Ontario. La liste des choses à faire est très longue et je
dois en laisser pour mes successeurs. Je termine en vous disant
q u e je suis enthousiaste et optimiste malgré ce que j'ai dit
ci-haut et que je vais travailler très fort pour vous tous et
p o u r la communauté.
Division of Condensed Matter Physics
The activities of the Division centered essentially around the
Fall Symposium in 1987, and the CAP Congress 1988 at the
University of Montreal.
The Fall Symposium 1987 had as its topic the presently very
active field of high T c superconductivity. It was held at
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, from 30-31 O c t o b e r ,
1988, under the title "Canadian Research in High Temperature
Superconductivity". The organizer of this symposium was J.
Berlinsky. The symposium comprised both invited and cont r i b u t e d talks, and contributions f r o m all Canadian groups
active in this field were received. Invited speakers were R.
M c K i n n o n , NRC, L. Greene, Bell Communications Research
Laboratories, S. Kivelson, SUNY, Stony Brook, J. Hulm, Westinghouse, and D. Sharma, Electric Power Research Institute.
The symposium was attended by about 160 persons.
At the 1988 CAP Congress at Montreal, our division organized
four special sessions, these are on the f o l l o w i n g topics: High
T c superconductivity (theoretical), high T c superconductivity
(experimental), Superfluid 3 He and related subjects, Disordered and amorphous solids. A total of thirteen speakers were
invited to speak at these sessions.
For the fall symposium 1988 it is proposed that a second
conference on high T c will be held. The title of this conference
will be "Second Annual Symposium on Canadian Research
o n High T c Superconductivity". The organization of this
symposium is in the hands of S. Gygax (Simon Fraser), J.
Berlinsky (McMaster), and Frank Chu (Ontario Hydro). The
conference will be held Thursday to Saturday, O c t o b e r 2729,1988, in a hotel in d o w n t o w n Vancouver. The symposium
will be sponsored by Ontario Hydro, and it is suggested that
CAP t h r o u g h our division should also sponsor this symposium.
Selections of the best annual paper in CJP o n condensed
matter physics were made both for 1986 and 1987. The
c o m m i t t e e for this was u n d e r t h e chairmanship of Allan Jacobs
(Toronto), and included also Allan MacDonald (Indiana) and
M. Sutton (McGill). The paper chosen for 1986 is by S. Fujiki
and D.D. Betts o n "Zero-temperature properties of q u a n t u m
spin models o n a triangular lattice I: the S - 1/2 XY m o d e l " ,
Can. J. Phys. 64, 876 (1986). The best paper chosen for 1987
is by R.L. Armstrong, R.M. Morra, I. Svare, and B.M. Powell
o n "Temperature-dependence of the structure of the antifluoride K 2 Os Cl 6 : evidence for precursor tetragonal clusters
near T c " , Can. J. Phys. 65, 386 (1987). The recipients of these
awards will be presented w i t h certificates at the annual
meeting of DCMP.
It is suggested that the practice of making these awards should
be continued. A new, and geographically more broadly based
c o m m i t t e e will be chosen at the annual meeting.
Contact w i t h industry and the broader public has been most
evident t h r o u g h the various activities s u r r o u n d i n g the field
of high T c superconductivity. As this field continues to draw
very strong interest, w e should perhaps think of separating
its presentation from those of other, equally important areas
in condensed matter physics. In this context, one should offer
a different field for the Fall Symposium in 1989, and hold
specialized c o n f e r e n c e s o n h i g h T c s u p e r c o n d u c t i v i t y
The Chairman of the division for 1988/89 w i l be Gwyn Williams
(Manitoba), and Tom Timusk of McMaster University has
agreed to stand for election as Vice-Chairman.
J.P. Franck, Chairman
Division of Condensed Matter Physics, CAP
Laurent. G. Caron
110 Physics in Canada
July 1988
Division of Plasma Physics
The CAP Congress was held in Toronto, where w e had one
invited session and t w o c o n t r i b u t e d sessions (one oral and
one poster). The three invited presentations were by Henri
Pépin, INRS-Energie ("Laser-Created X-Ray Sources and Microlithography"), Stephen Bodner, NRL ("Induced Spatial and
Temporal Incoherence in Laser Fusion") and C u e n t h e r
Pacher, IREQ ("Premier Fonctionnement du Tokamak de
Varennes"). In addition, there was a presentation by Charles
Daughney from the NFP on the "Future for Fusion Power"
in the invited session of the Division of Industrial and A p p l i e d
Physics, and a presentation by Richard Bolton, director of
the Tokamak de Varennes, on "Le Tokamak de Varennes"
at a plenary session. W e certainly got good exposure for fusion
at this meeting.
There were 14 c o n t r i b u t e d papers, w h i c h is about normal
for our division, but w h i c h is m u c h less than I w o u l d hope
to have. Another discouraging aspect is the paucity of presentations by graduate students. I hope that both of these
situations will improve, since I regard the annual CAP Congress as a g o o d f o r u m for exchange between Canadian plasma
The elimination of ENERGY as one of the themes for the
Strategic Grants program for 1987-88 was demoralizing for
the groups w o r k i n g in fusion research, and disastrous for the
U. of Saskatchewan g r o u p w h o lost about half of their funding.
Since NSERC is reevaluating the Strategic Grants program,
it was felt necessary to have the opinions of the Fusion
c o m m u n i t y on record to make the case for continued,
substantial f u n d i n g . A meeting was organized by Allan
Offenberger at the University of Alberta at the end of January
1988, w h e r e representatives of groups across the c o u n t r y
discussed the situation, and planned the submission of a
d o c u m e n t to NSERC Council. I w o u l d like to thank Allan for
the tremendous amount of w o r k he put into the organization
of the meeting and the preparation of the d o c u m e n t , entitled
"Fusion Research Funding-University Research and the National Fusion Program".
W e have again sollicited contributions f r o m various companies and organizations for this fund, w i t h the aim of increasing
the participation of graduate students at the annual congress.
Given the drive by the CAP to recruit more Corporate
members (and hence slimmer pickings for our division) and
the rather p o o r response f r o m the students, I think it appropriate to reevaluate this effort. I w o u l d like to thank Claude
Boucher for his efforts in setting up this f u n d and for his
w o r k for the division.
B.L. Stansfield
Chairman, Division of Plasma Physics
Division de physique des plasmas
Le congrès de l'ACP a été tenu à Toronto, où il y avait une
session invitée et deux sessions contribuées (une orale et
une affiche). Les trois présentations invitées étaient par Henri
Pépin, INRS-Energie ("Laser-Created X-Ray Sources and Microlithography), Stephen Bodner, NRL ( " I n d u c e d Spatial and
Temporal Incoherence in Laser Fusion") et Guenther Pacher,
IREQ ("Premier Fonctionnement du Tokamak de Varennes").
En plus, il y avait une présentation de Charles Daughney d u
NFP sur le "Future for Fusion Power" dans la session invitée
de la Division de Physique Industrielle et Appliquée, et une
présentation de Richard Bolton, directeur d u Tokamak de
Varennes, sur "Le Tokamak de Varennes" à l'assemblée
plénière. Il y avait certainement de la b o n n e publicité pour
ia fusion à Toronto.
Il y avait un total de 14 présentations contribuées, ce qui
est à peu près normal pour notre division, mais ce qui est
beaucoup moins que je n'aurais espéré. Un autre aspect
décourageant est le faible n o m b r e de présentations des
étudiants gradués. J'espère que cette situation s'améliorera,
parce que je crois que le congrès annuel de l'ACP nous d o n n e
un bon f o r u m pour des échanges entre les physiciens canadiens qui travaillent en plasma.
L'élimination de ENERGIE c o m m e thème des Subventions
Thématiques pour l'année 1987-88 a été démoralisante pour
les chercheurs dans le domaine de la fusion, et un désastre
pour le groupe de l'U. de Saskatchewan qui a perdu la moitié
de son financement. Etant donnée que le CRSNG est entrain
de réévaluer le programme de Subventions Thématiques, il
a été jugé nécessaire de faire connaître les opinions des
chercheurs dans le domaine de la fusion sur le besoin d ' u n
financement assuré. Une recontre a été organisée par Allan
Offenberger à l'Université de l'Alberta à la fin janvier 1988,
o ù des représentants de différents groupes à travers le pays
ont discuté la situation et ont planifié la préparation d ' u n
d o c u m e n t pour soumission au Conseil du CRSNG. Je voudrait
remercier Allan pour l'énorme travail qu'il a fait en organisant
la réunion et en préparant le d o c u m e n t , intitulé "Fusion
Research Funding-University Research and the National Fusion Program".
Encore cette année nous avons sollicité des contributions
de divers compagnies et organisations pour ce fond, avec
le but d'augmenter la participation des étudiants gradués au
congrès annuel. Etant donnée l'effort de l'ACP p o u r recruter
d'autre membres Corporatifs (ce qui laisse moins pour notre
division) et la mauvaise réponse des étudiants, je pense qu'il
faut réévaluer cet effort. Je voudrais remercier Claude
Boucher p o u r ses grands efforts en établissant ce f o n d et
pour son travail pour la division.
B.L. Stansfield
Président, Division de Physique des Plasmas
Division of Industrial and Applied Physics
The Division organized three sessions at the 1987 congress
in Toronto. These were on future directions for nuclear power,
advanced industrial materials and on the technology of
c o m m u n i c a t i o n s devices. Sessions o n the application of particle beams, and the instrumentation and techniques of
measurement, are planned for the Montreal meeting. Two
newsletters were mailed to members.
The Division was responsible for the organization of the f o u r t h
in the series of C.A.P. Industrial Courses. This took the f o r m
of a w o r k s h o p on Advances in Sensors and their Application,
and was held at the Industrial Materials Research Institute
(NRC) near Montreal from 17-19 May. The workshop was
organised by George Mackenzie, Marc Dufour, Barry Paton,
Jean Bussière and Richard C o b b o l d . The CAP office undertook
responsibility for photocopying, mailing, registration and
accounting. Invaluable secretarial and other assistance was
given by the host institute (IMRI) and TRIUMF. Peter Elgelstaff,
John Lit, and Henry van Driel provided help and advice. Last,
but certainly not least, w e gratefully acknowledge a grant
f r o m NSERC towards speaker expenses. The w o r k s h o p was
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 111
attended by more than 65 persons and many participants
made special efforts to express their satisfaction w i t h the
program. Hence it c o u l d be regarded as a success. The
program format differed somewhat f r o m previous industrial
courses: An overview of three separate but related technologies, fibre optic sensors, microelectronic sensors and actuators, industrial systems and robotics, was presented on
consecutive days, rather than having one technology dealt
w i t h in depth. The basic principles o c c u p i e d the m o r n i n g
sessions, and a series of case studies exemplified applications
in the afternoon. Because of this, although the attendance
was only slightly higher than at previous courses, the participants came f r o m many more (38) institutions and represented many different industries and disciplines.
W h i l e the course was successful, it is felt that these affairs
are t o o onerous for a single division. Future courses should
be selected and the structure formulated by a standing CAP
c o m m i t t e e and CAP members (from several divisions) near
the w o r k s h o p location should be responsible for the rest of
the arrangements.
A brief career profile of L o m e Whitehead, inventor of the
light pipe, chairman of TIR Systems Ltd., and previous DIAP
prize winner, was submitted to CAP for inclusion in the latest
version of the high schools careers booklet, as an example
of an entrepreneurial physicist. The DIAP prize for innovation
in industrial physics was not offered for c o m p e t i t i o n this yeanin part, because of the w o r k involved in organizing the
Several efforts were made t o expand our network of contacts.
Some may, in time, result in new members or corporate
members for CAP and DIAP. The w o r k s h o p attracted many;
80% of the attendees, w h o were not CAP members. The DIAP
congress program was circulated among individuals and
laboratories active in the topics covered, the intent being
t o encourage c o n t r i b u t e d papers and the o p i n i o n of a congress session as a national micro-topical meeting. The program of invited speakers was mailed t o selected, nonpractising, physics graduates living in the Montreal area
together w i t h the suggestion that they may be interested in
attending the more general talks. The DIAP chairman met
w i t h Daniel M u r n i k , Chairman of the C o m m i t t e e on Applications of Physics of the American Physical Society. M u r n i k
felt that this c o m m i t t e e w o u l d be interested in sharing the
planning of applied physics sessions w i t h DIAP at future joint
meetings of the CAP and the APS. The Division participated
in the corporate members meeting held in T o r o n t o in April.
G.H. Mackenzie, Chairman
Division of Industrial and Applied Physics
News / Nouvelles
Buyers Elected Fellow of Royal Society of
Dr. W.J.L. (Bill) Buyers has b e e n
elected t o Fellowship of the Royal
Society of Canada, in recognition of
his outstanding accomplishments in
research into condensed matter physics. His published w o r k includes some
150 papers in the o p e n literature and
several additional u n p u b l i s h e d reports o n an unusually w i d e range of
topics, i n c l u d i n g experimental and
theoretical studies of magnetic excitations and lattice vibrations in both
o r d e r e d and d i s o r d e r e d materials,
112 Physics in Canada
July 1988
heavy f e r m i o n superconductors, quasi-one-dimensional magnetic crystals, and structure determinations of solids and
liquids. In these studies he has for the most part e m p l o y e d
the techniques of neutron elastic and inelastic scattering, as
part of the w o r l d - r e n o w n e d Chalk River g r o u p originally
established by Professor Bertram N. Brockhouse.
A m o n g his many tasks and accomplishments as an excellent
"citizen of science", Dr. Buyers has served as chairman of
the Divisions of Condensed Matter Physics and of Theoretical
Physics of the Canadian Association of Physicists, and has
been chairman and CAP representative of the Canadian
National Committee of the International U n i o n of Crystallography. He continues to serve on the Physics Grant Selection
Committee of NSERC and o n the Magnetism C o m m i t t e e of
IUPAP. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and
of the Institute of Physics, an Adjunct Professor of Physics
at the University of Toronto, and the 1986 recipient of the
Rutherford Medal in Physics.
E.W.R. Steacie Memorial Fellowship
Dr. Scott D. Tremaine, University of Toronto, has been
awarded a 1988-89 E.W.R. Steacie Memorial Fellowship.
Bomem Inc, a leading designer and builder of infrared
spectroscopy instruments, reports that it will inject more than
40% of its recent $3 million public offering into R&D. The
company has budgeted 9% of sales of $1.2 million into p r o d u c t
development this year. Its 45 scientists, researchers and
technicians undertake joint development w i t h industrial and
government labs and universities.
Obituaries / Necrologie
Professor R.M. Hobson, Professor of Physics at York University and Chairman of the
Department of Physics f r o m
1969-1979, died suddenly o n
21st May 1988.
Robert Marshall Hobson was
b o r n in Belfast, N o r t h e r n Ireland in 1926 and educated at
the Methodist College, Belfast. In 1943 he was awarded
a Foundation Entrance Scholarship t o Queen's University,
Belfast, but enlisted in the
Royal Artillery, was commissioned and served as an Artillery Officer in the Far East
until 1948. He returned to QUB, graduated w i t h First Class
Honours in physics in 1951 and obtained his PhD in 1954.
He was a Research Fellow w i t h Sir Harrie Massey at University
College, London until 1957 and then j o i n e d Clarke Chapman
and Company Ltd (later to become the Nuclear Power Plant
Company), as Research Manager. In 1964 he returned t o
Belfast as Lecturer in Physics and was appointed Reader in
1967. He came to York as Chairman in 1969. He brought w i t h
h i m a fairly large scale research operation including a n u m b e r
of graduate students, a technician and a great deal of equipment w h i c h included a shock tube fashioned f r o m a naval
gun barrel.
He had not been long at York before he suffered his first
major heart attack and a succession of these, c o u p l e d w i t h
a number of family tragedies w o u l d have crushed someone
of lesser fibre. Bob soldiered on, devoting his considerable
energies to g u i d i n g his numerous graduate students and, in
addition, d o i n g a full teaching load. His personal life u n d o u b t edly suffered and his first marriage to Jenny sadly ended in
Hobson's research interests were w i d e and varied. In the early
days of nuclear power he was responsible for solving vibration
fatigue problems o n the heat exchangers of the Latina Nuclear
Power Station w h i c h had failed under pre-commissioning
tests. In 1961 he started an extensive programme on ionisation
in shock heated gases w h i c h has c o n t i n u e d to the present.
