Environmental Resource Inventory

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Environmental Resource Inventory
Butler Borough
Environmental Resource Inventory
October, 2009
Acknowledgements
Preparation of this Environmental Resource Inventory (ERI) was a joint effort of the
Pequannock River Coalition and the Borough of Butler. Primary funding for this work was
provided by the Watershed Institute through their grant program, underwritten by the
Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation.
Borough of Butler
Mayor Joseph P. Heywang
Borough Council: Robert Alviene, Roger Elliott, Robert Fox, Stephen Regis,
Raymond Verdonik, Judith Woop
Pequannock River Coalition
Executive Director: Ross Kushner
Board of Trustees: Bruce Hernsdorf, Barbara Kushner, Don Pruden, Carl Richko,
Bernie Stapleton, Mary Tooman, Doug Williamson, George Wilkinson
Table of Contents
Section
Page
1.
Introduction……………………. ………………………………………….
7
2.
A Brief Natural History of Butler…………………………………………… 9
3.
Demographics , Land Use and Land Use Planning………………………….
4.
5.
6.
17
I.
Borough Master Plan………………………………………………… 17
II.
State Development and Redevelopment Plan…………………………. 23
III.
Highlands Water Protection and Planning Act………………………… 25
Infrastructure………………………….…………………………………….
30
I.
Transportation………………………………………………………
30
II.
Water Supply For Butler………………………………………………. 31
III.
Wastewater Management For Butler………………………………… 32
Land Resources……………………………………………………………… 35
I
Geology…………………………………………………………..
35
II
Soils………………..…………………………………………..
36
III
Topography………………………………………………………….. 42
Water Resources…………….……………………………………………… 46
I.
The Water Cycle………………...…………………………………
46
II.
Water Resources…………………………...……………………….
48
A.
Surface Waters …………………………..…………………. 48
B.
Groundwater…………………………………………..……. 55
C.
Water Quality In Butler…………………………………….. 59
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
1
D.
7.
8.
Recreational Value of Water Resources…………………….. 61
Living Resources…………….……………………………………………… 66
I.
Vegetation……..………………...……………………………..…… 66
II.
Fish and Wildlife………………………………………………..….. 73
Sustaining the Natural Resources of Butler…………………………………. 82
I.
Preservation and Conservation—Water Resources………………….. 82
II.
Preservation and Conservation—Land and Living Resources………. 86
III.
Restoration………………………………………………………….. 88
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
2
List of Figures
Figure
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
4-1
4-2
4-3
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-8
6-9
6-10
Page
Physiographic Provinces Of New Jersey ………………………………… 9
Extent Of Late Pleistocene Glaciation In North America………….…….. 9
“A New Map of New Jersey and Pennsylvania” by Robert Morden,
1688………………………………………………………………. 10
“Plan of Butler—Pequannock Township” from Robinson’s Atlas of
Morris County New Jersey, 1887………………………………… 11
Rendition Of Typical Charcoal Burning Iron Furnace by Lucy Meyer….. 12
Sign On Hamburg Turnpike bridge Over The Pequannock River
Identifies This Road As A Part Of Former State Highway 8……. . 13
Land Uses In Butler……………………………………………………….. 18
Zoning In Butler…………………………………………………………… 19
Publicly Owned Lands In Butler………………………………………….. 21
Vacant Lands In Butler……………………………………………………. 22
State Development And Redevelopment Plan Areas……………………… 23
Critical Environmental Sites In Butler From The State Development
And Redevelopment Plan…...…………………………………….. 24
River Place Project In Main Street Redevelopment Zone ………………… 24
New Jersey Highlands………………………………………………………26
New Jersey Highlands—Zones……………………………………………. 28
Butler Road and Railroad System ………………………………………… 30
Aerial View Of Butler Reservoir………………………………………….. 31
Butler Reservoir…………………………………………………………… 32
Physiographic Provinces Of The Butler Area…………………………….. 35
Bedrock Geology Of Butler………………………………………………. 35
Soil Texture Triangle……………………………………………………… 36
Soils Of Butler…………………………………………………………….. 38
Soils Of Butler—North (detail)…………………………………………… 39
Soils Of Butler—South (detail)…………………………………………… 40
Slopes Of Butler And Surrounding Area…………………………………. 42
Topographic Map Of Butler And Surrounding Area………………………. 43
The Water Cycle…………………………………………………………… 47
Pequannock River Watershed …………………………………………….. 48
Pequannock River………………………………………………………… 48
Pequannock River Discharge in Feet-Per-Second Recorded By
U.S. Geological Survey At Macopin Station, 1930-2007………… 49
Pequannock River Floodplain……………………………………………. 49
Floodplains In The Butler Area………………………………………….. 50
Lake Edenwold…………………………………………………………… 51
Waterbodies Of Butler And Surrounding Area …………………………. 52
Category 1 Waterways Of Butler ………………………………………
53
Surface waters Of Butler - State Classifications For Aquatic Life……… 54
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
3
List of Figures (continued)
Figure
Page
6-11
6-12
6-13
Soil Permeability In Butler………………………………………………. 56
Developed And Undeveloped Lands In Butler………………………….. 57
Groundwater Recharge In Butler………………………………………….. 58
6-14
Summer Water Temperature Readings In Pequannock River,
Butler, 2008………………………………………………………. 60
Angler On The Pequannock River……………………………………….. 61
Low Dam On The Pequannock River……………………………………. 61
Swimmers Cool Off In The Pequannock River…………………………… 62
The Pool At Stonybrook Swim Club Is Fed By Stone House Brook,
A Pequannock River Tributary …………………………………… 63
Mature Trees Along The Pequannock River………………………………. 66
Forests In The Butler Area …………………………………………………67
Dry-mesic Forest On Uplands Of Butler……………..………………….…….. 68
Mesic Forest Near Stone House Brook……………………………………. 68
Skunk Cabbage Grows In A Deciduous Wooded Wetland Near The
Pequannock River………………………………………………….. 69
Herbaceous Wetland Near Terrace Lake………………………………….. 70
Japanese Knotweed Along Stone House Brook………………………….. 71
Wetlands Of Butler……………………………………………………….. 72
Young Cottontail Rabbit………………………………………………….. 73
Turkey Vulture Basks In The Heat From A Butler Chimney…………….. 74
Tracks Of River Otter Along Pequannock River In Butler………………. 74
Goldfinch………………………………………………………………….. 75
Blue jay…………………………………………………………………… 75
Mallard ducks On Pequannock River In Winter………………………….. 75
Black Rat Snake……………………………………………………………. 76
Wild Brown Trout, Pequannock River…………………………………… 76
Tracks Of Red Fox, Western Butler……………………………………… 77
Ranking Of Forests In The Butler Area As Wildlife Habitat……………… 79
Steeply Sloped Construction Site In Butler ………………………………. 82
Restored Riparian Buffer On Pequannock River At River Place…………. 84
Loss Of Riparian Buffer On Stone House Brook…………………………. 85
Land Use In Butler Area………………………………………………….. 86
Butler Park ………………………………………………………………. 87
Whitetail Deer ………………………………………………………….... 87
Site On Pequannock River Before Restoration………………………….. 89
Site On Pequannock River After Restoration……………………………. 89
6-15
6-16
6-17
6-18
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-8
7-9
7-10
7-11
7-12
7-13
7-14
7-15
7-16
7-17
7-18
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4
8-5
8-6
8-7
8-8
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
4
List of Tables
Table
3-1
3-2
5-1
8-1
Population Growth In Butler By Decade, 1920-2000……………………..
Zoning in Butler, Zone Descriptions………………………………………
Soil Map Symbols, Series, and Descriptions……………………………..
Slope Regulation Under Butler Ordinance 2006-27……………………….
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
Page
17
20
41
83
5
List of Appendices
Appendix
Description
A.
Drinking Water Quality Report For Butler Borough
B.
Soil Types Of Butler Borough
C.
Wildlife Of Butler
D.
Sample Environmental Impact Statement Ordinance From
Borough of Far Hills
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
6
1. Introduction
What is an Environmental Resource Inventory?
An Environmental Resource Inventory (ERI), also called a Natural Resource Inventory or
NRI, is a collection of information on the natural resources of a given area. It is intended to
provide factual, unbiased documentation on the location, sensitivity, and status of natural
features ranging from basic geological data to the latest information on wildlife habitats.
The ERI is a valuable tool for municipal planning, and can be utilized by Planning/
Zoning officials and others concerned with land use. According to the Association of New
Jersey Environmental Commissions “The planning board should adopt the ERI as part of the
municipal master plan, either as an appendix or as part of a master plan conservation element.
As part of the master plan, the ERI can provide the foundation and documentation for the
development of resource protection ordinances and resource-based land use planning.”1
The ERI is intended to be a living document, with the potential and need for periodic
updates as new and better information becomes available, or the status and condition of
resources change.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
7
1
Association of New Jersey Environmental Commissions. 2006. Environmental Resource Inventories. Association of New Jersey Environmental Commissions. Mendham, NJ. <http://
www.anjec.org/html/tools-ERIs.htm
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
8
2. A Brief Natural History of Butler
Covering just 2.1 square miles, Butler is now a quiet suburban community. However, in
the distant past it was the site of much geologic activity where ancient events shaped the world
we see today.
The bedrock geology of New Jersey is divided into 4
separate physiographic provinces (see Figure 2-1):
The Valley and Ridge province with its underlying
sandstone, shale, limestone, and conglomerate rock;
the Highlands province with bedrock of graniticgneiss, shale, limestone, and quartzite; and the
Piedmont, characterized by red sandstone, shale, and
basalt1. These rocks were formed over many millions
of years beginning in the Precambrian, some 550
million years ago, through the collision and
separation of plates in the earth’s crust, mountainbuilding up-thrusts, later erosion, and weathering. In
the Piedmont province, lake sedimentation has also
played a role. For example, lands in nearby Riverdale
and Pequannock were once the site of a vast shallow
lake, collecting sediments from the surrounding hills
and mountains.2
Figure 2-1: Physiographic Provinces
Of New Jersey
Butler sits entirely within the Highlands
province, just north of the juncture of the
Piedmont and Highlands areas. This juncture is
readily visible even to the casual observer, where
the craggy hills of the Highlands near Route 287
give way dramatically to the rolling plain of the
Piedmont.
Beyond the initial development of
underlying bedrock, the other great events forming
the land within Butler were the recurring glaciers.
In the past 2.5 million years, North America
experienced 4 glacial periods. The most recent is
known as the Wisconsin Glacier in the late
Pleistocene epoch. At its southernmost expansion,
about 18,000 years ago, this glacier reached
central Morris County (see Figure 2-2), covering
all of Butler, and began to retreat only 11,000
Figure 2-2: Extent Of Late Pleistocene
3
years ago—a mere heartbeat in geologic time.
Glaciation In North America.4
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
9
The glaciers, with sliding ice sheets up to 2,000 feet thick, greatly influenced the
landscape we see today, shaping our ground contours, waterways, and soils. High ridges were
rounded lower, layers of jumbled stones and boulders known as “glacial till” were piled and
tumbled into ravines. Glacial rivers carrying meltwater left silt, gravel, and sand deposits in
valleys hundreds of feet thick, forming important aquifers.4
The human history of Butler began with the native Americans that occupied New Jersey
for thousands of years before the first European settlers. The Delaware tribe, or Lenni Lenape,
held most of New Jersey at the time of their initial contact with Europeans. There were three
major divisions or sub-tribes of the Delaware— the Munsee in northern New Jersey and
adjacent portions of New York west of the Hudson, the Unalachtigo in northern Delaware,
southeastern Pennsylvania, and southern New Jersey, and the Unami in the intermediate
territory (including Butler), extending to the western end of Long Island. They were all
gradually crowded west by white settlers, reaching the Allegheny Mountains in Pennsylvania as
early as 1724, and settling at points on the Susquehanna River about 1742.5
Dutch colonists first entered the area in the late 1600s and early 1700s. For early
European settlers of Butler, the appeal of this area was in the natural resources such as timber
and iron, since the thin rocky soils of the Butler area were not well-suited to agriculture, but
provided the raw materials and water
power for a variety of industry,
including iron forges. The first of
these forges were built in the early
1700s, located where the essential
elements for smelting were available
— iron ore, charcoal fuel, limestone
flux, water power, and nearness to
markets.6
The Charlotteburg Furnace in
Kinnelon was opened in 1766.
Other forges were built on the
Pequannock River at Smith's Mills
near the Kinnelon/Butler border and
in Butler.7
Resembling a stone pyramid,
these forges were usually built on
the side of a hill (see Figure 2-5). A
platform was used to transport layers
of ore, fuel, and flux to the open top
of the furnace. The materials were
dropped into the furnace and then set
on fire. Bellows powered by water
wheels were used to keep the fires
burning hot while the iron ore
melted and flowed out at the base of Figure 2-3 “A New Map of New Jersey 9and
Pennsylvania” by Robert Morden, 1688
the furnace.8
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
10
Figure 2-4: “Plan of Butler—Pequannock Township” from Robinson’s Atlas
of Morris County New Jersey, 188710
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
11
The charcoal used
as fuel was prepared by
burning timber piles
collected in the
surrounding countryside.