His success as a physicist can perhaps best be judged by
the n u m b e r of his former graduate students w h o gathered
at his funeral to pay their respects to someone w h o had been
instrumental in shaping their careers. O n e of t h e m travelled
from Texas to d o so. He had a bluff but g o o d natured manner
and my wife and I will always be grateful for the great personal
kindness w h i c h he and Jenny showed us w h e n w e arrived
in York in 1971. He played a major role in shaping the
Department of Physics at York and this was recognised, o n
his retirement f r o m the Chairmanship in 1979, by the instit u t i o n of the R.M. Hobson Prize. All of us will miss him.
He is survived by his former wife Jenny, by the three surviving
children of that marriage, Paul, Fiona and Mary, by seven
grandchildren and by his second wife Mamie. O u r sympathy
goes out t o all of them.
Calendar / Calendrier
W.B. Lewis Memorial Lecture
As a t r i b u t e t o Dr. W i l f r e d Bennet Lewis, the Chalk River
Nuclear Laboratories is instituting a commemorative lecture
series featuring p r o m i n e n t scientists. The first W.B. Lewis
Memorial Lecture will be given by chemistry Nobel Laureate,
Prof. John Polanyi of the University of T o r o n t o speaking on
the topic of the responsibility of the scientist. " I n an age of
science, what is the responsiblity of the scientist to society?"
The lecture will be given in Deep River, Ontario on Friday,
O c t o b e r 21, 1988 and will be f o l l o w e d by a reception.
Admission is free and is open to everyone.
Dr. W.B. Lewis died in January, 1987. He was responsible for
the scientific d i r e c t i o n of the Canadian nuclear power program f r o m 1946 t o 1973 and was widely k n o w n as the father
of the C A N D U nuclear power reactor. After retirement, he
c o n t i n u e d to w r i t e and speak o n nuclear energy as Distinguished Professor of Science at Queen's University, Kingston.
He received many awards and honours i n c l u d i n g the prestigious US Department of Energy Enrico Fermi Award in 1981.
Tickets and further information about the public lecture can
be obtained f r o m the Public Affairs Branch, Atomic Energy
of Canada Limited Research Company, Chalk River Nuclear
Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, KOJ 1J0. Telephone (613)
TASCC WORKSHOP '88, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories,
August 15-18, 1988.
A w o r k s h o p on areas of heavy-ion nuclear physics under
investigation at the Tandem Accelerator S u p e r c o n d u c t i n g
Cyclotron (TASCC) facility at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories
will be held August 15-18, 1988 at Chalk River. The program
will centre o n three main topics: a) heavy-ion reaction mechanisms, b) nuclear structure at high spin, and c) fundamental
/3-decay properties.
The format of the meeting allows time for formal talks and
informal talks among participants as well as w o r k s h o p sessions
under the leadership of a discussion chairman. The invited
speakers are J. Dudek (University of Tennessee), F.S. Stephens
(Berkeley), R.C. Stokstad (Berkeley), D. Boal (Simon Fraser),
A. Sirlin (New York), P. Barker (New Zealand) and B. Muller
(Frankfurt). The discussion chairmen are B. Herskind (Copenhagen), J. Barrette (McGill University) and J.C. Hardy (Chalk
Further information can be obtained from M a l c o l m Harvey,
Organizing Committee Chairman, telephone (613) 584-3311,
ext. 4072, or Bitnet 01783 @ AECL-CR.
CONGRÈS CANADIEN DE SPECYROSCOPIE, Carleton University C o m m o n s Building, Ottawa, Ontario 8, 9,10 August 1988.
C.A. Neville
C.L. Chakrabarti
Health and Welfare Canada
Chemistry Dept.
Banting Bldg., Tunney's Pasture
Carleton University
Ottawa, ON, K1A 0L2
Ottawa, O N , K1S 5B6
(613) 957-1067
(613) 564-5685
SCIENTISTS A N D JOURNALISTS: BRIDGING THE GAP, University of Calgary, September 23 & 24, 1988.
For further information contact:
Dr. E. Einsiedel or Marian Davis
Graduate Program in Communications Studies
The University of Calgary
2500 University Drive N.W.
Calgary, Alberta
Tel: (403) 220-6357
RARE DECAY SYMPOSIUM, TRIUMF, November 30 — December 3, 1988.
For further information contact any one of the
J.-M. Poutissou
D. Bryman
J. Ng
T. Numao
4004 Wesbrook Mall
Vancouver, B.C.
V6T 2A3
Tel: (604) 222-1047
FAX: (604) 222-1074
TELEX: (0)-4508503
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 113
Corporate Members/Membres Corporatifs
Canadian Association of Physicists/Association canadienne des physiciens
The Corporate Members of the Canadian Association of
Physicists are a g r o u p of corporations, laboratories and
institutions w h o t h r o u g h their membership support the
educational activities of the Association.
Les Membres corporatifs de l'Association Canadienne des
Physiciens sont un groupe de corporations, laboratoires o u
institutions qui supportent financièrement les activités éducatives de l'Association.
The entire proceeds of corporate membership c o n t r i b u tions are paid into the CAP Educational Trust Fund and
are tax deductible.
Les revenus de leurs contributions déductibles aux fins
d ' i m p ô t sont entièrement versés au Fonds Educatif de l'ACP.
The Canadian Association of Physicists cordially invites
interested corporations and institutions to make applicat i o n for Corporate membership and will w e l c o m e the
inquiries addressed to the Executive Secretary.
L'Association Canadienne des Physiciens invite cordialement
corporations et institutions à faire partie des Membres Corporatifs. Renseignements auprès du Secrétaire Exécutif.
151 Slater, Suite 903
Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5H3
114 Physics in Canada
July 1988
Books Received/Livres reçus
The following books have been received for review.
Readers are invited to write reviews of books of
interest to them. Books may be requested from the
book review editor G.R.Hebert: BITNET:"[email protected]"
or at Department of Physics, York University,
4700 Keele St., North York, Ontario, M3J 1P3.
Tel: 1-416-736-2100 ext 3837.
4 0 Fundamental Area of Phenomenology
ELECTRON LIQUID THEORY OF NORMAL METALS, ( V . 174 Supplemental Vol. 2), Proceedings of the Lebedev Physics
Institute, by V.P Silin, ed., Kevin S.
transi., Nova Science Publishers, 1988, pp viii+241.
ISBN 0-941743-19-5, QC176.8.F4T4613.
Price: U.S.$ 89.00.
00 General
ASPECTS OF SYMMETRY, Selected Erice lectures, by Sidney Coleman, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp xi+
402. ISBN 0-521-31827-0, QC793.3H5.
Price: U.S.$ 27.95 pbk.
Hunter, Oxford University Press,
1987, pp
ISBN 0-19-855188-6, QC549.H94.
Price: Can.$ 209.95.
in Physics Lecture Series, by Vernon D. Barger and Roger J.N. Phillips, Addison-Wesley
1987, pp xxi+592.
ISBN 0-201-05876-6, QC793.2.B37. Price: U.S.$ 44.95.
GASES, Proceedings of Institute of General Physics,
Academy of the Sciences of the USSR, Vol. 2, by P.P
ed., Kevin S. Hendzel, transi.,
Science Publishers, 1988, pp ix+215. ISBN 0-941743-13
-6, QC176.8.06L3913. Price: U.S.$ 58.00.
Dale P. Corson and FranÂois Lorrain, W.H. Freema n and
1988, pp xiii+754,
(0-716-71869-3 pbk.), QC665.E4L67. Price: U.S.$ 42.95
by D.P. Woodruff and T.A. Delchar, Cambridge Solid State Science
Series, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp xi+453,
ISBN 0-521-35719-5. Price: U.S.$ 24.95 pbk.
IN SCIENCE, A Proceedings Volume
in the Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of
Complexity, by David Pines, ed., Addison-Wesley Publishers, 1988, pp x+237. ISBN 0-201-15686-5, Q101.E49.
Mathematical Society Lecture Notes Series 127, by T. BedBedford
and J.
Swift, ed., Cambridge
Press, 1988, pp xiii+283. ISBN 0-521-34880-3; QA614.
8.N49. Price: U.S.$ 34.50.
Physics, by V.N.
Popov, Cambridge University Press, 1987, pp viii+216.
ISBN 0-521-30777-5, QC20.7.F85. Price: U.S.$ 49.50.
by F.J. Dyson, Gifford
Lectures at Aberdeen, Scotland, Harper
& Row, 1988.
(Publ. simultaneously by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd.,
Toronto), pp viii+321. ISBN 0-06-039081-6, Q175.3.D97
Price: Can$ 28.50.
Saul A. Teukolsky, William H. Press, and
Brian P. Flannery,
Cambridge University Press, 1988,
ISBN 0-521-35746-2,
Price: U.S.$ 19.95 pbk.
NUMERICAL RECIPES IN C, The Art of Scientific Computing, by William H. Press, Brian Flattery, Saul A.
Teukolsky and William T. Vetterling, Cambrige University Press,
1988, pp xxii+735. ISBN 0-521-3546-5-X,
QA76.73.C15N865. Price: U.S.$ 44.50.
Kepler to
Einstein, by Gerald Holton, Harvard University Press,
1988, pp vii+497. ISBN 0-674-87747-0,
Price: U.S.$ 25.00; $ 12.95 pbk.
10 Elementary Particles and Fields
Proceedings of a NATO Advanced
Workshop, Nato ASI Series, Series B: Physics, v. 160,
by H.C. Lee, V. Elias, G. Kunstatter, R.B. Mann, K.S.
Viswanathan, ed., Plenum Press,
1987, pp
ISBN 0-306-42660-9, QC793.3F5N365. Price: U.S.$ 110.
20 Nuclear Physics
Kleinknecht, Cambridge University Press, 1987, pp viii +
206.ISBN 0-521-35852-3;QC787.C6. Price: U.S.$ 19.95.
PHYSICS, by L.K. Okun, V.I. Kisin, transi., Harwood Academic Publishers,
1987, pp
xi+114, ISBN3-7186-0405-1, QC793.9.036.
Price: U.S.$ 9.00 pbk.
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, Proceedings of the
Lebedev Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the
USSR, Vol. 174, by V.L. Ginzburg, ed., K.S. Hendzel,
transi., Nova Science Publishers, 1988, pp viii +289,
ISBN 0-941743-09-8; QC1.A4114 v.174.
Price: U.S.$ 89.00.
ed., Cambridge University Press,
1987, pp
ISBN 0-521-34100-0. Price: U.S.$ 49.50.
K.D. Mnller, University Science Books, 1988,
pp xii+644, ISBN 0-935702-45-8. Price U.S.$ 48.00.
edition. Proceedings of the Lebedev Physics Institute
Vol. 172, by N.G.Basov, ed., Kevin S.Hendzel, transi.
Nova Science Publishers, 1988, pp vii+240. ISBN 0-941
Price: U.S.$ 76.00.
Proceedings of the Lebedev Physics Institute, Vol.
173, by
M.M. Sushchinskiy, ed., Kevin S. Hendzel, transi.,
Nova Science Publishers, 1988, pp ix+339.
ISBN 0941743-08-X, QC1.A4114 V.173. Price: U.S.$ 93.00.
RESEARCH ON LASER THEORY, Proceedings of the Lebedev
Physics Institute, Academy
of the Sciences of the
USSR, v. 171, by A.N. Orayevskiy, ed., Kevin S. Hendzel, transi-. Nova Science Publishers, 1988, pp vii +
288. ISBN 0-941743-06-3, QC1.A4114 v.171.
Price: U.S.$ 92.00.
SUPERCONDUCTORS, (Vol. 174 Supplemental Vol.1), Proceedings
the Lebedev Physics Institute, by V.L. Ginzburg, ed.,
Kevin S. Hendzel, transi., Nova Science Publishers,
1988, pp viii+294.
ISBN 0-941743-18-7,
Price: U.S.$ 96.00.
EMISSION, Proceedings of the Lebedev Physics Institute, Academy of the Sciences of the USSR, v.170, by
G.V. Sklizkov, ed.,Kevin S. Hendzel, transi., Nova
Science Publishers,
1987, pp iv+167. ISBN 0-941-74305-5, QC1.A4114 v.170. Price: U.S.$ 73.00.
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 115
60/70 Condensed Matter
PHOSPHORS, Proceedings of the Lebedev Institute, Vol.
175, by M.D. Galanin, ed., Nova Science Publishers,
1988, pp vi+161. ISBN 0-941743-10-1.
Price: U.S.$ 71.00.
PHYSICS AT SURFACES, by Andrew Zangwill,
Press, 1988, pp xiii+454. ISBN 0-521-32147-6, QC173.4.S94Z36.
Price: U.S.$ 69.50; 27.95 pbk.
80 Cross-Disciplinary Physics
Book Reviews
Critiques des livres
Years of Astronomical Spectroscopy, by J.B.
Hearnshaw, Cambridge University Press, 1986; pp xv+531.
ISBN 0-521-25548-1; QC465.H43. Price: US$ 79.50
This book is highly welcome.
It is the first compehensive modern book devoted exclusively to the history of astronomical spectroscopy.
McCammon and Stephen C. Harvey, Cambridge
1987, pp xii+234. ISBN 0-521-35654-0; QD431.
M4245. Price: U.S.$ 19.95 pbk.
In general terms the book traces the history of the
analysis of starlight by astronomical
from Fraunhofer's discoveries (1814) to mid-nineteen
by C.M. Fowler, R.S. Caird, and D.J. Erickson, ed.,
Plenum Press, 1987, pp xvi+879. ISBN 0-306-42 574-2,
QC754.2.M3157. Price: U.S.$ 115.00.
There are 11 chapters devoted to topics ranging from
basic spectroscopic techniques and apparatus to quantitative analysis and special topics of current interest.
OXYGEN TRANSPORT TO TIS8UE X, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 222, by M.
C.R. Honig, T.Koyama, T.K. Goldstick and D.F. Bruley,
ed., Plenum Press, 1988, pp xviii+766.
ISBN 0-30642795-8, QP177.I56.
Price: U.S.$ 125.00.
The historical developments have been presented in an
impartial manner. Each chapter has a large number of
references. In addi-tion to describing the development of certain topics, the scientists of the time
are personalized with quotes from their
works and letters and by their photographs. I noticed
one error: the picture on p 319, identified as that
of Carlyle S. Beals is actually that of R.M. Petrie.
A reference to "Sources of illustrations"
that this photograph was from J. Roy. Astron. Soc.
Can., 60, 157, 1966. On looking up this reference, I
found it to be an obituary of R.M. Petrie written by
C.S. Beals.
and L.N.
Hulley, Cambridge University Press, 1987,
X V i i + 4 7 3 . ISBN 0-521-32155-7, TK7881.15.
Price: U.S.$ 89.50; $ 29.95 pbk.
90 Geophysics, Astronomy and Astrophysics
CAULDRONS IN THE COSMOS, Nuclear Astrophysics, Nuclear Astrophysics Series, by Claus E. Rolfs and William
S. Rodney, The University of Chicago Press, 1988, pp
ISBN 0-226-72457-3, QB464.R65.
Price: U.S.$ 34.95 pbk.
THE EXPANDING UNIVERSE, by Sir Arthur Eddington, Cambridge Science Classic, Cambridge University Press,
1987, pp xxiv+127. ISBN 0-521-34976-1, QB991.E944E33.
Price: U.S.$ 12.95 pbk.
IN DARKNESS BORM, The Story of Star Formation, by
Martin Cohen, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp.
x+196. ISBN 0-521-26270-4, 523.8 QB806.
Price: U.S.$ 19.95.
THE INTERNAL CONSTITUTION 07 THE STARS, by A.S. Eddington, Cambridge University Press,
1988, pp xiv +
407. ISBN 0-521-33708-9, QB875.E33.
Price: U.S.$ 19.95 pbk.
OCEANIC REMOTE SENSING, Proceedings of the Institute
of General Physics, Academy of the Sciences of the
USSR, v.l, by F.V. Bunkin and K.I. Volyak, ed., Kevin
V. Hendzel, transi., Nova Science Publishers, 1987,
pp V+222.
Price: U.S.$ 62.00.
It is an excellent book. It covers all the important
topics, that I could think of, except one. The difficulties in making the correct identification of spectral
lines are not sufficiently brought out. For instance, there is no mention of how iron was identified in the solar spectrum. The difficulties
in the
identification of the D3 line and nebulium lines are
mentioned only briefly. Coronium seems to have been
left out completely.
This book clearly represents a labour of love and I
reading it. It deserves to be widely read by
all those who are interested
in stellar spectra and
by astrophysicists in general.
Y.P. Varshni
Department of Physics
University of Ottawa
AN ATLAS 07 7UNCTI0NS, by Jerome Spanier and Keith B.
Oldham, Hemisphere Publishing Co.,(distributed
outside of North America), 1987, pp
ix+700. ISBN 0-98116-573-8. Price: US$ 149.50.
F.A. Handler and R.A. Matzner, Cambridge Monographs
on Mathematical Physics, Cambridge University Press,
1988, pp X+192. ISBN 0-521-32986-8, QB843.B55F88.
Price: U.S.$ 44.50.
This is a compendium of functions which most physicists will be able to use from time to time.
are sixty-four chapters devoted to almost as many
distinct function types. Most readers will identify
this book with The Handbook of Mathematical Functions
by Abramowitz and Stegun published in an inexpensive
paperback version by Dover Books. Unlike this standard reference, the book under consideration does not
give tables of numerical data pertaining to the function types covered. This absence has been intentional. The easy access most people have to computers now
makes books with endless tables of evaluated functions historical curiosities. The authors do, however
provide graphs of the various functions which can be
read off with two or three significant figure accuracy. They also provide efficient algorithms for calculating the functions on computing devices.
SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES, by Minas Kafatos, ed., Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp 382. ISBN 0-521-342
46-5. Price: U.S.$ 54.50.
The book includes most useable functions
from simple
functions such as the constant, linear, and stepfunctions to more complex functions, such as elliptic
THE ROLE 07 7INE-SCALE MAGNETIC 7IELDS ON THE STRUCRE 07 THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE, Proceedings of the Inaugural Workshop and Round Table Discussion for the DE-S Telescope Installations on the Canary Islands, by
E.H. Schrnter, M. Vasquez, A.A. Wyller, ed.,Cam-bridge
University Press, 1987, pp.xi+379. ISBN 0-521-342813,
523.7 QP528. Price: U.S.$ 59.50.
116 Physics in Canada
July 1988
functions, Gauss functions, and
functions, which are defined
in terms of integral
transforms. The standard trigonometric,
and polynomial types are all systematically
discused. The authors have not restricted themselves to the
mathematically proper
function definitions. For instance they have included in the function
such creatures as the Dirac Delta "function" along
with a discussion
of the symbiotic Kronecker Delta.
Each chapter has a standard form: it is usually divided into fourteen sections on the various definitions
special cases, generalizations,
and relations proper
to the particular function. Behaviour
is discussed
and mapped out in red, green, and blue coloured curves. The analysis of each function is quite thorough.
The publishers seem to be aiming this book at reference libraries and scientific institutions
than at individuals.
The high quality glossy paper
(which helps to give this offsize book a hefty weight
just greater than two kilograms) and the multicoloured graphs (of which there are more than 150) explain
the cost. At the time of writing it is of the order
of $200 dollars Canadian! It is a pity that less expensive version could not be produced without the
aristocratic trappings that this book has been given.
In the chapter on Kelvin Functions the authors
explain that people who have a distaste for aristocracy
call these functions Thompson Functions,
after Wm.
Thompson, who changed his name upon being accepted to
the peerage. Presumably
such people would also have
problems with the style of this book.
My reservations
about the cost notwithstanding,
would wholeheartedly agree that excellent scholarship
has gone into making this reference work and
should be of great use to anyone who needs to know
anything about functions.
Dwight E. Vincent
Physics Department
University of Winnipeg
Mei-Li Shih and Jay R. Ackerhalt, World Scientific,
1987; pp xi+369. ISBN 0-971-50-180-5.
Price: US$ 28.00 pbk.
The contents of this book are much broader than the
title would indicate. In fact it contains a thorough
introduction to most aspects of dynamical chaos, lead
ing up to the specialized sections on
The subject to which the name "chaos" has been attached is based on the discovery that systems with
deterministic rules of evolution can nevertheless evolve
in an apparently random way. As a consequence
the formerly ill-defined notion of "randomness" which
has long been confused with indeterminism, has begun
of acquire a useful meaning. One may distinguish between regular and chaotic behaviour by following two
trajectories that are initially very close. In regular motion the separation between the trajectories
grows at most as a small power of time.
In chaotic
motion the trajectories diverge exponentially, and so
the future behaviour of an individual trajectory
becomes practically
even though it is
means the existence and
uniqueness of the trajectory, given the initial conditions. Predictability requires in addition that the
trajectories be insensitive to small errors in the
specification of
initial conditions.
Quite simple
systems with only a few degrees of freedom may exhibit both regular and chaotic motions in different regions of their phase space.
The book
is divided into two parts: Part 1 on distonian systems (23 sections). Some of the general topics covered in the first part are: period doubling,
and other route to chaos; Lyapunov exponents (which
characterize the rate of exponential divergence
strange attractors;
and Kolmogorov entropy The more
specialized topics on lasers include multi-mode
self-pulsing instabilities, and optical
The second part proceeds
from a review of actionangle variables to the important concept of invariant tori, and to the KAM theorem. The transition
from regular to chaotic motion is explained in terms
of overlapping resonances and the consequent
if invariant tori. Specific models studied include the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model, the
model, the periodically kicked pendulum and the classical model of excitation of molecular vibrations.
A section
"Is Classical
Deterministic?" takes its title from a paper of that
name by Max Born. Its inclusion is curious,
Born's question and his tentatively negative answer
to it were a consequence of his failure to conceptually distinguish determinism
But the earlier sections of this book provide the
basis for an unambiguously affirmative answer.
Quantum chaos is treated
in six sections. The problems
in this recent area of research
definition of its subject matter. Classical chaos is
defined in terms of the behaviour of trajectories,
but since quantum mechanics does not deal
individual trajectories
it is not immediately clear
what 'quantum chaos' refers to. The authors define
the subject as the study of those quantum
characteristics that distinguish systems whose classical behaviour is chaotic from those whose classical
behaviour is regular. They examine energy level distributions and power spectra of time-dependent probability amplitudes.
No definitive general conclusions
have yet been reached, but many interesting
have been obtained. For example the Jaynes-Cummings
model of a two-level atom interacting with its radiation field may exhibit chaos in certain limits,
if the rotating wave approximation is used, the results will always be regular.
I hope that the sales of this book will not be limited by the unfortunate choice of too restrictive a
title. In fact it could serve as a textbook for a
course on dynamical chaos.
Leslie E. Ballentine
Department of Physics
Simon Fraser University
CHAOS, NOISE AND FRACTALS, by E.R. Pike and L.A. Lugiato, ed., Adam Hilger, 1987, pp xiii+249, ISBN 085274-364-5, QA845.
Price: U.S.$ 43.00.
This volume in the Malvern Phys-ics Series is a collection of invited
contributions given at a special
seminar on Chaos, Noise and Fractals held at
in September, 1986. The avowed intent is to
present an overview of the way in which fractal and
chaotic structures behave in the presence of stochastic and quantum noise; taken as a whole, the 'chapters' in the book accomplish this objective
reasonably well.
There are thirteen articles in the book, ranging from
an eight page article on "Fractals in Quantum Mechanics" to a fifty page article on "Fixed Points and
Chaotic Dynamics of an Infinite Dimension Map".
type face used varies widely but in each case the result is very readable; as well the number of typographical errors seems remarkably small. The usefulness of the book is also enhanced by the inclusion of
a fairly complete index.
As one would expect, given the reputation of
editors of the present volume, there
is considerable
emphasis on quantum optics as a source for the models
discussed in many of the contributions.
article by Moloney, Adachihara, McLaughlin and Newell
on "Fixed Points and chaotic Dynamics of an Infinite
Fixed Map", for instance, takes as its starting point
the non-linear differential equation
for laser beam
in an optical ring cavity containing a
non-linear medium. This article is especially interesting, by the way, for its skillful blend of analytical and numerical techniques.
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 117
A sampling of some of the other longer chapters:
Distributions in Astable Dissipative Quantum Systems", "Limitations of the Rabi Model
for Rydberg Transitions", "Ergodic Semiclassical Quan.
turn Mechanics", "Chaos in a Driven Quantum Spin System" , "A Review of Progress in the Kicked
Problem", and "Influence of Phase Noise in Chaos and
Driven Optical Systems".
John Cordes
Department of Physics
Dalhousie University
March, Plenum Press, 1986, pp xii+284.
Price: U.S.$
This book attempts to provide theoretical descriptions of the states of molecules perturbed by their
adsorption on metallic surfaces, as well as of dynamical surface processes involving absorbed molecules
and of surface catalysis.
An introductory chapter reviews the
and chemical kinetics of adsorption, desorption
catalysis. The next two chapters treat the subject
of the book's title: the perturbation of chemical
bonds in diatomic and polyatomic molecules by adsorption on a metal surface In the approach of the author
and his co-workers, the simple valence-bond description of an isolated molecule is modified to
the electrostatic
image potential of the metal surface considered as a perfect conductor. The results
are applied to questions of chemical interest such as
the occurrence of molecular or dissociative chemisorption of diatomic molecules on different metals, and
the conformational changes of polyatomic molecules.
Such semiempirical methods are gradually being replaced by molecular orbital calculations on clusters,
which are based on modern quantum chemistry and take
account of the microscopic structure of the metal
surface. March considers some cluster calculations
briefly but emphasizes their computational difficulties.
In the second half of the book the author
involving motion of absorbed molecules.
Chapter 4 deals with vibrational modes and the theoretical basis of neutron inelastic scattering
surfaces. Chapter
5 presents various theories of
molecular desorption
rates, which are important to
understanding the rates of chemical
catalysed by surfaces. The final chapter considers chemical aspects of catalysis, considering
reaction rate
theory in general, as well as diverse topics such as
symmetry control of a surface reaction and
surface reactions with oscillating rates.
I found this book rather difficult to read. The presentation of many subjects is sketchy and discontinuous, jumping from one subject to another without apparent connection. Many
important details and even
definitions are left to the original references.
my opinion clearer introduction to surface chemical
physics are available, for example Somorjai's Chemistry in Two Dimensions: Surfaces, or Rhodin and Ertl's
Nature of the Surface Chemical Bond.
John M. Sichel
Département de chimie et
Université de Moncton
and Steven A. Feller, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1987,
pp viii+216. ISBN 0-471-62941-3; TA 1540.K37.
Price: CANS 33.95 he, $ 23.95 pbk.
The subject of holography can be taught and studied
at many different levels ranging from high school to
institutions. Accordingly many
have been written on this subject. Most of these are
at an advanced
level and incorporate
mathematics, while others are at elementary level and
explain some very basic hands-on information.
118 Physics in Canada
July 1988
The Complete Book of Holograms written by Kasper and
Feller fulfills the need of a suitable book for high
school or freshman level where the subject is treated
in sufficient detail to bring out all of its important aspects. This book is especially useful for university freshman, scientists, artists, teachers (onesize-fits-all type). The authors have very successfully accomplished the very tricky and difficult job
of explaining a complex scientific topic without mathematical derivations or equations. As pointed out in
the foreword, the reader is treated
as an uninformed
interested and intelligent friend.
are lucid and full.
The first chapter deals with a comparison between a
hologram and a photograph. The next few chapters explain very clearly the optics of holography in terms
of the geometric model
first suggested by Professor
Jeong of Lake Forest College, Illinois. Many properties of holograms depend on diffraction phenomena
which the geometric model does not exlain. The authors have accordingly made use of the zone plate model
to explain these
in chapter nine. Chapters 1 to 8
deal with reflection, transmission, single-beam, doublebeam, and the cylindrical holograms. The remaining
10 to 12 explain fancy (hybrid type) holograms like the rainbow type and the computer generated type. Special techniques such as holographic interferometry
(holometry), microscopy and holographic
movies have also been explained.
enable the reader to gain up-to-date
the state of the art. Finally, in the last two chapmation (including the price range) for the setting up
of a holography lab; it includes experimental
techniques, films and film handling, processing etc.
Two appendices on laser safety and sources of materials used for holography have been appropriately added
at the end of the book.
The size of the book (only 200 page) makes it an easy
and enoyable reading. It is the most appropriate book
to teach holography to a mixed group (scientists, artists, hobbyists etc.) or to a non science audience.
Anyone who has some interest in holography should
have this book in his collection.
Sudha Joshi
Department of Physics
York University
Longhi and L. Lusanna, ed., World Scientific Publishing Co., 1987; pp xv+351. ISBN 9971-50-182-1.
US$ 55.00.
This book gives various aspects of relativistic dynamics with a particular emphasis on the Dirac-Bergmann
theory of constraints. It represents a compilation of
papers presented at a workshop held
in Florence,
Italy in 1986. The papers presented encompass
fields of general relativity, relativistic mechanics,
particle physics, and mathematical physics. There are
reviews of standard dynamics and constraint theory as
well as many applications.
The classical canonical formalism of Lagrangian dynamical systems forms the starting point of many theoretical discussions of gauge fields. Underpining
in this approach is the work of P.A.M.
Dirac starting in 1933 and P.G. Bergmann starting in
1949. Dirac considered
field theories with
degrees of freedom and suggested a method for their
quantization. He later generalized his analysis
the case of general relativity. Bergmann was concerned with covariant field theories from the start and
with his collaborators developed
the connection between gauge invariants and the constraints of these
The proceedings start with a paper by Bergmann who
submitted his article upon the request of the organizers even though he did not attend. This paper discusses in a non-mathematical way the history and phil».
osophy behind the canonical
formulation of general
relativistic theories. It is an excelent article, es-
for anyone wishing to learn more about this
method of treating general relativity, but not wishing to get into the depths of the mathematics.
follows the Bergmann paper is a series of papers discussing the canonical formalism in slightly different
contexts. There
is a paper by Kastrup which reformulates the classical field theory in terms of differential forms. There is a paper by Aldaya and Azcaraga
using the group manifold approach. Then there
papers on the formalism applied to general relativity
(GR). There is a paper by Ashetar and another by Regge who addresses the problem of using the
formalism in quantizing GR. Charap gives a discussion
of constraint theory and vierbein GR. Higher dimensions are brought
in by Teitel-boim
There are several papers on particle dynamics with a
special emphasis on the two-body bound-state problem.
In this category are papers by Barut on
in QED and by Crater and Van Alstine on spinning quarks in mesons. There are papers on strings
and other topics in quantum field theory.
gives a discussion of light-cone-gauge quantization
of superstrings
and the divergences
Bonora et al. analyze chiral anomalies between field
theory and strings. After having given the reader a
taste of the overall mixture that this book represents, I will not mention the other excellent contributions to these proceedings for the sake of brevity.
This book serves as a good pedagogical introduction
for theoretical physicists who wish to understand the
basis of the dynamical constraint method and who wish
to see the extent that it is relevant. It also provides valuable references
for anyone who wishes to
get to the roots of the canonical
formalism and any
of its manifold applications.
Dwight E. Vincent
Department of Physics
University of Winnipeg
charjee, World Scientific, 1987; pp x+243.
ISBN 9971-50-224-0. Price: US$ 39.00.
Given the catchy title and the author's aim of "making the complex behaviour of fluids accessible to undergraduates" I had high hopes
for this short (but
not inexpensive) monograph. I was expecting, perhaps,
like Schuster's "Deterministic Chaos" specialized to fluids or a specialized version of Berge,
Pomeau and Vidal's classic "Order within Chaos", Wiey, the translation of the 1984 Hermann (Paris) "L'or.
dre dans le chaos".
What is provided is a collection of somewhat old-fash
ioned analyses, carefully following Chandrasekhar, to
take one from the Navier-Stokes equations to the mode
equations of the type made so famous by Lorenz, plus
a rather awkward attempt at presenting some of the
concepts involved in chaos. What was completely lacking was any picture of what the chaotic behaviour actually looked like in the fluid.
The purely fluid part is adequate, but dry and mathematical, with no physical insight. The chaos part is
rather opaque and eccentric, with excessive detail on
somewhat esoteric details and curious omissions (e.g.
no discussion of: normal attractors, contraction+expansion+folding = Smale horse-shoe = strange attractor, details of the Henon attractor, conditional periodicity) considering their importance
for fluids.
Without a significant knowledge of chaos already a
student would be quite lost. The experiments are no
better served. Curiously enough, after having
carefully introduced the Rayleigh number, the Prandtl
(p. 33, 109) and Nusselt number
flung at the reader with no explanation at all, although the Prandtl number was defined without being
in Eq. l-17c (as far as I could
being no index).
the book's attractive cover is the best
part. The print looks nearly typewritten (this is not
a compliment) and the author has chosen to use his
sketches rather than using copies of the
originals, which are far better. Nor have I ever be-
fore seen equations actually looking askew on a page:
p. 60
(figs. 4-7, 4-10) are the worst; p. 132 (Eq 714a), p. 104 (Eq. 8-54) and p. 176 (Eq. 9-5) are clearly crooked.