Trees were cut over the
winter, then stacked and
covered with earth and
damp leaves. After
burning for a few days
to a week the wood was
properly charred. An
iron furnace could use
an acre of forest trees a
day to keep it running.
With several furnaces in
operation this led to the
deforestation of much of Figure 2-5: Rendition Of Typical Charcoal Burning Iron
the region.11
Furnace by Lucy Meyer12
The Pequannock River also provided power for grist mills, sawmills, felt mills, and other
commercial activity. As one example, in 1857 the Pequannock Valley Paper Company moved to
Butler from Bergen County.11 A report by the Geological Survey of New Jersey stated that in
1850 there were 22 different establishments using water power from the Pequannock River,
including 3 furnaces, 9 forges, and 10 mills.13
However, Butler’s economic and commercial growth is principally linked to the rubber
industry. According to the Butler Museum:
“The continuous takeover of the smaller rubber companies led to the formation of the
Rubber Comb and Jewelry Company in 1876. Richard Butler was elected President of this
company which became known as the Butler Hard Rubber Company in 1882.
Richard Butler was a founder and trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and a
member of the Committee to erect the Statue of Liberty. Under Butler's management, the
company's production and sales increased, and the town's population grew. In July 1881, the
village of West Bloomingdale changed its Post Office address to Butler, New Jersey, in honor of
the man who had brought prosperity to the town.
Butler purchased 72 acres of farmland for residential development for his workers. Streets
were laid out and homes were built for sale to employees. Property was donated for a Catholic
and Methodist church and for a public school. Other factories were built, small businesses
appeared on Main Street, the population increased, freight and passenger train service thrived.
The Borough of Butler was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on
March 13, 1901 [Butler was carved out of the existing Pequannock Township]. Richard Butler
proudly gave permission to name this community for him. Within seven years, municipal water
and electric companies were formed. In 1902, the Butler volunteer fire department was founded.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
12
Law enforcement was handled under the marshal system from 1901 until 1939 when Butler's
Police Department was started. ”14
In the 1700s, road systems began to be created, linking New Jersey’s rural areas with the
developing cities of Paterson and Newark. Butler grew up along one of the most important of
these early thoroughfares; the Paterson-Hamburg Turnpike, connecting the City of Paterson
with Hamburg, far in the interior of Sussex County. One example of its use was the Paterson to
Deckertown stagecoach route, carrying passengers in the 1860s from Paterson through Butler to
West Milford, then on to the Deckertown station 40 miles north.15
The importance of this turnpike faded to a degree with the establishment of rail lines in
this region. The New Jersey Midland Railroad extended their service through Butler from
Paterson in 1869, making Butler an important rail hub for passengers and freight. Butler was the
last passenger stop to the north for the New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway's
passenger service until 1966. Today, the railroad still operates freight service through Butler.16
Despite this competition from rail travel, the turnpike’s use was renewed with the advent
of the automobile. In 1917 the Butler portion of the Turnpike formed part of State Highway No.
8, running from Montclair to Unionville, New York (see Figure 2-6).17
In the late 19th and early 20th century, the creation of Newark’s reservoir system in the
Pequannock River headwaters spelled the end of the river as a source of power. By 1894 it was
reported that “...all of the [water powered] sites below Macopin intake have already been, or
are in the process of being acquired by the city of Newark… …the stream will not hereafter
figure to any extent for
water power.” 18
With the Pequannock
impounded and vast
quantities of water piped
directly to Newark, the river
lacked the water flow to
drive mills reliably. Of
course, by this time electric
power was coming into its
own.
A catastrophic event in
Butler history was the fire
that began just after
midnight on February 26,
Figure 2-6: Sign On Hamburg Turnpike Bridge Over The
1957. This fire destroyed
Pequannock River Identifies This Road As A Part Of Former the Pequannock Rubber
State Highway 8.
Company on Main Street, at
that time, one of the nation's
largest rubber reclaiming mills. The mill occupied buildings on Main Street in a complex 3 to 4
stories tall and covering almost 100,000 square feet. According to reports, the light from the
fire was visible for 100 miles. Fire companies from 55 towns responded to the blaze. Even the
New York City Fire Department, 30 miles away, offered help after observing the bright glow.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
13
The fire hastened the end of the rubber industry in Butler. This was followed by the plant
closing of the Amerace Corporation (American Hard Rubber Company) in 1974 and their
headquarters closing in 1980.19
These events marked the shift of Butler from an industrial center to the suburban
community we see today. From glaciers and stagecoaches, to rail lines and rivers, many
elements and events have contributed to the land and people we know as modern Butler.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
14
1
Natural Resource Conservation Service. 2006. New Jersey Soils Online Study Guide U.S. Department of Agriculture. <http://www.nj.nrcs.usda.gov/partnerships/envirothon/soils/
geology.html
2
Schlische, Roy W. 2006. Geology of the Newark Rift Basin.
Department of Geological Sciences, Rutgers University. Piscataway, NJ. <http://
geology.rutgers.edu/103web/Newarkbasin/NB_text.html
3
U.S. Geological Survey. 2003. Quaternary Geology of the New York City Region. U.S. Geological Survey. <http://3dparks.wr.usgs.gov/nyc/morraines/quaternary.htm
4
Ibid.
5
Access Genealogy. 2006. Indian Tribal Records <http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/
newjersey/index.htm
6
Meyer, Lucy A. 1976. Kinnelon: A History. Kinnelon Bicentennial Committee. Kinnelon, NJ.
7
Ibid.
8
Ibid.
9
Morden, Robert. 1688. A New Map of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. F.S. Smith, Lawrenceville, NJ
10
Robinson, E. 1887. Robinson’s Atlas of Morris County New Jersey. E. Robinson. New York,
NY. (Reprinted by Morris County Historical Society, Morristown, NJ).
11
Meyer, Lucy A. 1976. Kinnelon: A History. Kinnelon Bicentennial Committee. Kinnelon,
NJ.
12
Ibid.
13
Smock, John C. 1894. Report on Water Supply. Geological Survey of New Jersey. Trenton,
NJ.
14
Butler Museum and Historical Committee. 2009. Town of Butler. Butler Museum. <http://
www.butlermuseumnj.org/TownOfButler/Default.asp
15
Smyk, Edward A. 2003. Coach's Legacy Endures. <http://www.lambertcastle.org/coach.html
16
Butler Museum and Historical Committee. 2009. Town of Butler. Butler Museum. <http://
www.butlermuseumnj.org/TownOfButler/Default.asp
17
Williams, Jim. 2004. NJ 1920s Route 8.<http://www.jimmyandsharonwilliams.com/
njroads/1920s/route08.htm
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
15
18
Smock, John C. 1894. Report on Water Supply. Geological Survey of New Jersey. Trenton,
NJ.
19
Wikipedia Foundation , Inc. 2008. Butler, New Jersey. Wikipedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Butler,_New_Jersey
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
16
3. Demographics,
Land Use and Land Use Planning
The Borough of Butler is relatively small and quite densely populated with 7,420
residents as of the year 20001, or more than 3,500 persons per square mile. Population growth
has occurred erratically over the last century, as shown in Table 3-1.
Much of the land in Butler is devoted to residential housing with lesser amounts used for
commercial and industrial purposes. These land uses are depicted in Figure 3-1.
I. Borough Master Plan
The principal control of land use in Butler is through the Borough Master Plan. The
Master Plan, and its underlying codes and ordinances, specifies different areas in Butler for
different purposes through zoning. The various zones in Butler are shown in Figure 3-2 and
described in Table 3-2. However, the fact that an area is zoned for a particular use does not
mean that other uses have not or will not occur there, since zoning is more a guideline than an
absolute restriction. The difference between zoning and actual use can be seen by comparing
Figures 3-1 and 3-2.
Preserved open space in Butler is limited. The largest preserved areas are around the
Stonybrook Pool near Boonton Ave and along the Pequannock River between Kiel Avenue and
the river. These lands are depicted in Figure 3-3.
The majority of land in Butler has been developed. Undeveloped tracts are shown in
Figure 3-4.
Table 3-1: Population Growth In Butler By Decade,
1920-2000
Year
Population
1920
2,226
1930
3,392
52%
1940
3,351
-1%
1950
4,050
21%
1960
5,414
25%
1970
7,051
30%
1980
7,616
8%
1990
7,392
-3%
2000
7,420
0%
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
Percent Growth
from Prior Decade
17
Figure 3-1: Land Uses In Butler
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
18
Figure 3-2: Zoning In Butler
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
19
Table 3-2: Zoning in Butler, Zone Descriptions
Zone
Description
CBD
Central Business
HC-1
Highway Commercial
HC-2
Highway Commercial
LI
Light Industrial
LI/CBD
Light Industrial / Central Business
MSR
Main Street Redevelopment Zone
R-1
Single Family Residential -17,250 square feet
R-2
Single Family Residential -12,500 square feet
R-3
Single Family Residential -10,250 square feet
R-4
Single Family Residential –6,250 square feet
R-5
Single/Two Family Residential –6,250/9,375 square feet
R-7
Town House / Light Industrial
RC
Restricted Commercial
RO
Research Office
RO/R-6
Research Office / Apartment
SC
Senior Citizen Housing
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
20
Figure 3-3: Publicly Owned Lands In Butler
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
21
Figure 3-4: Vacant Lands In Butler
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
22
II. State Development and Redevelopment Plan
At the state level, the State of New Jersey has developed a planning document known as
the New Jersey State Development and Redevelopment Plan. This plan is intended as a
statewide blueprint for growth and preservation that “...crosses political, ethnic and
socioeconomic barriers to unite the citizens of New Jersey under a common goal: to ensure a
positive future for all of us, a future bright with dynamic economic opportunities, maximized
human potential, enhanced environmental, historical and cultural resources and revitalized
cities and towns.”2
This plan separates lands into various “Planning Areas.” Butler is almost entirely within
an area designated as “Metropolitan” (see Figure 3-5). A Metropolitan Area is intended to
“Provide for much of the state’s future redevelopment; revitalize cities and towns; promote
growth in compact forms; stabilize older suburbs; redesign areas of sprawl; and protect the
character of existing stable communities.”3
Under this designation, the State lists the following goals regarding Natural Resource
Conservation: “Reclaim environmentally damaged sites and mitigate future negative impacts,
particularly to waterfronts, scenic vistas, wildlife habitats and to Critical Environmental Sites,
and Historic and Cultural Sites. Give special emphasis to improving air quality. Use open
space to reinforce neighborhood and community identity, and protect natural linear systems,
Figure 3-5: State Development And Redevelopment Plan Areas
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
23
including regional systems
that link to other Planning
Areas.”4
A very limited area in
northwest Butler is
designated as Planning Area
5 (Environmentally
Sensitive). Goals of the State
Plan for these lands are to:
“Protect environmental
resources through the
protection of large
contiguous areas of land;
accommodate growth in
Centers; protect the
character of existing stable
communities; confine
programmed sewers and
Figure 3-6: Critical Environmental Sites In Butler From
public water services to
The State Development And Redevelopment Plan
Centers; and revitalize cities
and towns.”5 There are also parklands classified as Planning Area 6 and several Critical
Environmental Sites mapped in the Borough (see Figure 3-6).
Existing development patterns in Butler have often been guided by road systems, with
industrial and commercial uses congregated along Hamburg Turnpike and Route 23. In
addition, industrial uses were clustered around the Pequannock River as a source of power and
water. These patterns have not always been aligned with protection of natural resources. In
some cases steeply sloped areas, wetlands, floodplains, vital groundwater recharge areas, and
riparian corridors have suffered environmental damage.
As noted in the State Plan,
opportunities should be sought to reclaim
damaged sites, mitigate impacts to
waterfronts and protect linear systems such
as stream and river corridors. These goals
should be considered as land use changes
occur and redevelopment takes place. The
Main Street Redevelopment Zone, through
the project known as “River Place at Butler”,
is an excellent example of these policies in
action. In addition, the creation of this
Environmental Resource Inventory will
provide key guidance toward reaching these
goals. Periodic re-examination of the
Figure 3-7: River Place Project In Main
Borough Master Plan can also be used to
Street Redevelopment Zone
revise zoning and land use planning.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
24
III. The Highlands Water Protection and Planning Act
A new and important facet in land use planning and protection of natural resources in
Butler is the Highlands Water Protection and Planning Act, adopted by the State of New Jersey
in 2004.
In framing this Act the legislature declared that the “...New Jersey Highlands is an
essential source of drinking water, providing clean and plentiful drinking water for one-half of
the State's population, including communities beyond the New Jersey Highlands, from only 13
percent of the State's land area; that the New Jersey Highlands contains other exceptional
natural resources such as clean air, contiguous forest lands, wetlands, pristine watersheds, and
habitat for fauna and flora, includes many sites of historic significance, and provides abundant
recreational opportunities for the citizens of the State.”6
The Act created a 15-member Highlands Council, charged with implementation of the
Act and with creation of a Regional Master Plan for this area. To safeguard these resources, the
Act divided the entire New Jersey Highlands region into two areas—the Preservation Area and
the Planning Area (see Figure 3-8). Butler is entirely within the Planning Area.7
Within the Planning Area, the stated goals are:
1. protect, restore, and enhance the quality and quantity of surface and ground waters
therein;
2. preserve to the maximum extent possible any environmentally sensitive lands and other
lands needed for recreation and conservation purposes;
3. protect and maintain the essential character of the Highlands environment;
4. preserve farmland and historic sites and other historic resources;
5. promote the continuation and expansion of agricultural, horticultural, recreational, and
cultural uses and opportunities;
6. preserve outdoor recreation opportunities, including hunting and fishing, on publicly
owned land;
7. promote conservation of water resources;
8. promote brownfield remediation and redevelopment;
9. encourage, consistent with the State Development and Redevelopment Plan and smart
growth strategies and principles, appropriate patterns of compatible residential, commercial,
and industrial development, redevelopment, and economic growth, in or adjacent to areas
already utilized for such purposes, and discourage piecemeal, scattered, and inappropriate
development, in order to accommodate local and regional growth and economic development in
an orderly way while protecting the Highlands environment from the individual and cumulative
adverse impacts thereof;
10. promote a sound, balanced transportation system that is consistent with smart growth
strategies and principles and which preserves mobility in the Highlands Region.8
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
25
Within the Preservation Area the stated goals of the Act are:
1. protect, restore, and enhance the quality and quantity of surface and ground waters
therein;
2. preserve extensive and, to the maximum extent possible, contiguous areas of land in its
natural state, thereby ensuring the continuation of a Highlands environment which contains the
unique and significant natural, scenic, and other resources representative of the Highlands
Region;
3. protect the natural, scenic, and other resources of the Highlands Region, including but
not limited to contiguous forests, wetlands, vegetated stream corridors, steep slopes, and critical
habitat for fauna and flora;
4. preserve farmland and historic sites and other historic resources;
5. preserve outdoor recreation opportunities, including hunting and fishing, on publicly
owned land;
6. promote conservation of water resources;
7. promote brownfield remediation and redevelopment;
Butler
Detail Map
Figure 3-8: New Jersey Highlands
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
26
8. promote compatible agricultural, horticultural, recreational, and cultural uses and
opportunities within the framework of protecting the Highlands environment;
9. prohibit or limit to the maximum extent possible construction or development which is
incompatible with preservation of this unique area.8
To implement these goals the Highlands Council created a Highlands Regional Master
Plan (RMP). Like a typical Master Plan, the RMP separates the Highlands Region into different
zones based on the underlying characteristics of the land and specifies what land uses and land
use intensities can occur in these different zones. These include 3 major zones (the Protection
Zone, the Conservation Zone, and the Existing Community Zone) and two sub-zones (the Lake
Community Zone, and the Environmentally-Constrained Sub-Zone). The zones and subzones
of the Butler area are illustrated in Figure 3-9.9
The Protection Zone includes lands within the Highlands Region which contain the
highest quality resource value lands, which are essential to maintaining and enhancing water
quality and quantity and preserving ecological function. The Protection Zone includes
regionally significant lands that serve to protect environmentally sensitive resources of the
Highlands Region.10
The Conservation Zone includes lands of significant agricultural importance and
associated natural resource lands that are adjacent to, or in common ownership with, land used
for agricultural purposes. Development potential in the Conservation Zone is limited in location
and intensity because of agricultural and natural resource protection requirements and
infrastructure constraints.11
The Existing Community Zone includes those areas characterized by existing
development with comparatively fewer natural resource constraints than the Protection and
Conservation Zones; they often are currently or more easily served with public infrastructure.
The Existing Community Zone includes previously developed lands of regional significance in
size, geography, and infrastructure that may include areas of opportunity for future growth and
development, including development and redevelopment which may involve the use of
Highlands Development Credits (HDC), provided that such growth and development are
consistent and compatible with existing community character, natural resource constraints and
is desired by the municipality.12
Within the Conservation Zone, the Environmentally Constrained Sub-Zone consists of
significant environmental features that should be preserved and protected from non-agricultural
development. Development activities will be limited and subject to stringent limitations on
consumptive and depletive water use, degradation of water quality, and impacts to
environmentally sensitive lands.13
Within the Existing Community Zone, the Environmentally Constrained Sub-Zone
consists of significant contiguous Critical Habitat, steep slopes, and forested lands that should
be protected from further fragmentation. They serve as regional habitat “stepping stones” to
larger contiguous Critical Habitat and forested areas. As such, they are not appropriate for
significant development, and are best served by land preservation and protection. Development
is subject to stringent limitations on consumptive and depletive water use, degradation of water
quality, and impacts to environmentally sensitive lands.14
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
27
The Lake Community Sub-Zone consists of patterns of community development that are
within the Existing Community Zone and within 1,000 feet of lakes. The Highlands Council
focused on lakes that are 10 acres or greater and delineated lake management areas consisting
of an area up to 1,000 feet (depending on the protection focus) from the lake shoreline in order
to protect water quality, resource features, shoreline development, recreation, scenic quality,
and community character. A future management area is planned, encompassing the full lake
watershed, for protection of the lake water quality. This zone has unique policies to prevent
degradation of water quality, and watershed pollution, harm to lake ecosystems, and promote
natural aesthetic values within the Existing Community Zone.15
An extensive set of policies are based on these areas and zones. These are fully described
in the RMP. In addition, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection adopted a
series of new regulations to preserve Highlands’ resources.16
The majority of these policies and regulations are only mandatory for the Highlands
Preservation area. As shown in Figure 3-8, Butler is entirely within the Planning Area. Within
the Planning Area, Butler has a choice on whether it will conform to the RMP through a process
known as “opting in” to the Plan.
Figure 3-9: New Jersey Highlands—Zones
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
28
County of Morris. 2009. Morris County Data Book. <http://morrisplanning.org/
pdfs/2009Databook-1.pdf
2
New Jersey State Planning Commission. 2006. New Jersey State Development and Redevelopment Plan. <http://www.nj.gov/dca/osg/plan/stateplan.shtml
3
Ibid.
4
Ibid.
5
Ibid.
6
New Jersey Legislature. 2004. Highlands Water Protection and Planning Act. http://
www.njleg.state.nj.us/2004/Bills/AL04/120_.PDF.
7
Ibid.
8
Ibid.
9
New Jersey Highlands Council. 2008. Highlands Regional Master Plan. <http://
www.highlands.state.nj.us/njhighlands/master/rmp/final/highlands_rmp_112008.pdf.
10
Ibid.
11
Ibid.
12
Ibid.
13
Ibid.
14
Ibid.
15
Ibid.
16
Ibid.
1
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
29
4. Infrastructure
The term “infrastructure” can be defined as those facilities or structures that are necessary
to support a society. In Butler that includes roads, sewers, water supplies, and some other
components.
I. Transportation
According to data collected by the U.S. Census Bureau in 2000, about 90% of Butler
residents travel to work using automobiles.1 Therefore, commuter transportation in Butler relies
largely on its road system. The road system in Butler ranges from roads developed in the 18th
century to modern highways that were rebuilt in the last decade. At this point the road system
may be considered mature with no major changes envisioned in the near future. These roads are
controlled and maintained either by the state, the county, or by local governments.
Aside from road transport, there is a freight rail line of the New York-Susquehanna and
Western Railroad that continues to operate in Butler.
These road and rail features are depicted in Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-1: Butler Road and Railroad System
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
30
II. Water Supply for Butler
Public water supply for all but a handful of homes in Butler is provided from surface
water sources. The single source, Kakeout Reservoir, is located in Kinnelon (see Figures 4-2
and 4-3). This reservoir is approximately 150 acres in size and holds up to 950 million gallons
of water.2
Interconnections to the Passaic Valley Water Commission in Bloomingdale and the
Newark system are available in an emergency to send or receive water but these connections are
rarely used.3
With water from the Kakeout Reservoir, the Butler Water Department supplies
approximately 2,945 customers (about 9,600 people) in Butler, High Crest Lake in West
Milford, and the Borough of Kinnelon. The majority of customers served, about 8,000 people,
are within Butler.4
According to the municipality, “The recent rehabilitation of a filtration plant and the
construction of a new intake structure have improved the quality of water to the population
served. In addition, a new 1 million gallon water storage tank was added to the system and
improvements have been made to automate the automatic maintenance of the water levels in the
utilities’ 2 water tanks. The filtration plant provides approximately 1 million gallons per day of
treated water to its customers, but supplies as high as 2 million gallons per day during the
Figure 4-2: Aerial View Of Butler Reservoir
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
31
summer months.”5
Recent reports
show this water to be of
very high quality. The
most current data show
no violation of any
water quality standards.
The report for 2006 is
attached as Appendix A.
III. Wastewater
Management for
Butler
Wastewater
Figure 4-3: Butler Reservoir
treatment for most of
Butler’s residential,
commercial, industrial, and public use buildings is managed publicly through sewer systems. A
small number of single family homes (about 20) continue to rely on individual septic systems.
However, it is anticipated that these dwellings will eventually convert to sewers.6
Wastewater treatment is handled by the Pequannock River Basin Regional Sewage
Authority (PRBRSA). The PRBRSA provides wastewater service to the Boroughs of
Bloomingdale, Butler, Kinnelon, Riverdale and a small portion of West Milford.7
According to the PRBRSA, the group was formed in 1974 by the towns of Bloomingdale,
Butler, and Kinnelon, and is the state-designated Water Quality Management Agency for the
region. The PRBRSA system conveys sewage flows from the five towns through a 7-mile
system of interceptor sewers into the Two Bridges Sewerage Authority (a/k/a, the Pequannock,
Lincoln Park and Fairfield Sewerage Authority or TBSA) for treatment and disposal, with
effluent discharge into the Pompton River in Lincoln Park. The TBSA treatment plant is
designed to handle up to 7.5 million gallons per day of sewage. By contract, the PRBRSA has
2.5 million gallons per day of capacity in the TBSA system.8
Of this 2.5 million gallons, 991,000 gallons are allotted to Butler, 250,000 to Kinnelon,
950,000 to Bloomingdale, and 309,000 to Riverdale.9
The PRBRSA is governed by a Board of six Commissioners, two appointed by the
member towns of Bloomingdale, Butler, and Kinnelon. Two PRBRSA Commissioners also
serve as Commissioners on the TBSA.10
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
32
1
U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics, 2000. U.S. Census
Bureau. <http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=16000US3409040&qr_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U_DP3&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-_lang=en&-_sse=on
2
Borough of Butler. Borough of Butler Online, Water Department. <http://
www.butlerborough.com/Cit-e-Access/webpage.cfm?TID=19&TPID=3613
3
Lampmann, James. Personal interview. 20 February 2009.
4
Ibid.
5
Borough of Butler. Borough of Butler Online, Water Department. <http://
www.butlerborough.com/Cit-e-Access/webpage.cfm?TID=19&TPID=3613
6
Lampmann, James. Personal interview. 20 February 2009.
7
Pequannock River Basin Regional Sewerage Authority. 2003. Pequannock River Basin
Regional Sewerage Authority. <http://www.prbrsa.org/
8
Ibid.
9
Lampmann, James. Personal interview. 20 February 2009.
10
Pequannock River Basin Regional Sewerage Authority. 2003. Pequannock River Basin
Regional Sewerage Authority. <http://www.prbrsa.org/
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
33
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Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
34
5. Land Resources
I. Geology
Northern New Jersey
is divided into three
distinct physiographic
provinces—the Valley and
Ridge, the Highlands, and
the Piedmont. Butler is
entirely within a single
physiographic province;
the Highlands (see Figure 5
-1). The U.S. Geological
Survey defines the
Highlands Province as
“..limited to exposures of
Precambrian and Early
Paleozoic metamorphic
and igneous rocks
Figure 5-1: Physiographic Provinces Of The Butler Area
throughout portions of
northern New Jersey,
southern New York, and most of Connecticut.”
The bedrock of the
Highlands is
composed of graniticgneiss, shale,
limestone, and
quartzite. These rocks
are among the region’s
most ancient,
originating more than
550 million years ago.1
Figure 5-2 shows the
underlying bedrock of
Butler.
Figure 5-2: Bedrock Geology Of Butler
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
35
II. Soils
Soil properties are often used in planning the nature and location of developed land uses.