If you need to know how to get from basic fluid equations via multiple-scale analysis to the few-mode result, this book treats the following cases: RayleighBenard convection, thermohalines
(i.e. with salt as
well as temperature diffusion) and binary liquids.
Roads to chaos, strange attractors,
etc., and Rayleigh-Benard-Lorenz
behaviour with much much
besides, are far better treated by Bergé, Pomeau and
Vidal (ibid) who do not, however, discuss modes for
thermohalines or binary liquids.
The book, which takes the undergraduate interested in
fluids from the Navier-Stokes equation through to
fluid chaos, is still to be written.
Tudor-Wyatt Johnston
INRS Energie
Varennes, Que.
Our Basic Concepts of the
Physical World, by Fritz Rohrlich, Cambridge University Press,
1987, pp x+229. ISBN 0-521-30749-X;
QC173.55.R64. Price: US$ 34.50.
This is a book with a markedly philosophical flavour,
designed to acquaint non-scientific majors and members of the sophisticated
general public with the
conceptual framework of modern physics.
It is fairly
in scope focussing attention on
and quantum mechanics.
It is, accordingly, free of
analytical mathematics, though it does, wisely, make
use of space-time diagrams in the presentation of the
special theory of relativity; always a difficult subject to approach intuitively.
The treatment of the history and structure of physical ideas is very clear and cogent. For this reviewer, however, the most fascinating parts of the book
are to be found in its
Rohrlich has, in recent years, shown a strong interest in philosophical problems of quantum mechanics.
He appears to be highly motivated to enter the fray
on the side of the"realists" against the "instrumentalists", and to favour the view that the proper approach to understanding
quantum theory should be ontological rather than epistemological. He thus aligns
himself against the current cult of mystification
typical of much of the popular writing on the subject
- a cult typified by, for instance, H. Pagels and P.
C.W. Davies.
while professing adherence to the
realist doctrine, he appears unwilling to break with
the idealist imagery.
It seems that his realism is
more sustained by fiat than by substance. Only in his
excellent treatment of the famous "Schroedinger' s
Cat" pseudo-paradox does he become trenchant
in his
analysis, which leans heavily on Bohr's view of quantum measurement.
But one wishes that he had given a
clear prescription for skirting the excesses of the
interpretation" often presented (falsely) as the essence of the "Copenhagen view-point".
Ambiguity is also to be found in his account of the
transition from quantum mechanics to quantum
theory, which he introduces with the statement "the
electron is now described by a quantum field rather
than by a probability amplitude ...". Are both descriptions of the same world?
Yet the book clearly
rejects the common view of
working physicists that current "philosophy" in this
is largely irrelevant. Unfortunately,
only true if one believes that distorting or misleading the general public is not important.
I have noted that on the shelves of many
popular books on science are found in the section on
mysticism and the occult.
This is a public statement, and one that should not bring comfort to nor
invite complacency in the scientific community.
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 119
All reservations aside, however, the verdict on Rohrlich's book is a resounding "not guilty".
P.R. Wallace
Physics Department
McGill University
by A.M. Polyakov, Harwood
Academic Publ-ishers, 1987, pp x+301. ISBN 3-7186-03
Price: US$ 48.00, $ 18.00 pbk.
Out of his own scientific diary Polyakov has brought
forth a book that yields a remarkable harvest of insight into field theory.
In an unconventional
clear approach, he leads us through the
subtleties of quantum
field theory and statistical
mech anics, exploring their relationship along
We are treated to several delightful new derivations
of previously known results on non-Abelian gauge theories, instantons and string theory. Rather than remaining
in established territory, we are led to explore many areas of this subject that are not wellunderstood
in the hope that the approach
... will
stimulate deeper penetration into the subject.
This book would be suitable as a textbook for an
advanced graduate course in field theory. It should
provide a useful tool to anyone carrying out research
at the forefront of field theory.
Robert Mann
Department of Physics
University of Toronto
by D.C. Champeney,
Cambridge University Press, 1987, pp xi+185. ISBN 0521-26503-7; 0A403.5.C47.
Price: US$ 39.50.
Most modern Physicists have occasion to use Fourier
series and Fourier
integrals, particularly since the
advent of fast, economical, 'FFT' software for microcomputers. At the same time there is often concern at
the lack of 'rigour' which attends haphazard computation.
This excellent book enunciates the various
which apply in the area, discusses the necessary background theory involved and then gives precise statements of theorems and applicability.
The usual undergraduate Riemann integration technique
is often inadequate for a rigorous analysis of situations in which discontinuities are present in integrands, thus the author, properly, starts with an elementary account of Lebesgue integration. This is
well presented and distinctly more readable than much
of the material usually referenced.
Next comes a section on background theorems
inequalities. Minkowski, Holder and Young inequalities are followed by the important Fubini and Tonelli
theorems and by a discussion of continuity.
chapters on convergence and summability complete the
background material.
The remainder of the book consists really of two
parts, the first on Fourier integration and transformation and the second on Fourier series. In the integral material there is a good analysis of Wiener's
theorems and of correlation, a technique which
to many modern physical instruments. In
the sections on series, close attention
is paid to
sampling theorems, a topic which
is central to many
waveform analysis techniques.
The book ends with a chapter on generalized Fourier
series and with an extensive bibliography. The material will be of great value both as a teaching tool
and as a work of reference for the research. The book
is very clearly written.
A.D. Booth
Autonetics Research
Sooke, B.C.
120 Physics in Canada
July 1988
H.A. KRAMERS, Between Tradition and Revolution, by M.
Dresden, Springer-Verlag, 1987, pp xviv + 563. ISBN
0-387-96282-4. Price: US$ 59.95.
When Kramers died
in 1952 at the age of 57, Bohr
wrote his obituary,
in which he said, referring to
Kramers' theory of the dispersion of light
further developed
in collaboration with Heisenberg
(1925): "This work actually proved a stepping stone
for Heisenberg, who shortly afterwards
... accomplished a rational
formulation of quantum mechanics".
In fact, one may argue that Kramers' work played a
somewhat analogous role in Heisen berg's creation of
matrix mechanics as de Broglie's work did in the creation of Schroedinger's wave mechanics.
Those physicists who had close contact with
for many years - I am one of them - underwent his inspiring
influence, and admired his broad scientific,
literary and musical culture, cannot reconcile themselves with the fact that he is gradually
at best, just a name attached to some theorems, equations and mathematical methods in physics. The book
under review is an attempt to retard this perhaps inevitable historical process. The author, a professor
of physics at SUNY at Stony Brook, had, as a student
in Leyden,known Kramers. The sources of the book are,
in addition to Kramers' publications, his unpublished
correspondence and diaries, and interviews, by the
author and by others, with Kramers' colleagues, collaborators,
former students, and also members of his
What is the result of the author's endeavour? "As
structured, the book has considerable unity,
coherence and logic. It presents a clear, interesting
picture of an extraordinary person and an
scientist...". This
is what the author himself says
in the last paragraph of the Preface. I don't quite
agree with his characterization of his book. However,
the psychological portrait of Kramers, as a scientist
and as a man, which emerges from Dresden's voluminous
book, seems to me not only "interesting", but also on
the whole quite true, apart from some strange distortions here and there. On the other hand, Dresden's
survey of Kramers' research activities and their important results is heavily lopsided.
The author is fully aware of that serious
of his book. The necessity to shorten the original
1400 printed pages of text led the author to restrict
his detailed historical treatment to three topics.The
first two are Kramers' work on the theory of dispersion of light (1923-1925) and the ill-fated
BohrKramers-Slater theory (1924). Kramers was then
Copenhagen, where he came, in 1916, as a student,
from his native Holland to work with Bohr. From 1926
on, he was back in Holland, as a professor of theoretical physics, first in Utrecht and later in Leyden.
The third topic is Kramers' attempt to develop a Q.E.
D. based on his idea of mass renormalization
(19371948). Part 2 of the book deals with the first two
topics;Part 3, with the last one.
The origins of the B-K-S theory (which was an attempt
interpret the radiation phenomena without using the
concept of photons, at the price, however, of giving
up the principle of conservation of energy on the atomic scale), the ephemeral excitement created by it
among the contemporary physicists, whose reactions
varied from enthusiasm
to disbelief, and the coup de
grace given to it by the Bothe-Geiger experiment -all
that, and also the traumatic effect which the fiasco
of the theory had on Kramers, is described convincing
ly by Dresden in great detail. In no less detail does
Dresden describe the development of the quantum theory of the dispersion of light from its original form
established by Kramers to its final more general form
summarized in the Kramers-Heisenberg formula. In this
connection he also examines the puzzling question, to
what extent was Heisenberg led to the discovery
matrix mechanics by his close collaboration with Kramers, terminated
only half a year earlier; or, as
Dresden put it, "why didn't Kramers discover quantum
In his discussion of the third of the three topics
enumerated above the author tries to convince the
reader, perhaps successfully, of the importance
Kramers' contribution, still not widely known, to the
advent of Q.E.D. in its modern form.
The treatment of the three topics is thorough, mostly
technical, and contains many useful digressions. Unfortunately it is also irritatingly repetitious.
it is a fascinating story. It illustrates very nicely
the role of "the struggles, the mistakes, the
leads,... in the development of science". Its value
is enhanced by a judicious choice of numerous quotations from the letters not only of Kramers
but also
from those of Bohr, Pauli, Heisenberg, and
other eminent physicists.
There is no doubt that in no other topic of research
was Kramers as much emotionally involved as in those
three. And
since the author seems to be particularly
interested in Kramers' psychology, his selection of
those topics for an exhaustive discussion is understandable. It is, however, a great pity that all
other important contributions of Kramers to physics
are hardly mentioned
in the book or, at most, very
briefly. The origin and consequences of Kramers' celebrated general theorem on the energy value degeneracy are not discussed, nor are the concept of charge
conjugation introduced by him, his dominant role in
the development of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method, the Kramers-Kronig relations, etc. Even Kramers'
work on statistical mechanics, which Dresden characterizes as "of extraordinary depth and significance",
is out-lined on only three pages. If the author had
controlled his propensity for repetitions and
somewhat trimmed his verbosity, at least 100 pages could
have been saved
for a satisfactory
these topics. A complete list of Kramers'
not available
in the book, could not
replace such a discussion, but would, by their titles
be a useful addendum to what the author says in a two
page section entitled "The scope of Kramers'activities" about the great variety
and achievements in physics.
In Part 4 the author considers in detail the interplay between Kramers' character, beliefs and private
life on the one hand, and, on the other hand, his research work, teaching activities and public
Here also a recurring theme in this book is taken up
again: why Kramers, being more than once on the
threshold of major discoveries, did somehow not make
the last decisive step? In this connection the author
establishes a list of what he calls "near misses",
that is, of missed opportunities, in Kramers' scienti
fic life and speculates on their causes. I think that
most of them are really not
"near misses," but the
author's speculations are often interesting. However,
when he unexpectedly tries to ascribe "near misses"
to Kramers' lacking
"the compulsion, perhaps
interest to push his ideas to total clarity,
precision or ultimate simplicity" then I disagree.
What really mattered
to Kramers in his research was
to achieve an "approbation intérieure".
This is a
phrase he
in a letter of Fresnel to Thomas
Young, and I heard him quote it more than once But an
"approbation intérieure" does not necessarily imply a
worldly success.
W. Opechowski
Department of Physics
University of B.C.
Iachello, and A.
Arima, Cambridge University Press,
1987, pp
ISBN 0-521-30282-X; QC793.5.B62.
Price: US$ 59.50.
Just over a decade ago. Franco Iachello and co-workers introduced a new model, the interacting boson
model, to describe in a unified way collective
properties of nuclei.
Its reception in the middle '70's
was hostile. Protagonists
said it was no more than a
reformulation of the collective model developed
Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson based on the concept of
shape variables.
In time this hostility died down.
To-day the interacting boson model is well established, its group structures a delight for mathematicians
its applications
a resurgence
for nuclear spectroscopy.
The basic ideas are simple. Nucléons are grouped in
pairs, to be known as bosons and governed by boson
commutation relations, in much the same way as Cooper
pairs are introduced in the electron gas. There are
six boson operators, one representing an s-boson and
five d-bosons. Their direct product with each other
form the 36 elements of the group U(6). The trick is
to identify chains of subgroups that include the
group 0(3), the rotation group. There are three such
chains; one with the group U(5) produces spectra reminiscent of Bohr and Mottelson's vibrational nucleus
another containing SU(3) yields rotational spectra.
The authors describe these groups chains in detail,
the construction of their basis states and the assign
ment of quantum numbers. The Hamiltonian and transition operators are expressed in terms of the Casimir
operators of the groups (with coefficients taken as
unknown parameters), and analytic expressions given
for their matrix elements.
Several medium and heavy nuclei have spectra that can
be classified
as being purely vibrational or purely
rotational. Many more, however,
fall somewhere
between. This book is rather sketchy when it comes to
comparison with data; little is said on the choice of
parameters in the construction of Hamiltonian
transition operators, even less on numerical diagonalisation of mixed representations.
The authors cover only properties of nuclei with an
even number of protons and neutrons. A second volume
is promised to cover the properties of odd mass nulei -the so-called interacting boson-fermion model.
A third volume will cover the microscopic structure
and the justification of the model; the nucleus after
all is made up of fermions, not bosons.
The book will appeal to mathematicians interested in
boson algebras; the mathematical precision of the opening chapters is a delight to read.
It will also be
a useful reference work for the nuclear spectroscopist interested in comparing the results of experiments with the predictions of the model. Many formulae are given for the different group chains ensuring
that this book will be a useful compendium.
Ian S. Towner
Chalk River Nuclear
Chalk River
MASS SPECTROSCOPY, Second Edit., by H.E. Duckworth,
R.C. Barber, and V.S.Venkatasubramanian, Cambridge
University Press, 1986, pp xxii+337.
Price: US $69.50.
The first Edition of this book is highly regarded for
its content, historical flavour, clarity, and concise
ness. While emphasizing basic principles of instrumentation, it reflects the progress of many facets of
mass spectroscopy up to the mid-1950's.
Advances during the last three decades have
in the Second Edition. This formidable task
resulted in 131 more pages. New material is distributed uniformly, embracing the authors'
(ion optics, atomic mass determinations), newer sources and detectors,
and additional areas of applications such as solid state physics and space research.
Organic mass spectroscopy has emerged in a more comprehensive separate chapter.
Specialists will notice omissions. Whereas uses of
organic mass spectrometry in medicine and environment
al studies are summarized, the many medical uses of
stable isotopes (measurements of total body water,
energy expenditure, metabolism, ancient diets, etc,)
and isotopic tracing of pollutants in the environment
are not mentioned.
Occasionally, an additional key sentence would better
reflect current knowledge. For example, the two ranges of carbon
isotope compositions for plants are
cited as "revealing the environmental
photosynthetic fractionation". In fact,
it should be
stated that three distinct photo-synthetic schemes
for land plants have been recognized for over a decade, thanks in part to carbon isotope data.
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 121
A few typographical errors can be found in equations,
formulae, and author names (e.g.Clansen for
Clausen and Kanaseiwitch
for Kanasewich). Occasionally, words are used incorrectly; "transformed
reaction" should read "transformed ...
by bacterial action". Whereas one may speak of "parts
per thousand" or "per mil", "parts per mil"
not be used.
As a formal text, it lacks problems for assignments.
However, it is an excellent
first book for independent study or the classroom. Although many details of
electronic circuitry, vacuum components, etc., were
deliberately omitted, one nevertheless
finds much
practical information. Most chapters can stand alone
and need not be read or studied in order. The book
can also serve for enjoyable casual reading.
The First Edition sold
for $6.00 in 1958. Allowing
for inflation, the expanded content, and better quality paper, the Second Edition represents comparable
if not better value.
H. Roy Krouse
Department of Physics
The University of Calgary
Press, 1986, pp viii+319. ISBN 0-521-32380-0.
Price US$ 44.50.
Why has a theorem attributed to, but not written by,
an obscure 18th century
British clergyman become so
important to 20th century statistics? This book,
which is the proceedings of the Fourth Maximum Entropy Workshop held at the University of Calgary in
1984, goes a long way in explaining the importance of
Bayes' theorem and maximum entropy methods.