Application of soil analyses helps minimize the long term cost and environmental impact of
construction on a particular site, as well as the impact of planning on a larger, more generalized
scale. The following brief explanation of the structure and properties of soil in general
demonstrates the importance of soil in the context of this ERI.2
The main constituents of a typical soil are rock particles produced by the weathering
process from the parent material of the soil. The parent material may be either local bedrock or
material brought to its present location by glaciation, water, wind, or other forces. The particles
become mixed with decaying animal and vegetable matter that has fallen to the ground. The
spaces between this combination of organic and inorganic particles are filled with air or with
water which filters down into them. The relative amount of water and air in a soil varies with
time, depending on local precipitation. When the particles of a soil are of a common size, the
soil is called "sorted." When particles of different sizes are mixed together, the soil is
"unsorted." The pore spaces, or voids, in sorted soils are uniform in size and allow water to flow
through them easily. In unsorted soil, the voids are smaller and more varied in shape, making it
more difficult for water to pass through them. The drainage rate of unsorted soils is slower than
Figure 5-3: Soil Texture Triangle4
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
36
that of sorted soils.3
Soils are classified according to their textures, which are dependent on particle size. Sand
particles are the largest, silt smaller, and clay the finest. Soil scientists can determine soil
texture in the field by feeling it, or more precisely in the laboratory by using sieves. Figure 5-3
gives the names of the soil classes and the percentages of different particle sizes in each class.5
A special relationship exists between water and soil when the percentage of clay
particles is high. Because the clay particles are very fine, the water cannot readily drain through
the pore spaces. The chemical composition of clay also allows the water to bond to the individual
particles. The effectiveness of the bonding is increased by the unusually high surface-to-volume
ratio of the clay particles. As a result, clay expands when wet. As it dries, it shrinks and cracks. Its
poor drainage characteristics, plus its wet-dry instability, cause clay to present special limitations
for both agriculture and development. Limitations for land uses are also presented by other soil
properties such as stoniness, insufficient depth of soil, high potential for erosion, or a generally
high water table.6
Water which infiltrates into soil sorts the soil materials by carrying the finer particles into
deeper pore spaces and leaving the coarser particles in place. The simultaneous processes of
accumulation of material and differentiation of that material into layers called "soil horizons"
takes place over a long period of time. The farmer is primarily interested in the properties of the
upper horizon, while the engineer is concerned with deeper layers that remain after the topsoil has
been removed from a construction site. Some water, as it moves down through the voids in soil,
is absorbed by the roots of trees and plants. The rest eventually reaches the water table, below
which all of the voids are filled. The depth of the water table below the surface of the ground
varies with time, depending on long-term precipitation levels. In general, however, the water
table reaches a high point in the late spring. The long-term average level of this high point is
called the "seasonal high water table." It can be determined at any specific location by color
changes in the soil. Long-term presence of water gives the soil a grayish color, whereas soil that
has fairly steady exposure to air is a brownish or reddish color due to oxidation of iron in the
soil particles. The gray discoloration is also present in soils which are flooded regularly.7
The soils of Butler are illustrated in Figures 5-4 through 5-6. These soil series are fully
described in Appendix B with information taken from the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
National Resources Conservation Service. Table 5-1 shows the relationship between the soil
symbols in these Figures and the soil series names listed in Appendix B.8
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
37
Figure 5-4: Soils Of Butler
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
38
Figure 5-5: Soils Of Butler—North (detail)
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
39
Figure 5-6: Soils Of Butler—South (detail)
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
40
Table 5-1: Soil Map Symbols, Series, and Descriptions
Map Symbol
Description
Series
AdrAt
Adrian muck
Adrian
FNAT
Fluvaquents and udifluvents, 0-3 percent slopes,
frequently flooded
Fluvaquents
HhmCa
Hibernia loam, 3-15 percent slopes, stony
Hibernia
PHG
Pits, sand and gravel
Pits, sand and
gravel
RkgBb
Ridgebury loam, 0-8 percent slopes, very stony
Ridgebury
RkgBc
Ridgebury loam, 0-8 percent slopes, extremely stony
Ridgebury
RNRE
Rock outcrop-Rockaway complex, 15-35 percent slopes Rockaway
RobCb
Rockaway sandy loam, 8-15 percent slopes, very stony
RobDc
Rockaway sandy loam, 15-25 percent slopes, extremely Rockaway
stony
RocB
Rockaway gravelly sandy loam, 3-8 percent slopes
Rockaway
RocC
Rockaway gravelly sandy loam, 8-15 percent slopes
Rockaway
RomC
Rockaway-Rock outcrop complex, 8-15 percent slopes
Rockaway
RomD
Rockaway-Rock outcrop complex, 15-25 percent slopes Rockaway
RomE
Rockaway-Rock outcrop complex, 25-45 percent slopes Rockaway
UR
Urban land
Urban land
USROCC
Urban land-Rockaway complex, 3-15 percent slopes
Urban land
USROCD
Urban land-Rockaway complex, 15-25 percent slopes
Urban land
WhvAb
Whitman loam, 0-3 percent slopes, very stony
Whitman
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
Rockaway
41
III. Topography
The highest elevation in Butler is found in the southeast of the Borough at slightly more
than 600 feet. The lowest point is on the Pequannock River near the Riverdale border at about
300 feet. This topography is shown in Figure 5-8 on the following page.
A significant feature of land topography is “slope,” representing the rate of change in
elevation from one point to another. Steeply sloping land presents severe limitations to
development where soils are generally thin and easily eroded. These areas may also host unique
plant and animal communities.
Figure 5-7 represents the degree of slope for lands in Butler. The steepest slopes are
found in extreme southeast Butler, with other steeply sloped areas scattered across the Borough.
It should be noted that this map delineates slopes broadly. More detailed analysis of slopes is
necessary in evaluating sites for development or other land uses. There are relatively few level
areas in Butler.
Figure 5-7: Slopes Of Butler And Surrounding Area
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
42
Figure 5-8: Topographic Map Of Butler And Surrounding Area
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
43
1
U.S Geological Survey. 2003. Geology of the New York City Region: A Preliminary Regional
Field-Trip Guidebook <http://3dparks.wr.usgs.gov/nyc
2
Pequannock Township. 1995. Pequannock Township Environmental Resource Inventory.
Township of Pequannock, Pequannock , NJ.
3
Ibid.
4
Ibid.
5
SoilSensor.com. 2008. Soil Texture. SoilSensor.com. <http://www.soilsensor.com/
soiltypes.aspx
6
Pequannock Township. 1995. Pequannock Township Environmental Resource Inventory.
Township of Pequannock, Pequannock , NJ
7
Ibid.
8
Ibid.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
44
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Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
45
6. Water Resources
I. The Water Cycle
As is typical of many heavily populated areas, citizens and businesses of Butler derive
most of their potable water supply from surface water reservoirs beyond their borders. Where
does this water originate and how is it replenished?
The water cycle (see Figure 6-1), also known as the “hydrologic cycle”, has no real
starting point. But, a good beginning for this discussion is in our oceans, since that is where
most of Earth's water exists.1
The sun, which drives the water cycle, heats water in the oceans. Some of it evaporates as
vapor into the air. Rising air currents take the vapor up into the atmosphere, along with water
from “evapotranspiration”, which is water transpired from plants and evaporated from the soil.
The vapor rises into the air where cooler temperatures cause it to condense into clouds. Air
currents move clouds around the globe, cloud particles collide, grow, and fall out of the sky as
precipitation.2
Some precipitation falls as snow and can accumulate as ice caps and glaciers, which can
store frozen water for thousands of years. Snowpacks in warmer climates often thaw and melt
when spring arrives, and the melted water flows overland as snowmelt. Most precipitation falls
back into the oceans or onto land, where, due to gravity, the precipitation flows over the ground
as surface runoff. A portion of runoff enters rivers and streams in valleys in the landscape, with
streamflow moving water towards the oceans. Runoff also accumulates in lakes.3
However, not all runoff flows into rivers or lakes. Much of it soaks into the ground as
infiltration. Some water infiltrates deep into the ground and replenishes aquifers (saturated
subsurface rock, sand, or gravel layers), which can store huge amounts of freshwater for long
periods of time. Some infiltration stays close to the land surface and can seep back into
surface-water bodies (and the ocean) as groundwater discharge, and some groundwater finds
openings in the land surface and emerges as freshwater springs. Over time, though, all of this
water keeps moving, some to reenter the ocean, where the water cycle continues in an endless
loop.4
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
46
Figure 6-1: The Water Cycle5
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
47
II. Water Resources
Water resources in Butler can be divided into 3 categories—surface water, groundwater,
and wetlands. Each of these is vital to Butler citizens, as well as to vegetation, fish, and
wildlife.
A. Surface Waters
The Pequannock River is approximately 25 miles long with a contributing watershed of
about 100 square miles. All of
Butler is included within this
watershed (see Figure 6-2).
The Pequannock River
has its source in Sussex County
in the Township of Vernon and
ends in Riverdale where it
enters the Pompton River. It
passes through 11 communities
including Vernon, Hardyston,
Jefferson, Rockaway, West
Milford, Butler, Kinnelon,
Bloomingdale, Riverdale,
Pompton Lakes, and
Figure 6-2: Pequannock River Watershed
Pequannock. For much of its
length the river forms the boundary between Passaic County and Morris County.
The Pequannock River is important to the state’s water supply. The river and its
tributaries have been impounded to create a number of large reservoirs, primarily north of
Butler, including Canistear Reservoir, Oak Ridge Reservoir, Clinton Reservoir, Echo Lake,
Charlottesburg Reservoir, and Butler Reservoir.
Figure 6-3: Pequannock River
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
Flow rates on the Pequannock
River are highly variable.
During periods of heavy
rainfall, flow rates increase. In
droughts and periods of low
rainfall these flows diminish.
The U.S. Geological Survey
maintains a permanent flow
recording station on the
Pequannock River in southern
West Milford (Macopin
Station), just north of Butler.
River flows are measured by
the amount of water passing a
specific point (cubic feet per
second) or by the water depth
(gage height). A flood state is
48
reached on the Pequannock River
when the gage height reaches 5.5
feet. A moderate flood stage is 6.5
feet and a major flood is at 7.5
feet.6
Data from this station shows the
record high flow for the
Pequannock River occurred on
October 10, 1903 at 6,100 cubicfeet-per-second with a gage height
of 9.4 feet. Other substantial floods
with discharges exceeding 1,500
feet-per-second occurred in 1936,
1951, 1952, 1955, 1968, 1984,
2005, and 2007, as shown in Figure
6-4.7
At higher rates of flow, land areas
adjacent to the Pequannock River
may be covered with water (see
Figure 6-5). These areas are known
as “flood plains” and have been mapped by the New Jersey Department of Environmental
Protection. Flood plains are categorized by the typical frequency that flooding occurs there. For
example, a “100-year” flood plain indicates that flooding occurs, on average, once every 100
years. Figure 6-5 depicts the 100-year and 500-year flood plain of the Pequannock River.
Figure 6-4: Pequannock River Discharge in Feet-PerSecond Recorded By U.S. Geological Survey At
Macopin Station, 1930-2007
Flooding is a natural occurrence, and can be beneficial by building rich alluvial soils in
floodplain areas. Floodplains provide an area for storage of floodwaters, thereby lessening the
force and impact of
flooding downstream.
Figure 6-5: Pequannock River Floodplain
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
To a large degree, the
frequency and
magnitude of floods
is dependent on the
amount of rainfall.
According to the
Office of the New
Jersey State
Climatologist, the
mean rainfall in New
Jersey has increased
over time, from a
mean annual level of
43.86 inches in the
period of 1895 to
1970, to an annual
49
Figure 6-6: Floodplains In The Butler Area
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
50
Figure 6-7: Lake Edenwold
mean of 47.20 inches from 1971 to 2000, and then a recent annual mean of 48.22 inches from
2001 to 2008. In addition there are variations year too year. For example, in 2001 rainfall
totaled 11.55 inches less than average, while in 2003 there was 10.56 inches more rainfall than
in an average year.8
However, upstream development can also increase the frequency and magnitude of
flooding beyond healthy limits. As more land is covered with impervious surfaces such as
roads, buildings, and parking lots, more rainwater is prevented from soaking into the ground
and is diverted instead to rivers and streams. It has been shown that if impervious cover exceeds
10 to 15% of the total surface area of any watershed, the rate and volume of this runoff
dramatically increases, and this fuels increased flooding. Exacerbating these problems, the
filling of floodplains reduces these natural storage areas of floodwaters while channelization of
rivers and streams detaches waterways from the floodplain.9
Low river flows occur more often in the Pequannock River than floods. The City of
Newark has a great influence on water levels in the Pequannock River by manipulating the
reservoirs that the Pequannock River passes through. There are many records of a zero river
flow at the Macopin Station recording site on the Pequannock River. However, a zero flow does
not mean the Pequannock River is dry as it passes through Butler, since a number of small
tributary streams below this recording station provide some additional water. Currently the state
is negotiating with the City of Newark to improve water levels in the Pequannock.
In addition to streams and rivers, Butler has other surface waterbodies in the form of
ponds and lakes, including Lake Edenwold, shown in Figure 6-7. A map depicting all the
surface waters of Butler is provided in Figure 6-8.
The classification of Butler’s surface waters by the State of New Jersey is important. The
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
51
Figure 6-8: Waterbodies Of Butler And Surrounding Area
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
52
Figure 6-9: Category 1 Waterways Of Butler
State generally classifies surface waters in two ways—according to their sensitivity and by the
aquatic life they support.
The most sensitive surface waters are classified as “Category 1” or “C1.” These Category
1 waterways are chosen “...because of their clarity, color, scenic setting, other characteristics
of aesthetic value, exceptional ecological significance, exceptional recreational significance,
exceptional water supply significance, or exceptional fisheries resource(s).” Category 2
waterbodies are considered less sensitive.10 Category 1 and 2 waterways in Butler are shown in
Figure 6-9.
Currently only 3 waterways (or portions of waterways) in Butler are not considered
“Category 1”. These are a pair of small unnamed tributaries of the Pequannock River, flowing
into the river in northern Butler from the west, and the upper portion of Stone House Brook
between the Kinnelon border and Valley Road. However, it should be noted that these
classifications are subject to change. For example, the portion of Stone House Brook between
Lake Edenwold and Valley Road has recently been determined to have a spawning brown trout
population and has been recommended for upgrade to Category 1 by the Division of Fish and
Wildlife.
The second classification—the aquatic life designations—are based in the Butler area on
the suitability of waterways for trout. These designations are “Non-trout” (or “NT”), “Trout
Maintenance” (or “TM”), and “Trout Production” (or “TP”). Trout production waters are those
that have spawning trout populations. Trout Maintenance waters have water quality sufficient to
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
53
Figure 6-10: Surface waters Of Butler - State Classifications For Aquatic Life
support trout year-round but have no documented evidence of trout spawning. Non-trout waters
do not have water quality sufficient to support trout. Waterways without a specific designation
receive the designation of the waterway they flow into.11 The aquatic life designation of streams
and rivers in Butler as of 2006 is depicted in Figure 6-10.
These classifications of Butler waterways are important for regulatory purposes. For
example, under the N.J. Freshwater Wetlands Protection Act, wetlands draining to trout
production waterways receive an “exceptional resource” classification, usually requiring 150foot protective buffers, as opposed to the 50-foot buffers of ordinary wetlands.12 Under the N.J.
Stormwater Management Rules, waterways in Category 1 watersheds (other than wetlands)
receive 300-foot buffers to protect water quality when “major development” is proposed
nearby. A major development is defined as disturbance of an acre of land or creation of 1/4 acre
or more of new impervious cover (roads, rooftops, buildings, etc.).13 Virtually all lands in
Butler are in a Category 1 watershed. Trout Production and Trout Maintenance waterways also
have stricter requirements under the N.J. Surface Water Quality Standards for such water
quality elements as dissolved oxygen and water temperature.14 The Flood Hazard Control Act
Rules regulates activities around waterways in a “riparian zone” ranging in width from 50 feet
to 300 feet, and depending on the waterway’s classification.15
Since regulations and classifications often change, the information provided here should
only be used as a general guide. The NJDEP should be consulted for the most up-to-date laws,
classifications, and restrictions.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
54
B. Groundwater
Groundwater is water that is found in subsurface aquifers rather than surface water bodies
such as lakes or streams. Although Butler derives the vast majority of its potable water supply
from surface water sources, groundwater is extremely important to many citizens of the region
for potable supply, either from municipal or individual wells. Groundwater also sustains the
flow in rivers and streams during non-rainfall periods. Therefore it is important to all life.
The replenishment or “recharge” of these underground water sources is dependent on
several factors. An important one is precipitation in the form of rain or snow, since areas with
abundant rainfall replenish underground aquifers more readily. Butler benefits from an ample
rainfall averaging 47 inches per year. Another factor is the effect of evapotranspiration,
meaning the use of water by plants and the impact of evaporation.16
Also important is the degree of land slope (see Figure 5-7). Steep slopes diminish
recharge and increase runoff.
The permeability of soils is another factor to be considered. The most permeable soils
allow more water to penetrate into the ground and limit surface runoff. Figure 6-11 illustrates
the permeability of soils in Butler. It should be noted that much of Butler is in the “urban land”
category where soils are not classified for permeability.
Once water flows through the soils, the type of underlying bedrock aquifer affects
groundwater supplies. There is a single type of bedrock aquifer in Butler: a crystalline aquifer,
also known as the Highlands Aquifer, formed of igneous and metamorphic bedrock such as
gneiss, schist, and granite. This bedrock is not porous. In this aquifer, water is stored in cracks
and crevices in the bedrock rather than within the rock. Another type of non-bedrock aquifer
may occur where glacial deposits of sand, silt, and gravel cover the underlying bedrock and
form narrow belt-like deposits of small areal extent. In some places these deposits comprise
channels up to 300 feet thick and can provide significant storage and yields of water.17
A final element is the condition of the land. Forested land will have the highest recharge
value since forests tend to increase the infiltration of water and reduce surface runoff. On the
other hand, developed lands with large areas of impervious cover such as roads, parking lots,
and buildings, prevent the penetration of water into soils and promote surface runoff. Figure 612 shows the developed and undeveloped areas in Butler.
The New Jersey Geological Survey has assembled various factors into a method for
estimating ground water recharge. A map depicting their estimated recharge rates for Butler is
shown in Figure 6-13.
Unfortunately, some Butler lands with the highest projected recharge rates have suffered
high levels of development, including tracts near Terrace Lake in the northwest and the lands
that are the subject of the Argonne Woods project in the southwest. Undeveloped lands with
very high recharge rates remain in the valley of Stone House Brook on the east side of Rt. 23,
on the west side of Rt. 23 in northwestern Butler, and along the Pequannock River near Arch
Street in northern Butler. These lands should be protected, if possible, to preserve this recharge.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
55
Figure 6-11: Soil Permeability In Butler
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
56
Figure 6-12: Developed And Undeveloped Lands In Butler
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
57
Figure 6-13: Groundwater Recharge In Butler
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
58
C. Water Quality in Butler
Water quality in New Jersey is tightly regulated by a variety of federal and state
programs. One of the most important is the federal Clean Water Act, which requires each state
to establish “designated uses” for waterways within the state. These uses may be such things as
swimming, fishing, or use as wildlife habitat. The state must create water quality standards
sufficient to protect these uses, then review each waterway to see if it meets these standards.
Waterways that do not meet the standards are considered “impaired” and are included on a list,
called the “303(d) list”, that is provided to the federal government every 2 years. In New Jersey
this list is entitled the “Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Report.” 18
To determine what waterways may be impaired the NJDEP maintains monitoring
networks. The Ambient Surface Water Quality Network was established in 1976 to determine
status and trends of surface waters in New Jersey. Currently a network of 115 stations across
the state is sampled four times per year. A wide range of conventional parameters, metals,
pesticides/volatile organic carbon (VOCs), and sediments are monitored in this program.19
In 1992, the NJDEP’s Bureau of Freshwater & Biological Monitoring reactivated its
Ambient Biomonitoring Network (AMNET) which, at the time of its last sampling in 1988,
consisted of only 18 sampling sites statewide. The old network was determined to be inadequate
to support the NJDEP’s needs, so bureau staff designed a new program. The new program
established sampling stations in every sub-watershed, statewide, where the health of instream
benthic macroinvertebrate communities (bottom dwelling organisms visible to the naked eye)
would be sampled on a rotational schedule of once every five years. Visual observations, stream
habitat assessments, and limited physical/chemical parameters are also performed on each site.
At present 820 sampling sites have been established.20
Beyond NJDEP sampling, other organizations also conduct water quality monitoring. For
example, the Pequannock River Coalition monitors water temperature and dissolved oxygen in
the Pequannock River and river tributaries in the Butler area.
This combined monitoring has shown that water quality in Butler is generally high. It
should be noted that this is mainly a function of the large undisturbed watershed area north and
west of the borough of Butler, contributing to the Pequannock River and its tributaries. The
more intensive land use within Butler tends to degrade this higher water quality.
The principal water quality problems found by the NJDEP concern high water
temperatures that present problems for wild trout and other sensitive aquatic life in the
Pequannock River and in Stone House Brook. Wild brown trout that are resident in these
waterways do best at temperatures of 54º-66º Fahrenheit and can be killed by water
temperatures exceeding 81º.21 Typical summer temperatures recorded within Butler in the
Pequannock River are shown in Figure 6-14. Clearly, the temperature readings in excess of 80º
are a cause for concern.
The NJDEP has determined that these high water temperatures are largely due to a lack
of sufficient river flow in the summer months. Flows in this segment of the Pequannock River
are regulated primarily through the amount of water released from the Charlottesburg Reservoir
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
59
Figure 6-14: Summer Water Temperature Readings In Pequannock River, Butler, 2008
(source: Pequannock River Coalition)
in West Milford by the City of Newark. When too little water is released into the river it can
warm quickly on hot summer days, leading to water temperatures that are detrimental or lethal
to trout. The NJDEP has developed a special plan, known as a “Total Maximum Daily Load” or
“TMDL” to address these problems. The main target is to increase water releases from the
Charlottesburg Reservoir. 22
Other water quality problems in the Butler area concern levels of toxins found in the flesh
of fish taken from local waterways. These toxins include mercury, PCB’s, DDX, and
Chlordane.23 The sources of these pollutants may be airborne or from polluted runoff.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
60
D. Recreational Values of
Water Resources
The waterways of Butler have
great recreational potential but this
potential is generally underutilized.
Fishing is a popular pastime
on the Pequannock River (see
Figure 6-15). The Division of Fish
and Wildlife stocks approximately
6,000 brook trout and rainbow trout
in the Pequannock River from
Butler to Riverdale.24 Wild brown
trout in the river add to the
productivity of this fishery.
The Pequannock River also
offers opportunities for whitewater
kayak use, particularly in spring
when river flows are higher.
However, this use has been limited
by several low dams along the river
that make kayaking hazardous (see
Figure 6-16). These dams are relics
Figure 6-15: Angler On The Pequannock River
of Butler’s industrial past and serve
no purpose today.
Swimming is not a
common recreational
use of the Pequannock
River, and can even be
dangerous, but this river
is one of only a few in
New Jersey with water
quality high enough to
be usable for swimming
(see Figure 6-17).
Figure 6-16: Low Dam On The Pequannock River
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
Unfortunately, within
Butler there is little
public land adjacent to
the river (see Figure 33). Public land in this
entire section of the
Pequannock River, from
southern West Milford
61
Figure 6-17: Swimmers Cool Off In The Pequannock River
to Pequannock, is limited to the Raceway Tract in Butler, a small municipally-owned tract near
Arch Street, Appelt Park in Riverdale, and Sloan Park in Bloomingdale. More extensive areas
have been preserved in Pompton Lakes and Pequannock Township.
It should be noted that all these recreational uses in the Pequannock River are degraded
by the same lack of water flow that generates problems with water temperatures during summer
months. Low water levels impact fishing, boating, and swimming.
In addition to the Pequannock River, Stone House Brook is another aquatic recreational
asset to the Butler community. Several impoundments in the upper reaches of the brook, such as
Lake Edenwold (see Figure 6-7), offer a place for swimming and boating. Also, the Stonybrook
Swim Club, an important amenity for the Borough, is directly fed by water from Stone House
Brook (see Figure 6-18).
Maintaining these water resources will ensure the continuation of the recreation they
support. The preservation of Butler’s water resources and water quality is detailed in section 8
of this document.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
62
Figure 6-18: The Pool At Stonybrook Swim Club Is Fed By Stone House Brook, A
Pequannock River Tributary
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
63
1
U.S. Geological Survey. 2006. The Water Cycle. U.S. Geological Survey. <http://
ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummary.html
2
Ibid.
3
Ibid.
4
Ibid.
5
Ibid.
6
National Weather Service. 2006. Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service. <http://
newweb.erh.noaa.gov/ahps2/hydrograph.php?wfo=phi&gage=mcpn4&view=1,1,1,1,1,1
7
Ibid.
8
Office of the New Jersey State Climatologist. Monthly Precipitation in New Jersey
From 1895-2009. Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ. <http://climate.rutgers.edu/stateclim_v1/
data/njhistprecip.html
9
Collier, Carol R. and Bowers, Jan. 1999. Droughts, Floods and Sprawl –They’re All Connected. Delaware River Basin Commission. West Trenton, NJ. <http://www.state.nj.us/drbc/
stormwater.htm
10
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. 2006. N.J.A.C. 7:9B Surface Water
Quality Standards. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Trenton, NJ. <http://
www.state.nj.us/dep/wmm/sgwqt/2006swqs.pdf
11
Ibid.
12
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. 2006. N.J.S.A 13:9B Freshwater Wetlands Protection Act. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Trenton, NJ.
<http://www.state.nj.us/dep/landuse/13_9b.pdf
13
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. 2004. N.J.A.C. 7:8 Stormwater
Management Rules. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Trenton, NJ. <http://
www.nj.gov/dep/rules/adoptions/2004_0202_watershed.pdf
14
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. 2006. N.J.A.C. 7:9B Surface Water
Quality Standards. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Trenton, NJ. <http://
www.state.nj.us/dep/wmm/sgwqt/2006swqs.pdf
15
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. 2007. N.J.A.C. 7:13 Flood Hazard
Area Control Act Rules. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Trenton, NJ.
<http://www.state.nj.us/dep/wmm/sgwqt/2006swqs.pdf
16
U.S. Geological Survey. 2006. The water cycle: Infiltration. <http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/
watercycleinfiltration.html
17
U.S. Geological Survey. 2003. Geology of the New York City Region: A Preliminary Regional
Field-Trip Guidebook <http://3dparks.wr.usgs.gov/nyc
18
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. 2006. New Jersey 2006 Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Report. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Trenton, NJ. <http://www.nj.gov/dep/wmm/sgwqt/wat/integratedlist/
integratedlist2006.html
19
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Freshwater and Biological
Monitoring. 2006. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Trenton, NJ. <http://
www.state.nj.us/dep/wmm/bfbm/index.html
20
Ibid.
21
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1986. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow
Suitability Curves: Brown Trout. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Lafayette, LA 70506
22
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. 2004. Amendment to the Northeast
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
64
Water Quality Management Plan, Total Maximum Daily Load to Address Temperature in the
Pequannock River, Northeast Water Region. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Trenton NJ 08625.