In essence, Bayes' theorem
is concerned with the
process of learning: how statistical inferences are
modified in the light of new information. The importance of Bayes'theorem is that the prior knowledge of
a subject is not lost when new knowledge of the subsubject is obtained. Bayes' theorem allows the mathematical
reconciliation of new and prior knowledge.
The maximum entropy principle is borrowed from statistical mechanics and states that the "most
description of our knowledge of a subject is that
state that has the highest entropy.
This book consists of 17 papers describing
and current status of maximum entropy
Bayesian techniques. The rationale for the maximum
entropy method is elegantly described in terms of the
behaviour of monkeys and kangaroos.
in several papers is that of image reconstruction. Algorithms are described for the enhancement of blurred or fuzzy images using maximum entropy
Image reconstruction using the maximum
entropy technique
is shown to have many fields of
application, including space exploration and
geological prospecting.
The reader is also shown how the
blurred images taken by automatic cameras can be
to yield the registration numbers of
speeding high-way drivers!
This is not a book for the neophyte, but it does provide a fairly comprehensive
survey of the fields of
Bayesian reconciliation and maximum entropy.
J.R. Walker
Pinawa, Manitoba
International Conference on Modelling Under Uncertainty. Stokes Page, 1986, by S.B. Jones and D.G.S. Davies, ed., Institute of Physics (Taylor and Francis),
1986, pp xii +329.
ISBN 0-85498-171-3;
Price: US$ 66.00.
On the flyleaf to this book, the publisher states
that the organisers sought to draw together mathema122 Physics in Canada
July 1988
tical modellers, statisticians, and decision
from a wide variety of backgrounds. This is certainly
reflected in the contents of the book: the 25 papers
and 7 posters are an eclectic collection representing
the many challenges of modelling under uncertainty.
The applications discussed
in this book range from
economic modelling, through the design of road junctions, to the consequences of accidents at nuclear
Much of the discussion in this book concerns modelling where probability density functions
represent the uncertainty in the input parameters. Often the modelling
involves some variant of the Monte
Carlo method. Topics include: Bayesian
reconciliation, Markov models, fuzzy set theory, and the public
perception of risk. Sensitivity analysis is discussed
in many of the papers of this book. In addition
'conventional' sensitivity of rate of change of
consequence Y with respect to the input parameter X,
the conference concluded that the rate of change of
uncertainty in X is important.
Areas identified as needing further research included
the description of ignorance in terms of PDFs, and
the presentation of results to technical and non-tech
nical audiences.
As is often the case with confererence proceedings, this book lacks a strong central
focus. It does, however, provide a good review of the
methods and developing area of physics.
J.R. Walker
Pinawa, Manitoba
CRYSTALS, Vol. 1 and 2, by D.S. Chemla and J. Zyss,
V.l; ISBN 0-12-170612-5
(v.2). Price: Can$ 115.50.
The rapid development of non-linear optics holds
promise for important applications in optical information processing, optical communications, integrated
optics and so forth. Historically, due to the emergence of nonlinear optics from solid-state physics,
where inorganic crystals, semi-conductors, and insulators formed a major part of the materials
investigated. Recently, it is recognized that extremely large non-linear responses are required for many applications in miniature integrated optical devices and
image processing devices. Meanwhile, it is
also recognized that some organic and polymeric materials with large delocalized pi-electrons do exhibit
large nonlinear response. Indeed, in many
cases they are much larger than their inorganic counterparts. Furthermore, the nonlinear effects due to
the polarization of the pi-electron cloud, as opposed to displacement of nuclear coordinates found in
inorganic materials which are bandwidth
limited, can
be utilized
for very high frequency application. It
is very possible that the properties of organic or
polymeric materials can be engineered to optimize for
the given application.
Although the field of nonlinear optics has been the
stronghold of the physics and electrical engineering
if many of the potential
are to be realized, then material science and chemistry must play an important role in its future devvelopment. In the spirit of such realization,
two volume set comes into being.
The editor organized articles in this two volume set
by the types of non-linear optical phenomena.
this set has four parts: introduction, quadratic nonlinear optical effects (i.e. three-wave mixing), cubic non-linear optical effects
and concluding comments. The first part has only one
article which gives an overview of the basic properties of organic matter. The first chapter of Part II
deals with the physical aspects of quadratic optical
effects in organic molecules and crystals, while the
second chapter concentrates on the quantum-chemical
aspects. The next chapter demonstrates the benefits
of using quantum-chemistry-based models and symmetri-
es to determine the molecular engineering.
Chapter 4
deals with the technologically critical
issues of
growth and characterization of high quality bulk organic crystals and wave-guide structures. The next
chapter introduces the growth of thin
films by the
technique. Chapter
6 illustrates
the strategy of concentrating
on a single molecular
crystal as the target and trading second
generation efficiency with the transparency in the U.
V. The following chapter discusses another type of
trade-off between the unpredictable orientation
molecules in crystalline media and the possibility of
acting on the property
of liquid-crystalline structures. The
last chapter of Part II, also the
chapter of Volume
1, shows the dominant electronic
contribution to the electro-optic effects in organics.
Part III in vol. 2 concentrates on the
In the first three chapters, the polydiacetylene family is singled out for its many appealing physical and chemical features.
Its basic structural and electronic properties are introduced in
Chapter 1. Experimental
studies of third-order processes in these compounds are discussed in Chapters 2
and 3. Chapter
4 presents an general discussion of
the relation between
system dimensionality and optical response.
The next chapter presents
computations on specific systems and strongly
suggests that polymeric structures can also be engineered in the same way as was established
for molecular
systems and for quadratic effects. Chapter 6 discusses the important aspects of multiphoton spectroscopy
used as a tool to disentangle some of the previously
features of molecular excited states.
The concluding chapter
in Part IV points out one of
the avenues to explore in the near future in the application of modern concepts of chemistry to optics.
The appendixes provide a much needed
data bank on powder SHG tests and molecular
secondorder hyperpolarizability of organics.
In such a rapidly evolving field, one can anticipate
that an update or extension of this book will be need
ed within the next five years or so.
most of the material covered in these two volumes
will be the base of those further developments.
set gives a comprehensive review of nonlinear optical
properties and effects of organic and polymeric materials. I recommend this set to scientists and engineers who are involved in nonlinear optical materials,
optics, optical image processing, and optical communications.
Every technical library should
also have this set on its shelves for reference.
K.K. Lee, Perkin-Elmer Danbury, Conn.
N.G. Basov, ed., Kevin S. Hendzel, transi.. Nova Science Publishers Inc., 1987, pp v+281. ISBN 0-941 74301-2. Price: US$ 85.00.
Over a quarter of a century has passed
since the
first semiconductor laser was demonstrated.
Semiconductor laser devices have made enormous advances and
these lasers have
found a broad range of practical
applications. Their advantage in compact size, efficiency,
low operation voltage and power requirement,
economically priced, etc., are being utilized in such
applications as optical communications by optical fibers, optical disks recording and play-back, spectroscopic diagnostics of gaseous media, atmospheric pollution monitor, laser printers, lasers projection tel
evisions, etc. Yet, due to the complexity of the semi
conductor laser systems, there are still some physics
problems that have not yet been solved.
This volume presents a brief survey of the physics,
the achievements and the problems of semiconductor
lasers, a discussion of the phenomena of semiconductor lasers, a discussion of the phenomena of nonlinear
refraction and the influence of carriers on the index
of refraction of a semiconductor. A distinct characteristic of semiconductors is their significant optical nonlinearity. The influence of free carriers on
the refractive index
is substantial when the carrier
concentration depends on intensity, either due
absorption or stimulated emission. In
semiconductor lasers this influence produces a number
of phenomena, such as self-focussing, self-phase modulation, non-linearity
of optical losses, frequency
self-modulation, bistable modes in compound cavities
and amplifiers. These physical principles are
used to study self-stabilisation of single-frequency
emission conditions.
Both theoretical and experimental research are presented.
This volume deals with some of the physics
which are not
in the Western literature.
Partly due to this, a few of the papers in this
volume reference mainly the Russian literature. Meanwhile, some of the Russian references cited in this
volume are very interesting, yet are not well known
in the Western literature. In summary, this volume is
a welcome addition to the literature of semiconductor
lasers. Research physicists working in the physics of
the non-linear properties of semiconductor
will find several papers in this volume quite useful.
K.K. Lee, Perkin-Elmer, Danbury Conn.
PASCAL-SC: A Computer Language
for Scientific Computation, PERSPECTIVES IN COMPUTING, Vol.
17, by Gerd
Bohlender, Christian Ullrich, Jurgen Wolff von Gudenberg, and Louise B. Rail, Academic Press, 1987, pp ix
ISBN 0-12-111155-5; QA76.73.P216 P37.
Price: US$ 50.50.
Pascal is a weak language for scientific
for a number of reasons. The Authors of this attempt
to improve it concentrate
on two things, first the
inadequacy of its arithmetic package which will, for
example, give a variety of answers to relatively simple calculations. The authors cite the evaluation of:
9x 4 - y 4 + 2x 2 when x=10864 and y=18817. Three slight
ly different procedures give, as the result: 1.59E05,
8.41E05 and 1.00000. The last result is the correct
The second perceived inadequacy is the absence of
vector and matrix operations
in standard Pascal.
These and other operations such as complex arithmetic
are included in the new Pascal-SC.
It is stated that
compilers are available for Z80, 8088 and 68000 based
machines these, and this book, will be of great interest to those who like to use the language.
A.D. Booth
Autonetics Research
Sooke, B.C.
THE QUANTUM UNIVERSE, by Tony Hey and Patrick Walters
Cambridge University Press, 1987, pp xi+180. ISBN 0521-26774-7; QC174.12.H48.
The reality of quantum mechanics in our universe is
indisputable. Yet the laymen typically find this subject both obscure and irrelevant. Even for the scientist, the subtle relationship between quantum mechanics and reality is often difficult to understand.
"The Quantum Universe"
is a book that will be appreciated and enjoyed for a long time to come, by both
scientists and laymen alike. In refreshingly non-technical but beautifully
accurate language it tells the
story of quantum mechanics from its inception to the
present. Its successive chapters delicately unravel
the knots of incomprehensibility
that the
often seems to present. Making no use of mathematics,
quantum mechanics forces upon us are lucidly expounded in words and pictures.
Here at last is a book that clearly demonstrates the
relevance of quantum mechanics.
Photography, fission
and fusion, carbon dating, transistors,
stars, lasers, superfluids, super conductors and subatomic particles are enthusiastically paraded by. The
human element of the subject weaves the chapters together with each chapter containing photographs
short biographies of the major contributors to the
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 123
This book will have an enormous readership, from the
curious laymen, the veteran researcher.
I recommend
it highly.
Robert Mann
University of Toronto
EVALUATION. Vol. 6A and 6B, by Donald 0.
and Dale E. Chimenti, ed., Plenum Press, 1987, pp vii
+ 1857. ISBN 0-306-41678-6. Price: US$ 245.00.
This conference is an annual event usually held in
San Diego in August. The proceedings are always huge:
for 1986, the two volumes total 1857 pages.
In this
case, quality goes with quantity and it is a pleasure
to support a continuing effort by the editors in a
very important area.
The scope
is vast. The contents cover generic techniques (ultra-sonics, eddy current, thermal, acoustic
emission, X ray, CT, NMR etc.) imaging and microscopy
image analysis and AI, reliability, composites, electronic materials and material characterisation. Of these, the advance in the techniques themselves is one of the most important topics. It is interesting to see that thermal wave imaging is now an
established technique, ranking after ultrasonics and
eddy current as regards the number of contributions.
The second main area, as might be expected, is materials characterisation. Advanced composites and
of weldments and joints were the
main considerations here.
As the title implies, this series is particularly
useful for detecting trends in NDE. As compared
earlier volumes, there is continued emphasis here on
thermal imaging and sensors.
There is new interest
in artificial intelligence which is clearly finding
its way into NDE. Basically, AI is seen as a way of
improving the quality and efficiency of data collecting and as a tool for interaction with the non-specialist.
In conclusion, this is the bible for trends in NDE in
the North American context. Unless you were a participant, the proceedings do not belong on your bookshelf, but they are a must for your University or
Company library. The search for new advanced materials is never ending and their evaluation becomes critically
in their new and varied applications. NDE is still a sadly neglected area of engineering research and the present collection to keeping
this important subject alive.
J.D.N. Cheche
Université de Sherbrooke
Cheng-Yih Chen, éd., World Scientific,
1987, pp xix
+352. ISBN 9971-50-192-9.
Price: US$ 64.00.
For one who has seen in display, in a Wuhan museum,
the 64 magnificent 5th century bronze set-bells and
wondered how they might sound, it is a real pleasure
to read that they not only sound fine, but also provided concrete evidence that ancient Chinese knew the
chromatic scale. They used a set of surprisingly simple yet accurate, formulas to generate it. The study
leading to this conclusion
is reported in one of the
most delightful articles in the book. It is described
by the publisher on the dust jacket as "a representative sample of current work in the history of science and technology by Chinese scholars".
The set-bells were unearthed in 1978 from the tomb of
Marquis Yi of the state of Zeng, in what is now Hubei
province. Archeologists have ascertained that the
tomb was sealed in the year -433. Editor Chen, a Professor of Physics at the University of California,
San Diego, tells us of the 64 bells. Forty-five form
a chromatic tonal system, apparently made to the specification of Marquis Yi, in around -450. Now, anyone who knows anything about Chinese music knows that
124 Physics in Canada
July 1988
it is based primarily on a pentatonic scale, with the
equivalents of C, D, E, G and A called gung, shang,
jiao, zhi, and yu. The frequency ratios for G/C, D/G,
A/D and E/A are given by the so-called up-down rule,
3/2, 3/4, 3/2 and 3/4. This gives a C major key where
the major 2nd (D), and perfect fifth (G), have exactly the same values as in the natural intonation.
(E), and 6th (A), are lightly sharp, by a
factor of 81/80,
in frequency.
This is presumably
the source of the odd feeling one has when listening
to Chinese music. The agreement in the G key is better with only the major 6th being sharp (by the same
factor), and the other notes, including the
4th, have the same value as in the Natural scale.
What then did the Chinese know about the chromatic
scale? Chen tells us that the prescription for constructing
it was explicitly given in "Master
(Annals)", published in -239. Presumably the method must have been known for some time
before that. It is simple, involving only two freguen
cy ratios made up of powers of 2 and 3, r^ - 3'/2
2187/2048 = 1.06787 and r 2 = 2 8 / 3 5 = 256/243=1.05350.
Both of these are approximations to the
ratio for the Equally Tempered scale: r = 2 1 ' 1 2 =
1.05946. The value rj^ is used
five times for the
ratios C#/C, D#/D, F/E, G#/G and A#/A, with r 2 used
for the seven remaining ratios, D/C#, and so on. The
ratio for the octave is rj x
as it sho-uld be.
The resulting
"Zhou scale",
C, is a sharp
approximation to the Equally Tempered scale, with the
larger deviation occurring on the minor notes.
approximation is considerably better in G.
In comparison, the Natural scale utilizes the additional prime number 5 and the four frequency ratios
s x = 27/25 = 1.08, s 2 =16/15 = 1.06667, S 3 = 135/128
- 1/05469 and s 4 = 25/24 = 1.04167 to construct a
scale which, in C, is partly flat and partly sharp
relative to the Equally Tempered scale. It is interesting to note that, in order of decreasing magnitude
the order of the seven ratios are: s^ > r^ > s 2 > r >
s 3 > r 2 > s 4 . Remarkably, the Natural scale uses the
two poorest approximations three successive times s 4 ,
Sj, s 4 for the major 6th, minor 7th and major 7th to
give the top end of the scale a wildly modulating effect.
And what of Marquis Yi's set of bells?
reveal that the fundamental frequency is 410.1 Hz.,
and that they were constructed recognizably after the
Zhou scale. But with the exception of the minor 7th,
they were sharp; with some being very sharp. Consider
ing that they were made more than 24 centuries ago,
and that they must have endured a good deal of heaving and shoving under deep six in the intervening
years, that is not all that bad.
An article on the comparative study of early Chinese
and Greek work on mathematics raised the old question
of who first discovered the Pythagorean theorem. Euclid in his "Elements"
(c.-300) attributed it to Pythagoras (about -530). Although the earliest Chinese
text extant that mentions the theorem could have been
written in the -11th century, I am not sufficiently
convinced by arguments given in the present volume to
doubt Needham's conclusion that most likely "Zhou Bei
Xuan Jing" was written not much earlier than -450. In
any case, the Zhou proof was not axiomatic and deductive, but rather was algebraic and made use of the
"triangle of 3-4-5".