23
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. 2006. New Jersey 2006 Integrated
Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Report. New Jersey Department of Environmental
Protection. Trenton, NJ. <http://www.nj.gov/dep/wmm/sgwqt/wat/integratedlist/
integratedlist2006.html
24
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Fish and Wildlife. 2006.
2006 Spring Trout Allocations and In-Season Stocking Days. New Jersey Department of
Environmental Protection, Trenton, NJ. <http://www.nj.gov/dep/fgw/
trt_allocation06_dates.htm
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
65
7. Living Resources
I. Vegetation
The vegetation of Butler has developed in response to environmental conditions and
human influences. Soils, sunlight, moisture, temperature, geology, and hydrology all have an
impact on the types of plant life a particular area supports.
Forested areas serve vital functions for wildlife habitat and for promoting better
groundwater recharge. Although most forested areas are small in Butler (see Figure 7-1), the
remaining woodland represents most of the typical forest types of the New Jersey Highlands.
A good example is the forest
cover associated with riparian
lands and floodplains bordering the
Pequannock River (Figure 7-2,
forest area 2) and portions of Stone
House Brook (Figure 7-2, forest
area 4). Trees such as black
willow, silver maple, American
basswood, pin oak, river birch,
and American sycamore enjoy the
fertile alluvial soils in these areas.
Such lands produce some of
the largest trees in the Borough
(see Figure 7-1). Understory
shrubs associated with these
riparian areas include speckled
alder, witch hazel, and red-osier
dogwood.1
Probably the most common
forest type across our region is the
“dry-mesic” (dry to moderately
moist) found primarily in upland
sections of the Borough, such as
forest areas 5, 6 and 7shown in
Figure 7-2. These are mixed-oak
forests dominated by oaks
including red, black, and white
oaks with lesser numbers of white
Figure 7-1: Mature Trees Along The Pequannock River
ash, red maple, sugar maple,
chestnut oak, scarlet oak, hickory,
American beech, and tulip tree (see Figure 7-3). Flowering dogwood and maple-leaved
viburnum are dominant understory trees and shrubs, with hop hornbeam, ironwood, and
sassafras also present.2
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
66
Figure 7-2: Forests In The Butler Area
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
67
Narrow valleys
associated with fastflowing streams host
another forest type,
occurring primarily in
ravines or cool northfacing slopes (see
Figure 7-4). This
forest type, known as
“mesic” (moderately
moist), is a hemlockhardwood forest
dominated by eastern
hemlock with red
maple, sugar maple,
yellow birch, sweet
birch, American
basswood, American
Figure 7-3: Dry-mesic Forest On Uplands Of Butler
beech, white ash, and
tulip tree. The
understory shrub and herbaceous layer is generally sparse under the hemlocks, with the
exception of rhododendron thickets in some places. A typical forest of this type is found in
sections of the stream valley of Stone House Brook from the Kinnelon Border to the
Stonybrook Swim Club near Valley Road, (Figure 7-2, area 4). 3
The relative importance of various forested areas in Butler is somewhat debatable since
all forests provide benefits. However, large, contiguous blocks of forest are increasingly rare in
New Jersey, offering
habitat for birds and
animals that are
negatively impacted
by human influences
or that require large
home ranges.5 For
these reasons, the
forests in
northwestern Butler
along the Kinnelon
border are critical
lands (see Figure 72, area 1) due to
their connection with
a much larger
forested area
extending far beyond
Butler.
Figure 7-4: Mesic Forest Near Stone House Brook
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
68
Forests along waterways, like the Pequannock River and Stone House Brook, protect
water quality and create vital habitat for fish, aquatic birds, and animals. The value of forests
for wildlife habitat is explored more fully under “Fish and Wildlife.” As noted elsewhere in this
inventory, forests overlying prime groundwater recharge areas should also be protected, since
these areas serve to maintain stream and river flows during non-rainfall periods.
Forests are not the only vegetative communities in Butler. The Borough also has four
types of wetlands. Typically, the type of wetland is assigned by the vegetation found in these
wetland areas. Some of these wetlands have been mapped by the NJDEP (see Figure 7-8).
However, this mapping is by no means complete. When development projects are proposed, a
more detailed analysis of wetlands on the site, known as a “Letter of Interpretation” is required
that may show other wetlands that were previously unidentified.
Wetlands in Butler that are only saturated for limited periods are dominated by trees like
red maples that rely on shallow surface root systems to keep their roots above water and
provide the roots with sufficient oxygen (see Figure 7-5). These areas are known as “Deciduous
wooded wetlands.” They are prime habitat for other wetlands plants such as skunk cabbage,
ferns, and mosses and wetlands-associated wildlife. The majority of this wetlands type is found
along the Pequannock River, although there are other occurrences, as shown in Figure 7-8.6
The second type of wetland in Butler is the “Deciduous scrub/shrub wetland.” These
lands are dominated by woody vegetation less than 20 feet tall, including shrubs like the redosier dogwood, alder, and buttonbush, and young or stunted trees. Mapped areas of this
Figure 7-5: Skunk Cabbage Grows In A Deciduous Wooded Wetland Near The
Pequannock River
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
69
wetland type are in northwest Butler
near Terrace Lake and in southeast
Butler near the Riverdale border.7
Herbaceous wetlands, also
known as emergent wetlands, are
characterized by erect, rooted,
herbaceous plants, and are usually
dominated by perennial plants. An
example of these wetlands is found
at the western edge of Terrace Lake
(see Figure 7-6).8
Wetlands described as
“Managed in Maintained Lawn
Greenspace” are those that have
been modified by human activity but
are now maintained as open space. A
small area of this wetlands type is
found along a maintained power line
between Hamburg Turnpike and the
Pequannock River in northeast
Butler.
The last wetlands type in
Butler is the “Mixed wooded
(deciduous dominant)”. As the name
implies, these are, wooded wetlands
Figure 7-6: Herbaceous Wetland Near Terrace Lake
of mixed composition, with both
conifer and deciduous trees, where
the deciduous trees are dominant. 9 In Butler this type of wetland is restricted to a small area
near Stone House Brook.
Plant communities in New Jersey face problems beyond the clearing of land. For
example, hemlock trees in the eastern U.S. have recently come under attack by a foreign
invader, the hemlock woolly adelgid. This pest has destroyed many hemlock stands on the
Eastern seaboard, and in our area. It was first found in New Jersey in 1978.10
Another forest pest is the gypsy moth, with cyclical infestations that impact hardwood
trees such as oaks. Introduced diseases also create problems for beech trees (beech bark
disease), butternut (butternut canker disease), and flowering dogwoods (dogwood
anthracnose).11
The presence of non-native plants has greatly altered plant communities and ecosystem
functions in the U.S., including Butler. Some of the more common invasive plant species in our
region are Norway maple, tree-of-heaven, Japanese barberry, Japanese honeysuckle, stilt grass,
and garlic mustard. Particularly aggressive are two invasive plants found in wetlands and river/
stream corridors—purple loosestrife and Japanese knotweed.12 Japanese knotweed now covers
extensive areas along the Pequannock River and Stone House Brook (see Figure 7-7) and large
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
70
patches of purple loosestrife may be seen at Terrace Lake. These non-native species provide
little or no benefit to wildlife and crowd out beneficial native plants.
Figure 7-7: Japanese Knotweed Along Stone House Brook
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
71
Figure 7-8: Wetlands Of Butler
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
72
II. Fish and Wildlife
Prior to European settlement in the 1700s, Butler had a full complement of native
wildlife. However, colonists sought to eliminate large predators (a bounty on timber wolves was
established in New Jersey in 169713) and such species as wolves and mountain lions were
extirpated by the 18th century. Other native wildlife, like the passenger pigeon, were hunted to
extinction. Even white-tail deer were reduced to small remnant populations in New Jersey by
the late 1800s.
The extensive clearing of forests also reduced habitat for some birds and animals,
although it benefited those that favor open pasture, brush, or young forest. It is a surprising fact
that forest cover has actually increased in many areas of northern New Jersey over the past
century. Older photographs of Butler reveal how much acreage was devoted locally to fields
and pasture.
Since the early 1900s, forest recovery, establishment of restrictive hunting laws, and
scientific game management have restored a number of species. Protection and reintroduction
efforts have served to vastly increase populations of whitetail deer, wild turkey, bobcat, and
black bear in New Jersey.
Today, Butler, though small in size, has a surprisingly full population of wildlife. With
the possible exception of a few species, such as bobcat and timber rattlesnake, most of the
native wildlife found in northern New Jersey have at least some presence in Butler.
In addition, some birds and mammals that were historically unknown in the Butler region,
have established themselves, either by expanding their range or through human introduction.
Good examples are the eastern coyote, a migrant from the western states; the black vulture,
once exclusively a southern U.S. species; the European starling, first released in New York’s
Central Park around 1890; and the rock pigeon, introduced into the U.S. in the 1600s. All are
now abundant in the Butler
area.
Some animals readily
adapt to human activities
and suburban development.
Mammals such as the
Eastern grey squirrel,
raccoon, opossum,
cottontail rabbit (see Figure
7-9), and striped skunk will
thrive in suburban
landscapes as long as a
minimal amount of
undisturbed land remains.
In fact, some birds and
animals have learned to take
advantage of the suburban
environment.
Figure 7-9: Young Cottontail Rabbit
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
73
For example, many homeowners in Butler
have had trash cans raided by raccoons or black
bears. Turkey vultures and black vultures utilize the
exhaust from household chimneys in Butler to warm
themselves in winter (see Figure 7-10).
Butler’s largest mammal is the black bear,
occurring primarily in the forested areas of western
Butler. Black bears need a diversity of habitat types
to provide food in different seasons, from bulbs and
vegetation in spring to mast crops like acorns and
beechnuts in autumn. Maintaining these natural food
supplies prevents bears from seeking alternative
foods such as garbage or livestock.14 Preserving
large areas of contiguous open space, and linkages
between open space tracts is necessary to the longterm survival of the black bear in our region.
Other species, such as river otter (see Figure 7
-11), American mink, and muskrat, require highquality aquatic habitat. Their continued existence
can only be assured by maintaining healthy stream/
river corridors as well as lake and pond shores with
Figure 7-10: Turkey Vulture Basks In
The Heat From A Butler Chimney
adequate undisturbed buffers.
For river otter, these habitat areas must be
extensive. Throughout a year, an otter may
occupy 50 or more miles of a stream or river
course.15 Fortunately, much of the
Pequannock River, and the river tributaries
throughout Butler and beyond have retained at
least some un-degraded riparian buffers.
The bird life of Butler is also extensive due to
a wide range of habitat types. Again, some
birds readily adapt to suburban areas,
including songbirds like the blue jay (Figure 7
-13) or our state bird, the goldfinch (Figure 712).
Figure 7-11: Tracks Of River Otter Along
Pequannock River In Butler
Woodlands in the western part of the
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
74
Borough offer forest-interior birds,
such as the Cooper’s hawk, a relatively
remote and undisturbed territory. Wild
turkeys also make use of these forested
areas, but have increased their presence
in suburban neighborhoods, too.
The Pequannock River hosts a
remarkable array of waterfowl and
aquatic birds, including a variety of
herons and ducks and an occasional
osprey. The river is an important
wintering area for many of these birds,
where stretches of swift current
maintain ice-free water, even in the
Figure 7-12: Goldfinch
coldest conditions (see Figure 7-14).
Herons, ducks, swans, geese, and
kingfishers all take advantage of the open water as winter feeding and roosting sites.
Reptiles and amphibians are also well represented in Butler. Several species of turtles,
along with water snakes, frogs, and salamanders rely on good quality wetlands and waterways.
Other non-aquatic species, such as the five-lined Skink, the region’s only lizard, the black rat
Figure 7-13: Blue jay
Figure 7-14: Mallard ducks On
Pequannock River In Winter
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
75
snake, (Butler’s largest
snake at a length of 8
feet—see Figure 7-15),
and the gray tree frog,
inhabit upland areas.
Fisheries resources
are equally varied. The
Pequannock River and
most of the river
tributaries in Butler
support a reproducing
population of brown trout
(see Figure 7-16). These
fish require cold, clean,
well-oxygenated water.
Rivers and streams capable
Figure 7-15: Black Rat Snake
of hosting spawning trout
are increasingly rare in New Jersey.
In addition, the N.J. Division of Fish and Wildlife stocks rainbow trout and brook trout in
the Butler section of the Pequannock River. Other species that thrive in this cold, welloxygenated water are black-nosed dace, fallfish, creek chubs, white suckers, and darters.
Lakes and ponds in Butler hold fish that are better suited to these warmer, lessoxygenated waters including largemouth bass, sunfish, and chain pickerel.
The federal government maintains a list of species that are either endangered or
Figure 7-16: Wild Brown Trout, Pequannock River
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
76
threatened nationwide. The NJDEP maintains a similar list for those species that are endangered
or threatened in our state, and adds an additional category—Species of Special Concern. Some
of these species are residents of, or potential visitors to Butler including several birds (goldenwinged warbler, great blue heron, barred owl, red-headed woodpecker, bald eagle, Cooper’s
Hawk, northern goshawk, and red-shouldered hawk), a reptile (timber rattlesnake), and several
mammals (bobcat, Indiana bat, and Eastern small-footed myotis).