However, the Chinese more than
caught up with the Europeans by the 5th century, when
Zu derived
for n the limit 3.1415926 < r < 3.1415927
achievement unrivaled elsewhere until late 16th century.
On the heels of the supernova 1987A and in the midst
of the hype for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, it
is handy to have two, one old and one new, cataloques
of supernovae in recorded history. Of course the well
known 1054 SN in Taurus
(Crab Nebula) is included in
the old one - Weisskopf once said it is the real reason why July 4th should be celebrated. Among the oldest Guest Star (SN in ancient Chinese text) in the
new catalogue is one sighted in -532, which we
told should be identified with the astronomical curiosity CTB 87.
Other articles discuss optics (the Mohist Canon, -450
to -250, gives a drawing of a pinhole camera), seismology, Metallurgy,
rocketry, tribology, and much
more than can be mentioned here. And no more needs
to be said of this highly enjoyable and
Danbury Conn.
Strom, ed., American Institute of Physics,
1987, pp
241. ISBN 0-88318-538-5; Q175.5.S64.
Price: US$ 41.25, $ 31.25 pbk.
Le titre de ce livre est trompeur. Il ne s'agit pas
ici de l'opinion de la science sur certains problèmes
sociaux: après tout, la science étant le fruit
d'esprits humains, et les problèmes sociaux n'étant pas
toujours bien définis les opinions scientifiques peuvent diverger. Ce n'est pas non plus un ensemble d'opinions personelles
sur certains problèmes sociaux
donnés. Non: c'est en fait une collection d'opinions,
provenant de dizaines de scientifiques et
d'ingénieurs (dont 12 prix Nobel), sur des sujets fort variés
touchant tous, de près ou de loin, â des enjeux sociaux ou culturels.
On peut reprocher un certain manque d'unité à ce livre par ailleurs fort intéressant. L'éditeure a tout
simplement invité quelques douzaines de chercheurs à
lui soumettre des articles courts portant sur des enjeux sociaux et culturels de leur choix. Ce sont les
articles de ceux qui qui ont relevé le défi qui forment ce livre de l'AIP. Puisque les auteurs ont choisi
eux-mêmes les sujets, sans consultation entre eux, le
livre manque peut-être d'harmonie et certainement de
débats. Mais pas d'intérêt...
La plupart des articles ont déjà été publiés ailleurs
dans le passé, souvent il y a fort longtemps. Mais de
les retrouver ensemble n'est pas une mauvaise chose.
Il y a un manque certain dans la formation universitaire du côté de la responsabilité sociale de scientifiques, et de la formation scientifique des diplômés
des disciplines non-scientifiques.
le notent
les auteurs, tout ce que font les scientifiques finit
par avoir des répercussions sociales, mais ces derniers n'en sont pas toujours conscients.
Et ils ne
sont pas toujours conscients de leur devoir d'instruire le publique de leur découvertes et de l'état de
la science.
D'autre part, personne n'est plus à l'abri de la science; il est donc malheureux qu'une grande
fraction de la population n'ait aucune connaissance en la matière bien qu'elle aura à prendre des
decisions technologiques (pire: elle s'en fiche).
C'est un peu pour répondre à ces deux besoins que ces
articles on été mis ensemble, et que ces auteurs ont
senti le besoin d'écrire ces articles.
Dans la partie I, "The Choices, The Politics", on
retrouve les articles qui touchent
l'éthique et la
politique des sciences.
Quelques articles àylire:
"Is Your Research Moral?", par Arthur Schawlow; "The
Conscience of a Physicist", par Robert C. Wilson;
"Forty Years After -Thoughts of a Nuclear Witness",
par Victor F. Weisskopf;
from 1945", par
Philip Morrison; Scientists in Politics",
Pauling. La partie II contient deux articles de Sakharov
sur le désarmement. Dans la partie III, les problèmes
de famine et de distribution des richesses, ainsi que
la croissance exponentielle de notre société, sont
traités. George Wald (Nobel, medecine 1967) lance un
appel émouvant dans "The children are Crying ...".
La partie IV donne la chance à certains
d'émettre des opinions un peu différentes. Ainsi la
place de la femme en science est le sujets de deux
articles. Kenneth G. Wilson compare
la révolution
informatique à celle d'imprimerie dans "The Computer
Revolution: Analogies to the Renaissance".
D'un intérêt particulier pour les non-scientifiques,
la partie V discute des promesses de
spatiale. J.A. Van Allen s'y déclare incapable de
justifier l'aventure spatiale humaine, alors que J.W.
Chamberlain y affirme au contraire l'importance 'géophysique' de chercher de l'intelligence extra-terrestre dans notre galaxie
(il reprend les arguments
de Drake).
La partie VI, peut-être la plus intéressante,
regroupe les articles sur la place des scientifiques et
des ingénieurs dans la société. Provocant, Simon Ramo
demande "Is There Intelligent Life on Earth?" Glenn
Seaborg dans "The Positive Power of Science" nous rappelle que nous approchons de l'ère oti la civilisation humaine devra se mettre sur l r état
de son développement: fini l'ère de l'expansion chaotique. Steven Weinberg signe l'article "Science as a
Liberal Art", un sujet qui me tient
à coeur.
Pour les physiciens, ne pas manquer l'article de Bardeen: "Beginnings of Solid State Physics
and Engineering".
Peut-être l'article qui est le plus proche du titre
du livre est celui de Maxime Singer: "Genetics and
the Law: A Scientist's View".
L'auteur y discute de
la double personalité de notre société.
le public est ignorant des faits scientifiques; il
est même craintif et agressif envers les scientifiques. Mais ce même public demande de plus en plus de
technologie, et il n'est pas prêt à en limiter l'utilisation. Un example: la génétique et les compagnies
pharmaceutiques ont mauvaises publicité, mais ceux-la
meme qui
les critiquent demandent qu'on donne des
antibiotiques à outrance à leurs enfants. Singer ne
manque pas de rappeler l'affaire Lyzenko pour
mettre en garde contre les décideurs de notre société
qui n'y comprenne rien à la science.
Un cours portant
le titre de ce livre
devrait être
imposé à tous les étudiants
universitaires. Rien de moins.
Gary W. Slater
Xerox Res. Centre of Canada
J.S. Bell, Cambridge University Press, 1987, pp xii+
212. ISBN 0-521-33495-0; QC173.97.B45.
Price: US$ 44.50.
The most commonly mentioned name in quantum mechanics
today (not counting those of the founding fathers) is
that of John Stewart Bell. Yet it is not the man who
is famous, but rather the theorem that bears his name
Bell's Theorem is widely
quoted, though less widely
understood, by physicists philosophers,
who are interested in science as a part of world-view
rather than a source of technology. Many writers (including this reviewer) have commented on the significance and implications of Bell's theorem for quantum
mechanics and relativity,
it is interesting to
learn what J.S. Bell thinks about the subject.
This book is a reprinting of 22 papers that Bell has
written on
"quantum philosophy" between the years
1964-1986. They have been completely
in type,
which presumably accounts for the high price of the
volume. There is considerable overlap among the papers, but even though
I had previously
read about
half of them, I achieved a clearer under standing of
his ideas by reading them all together.
Bell is a very good writer, with a clear and witty
The first paper in the collection
is his 1966 'Rev.
Mod. Phys.' article on "hidden variables in quantum
mechanics", in which he permanently buried Von Neumann's
"proof" that QM was incompatible with
detailed descriptions than that provided by a wavefunction. Then comes his most famous paper
in the
journal Physics, in which he first exposed a contradiction between
local causality and QM. The theorem
has the form of a non-constructive
existence proof.
By postulating the absence of non-local causality he
a now famous inequality restricting the degree of correlation between the results of measurements on separated objects. Quantum mechanics
predicts some correlations to be stronger than is allowXa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 125
ed by locality. In a later paper from which the title
of the book is taken, he identifies the "real problem
with quantum theory" as being "an apparent incompatibility at the deepest level, between the two fundamental levels, between the two fundamental pillars of
contemporary theory", these being Relativity and Quan
turn Mechanics. The conflict is not fully resolved by
the demonstration that the non-local
not be used to send messages at superluminal speeds.
Throughout several of the essays Bell comments on the
broader conceptual problems of QM, including in parti
cular, the "measurement" problem. He remarks,"I think
it is not right to tell the public that a central
role for conscious mind is integrated
into modern atomic physics. Or that'information' is the real stuff
of physical theory.
It seems to me irresponsible to
suggest that technical features of contemporary theory were anticipated by saints of ancient religions."
In the essay "Six Possible Worlds of Quantum Mechanics" , he describes three
interpretations of QM that
he regards as serious and "professional". Related to
each of them is an exaggerated "romantic" world view
that makes for easy quotations in the popular press,
but which does not deserve the attention it receives.
first "professional view is the pragmatic one
that uses "good taste and discretion" to decide which
parts of the measuring apparatus and environment can
be left out of the "quantum system" or treated classically, notwithstanding the fundamental ambiguity involved in any such division.The associated "romantic"
view is Bohr's philosophy of "complementarity", which
seems to revel in contradictions rather than in their
(Ex: Bohr's statement that the opposite
of a deep truth is not a falsehood but another deep
The second "professional" approach is to seek nonlinear generalisations of Schrtfdinger's equation
for example, automatically resolve Schrôdinger's cat into either a live or a dead state. The associated "romantic" view is the notion that conscious
ness plays a unique role in such processes, a view
for which there is no evidence whatsoever.
The third "professional" view is based on the "pilot
wave" or "quantum potential" of de Broglie and Bohm.
This is Bell's favourite of the six because it explicitly illustrates some of Bohr's better ideas, such
as his view that the result of a measurement
is not
a pre-existing property of the object,
but rather it emerges jointly
from the object and
apparatus, which must be considered as a whole.
also exposes a possible source of the non-local influence that is predicted but not described by Bell's
theorem. The related
"romantic" view is the Many
Worlds Interpretation, with its splitting of worlds
and observers to correspond to the unbound number of
terms that may occur in a state vector. Bell's arguments for more professionalism in fundamental physics
are gentle but well deserved rebukes of certain trends towards speculative enthusiasm.
Leslie E. Ballentine
Department of Physics
Simon Fraser University
STRUCTURE AND BONDING IN NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS, Proceedings of the International Symposium, Reston, Virginia, May 1983, by George E. Walrafen and Akos G.Revesz, ed., Plenum
Press, 1986, pp ix+449.ISBN 0-30642396-0; QD461.164. Price: US$ 75.00.
Amorphous substances which may be solids, glasses or
gels are characterized by the lack of long range order (periodicity).
In this regard they resemble liquids more than solids. X-ray and neutron studies reveal no diffraction patterns characteristic of translational symmetry only the simple ring pattern of the
amorphous material which may be employed to measure
the radial distribution
Amorphous Si0 2 ,
which is often carelessly called
fused or vitreous
quartz, is one of the more well-studied
examples of
this class of materials, but other examples abound
from glassy metals, to organic plastic crystals and
126 Physics in Canada
July 1988
even glassy water. This book is primarily
with studies of Si0 2 and represents a collection of
papers presented at the symposium on "Structure and
Bonding in Noncrystalline Solids", held in Reston,
Virginia in 1983.
The book suffers from a lack of focus. It is a collection of twenty different reports of amorphous materials studied by a variety of techniques. Studies of
amorphous Si0 2 include molecular dynamics simulations
of silica surfaces, semi-empirical MO studies of intrinsic defects, electronic properties, and
and gamma irradiated Si0 2 . There are readable chapters on magic-angle NMR of silicate glass,
vibrational studies of phosphate glasses and
angle x-ray scattering
of inorganic amorphous compounds. Much of the work has been published
elsewhere and few researchers will need to purchase this
Murray Brooker
Chemistry Department
Memorial University Nfld.
THE SYSTEMATIC EXPERIMENT, by J.C. Gibbings ed., Cambridge University Press, 1986, pp ix+352. ISBN 0-52130982-4; Q182.3.S97. Price: US$ 54.50; US$ 19.95 pbk.
The average student of science and engineering spends
a considerable amount of time in laboratories trying
to develop the skills required to plan and carry out
an experimental investigation, to analyze the significance of the results and to inform others of the
work. This book is intended to be a guide for the development of such skills, particularly amongst engineers and industrial
scientists. The authors have given considerable importance to the planning of experiments which is an activity that undergraduates often
tend to neglect. Many observational and measurement
techniques are discussed and the book includes a long
chapter on photography. However, many techniques of
interest to physicists are not mentioned (e.g. vacuum, low temperatures) and the chapter on photography
does not mention cinematographic or video techniques.
Compared to the rest of the book, the discussion of
experimental errors is rather terse and not much guidance is given on the estimation of uncertainties in
measurement. General statistical methods of error analysis are discussed
in an appendix but here again
some important points are missed, perhaps
in an effort to keep the book short. For example, the appendix gives the formulae for determining the coefficients in linear regression analysis but does not give
the expressions for calculating the standard deviations on these coefficients.
The authors have shown
how errors may be propagated by means of the wellknown calculus
for a small increment of a
function of many variables but it has not been made
clear to the reader that, in order to get the most
pessimistic value of the uncertainty in the final result, it is necessary that each term make a positive
contribution. The use of computers in error analysis
has not been discussed
although there is a useful
chapter on interfacing experimental equipment to computers.
Senior undergraduate and postgraduate students of
physics can profit from the excellent advice given
about planning experiments and writing reports; the
chapters on experimental techniques and the use of
computers and photography in experiments will also be
useful to many of them. The wealth of detail provided
in many of the chapters is probably too much for junior undergraduates and they will need more help in
understanding experimental errors than is provided in
this book.
B.K. Mukherjee
Department of Physics
R.M.C., Kingston
THINKING LIKE A PHYSICIST: Physics Problems for Under
graduates, by N. Thompson, ed., Adam Hilger Publishing Company,
1987, pp ix+ 145. ISBN 0-85274-513-3;
QC32. Price: US$ 14.00 pbk.
This exciting
book contains
137 physics
problems that have appeared on a "General Paper" during the final weeks of the honours degree program at
the University of Bristol, sometime during the past
twenty five years. The problems do not come directly
from any particular undergraduate course but do require the application of physics principles to usually quite realistic situations. Some of the problems
have specific numerical or algebraic solutions, but
many are open-ended and require the making of simplifying assumptions, mathematical
back-of-the-envelope type of solution solutions.
listing of the 137 problems takes up 36 pages of the
text; the outline of typical solutions takes up 102
This has been one of the most enjoyable books that
I've reviewed in many years. It is impossible to read
a book of problems and solutions and then write about
it One has to roll up one's sleeves and actually do
some of them. The problems that I chose to do involved the following situations.
2. Calculate the temperature rise of a collapsible,
spherical dust cloud.
3. What might be the eventual world record for a
pole vault.
5. Two soap bubbles coalesce to form a third. Find
an expression for the surface tension in terms of
the atmospheric pressure
and the soap bubble radii.
6. The
fact that human beings live for a
number of years puts a lower limit on the halflife of the proton (about 1 0 1 8 years!).
13. As the air pressure
inside a bell jar is reduced
the sound of a ringing bell becomes fainter. Show
that this is not due to the fact that sound does
not travel through a vacuum!
(Oops, I've goofed
a number of times with this one over the years).
20. Explain how water flows down the Mississippi given that the source of the river is about 5 km
closer to the centre of the earth than its mouth.
29. A small magnet of mass m and magnetic moment p
can be made to hover above a superconductor. Calculate the equilibrium height.
35. Huxley stated that "six monkeys", typing away unintelligently
for millions of years will eventually write, say, all of Shakespeare's
Show that this is nonsense.
42. What is the minimum
kinetic energy an electron
must have if, by colliding with a stationary
it produces an electron-positron pair?
48. Calculate the speed at which a hole in a punctured soap bubble increases in size.
I hope to work through many more of the problems,
occasionally peeking at the solutions, because I am
a lot of basic physics, basic knowledge
which needs to be primed
from time to time in order
to remain current and applicable.
I am tempted
suggest that we should offer a course entitled 'Think
ing Like a Physicist' in which students would encounter many realistic problems similar to the ones in
this booklet.
I found the problems
fascinating; the
solutions are very well presented. They
sufficient detail to allow one to arrive at a reasonable solution and clearly state the assumptions and
approximations the author deems reasonable. As one
colleague stated "Every physicist
should do one of
these problems every night before going to bed".