To protect these species, the NJDEP ranks undeveloped lands based on their relative
value as habitat. The ranking system sets a value of 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest value and
1, the lowest. The ranking of forested land in Butler is shown in Figure 7-18. Note that not all
forests are ranked. Only larger patches of forest are categorized by the state. 16
Rank 5 is assigned to patches of forest with documented occurrences of at least one
wildlife species on the Federal list of endangered and threatened species. This rank is assigned
to a forested area in northwest Butler that forms part of a much larger forested tract. This rank is
assigned because this large forest supports bald eagle, a threatened species on the federal list,
and the Indiana bat, on the federal list as an endangered species. 17
Rank 4 is assigned to patches with one or more occurrences of at least one State
endangered species. Within Butler, a forested area in the southwest is assigned this rank. This
land supports habitat for bobcat, an endangered species in New Jersey, and for barred owl and
red-shouldered rawk, both listed as threatened in our state. Unfortunately, much of this tract
was recently developed.18
Rank 3 is assigned to patches with one or more occurrences of at least one State
threatened species. Lands in western Butler along the Kinnelon border have been assigned this
rank due to the presence of the red-headed
woodpecker.19
Rank 2 is assigned to patches
containing one or more occurrences of
species considered to be of special concern.
There are a number of these scattered across
Butler; lands known to provide foraging
areas for the great blue heron.20
Rank 1, the lowest category, is
assigned to tracts that may offer the
potential to support some of these rare
wildlife species although none have been
reported. One area, between Kiel Avenue
and the Pequannock River, and consisting
largely of forested wetlands, has been
assigned this rank.21
Figure 7-17: Tracks Of Red Fox, Western
Butler
Preservation of these critical lands is
covered in section 8 of this document.
In 1989 a list of potential and observed wildlife in the Federal Hill area of Bloomingdale
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
77
was developed for the Bloomingdale Environmental Commission. This list is provided in
Appendix C and can serve as quite an accurate surrogate for Butler, particularly in the larger
remaining undeveloped tracts. Although a number of these birds and animals are rarely seen,
their presence may be confirmed by tracks and other signs (see Figure 7-17).
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
78
Figure 7-18: Ranking Of Forests In The Butler Area As Wildlife Habitat
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
79
1
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1997. Significant Habitats and Habitat Complexes of the New
York Bight Watershed. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D,C. <http://
training.fws.gov/library/pubs5/web_link/text/ny_njh.htm#narrative
2
Ibid.
3
Ibid.
4
Ibid.
5
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 2002. New York / New Jersey Highlands
Regional Study. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Newtown Square, PA. <http://
www.na.fs.fed.us/highlands/maps_pubs/regional_study/regional_study.shtm
6
Cowardin, Lewis M. Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Jamestown, North Dakota. <http://www.fws.gov/wetlands/
_documents/gNSDI/ClassificationWetlandsDeepwaterHabitatsUS.pdf
7
Ibid.
8
Ibid.
9
Ibid.
10
D. Smith-Fiola, G. Hamilton, J. Lashomb. 2004. The Hemlock Woolly Adelgid: Life Cycle,
Monitoring, and Pest Management in New Jersey. Rutgers Cooperative Research and Extension. <http://njaes.rutgers.edu/pubs/download-free.asp?strPubID=FS751
11
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. February 2004. An Overview of
Nonindigenous Plant Species in New Jersey. New Jersey Department of Environmental
Protection. Trenton, NJ. <http://www.state.nj.us/dep/parksandforests/natural/heritage/
InvasiveReport.pdf.
12
USDA Forest Service. 2001. Northeastern Area Forest Stressor Report. <http://
www.fs.fed.us/na/durham/foresthealth/text/stressor_report/stressor_report.shtml
13
Shadow Wolf Country. 2006. The Wolf Chronology. <http://www.angelfire.com/bc/
shadowcountry/wolfchrono.html
14
New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. 2006. Black Bear. New Hampshire Fish and
Game Department. Concord, NH 03301. <http://www.wildlife.state.nh.us/Wildlife/
Wildlife_profiles/profile_black_bear.htm.
15
Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. 2006. Nebraska Wildlife Species Guide. Nebraska
Game and Parks Commission. Lincoln, NE. <http://www.ngpc.state.ne.us/wildlife/otters.asp
16
Niles, L.J., M. Valent, P. Winkler and P. Woerner. 2008. New Jersey’s Landscape Project,
Version 2.1. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Endangered and Nongame Species Program. <<http://www.nj.gov/dep/fgw/ensp/
landscape/lp_report_2_1.pdf
pp. 150.
17
Ibid.
18
Ibid.
19
Ibid.
20
Ibid.
21
Ibid.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
80
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Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
81
8. Sustaining the Natural Resources of Butler
I. Preservation and Conservation—Water Resources
As described in section 4 of this document, almost all residents of Butler are supplied
with water from a reservoir outside the Borough. Groundwater and surface waterways within
Butler are important to fish, wildlife, and to recreational use, but are not utilized by Butler as a
water supply.
Groundwater is important to maintain stream and river flows during periods when rain is
not falling. Although much of Butler is already developed, redevelopment of properties in
areas with high recharge rates or highly permeable soils (see Figures 6-10 and 6-12) should be
engineered to reduce impervious cover and promote recharge of clean stormwater. Where new
development is proposed, high-density or intensive development may be inappropriate in these
areas.
Protecting the quality and quantity of surface waters also relies on promoting appropriate
land use. First and foremost, sensitive areas and areas critical to water quality should be
protected. These include riparian buffers, steep slopes, floodplains, wetlands, and forested
lands. Riparian buffers and wetlands are largely protected by state regulation under the Flood
Hazard Control Act Rules, the Freshwater Wetlands Protection Act, and the Stormwater
Management Rules. Steep slopes and forests outside these areas may require municipal
protection.
Steeply sloped land is particularly vulnerable. Trees and other plants grow slowly in the
thin soils on such slopes and re-establishing vegetation can be extremely difficult when these
Figure 8-1: Steeply Sloped Construction Site In Butler
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
82
areas are disturbed. Construction on steep slopes (see Figure 8-1) often results in high sediment
loads from runoff damaging waters downstream. Blasting and grading can also affect the flow
of subsurface water, impacting aquifer recharge, wetlands, and waterways. Finally, loss of
vegetation can increase the volume of runoff, exacerbating flooding in low-lying areas.
To address these issues, the Borough of Butler adopted steep slope protections as part of
their land use ordinances in 2006 (Ordinance 2006-27). The ordinance states:
“These special development controls are provided in recognition of the potentially
negative impacts associated with the removal of vegetative cover, the disturbance of the soil by
excavation or fill, and the construction of buildings, structures, roadways and associated site
disturbances within these areas of steep slopes in the Borough of Butler which will cause an
increase of surface water runoff, soil erosion and siltation, with the resultant pollution of
streams as well as the potential danger of flooding and water damage and thereby having the
potential of endangering public and private property and life.”1
The ordinance breaks slopes into 5 classifications - 0 to 14.99%; 15% to 19.99%; 20%
to 24.99%; 25% to 29.99%; and slopes 30% or more. This ordinance regulates disturbance of
these slopes as described in Table 8-1.1
Where land preservation is not possible or appropriate, development or redevelopment
should employ techniques, called Best Management Practices, that reduce impacts. For
example, a critical factor for water quality is the nature of the stormwater that will be reaching
waterways from the site. What are the likely pollutants in the runoff? What methods are
available to reduce the pollutant load to the receiving waterway and promote infiltration onsite?
Guidance on pollutant characteristics of urban stormwater and appropriate Best Management
Practices (BMPs) can be found in detail within the New Jersey manual, Best Management
Practices for Control of Nonpoint Source Pollution from Stormwater. All development
Table 8-1: Slope Regulation Under Butler Ordinance 2006-27
Slope
Maximum Permitted
Disturbance of Slope Area
Permitted Development Activity
Less than 15%
100%
All activities.
15% to 19.9%
50%
All activities subject to review and
approval of individual grading and
site plans.
20% to 24.9%
30%
All activities subject to review and
approval of individual grading and
site plans.
25% to 30%
15%
Only transitional grading.
30% or more
0%
No disturbance permitted.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
83
proposals should be consistent with the principles and practices found in the manual.2
Care must also be taken during development. Inadequate control of sediment and runoff
during construction can create enormous problems for downstream waterways.
A good example of redevelopment with benefits for groundwater and surface waters was
the River Place at Butler project (see Figure 8-2). This redevelopment reduced the amount of
impervious cover on the site, gave better treatment to stormwater, and restored the buffer area
along the Pequannock River.
As noted in this document, the Pequannock River has unique problems with high water
temperatures that impact sensitive aquatic life such as trout. Land development plays an
important role in addressing or worsening these problems. Heated runoff from impervious
surfaces like roads, rooftops, or parking lots may raise temperatures in the receiving waterway
substantially. Measures that can reduce the volume and temperature of runoff include:3
•Reducing impervious cover
•Maximizing infiltration of runoff
•Providing shade on impervious cover with trees and planting strips
•Use of bio-retention basins instead of detention basins
Figure 8-2: Restored Riparian Buffer On Pequannock River At River Place.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
84
•Discharge of stormwater as sheet flow to a vegetated buffer
•Use of vegetated swales rather than pipes to carry runoff
Preservation of a shading canopy over waterways is a priority. Sampling by the
Pequannock River Coalition has shown temperature increases of 4-6 degrees Fahrenheit on a
300-foot section of unshaded stream. Although the NJDEP prohibits removal of vegetation
along trout-associated waterways, local planning boards can assist by taking these buffers and
their protection into consideration when reviewing site plans and applications As noted, where
these buffers have been lost, (see Figure 8-3) redevelopment can offer an opportunity to restore
them.4
Figure 8-3: Loss Of Riparian Buffer On Stone House Brook
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
85
II. Preservation and Conservation—Land and Living Resources
As in the protection of water resources, there is a direct link between preservation of land
and the preservation of living resources, since plants and animals can only be protected by
preserving their habitat. Although all undeveloped lands provide a form of habitat, some areas
are particularly significant. For example, large tracts of contiguous forest are especially valued
due to their rarity and importance to sensitive wildlife. The largest remaining tracts of forest are
located along the Pequannock River, north of Kiel Avenue, bordering Stone House Brook east
of Route 23, and in the extreme southeast part of the Borough, near the Riverdale border (see
Figure 8-4). In addition, a smaller forested tract in extreme northwest Butler is part of a much
larger forested area extending into Kinnelon and beyond. Currently these lands are in a mix of
public and private ownership. Figure 3-3 shows the public lands in Butler.
Links between these undeveloped areas are also critical, providing corridors that allow
wildlife to move across different lands and habitat types. In this regard stream and river
corridors offer vital connections in Butler, as many of them have remained largely intact. These
riparian corridors can also offer the public access to lands and waters for fishing, hiking, and
boating, and, as discussed, provide great water quality benefits.
A good example is the riparian land adjacent to Stone House Brook that connects
undeveloped land around the Butler Reservoir in Kinnelon to several forested areas in Butler, or
the extensive riparian forest bordering the Pequannock River from southern West Milford,
through Butler, to Bloomingdale. The protection and/or restoration of these linkages should be a
Figure 8-4: Land Use In Butler Area
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
86
central element in future plans.
One important step Butler has taken
toward securing key lands is the creation of this
ERI. Additional potential steps would be the
creation and adoption of an Open Space and
Recreation Plan, and an Open Space Fund.
Targeting acquisition of key lands that offer
wildlife habitat, water quality protection, public
access, and/or linkages between open space
parcels, will ensure that vital natural resources
are conserved.
While acquisition of land is the most
certain means of protecting resources, not all
important properties can or should be acquired.
Conservation of private holdings including
forested land, steeply sloped areas, wetlands,
floodplains, and riparian corridors may be
fostered through educational efforts or
municipal regulation.
Again, Butler has taken some steps
toward these goals in adoption of a Steep Slope
Protection Ordinance. As noted, this ordinance
regulates the disturbance of slopes greater than
Figure 8-5: Butler Park
15%.5
An ordinance requiring an Environmental Impact Statement should be considered. This
would help the Borough to recognize and protect areas of greater environmental value when
development is proposed. A
sample ordinance from the
Borough of Far Hills is
provided in Appendix D.
Educating the public on the
sensitivity of local waterways
and the importance of
protecting riparian areas can
also yield increased protection.
Figure 8-6: Whitetail Deer
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
At some point in the future the
Borough of Butler may face
the problem of managing the
Borough’s whitetail deer. Deer
are prolific, with females
typically producing 2 offspring
each year. Left unchecked, this
population growth eventually
87
exceeds the carrying capacity of the land, leading to over-browsing of vegetation. This often
benefits non-native vegetation that deer do not utilize, and results in degradation of the overall
habitat for a wide range of animals.