Wytze Brouwer
Department of Physics
University of Alberta
and W. Israel, ed., Cambridge University Press, 1987,
pp xiii+684.
ISBN 0-521-34312-7; QC178.T47.
Price: US$ 69.50.
This volume
is to commemorate the 300th anniversary
of the publication
of Isaac Newton's
Naturalis Mathematica. The editors have assembled a
series of review papers where Newton's immense contri
bution to physical sciences is assessed and its relevance to current physical research made plainly clear
The reviews lead the reader to the major developments
and future prospects
in gravitation
theory, galaxy
inflationary and quantum cosmology,
superstring unification. These reviews are self-contained, yet in some sense supplement and update the
articles in General Relativity: an Einstein
Survey, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1979.
In the
intervening years between these two volumes,
major progress has been made in gravitational physics
both theoretical and experimental.
For instance: The
orbital speed-up of the binary pulsar which
confirmed Einstein's
for the loss of energy
by gravitational radiation the impetus of the binary
pulsar to the two-body problem in gravitational theory; the potential
and prospects of detecting gravitational waves using laser interferometry; and
superstring theory which offers the hope of including
the gravitational
force in a unified theory of physics. Equally interesting are some of the historical
development and prospectives provided by some of the
It is very tempting to write a detailed review of the
book with brief reviews of each article, thus to
share the joy of reading each one of the articles.
Barring of that,
I would consider this volume not
only to be an essential reference for relativists and
but also a source book for the student of the history
of physics. Furthermore, part of
this book should be also very appealing to any physicist who is interested in the historical development
or future prospects of the discipline.
The whole
book is not for everyone, but I am sure that anyone
who browses through this text will find some interesting parts and will
learn something from its readings. I recommend this book wholeheartedly
curious physicist. This volume should be on his bookshelf!
K.K. Lee
Danbury Conn.
Monographs in Physics, Adam Hilger, 1987, pp. vii+56.
ISBN 0-85274-585-0; Q C 2 0 . 7 . V 4 . Price: US$ 8.00 pbk.
In the words of the author, this text aims to give an
introduction to the use of vectors and vector operators to first year University Physics students who
have had
little or no introduction to vectors at
school. This laudable lofty aim
is achieved in part
although, to this reader, the concepts and operations
of divergence, line, surface and volume integrals is
far beyond any reasonable expectation
for the first
year Physics student, especially those who have NOT
introduced to vectors. Further, most first year
students have not been exposed to three dimensional
and algebra, hence the expected
would be in dire difficulties with those concepts and
ideas, let alone the superposition of vectors to this
The author treats the basic binary operations of
addition, multiplication and differentiation of vectors in two dimensions in the first three short chapters. In the final three chapters, he proceeds to the
examination of the algebra and geometry of the gradient and curl of a vector to include Line, Surface and
Volume Integrals. Each chapter ends with a few examples of direct application of vectors to problems in
Physics. The entire textual material
is limited to
rectangular Cartesian coordinates except
for the
short section on the application of vectors to circular motion and rotation of rigid bodies, wherein
(plane) polar coordinates are introduced.
One might well consider Vector and Vector
as an abbreviated version of Div, Grad Curl ana All
That of H.M. Schey.
The succint Dawber text does
suffer somewhat in that it does not have problems or
in any of the chapters for intended readers. Nevertheless this text might well be
useful to one who already has studied vectors and who
like a short readable review of vectors as applied to some problems in Physics.
G.R. Hébert
Department of Physics
York University
Xa Physique au Canada
juillet 1988 127
Phillips, Adam Hilger, (Taylor & Francis),
1987, pp
xii+259. ISBN 0-85274-274-6; TK381. Price: US$ 77.00.
In a sense this book is a continuation of
Darwin's Shop' reviewed previously.
It is a
of the development of the oscillograph, the
bifilar instrument, manufactured by Cambridge
ments, being a prime example.
The ingenuity of the early physicists and electrical
engineers who had to deal with the emerging
technology of alternating current power supply is well brought out in the pages and illustrations of the book.
It transpires that, although the relevant
were well known to applied mathematicians a century
earlier, it was not until 1853 that Lord Kelvin showed how the classical differential equation
the correct design principles for such things as critical damping.
A.C. machines were not alone in requiring an effective method for viewing waveforms, sonics, phonograph
and electrocardiography
all contributed.
All of the ingenious devices so produced are illustrated and explained in the book which should be read
by all young physicists.
A.D. Booth
Autonetics Research
Sooke, B.C.
Its Relevance to Culture and
Religion by Hanbury Brown, Cambridge University Press
1986, pp viii+194.
ISBN 0-521-30726-0; Q175.B7946.
Price US$ 32.50; $13.95 pbk.
The author suggests that, while we live in a culture
that is dependent upon science for its very
existence, this society is largely ignorant of the ideas
and perspectives on which science is based. Not only
are our political leaders, lawyers, civil
and editors of newspapers
ignorant of science but
Brown suggests that "if the average graduate in Arts
were to be transported back in time and asked by an
inquisitive Ancient Greek to explain why the sky is
blue why water is wet or glass is transparent, I
doubt if he or she would have much to tell..."
fact, Aristotle might be surprised to what extent
many of his ideas still survived among twentieth century intellectuals. One obvious reason for this situation is that the general public learns too little
science, but, the author suggests, the science that
is taught to the general public is too narrow in its
scope, and oriented primarily towards the production
of future engineers and professional scientists. The
main task of the book is, therefore, to tell a bit
more about the cultural aspects of science and the
way science might enrich our modern society.
In the first two sections of the book, Brown, in a
very readable and informal style, takes a look at the
development of science. These chapters abound with interesting anecdotes and are spiced with
many pictures and drawings of historical
and scientific discoveries. Besides referring to the
major scientific and technological discoveries of the
past. Brown also relates the development of
to the relevant literature of the times, using poetry
plays (Shakespeare and Shadwell), and Utopian literature to provide science with a context.
sections were interesting to read, although I found the
analysis of certain conceptual revolutions, for example, the Copernican, somewhat superficial.
In section 3, the Cultural Dimension of
Brown discusses in more detail the place modern sci-
128 Physics in Canada
July 1988
ence, basic and applied, should occupy in modern socety. The author recognizes the changing
images of
science over the years - from 'irrelevant 300 years
ago, to "beneficial" 100 years ago, to "questionable"
today. Brown suggests that one remedy for this problem of image might be to provide a scientific education which better reflects the integration of science
and culture, and perhaps a better way to control scientific research and its application.
Brown suggests
more public involvement, and less reliance on experts
in setting the overall priorities of scientific research. The expert should be considered by the public
as a colleague, not as an oracle.
"A good example of what I mean is the debate which
took place in Cambridge (Mass.)... when the proposal
to construct a laboratory at Harvard for genetic experiments with DNA was brought to the attention of
the City Council..." Brown suggest that such deliberations are essential if scientific research is to become considered as an essential cultural activity.
Nevertheless, Brown does suggest that,
in setting
for basic research and in funding basic
research, scientists, not politicians,
should make
these choices.
At the end of section 3 and in section 4, Brown discusses the relationship between science and values
and science and religion. He suggests that the practice of science, contrary to oft-expressed
does embody a well-defined set of values that has important implications
for society.
terms, these values are intellectual honesty, internationalness, being skeptical and self-critical, and
the promotion of the public nature of scientific know
It is not quite clear in the manuscript whether Brown
deplores the current emphasis on military and industrial secrecy. It hardly seems fair, however, to hold
the scientific values of internationalism
public nature of knowledge up to society to emulate,
while condoning the nationalisation and commercialisation of science and its resulting secrecy.
In section 4, Brown discusses the relationship
between science and religion and suggests that a reconciliation between the two is overdue. The subsequent discussion appears to imply that such a reconciliation can be achieved
if and only if, current
world religions reject their ties to the cosmogonies
of the past any apply a few of the insights
from modern science to the religious domain.
insights include support for the unity and interpendence of all life, open-ness to change and
development, the recognition that scientific theories (metaphors) are as fallible as religious metaphors, etc.
One of the lessons to be learned from modern science
is not what it has accomplished, but the way it goes
about achieving what it does, and its openness to
change and development or they will pass into oblivion and their place will be taken by other, perhaps
more adaptable faiths.
The first two sections of the book were very readable
and laced with interesting anecdotes and
illustrations. The last two sections were more thought-provoking and worth rereading. While not agreeing with
everything the author said in these sections,
discussion raised many questions in my mind that require further thinking. A well-written book for an
evening's reading or as a general reference
for my
science or science education students.
Wytze Brouwer
Department of Physics
University of Alberta
The Department of Physics at the University of Waterloo expects to
make several tenure track appointments in the next few years in both
experimental and theoretical physics. In anticipation of these openings
the Department invites applications from well qualified candidates for
nomination to NSERC University Research Fellowships. Prospective
candidates should have one or more years post-doctoral experience
and an excellent research record in Condensed Matter Physics, Theoretical Physics, Optics or Biophysics.
These fellowships are faculty positions at the Assistant Professor level
funded by NSERC and the University. Successful candidates will be
expected to pursue a vigorous research programme and carry a reduced
teaching load.
Applications including a complete curriculum vitae and a summary
of past and future research interests should be sent by August 15,
1988 to:
Professor I.R. Dagg
Department of Physics
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario
Canada N2L 3G1
The University of Waterloo is an equal opportunity employer and has
a policy of affirmative action with respect to the employment of women.
In accordance with NSERC regulations, this advertisement is directed
to Canadian citizens and permanent residents.
An immediate opening exists for an experienced radiation oncology medical physicist to join the Medical Physics Department
of the Cross Cancer Institute.
NSERC University Research
Fellowship in Physics
The Department offers its physics services to the various clinical
departments of the Institute.
A machine shop, electronics shop, mould room and treatment
planning capabilities are administered by the Department. Two
physics technicians are available to perform various technical
Responsibilities of this position will initially be in treatment
machine commissioning, calibration and acceptance, but the
candidate will eventually be expected to participate with the other
five physicists in the support of clinical services and research
programs pertaining to Diagnostic Imaging, Nuclear Medicine,
M.R.I., Lasers and Radiation Oncology, including Brachytherapy.
Teaching of residents and technologists will be included in these
Requirements for the position are a Ph.D. degree in physics with
five to seven years of clinical radiation physics experience. A
computer background would be desirable, but not necessary.
The Cross Cancer Institute is a smoke-free workplace.
Please submit resume to:
L. Buska
Cross Cancer Institute
11560 University Avenue
Edmonton, Alberta
T6G 1Z2
T h e D e p a r t m e n t of Physics, C O N C O R D I A UNIVERSITY,
is s e e k i n g a c a n d i d a t e f o r an NSERC U n i v e r s i t y Research
F e l l o w s h i p . P r e f e r e n c e w i l l b e g i v e n t o r e s e a r c h exp e r i e n c e in areas r e l a t e d t o M o s s b a u e r s p e c t r o s c o p y ,
g a l v a n o m a g n e t i c effects, m a g n e t i c s u s c e p t i b i l i t y , T h e o r e t i c a l S o l i d State Physics o r S u p e r s y m m e t r i c G a u g e
Field T h e o r y . C a n d i d a t e s m u s t h o l d a d o c t o r a l d e g r e e
a n d m u s t have h a d r e l e v a n t e x p e r i e n c e , f o l l o w i n g
r e c e i p t of t h e d e g r e e , t o t h e e x t e n t usually r e q u i r e d
b y t h e U n i v e r s i t y f o r a p p o i n t m e n t at t h e r a n k o f Assistant
Professor. U n d e r NSERC r e g u l a t i o n s , c a n d i d a t e s m u s t
b e C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s o r p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n t s of C a n a d a .
T h e f e l l o w s h i p is f o r t h r e e years a n d r e n e w a b l e f o r an
a d d i t i o n a l t w o years. T h e f e l l o w is e l i g i b l e f o r NSERC
r e s e a r c h grants. A p p l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g C.V., list o f
p u b l i c a t i o n s and t h r e e letters of r e c o m m e n d a t i o n
s h o u l d b e sent as s o o n as p o s s i b l e t o :
Prof. C.S. Kalman, Chair
Department of Physics
1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West
Montreal, Quebec H 3 G 1 M 8 .
The Alberta Cancer Board is an equal opportunity employer, but
in accordance with Canadian Immigration requirements, this
advertisement is directed to Canadian citizens and permanent
MPB T e c h n o l o g i e s Inc. is seeking candidates t o n o m i n a t e
for Natural Science and Engineering C o u n c i l of Canada
Industrial Research Fellowships.
The D e p a r t m e n t of Physics invites applications for a t e n u r e track p o s i t i o n at t h e rank of assistant professor, w i t h a
possibility of u p g r a d i n g t o associate professor in special
cases. T h e p o s i t i o n c o u l d be available as early as 1 January
1989. Preference w i l l be given t o candidates in observat i o n a l astrophysics w i t h a creative p o t e n t i a l for g e n e r a t i n g
e x c i t i n g research. The D e p a r t m e n t is i n c l i n e d t o w a r d s
candidates w i t h some e x p e r i e n c e in e x p e r i m e n t s using
space vehicles (balloons, satellites, etc.) or s u b m i l l i m e t e r
w a v e l e n g t h measurements. Excellent candidates in o t h e r
fields of d e p a r t m e n t a l endeavours w i l l also be c o n s i d e r e d .
The successful c a n d i d a t e is e x p e c t e d t o have a strong
interest in u n d e r g r a d u a t e t e a c h i n g at all levels. A p p l i c a t i o n s are i n v i t e d u n t i l t h e p o s i t i o n is filled.
The Fellowships w i l l n o r m a l l y be t e n a b l e in t h e Laboratories of MPB Technologies Inc. located at Dorval, Q u e b e c
or Ottawa, O n t a r i o .
A p p l i c a t i o n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h c u r r i c u l u m vitae a n d names
of t h r e e referees, s h o u l d be sent to:
Professor S.K. Mark, Chairman
Department of Physics
Ernest Rutherford Physics Building
McGill University
3600 University Street
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
H3A 2T8
In a c c o r d a n c e w i t h Canadian i m m i g r a t i o n regulations,
p r i o r i t y w i l l be given t o Canadian citizens a n d p e r m a n e n t
residents of Canada.
Projects in w h i c h successful candidates may be i n v o l v e d
Electromagnetics and M i l l i m e t e r Waves
Lasers a n d Laser A p p l i c a t i o n s
Electro-optics and A c o u s t o - o p t i c s
Plasma, Fusion and Space Science
Expert Systems and C o m p u t e r A p p l i c a t i o n s
Salaries and o t h e r benefits are t h e same as for p e r m a n e n t
staff of equivalent experience.
Interested recent graduates, individuals c u r r e n t l y c o m p l e t i n g p o s t d o c t o r a t e fellowships, or candidates w h o w i l l
graduate in t h e near f u t u r e w i t h a b a c k g r o u n d in physics,
electrical e n g i n e e r i n g or c o m p u t e r science are i n v i t e d t o
w r i t e or call:
Dr. M.P. Bachynski
MPB Technologies Inc.
1725 North Service Road
Trans-Canada Highway
Dorval, Quebec
Telephone: (514) 683-1490
The University
British Columbia
The Physics Department invites applications for tenure-track
positions at the Assistant Professor level. It is expected that
three positions (theorists and experimentalists) will be filled
in the next year, and that more appointments will be made
in subsequent years. The prime objective of the Department
is to augment its strength in Physics and Engineering Physics
research, in the very broad areas of elementary particle
physics, new materials and quantum optics, and astrophysics.
However, really exceptional candidates in other fields may
also apply. Candidates should have a Ph.D. degree, some
postdoctoral experience, a good research record and an
aptitude for undergraduate and graduate teaching. The appointments are subject to final budgetary approval. The University of British Columbia offers equal opportunity for employment to qualified female and male applicants. In
accordance with Canadian immigration requirements, this
advertisement is directed to Canadian citizens and permanent
residents. The Search Committee expects to begin its review
of applications on October 1, 1988. Applicants should submit
a curriculum vitae, statement of current research interests and
future plans, and arrange to have three letters of reference
to be sent directly to Prof. B.G. Turrell, Head, Department
6224 Agriculture Road, Vancouver, B.C., CANADA,
V6T 2A6.
Solid Earth or Ocean Physics
tenable at
The University of Victoria
Centre for Earth and Ocean Research
Victoria, British Columbia
The Centre for Earth and Ocean Research (CEOR) at the University of
Victoria invites applications from qualified Canadian citizens or permanent
residents for an NSERC University Research Fellowship. Candidates should
possess a Ph.D. degree, one or two years of post-doctoral experience
in an area of solid earth or ocean physics, and a willingness to participate
in field research. Preference will be given to applicants with research
experience in seismology, marine and continental margin geophysics,
underwater acoustics or coastal physical oceanography. A successful
applicant would be appointed to the Department of Physics & Astronomy
and would be expected to contribute to the graduate programme of
CEOR, which encourages research collaboration with scientists at the
nearby Institute of Ocean Sciences, the Pacific Geoscience Centre, Royal
Roads Military College, and the Defence Research Establishment Pacific.
Applicants should have a strong background in general physics and should
be capable of teaching the standard courses in an undergraduate physics
degree programme, in addition to graduate courses for CEOR. The
candidate selected will be nominated by the University for an initial 5
year term as an NSERC University Research Fellow: the final decision
on such awards rests with NSERC. University Research Fellows are
expected to maintain an active research programme, supervise graduate
students and undertake a limited amount of teaching. On the recommendation of the University they are eligble for appointment to a second
five year term on a tenure track leading to a permanent university position.
The University of Victoria offers equal opportunities to qualified male
and female applicants. NSERC regulations require that nominees for
University Research Fellowships be Canadian citizens or permanent
residents at the time of nomination.
Letters of application including a curriculum vitae, publication list, and
names and addresses of three referees should be sent as soon as possible,
but certainly no later than September 1, 1988, to:
Dr. R. W. Stewart
Centre for Earth and Ocean Research
Elliott Building
University of Victoria
Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2
Magnetic Resonance
Imaging Scientist
A position is available for a Research
Associate in the Department of Medical
Biophysics at the University of Toronto.
Applicants should have a Ph.D. with 2
years experience in magnetic resonance
imaging and experience in signal and
digital image processing.
Send résumé and two letters of reference
R. Mark Henkelman, Ph.D.
Department of Medical Biophysics
University of Toronto
500 Sherbourne Street
Toronto, Canada M4X 1K9
Telephone: (604) 291-4465
Solid State Chemical Physicist
T h e E n e r g y R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e at S i m o n Fraser U n i versity w i l l have a Research Associate p o s i t i o n availa b l e b e g i n n i n g i n t h e f a l l o f 1988. C a n d i d a t e s s h o u l d
have a Ph.D. in physics plus 2 or 3 years of research.
Experience w i t h t h i n films, p o w d e r suspensions, a n d
c h e m i c a l a n d e l e c t r i c a l m e a s u r e m e n t s o n s u c h syst e m s is d e s i r a b l e . Salary $ 2 4 , 0 0 0 p.a.
A p p l i c a n t s s h o u l d s e n d t h e i r c.v., list o f p u b l i c a t i o n s
and arrange for t h r e e letters of reference t o be
f o r w a r d e d b y A u g u s t 15, 1 9 8 8 t o :
D r . S.R. Morrison, Director
Energy Research Institute
Simon Fraser University
Burnaby, British Columbia
Canada, V 5 A 1S6.
Preference will be given to candidates eligible for
e m p l o y m e n t in C a n a d a at t h e t i m e o f a p p l i c a t i o n .
L'Institut national d'optique (INO) a présentement un poste à combler
dans le domaine de la CONCEPTION OPTIQUE (LENS DESIGN).
La personne embauchée aura à mettre sur pied un service de
conception de lentilles, de systèmes optiques, d'éléments optiques
holographiques (HOE), de systèmes infra-rouges et de composantes
optiques à gradient d'indice.
Les candidats recherchés doivent être détenteurs d'une maîtrise en
optique avec spécialisation en conception optique (lens design) et
avoir quelques années d'expérience dans ce domaine.
Le salaire offert sera en fonction de l'expérience des candidats. Les
conditions d'emploi telles les bénéfices marginaux et le plan d'assurance sont comparables à celles des grandes corporations publiques
et privées.
Les candidats intéressés doivent faire parvenir leur curriculum vitae à :
Institut national d'optique
Responsable du concours n° 8806 4
369, rue Franquet, C.P. 9970
Sainte-Foy (Québec) Canada G1V 4C5
En accord avec les exigences de l'immigration canadienne, la priorité sera donnée aux citoyens canadiens et aux résidents permanents.
Chance d'emploi égale pour tous.
National Research
Council Canada
The National Optics Institute (NOI) wishes to fill a job in LENS DESIGN.
The successful candidate will be responsible for organizing a lens
design department, (infrared optical systems, holographic optical elements, graded index optics, etc.)
The applicants must have a master's degree in optics with specialty
in lens design and have a few years of experience in this field.
The salary offered will depend on the candidate's experience. Employment conditions such as the social benefits and the insurance
plan are comparable to those offered by large public and private corporations.
Interested applicants must send a curriculum vitae to:
National Optics Institute
Job Application No. 88064
369, rue Franquet, C.P. 9970
Sainte-Foy, Québec, Canada G1V 4C5
In accordance with the requirements of the Canadian Immigration,
priority will be given to Canadian citizens and permanent residents.
Equal opportunity for everyone.
Conseil national
de recherches Canada
1989 Research Associateships
for research in science and engineering
in the laboratories of the
National Research Council of Canada
Postes d'attachés de recherche - 1989
pour des recherches en science et en
génie, dans les laboratoires du Conseil
national de recherches du Canada
The National Research Council is Canada's leading federal research organization. NRC's laboratory projects cover most areas
of the physical sciences, natural sciences and engineering.
Le Conseil national de recherches est le principal organisme
de recherche du Canada. Les travaux de laboratoire du CNRC
couvrent la plupart des domaines des sciences physiques, des
sciences naturelles et de l'ingénierie.
Applicants for Research Associateships should have recently
acquired a Ph.D. in science or a Master degree in an engineering
field or expect to obtain the degree before taking up the
Associateships are open to nationals of all countries although
preference will be given to Canadians.
Research Associates will be offered appointments to the staff
of the National Research Council on a term basis and will be
offered salaries and benefits currently available to members of
the c o n t i n u i n g staff. As a guide, the current annual Ph.D. recruiting rate is $33,661 (CAN) (under review).
Les candidats aux postes d'attachés de recherche doivent avoir
reçu récemment un doctorat es Science (Ph.D.), ou une
maîtrise dans un des domaines du génie, ou être sur le point
d'obtenir un de ces diplômes avant d'entrer en fonction.
Les postes d'attachés de recherches sont accessibles aux
ressortissants de tous les pays, même si la préférence est
accordée aux citoyens canadiens.
The initial appointment will normally be for a two-year term and
may be renewed, subject to the Associate's performance and
subject to the requirements of the Division.
Les attachés de recherche seront nommés au personnel du
Conseil national de recherches pour une période déterminée.
Ils se verront offrir les mêmes salaires et avantages dont
jouissent présentement les membres permanents du personnel. En guise d'exemple, le salaire annuel actuel au niveau
du doctorat est de 33 661 $ (CAN) (à l'étude).
Applications must be made on special application forms w h i c h
may be obtained from the Research Associates Office, National
Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1A 0R6.
La nomination initiale portera, en général, sur une période
de deux ans et pourra être renouvelée sujet au rendement
de l'attaché de recherche et selon les besoins de la Division.
Applications and supporting documents must be received in
Ottawa no later than 30 November 1988.
O n doit poser sa candidature sur un formulaire spécial q u ' o n
peut obtenir du Bureau des attachés de recherche, Conseil
national de recherches du Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada,
K1A 0R6. Les candidatures et les documents à l'appui doivent
parvenir à Ottawa au plus tard le 30 novembre 1988.
The high energy physics group of the
Université de Montréal
presently active in the OPAL collaboration at LEP and in the HELIOS
collaboration at the SpS at CERN, invites applications for three
different positions:
1) Senior high energy experimental physicist.
This position is a tenured appointment for an accomplished
physicist. Apart from the teaching and research activities
normally required, the ideal candidate should have proven
capabilities in leading a major research team within a large
2) Experienced physicist in experimental particle
This position, funded by TRIUMF, is not dependent upon
funding for individual projects and involves the possibility of
a stable appointment. The Ideal candidate should have several
years of active research experience in high energy physics
after his doctorate. Preference will be given to applicants with
experience in e + e* collider physics. The successful candidate
will join the OPAL collaboration.
Meeting All Your CAMAC
Needs For Laboratory
3) Postdoctoral fellow in high energy physics.
The candidate will join the group Involved in the OPAL project.
Preference will be given to physicists with experience in e + e*
collider experiments.
All candidates should be willing to learn French, since this is the
working language in our laboratory. Please send applications and
CV's to:
Hannes Jeremie
Laboratoire de Physique nucléaire
Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128
Montréal, Qué. H3C 3J7
U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r l a
Simon Fraser University
University of Victoria
U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a
C o m p e t i t i o n » 563-058
Research Scientist at TRIUMF
Applications are invited for a University Research Scientist position in experimental
intermediate energy physics. The successful applicant will have the opportunity to contribute
to a research program In hadronic physics at TRIUMF using a fully Instrumented magnetic
spectrometer and a large solid angle second-arm spectrometer presently under construction.
A proposal to upgrade TRIUMF to a 30 QeV, 100 namp KAON Factory Is now under
serious consideration by the Canadian government. Participation In experiments at other
major accelerators is also possible. The candidate should have extensive experience in
intermediate or high energy physics.
The University Research Scientist positions are key research positions at TRUIMF. The
minimum level at which this appointment will be made is given as follows:
The position is for a scientist exhibiting leadership and achievement In intermediate energy
physics at the highest international levels of excellence. Candidates will have a Ph.D. and
show outstanding promise or significant postdoctoral experience in related areas of
TRIUMF's science disciplines.
The judgement on leadership will be based on a record of outstanding publications and
on references attesting to the candidate's originality, competence, achievements and
independence in research, placing the candidate among the upper few percent of his/
her peers
The position carries TRIUMF tenure after a suitable probationary period Salary will be
commensurate with experience and be in the range of $35,000 to $40,000 per annum.
Candidates should respond by Sept. 15, 1988. Please send a curriculum vitae outlining
research experience and Interests, and the names of three referees to: TRIUMF Personnel
(Competition « 5 6 3 ) , 4 0 0 4 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V8T 2A3. F o r i
further information contact Dr. P. «itching — (604) 222-1047
We offer equal employment opportunities to qualified male and female applicants.
In accordance with Canadian Immigration requirements, this advertisement is
directed to Canadian citizens and permanent residents.
W h e n y o u r research projects call for t h e real-time c o m p u t i n g p o w e r of C A M A C (IEEE-583) or FASTBUS (IEEE-960),
call o n KSC t o fill y o u r needs. Scientists like yourself have
been d e p e n d i n g o n o u r C A M A C systems for m o r e than
a decade, a u t o m a t i n g e v e r y t h i n g f r o m plasma fusion reactors and p r o t o n s y n c h r o t r o n s t o X-ray f l u o r e s c e n c e spect r o m e t e r s a n d radiation m o n i t o r s . H u n d r e d s of o u r C A M A C
installations operate c o n t i n u o u s l y year after year o n a 24hour-a-day basis.
Y o u ' l l f i n d o u r C A M A C systems located a r o u n d t h e w o r l d
in m a j o r laboratories and universities.
KSC's line of serial highway p r o d u c t s , i n c l u d i n g f i b e r - o p t i c
h i g h w a y adapters, drivers, a n d crate c o n t r o l l e r s , is unsurpassed by any o t h e r m a n u f a c t u r e r . Interface t o virtually
any major c o m p u t e r — DIGITAL, M O D C O M P , SYSTEMS,
Hewlett-Packard, IBM PC, even t h e IBM PS/2. O u r DIGITALc o m p a t i b l e line alone includes LSI-11, PDP-11, VAXBI, a n d
VAX-11 interfaces, all available b o t h w i t h a n d w i t h o u t D M A .
C h o o s e f r o m h u n d r e d s of versatile process interface
A / D converters
D/A converters
Signal m u l t i p l e x e r s
Stepping motor controllers
T i m i n g pulse generators
I n p u t gates
O u t p u t registers
Event c o u n t e r s
Loop adapters
W a v e f o r m recorders
I n t e r r u p t registers
Display generators
W h e t h e r y o u w a n t a c o m p l e t e data a c q u i s i t i o n a n d c o n t r o l
system w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n software or just C A M A C m o d u l e s
a n d crates, see h o w f u l l y KSC serves y o u r needs.
Contact Us For More Information
In Canada
120 Whitmore Road. N" 8.
P.O. BOX 15. Woodbridge
Ontario Canada. L4L 1A9
Tel. (4161 851-4244 Fax: (416) 851-5743
The University
British Columbia
The Department of Physics invites applications for NSERC University Research Fellowships for the 1988/89 competition. The
Department anticipates making several tenure-track appointments
during the next five year period and URF's will be given serious
consideration for these positions. Candidates should normally
have completed one or more years of post-doctoral experience
and have a strong research record. NSERC fellows will spend
the majority of their time doing research but normally undertake
a limited amount of teaching. The fellowships are for three years,
renewable for an additional two years and the fellows are eligible
for normal NSERC research grants. Under NSERC regulations
candidates must be Canadian citizens or permanent residents
of Canada. The University of British Columbia offers equal
opportunity for employment to qualified female and male applicants. Candidates should submit a curriculum vitae, publication
list, a statement of current research interests and future plans,
and arrange for three letters of recommendation to be sent, before
August 15th, 1988, directly to Prof. B.G. Turrell, Head, Department of Physics, THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 6224 Agriculture Road, Vancouver, B.C., CANADA,
V6T 2A6.
Applications are invited for a tenure track appointment at the Assistant Professor rank, effective July 1, 1988. Duties include undergraduate and graduate teaching. The successful
applicant will also have research responsibilities
at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory.
Candidates should hold a Ph.D. degree and have
experience in intermediate energy nuclear
physics research using accelerators and large
magnetic spectrometers. Applications with curriculum vitae and the names of at least three
referees should be sent as soon as possible to:
Chairman, Department of Physics,
University of Saskatchewan,
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan,
S7N 0W0.
In accordance with Canadian immigration requirements this advertisement is directed to
Canadian citizens and permanent residents.
next generation
pulse system.
New CW Nd: YAG pump laser.
New solid-state pulse
compressor, 5 to 5 psec
pulses, 5 . o r 10(y4 nm.
New sync-pump dye laser, femtosecond und psec
pulses, 550-900nm.
We've just increased the performance level of ultrashort pulse laser systems. Every component
of our system is new.
Our unique solid state pulse compressor is the key to system performance. It compresses IR
pulses from 100 psec to 5 psec. T h e n they're frequency doubled to 532 nm with over 1 watt of
average power!
These short pulses combined with our new dye laser produce stunning results: dye laser output
tunable over the entire 550 to 900 nm dye range, with average power to 300 mW, and pulse widths
of less than 500 femtoseconds! We've set new standards for broad tunability of ultrashort pulses
with high average power.
Technical Marketing
Associates Limited
Head Office
6695 Millcreek Rd , Unit 1
Mississauga. Ontario
L5N 5M5
(416) 826-7762
Fax (416) 826-8225
First in ultrashort pulses.
S1988, Spcura-Physics, Inc.
The symbol's new, but the
tradition continues:
Innovation to keep pace
with your needs.
Lens Kits for lab-in-a-box
Each of our new Lens Kits offers a
versatile selection of our most
popular 1-inch diameter lenses.
These kits are the easiest way to
equip your lab with virtually all
the laser-quality optics you'll need.
Lenses are edge-marked, so it's
always easy to find the focal length
you need.
Optics Catalog on Diskette Ultra-Reflectance Mirrors
for laser-diode
Free Optics Catalog on Diskette
makes selecting Newport optics a
snap. Enter your setup's parameters, and instantly pinpoint the
best of hundreds of Newport optics
to meet your needs. Easily transfer
lens prescriptions to your optical
design software. Pushbutton
cross-referencing to competing
products, too — a painless way to
second-source your optics needs.
Versatility a n d performance
Newport's new BD.2 mirrors the
ideal optics for the next generation
of laser diode research. They
provide over 99% reflectance from
700 to 950 nm at incident angles up
to 45°. And they're stocked for
quick shipment even in OEM
Watch h e r e for m o r e n e w products e a c h m o n t h .
Technical Marketing
Associates Limited
Head Office
6695 Millcreek Rd Unn
Mississauga. Ontario
(416) 826-7752
Fa* (416) 826-8225
©1988 Newport Corporation