While controversial, controlled hunting has been shown to be an effective and viable
option for keeping deer herds in balance with the land.6
III. Restoration
Restoring the natural resources of Butler relies on identifying locations where losses have
occurred and developing plans or methods to address them. Potential goals should include:
•Restoration of riparian areas, wetlands, and floodplains
•Control of invasive vegetation and reestablishment of native vegetation
•Reduction of impervious cover
•Improvement of stormwater management
The loss of riparian buffers can be reversed as redevelopment occurs, as is the case for the
River Place at Butler project in the Borough’s redevelopment zone. Borough planning and
zoning boards can take advantage of such opportunities by recognizing the environmental
sensitivity of particular areas and fostering improvements through zoning changes or site plan
specifics.
Private landowners can be encouraged to adopt landscaping methods and practices that
further restoration goals. Suburban landscaping sometimes results in denuded stream banks,
leading to increased erosion, higher water temperatures and loss of wildlife habitat.
Responsible fertilizer, herbicide and pesticide use and the replanting of vegetation along
waterways can improve water quality dramatically. Landowners can also be alerted to the
presence of invasive vegetation and the need for its removal. Typically, homeowners have little
understanding of the sensitivity of natural resources or the role they play in protecting them.
Publicly owned lands can best be restored by collaborating and cooperating with other
organizations, particularly conservation or environmental groups. In fact, these cooperative
efforts are already occurring. In 2004 the Pequannock River Coalition began restoring a section
of riverbank on the Pequannock River in Riverdale that had been stripped of vegetation during a
County road project. Trees and shrubs were replanted to reduce erosion and restore a shading
canopy on this section of the river (see Figures 8-7 and 8-8).
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
88
Figure 8-7: Site On Pequannock River Before
Restoration
Figure 8-8: Site On Pequannock River After
Restoration
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
89
1
Borough of Butler. 2006. Borough of Butler Land Use Ordinance, Chapter 143. Borough of
Butler. Butler, NJ.
2
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. 2004. N.J.A.C. 7:8 Stormwater
Management Rules. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Trenton, NJ. <http://
www.nj.gov/dep/rules/adoptions/2004_0202_watershed.pdf
3
Kushner, Ross. 2004. Pequannock River Temperature Impairment: Characterization,
Assessment and Management Plan. Pequannock River Coalition. Newfoundland, NJ.
4
Ibid.
5
Borough of Butler. 2006. Borough of Butler Land Use Ordinance, Chapter 143. Borough of
Butler. Butler, NJ.
6
New Jersey Audubon Society. 2005. New Jersey Audubon Society’s Forest Health and
Ecological Integrity Stressors and Solutions Policy White Paper. New Jersey Audubon Society.
Bernardsville, NJ. <http://www.njaudubon.org/Conservation/PDF/ForestHealthWhitePaper.pdf
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
90
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Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
91
Appendix A:
Drinking Water Quality Report For Butler Borough
PWS ID# NJ1403001
Annual Drinking Water Quality Report
Borough of Butler Water Department
For the Year 2007, Results from the Year 2006
We are pleased to present to you this year's Annual Drinking Water Quality Report. This report is designed to inform you about the quality water and
services we deliver to you every day. Our constant goal is to provide you with a safe and dependable supply of drinking water.
Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immuno-compromised persons such as
persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune
system disorders, some elderly, and infants can be particularly at risk from infections. These people should seek advice about drinking water
from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection by cryptosporidium and other
microbiological contaminants are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline (800-426-4791).
The Butler Water Department routinely monitors for over 80 contaminants in your drinking water according to Federal and State laws. This table
lists only those contaminants detected, and shows the results of our monitoring from January 1 st to December 31 st, 2006. The state allows us to
monitor for some contaminants less than once per year because the concentrations of these contaminants do not change frequently. Some of our data,
though representative, are more than one year old.
TEST RESULTS
Contaminant:
Violati
Level
Units of
MC
MCL
Likely Source of Contamination
on
Detected
Measur- LG
Y/N
ement
Microbiological
Contaminants:
Turbidity
Test results Yr. 2006
No
NTU
n/a
TT=0.3
NTU
TT=% of
samples
<0.3NTU
Range = ND – 0.7
Average = 0.3
Range = ND – 0.2
Average = 0.07
Range = ND – 0.1
Average = 0.05
pCi/1
0
15
Erosion of natural deposits
pCi/1
0
5
Erosion of natural deposits
pCi/1
0
15
Erosion of natural deposits
<2
No samples exceeded the action level.
ppb
0
AL=15
Corrosion of household plumbing systems,
erosion of natural deposits
ppb
N/A
80
By-product of drinking water disinfection
N/A
60
By-product of drinking water disinfection
Highest single Measurement = 0.4 NTU
99.9 % Average
Radioactive
Contaminants:
Gross Alpha
Test results Yr. 2006
Radium 226
Test results Yr. 2006
Radium 228
Test results Yr. 2006
Inorganic
Contaminants:
Lead
Test results Yr. 2005
Volatile Organic
Contaminants
TTHM
[Total trihalomethanes]
Test results Yr. 2006
HAA5
Haloacetic Acids
Test results Yr. 2006
Regulated Disinfectants
Test results Yr. 2006
Chlorine
No
No
No
No
No
Running Annual Average = 43
Highest Quarterly Average = 63
Range= 26 – 67
No
Running Annual Average = 27
Highest Quarterly Average = 30
Range= 21 – 34
ppb
Level detected
MRDL
MRDLG
Range = 0.3 – 1.0
4 ppm
4 ppm
Soil runoff
Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level (MRDL): The highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that
addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants.
Maximum Residual Disinfectant Goal (MRDLG): The level of a drinking water disinfectant, below which there is no known or expected risk to
health. MRDLGs do not reflect the benefits of the use of disinfectants to control microbial contamination
Our water source:
We draw our water from the Kakeout reservoir on Bubbling Brook Road in the Borough of Kinnelon, Morris County. The New Jersey Department
of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) has completed and issued the Source Water Assessment Report and Summary for this public water system,
which is available at WWW.state.nj.us/dep/swap or by contacting NJDEP’s Bureau of Safe Drinking Water at (609) 292-5550. You may also
contact your public water system to obtain information regarding your water system’s Source Water Assessment. This water system’s source water
susceptibility ratings and a list of potential contaminant sources is attached.
Potential sources of contamination:
The sources of drinking water (both tap water and bottled water) include rivers, lakes, streams, ponds reservoirs, springs, and wells. As water travels
over the surface of the land or through the ground, it dissolves naturally occurring minerals and, in some cases, radioactive material, and can pick up
substances resulting from the presence of animals or from human activity.
Contaminants that may be present in source water include:
 Microbial contaminants, such as viruses and bacteria, which may come from sewage treatment plants, septic systems, agricultural
livestock operations, and wildlife.
 Inorganic contaminants, such as lasts and metals, which can be naturally-occurring or result from urban storm water runoff,
industrial or domestic wastewater discharges, oil and gas projection, mining, or farming.
 Pesticides and herbicides, which may come from a variety of sources such as agriculture, urban storm water runoff, and residential
uses.
 Organic chemical contaminants, including synthetic and volatile organic chemicals, which are byproducts of industrial processes
and petroleum production, and can, also come from gas stations, urban storm water runoff, and septic systems.
 Radioactive Contaminants, which can be naturally-occurring or be the result of oil and gas production and mining activities.
In order to ensure that tap water is safe to drink, EPA prescribes regulations which limit the amount of certain contaminants in water provided by
public water systems. Food and Drug Administration regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water, which must provide the same
protection for public health.
Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of
contaminants does not necessarily indicate that the water poses a health risk. More information about contaminants and potential health effects can
be obtained by calling the Environmental Protection Agency's Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791.
For additional information:
If you have any questions about this report or concerning your water utility, please contact Ed Becker, Chief Water Treatment Plant Operator at 973838-0063. If you want to learn more, please attend any of our regularly scheduled meetings. Meetings are held at Borough Hall, 1 Ace Road, on the
third Tuesday of each month at 7:30 p.m.
Definitions:
In the following table you will find many terms and abbreviations you might not be familiar with. To help you better understand these terms we've
provided the following definitions:
Non-Detects (ND) - laboratory analysis indicates that the constituent is not present.
Parts per million (ppm) or Milligrams per liter (mg/l) - one part per million corresponds to one minute in two years or a single penny in $10,000.
Parts per billion (ppb) or Micrograms per liter - one part per billion corresponds to one minute in 2,000 years, or a single penny in $10,000,000.
Picocuries per liter (pCi/L) - picocuries per liter is a measure of the radioactivity in water.
Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU) - nephelometric turbidity unit is a measure of the clarity of water. Turbidity in excess of 5 NTU is just
noticeable to the average person.
Action Level - the concentration of a contaminant which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements which a water system must follow.
Treatment Technique (TT) - A treatment technique is a required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water.
Maximum Contaminant Level - The "Maximum Allowed" (MCL) is the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are
set as close to the MCLGs as feasible using the best available treatment technology.
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal -The "Goal"(MCLG) is the level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected
risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety.
To ensure the continued quality of your water:
We treat our water in several ways. We add alum and lime to promote clarity and control pH, and we add a small amount of chlorine to disinfect, as
a precautionary measure. We use polyphosphate to protect residential plumbing.
Waivers:
The Safe Drinking Water Act regulations allow monitoring waivers to reduce or eliminate the monitoring requirements for asbestos, volatile organic
chemicals and synthetic organic chemicals. Our system received monitoring waivers for asbestos and synthetic organic chemicals.
We at the Butler Water Department work hard to provide top quality water to every tap. We ask that all our customers help us protect our
water sources, which are the heart of our community, our way of life and our children's future. Please call our office if you have questions.
Appendix B:
Soil Types of Butler Borough
Map Symbol: AdrAt
Soil Series: Adrian
The Adrian series consists of very deep, very poorly drained soils formed in herbaceous organic
material over sandy deposits on outwash plains, lake plains, lake terraces, flood plains, moraines, and till plains. Permeability is moderately slow to moderately rapid in the organic material and rapid in the sandy material. Slope ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Mean annual precipitation
is about 35 inches, and mean annual temperature is about 50 degrees F.
Taxonomic Class: Sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, euic, mesic Terric Haplosaprists
Typical Pedon: Adrian muck, on a less than 1 percent slope under marsh vegetation at an elevation of 654 feet. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Oa1--0 to 16 inches; black (10YR 2/1) broken face, black (N 2.5/0) rubbed muck (sapric material); about 12 percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed; moderate medium granular structure;
primarily herbaceous fibers; neutral (pH 7.0 in water); abrupt wavy boundary.
Oa2--16 to 20 inches; black (10YR 2/1) broken face, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) rubbed muck
(sapric material); about 15 percent fibers, less than 5 percent rubbed; weak coarse subangular
blocky structure; primarily herbaceous fibers; slightly acid (pH 6.5 in water); gradual wavy
boundary.
Oa3--20 to 27 inches; black (10YR 2/1) broken face, black (10YR 2/1) rubbed muck (sapric
material); about 12 percent fibers, less than 5 percent rubbed; weak thick platy structure; primarily herbaceous fibers; moderately acid (pH 6.0 in water); gradual wavy boundary.
Oa4--27 to 34 inches; black (10YR 2/1) broken face, black (10YR 2/1) rubbed muck (sapric
material); about 12 percent fibers, less than 5 percent rubbed; massive; primarily herbaceous
fibers; strongly acid (pH 5.5 in water); abrupt smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of the Oa
horizon is 16 to 51 inches.)
Cg1--34 to 60 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain; loose; common medium prominent
light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) masses of iron oxide accumulation in the matrix; slightly alkaline;
clear wavy boundary.
Cg2--60 to 80 inches; dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) fine sand; single grain, loose; strongly effervescent;
moderately alkaline.
Type Location: Gratiot County, Michigan; about 1 1/2 miles southeast of Ashley; 2,040 feet
north and 100 feet east of the southwest corner of sec. 16, T. 9 N., R. 1 W.; U.S.G.S. Ashley,
MI topographic quadrangle; lat. 43 degrees 10 minutes 2.4 seconds N. and long. 84 degrees 26
minutes 50.6 seconds W., NAD 27; UTM Zone 16, 707498 easting and 4782563 northing,
NAD 83.
Range In Characteristics: The difference between mean summer and mean winter soil temperature is 17 to 25 degrees F., or more. The depth to the sandy C horizon ranges from 16 to 51
inches. The organic materials are derived primarily from herbaceous plants, but some layers
contain as much as 50 percent material of woody origin.
The surface tier ( Oa1 or Oap horizon) has hue of 5YR to 10YR, or is neutral, value of 2 or 2.5,
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
B-1
and chroma of 0 to 3. It is dominantly muck (sapric material), however, some pedons have
mucky peat (hemic material). Some pedons have a thin mat, 1 to 4 inches thick, of sphagnum
moss on the surface. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral.
The subsurface and bottom tiers (Oa, Oe, or Oi horizons) have hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, or are
neutral, value of 2, 2.5, or 3, and chroma of 0 to 3. It is dominantly muck (sapric material). Thin
layers, less than 10 inches thick, of mucky peat (hemic material) are in some pedons. Thin layers, less than 5 inches thick, of peat (fibric material) are in some pedons. In some pedons a sedimentary peat layer 1 to 2 inches thick is present above the C horizon. Reaction ranges from
strongly acid to neutral.
The C or Cg horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 5Y, or is neutral, value of 2 to 6, and chroma of 0 to
4. It is sand, coarse sand, fine sand, or loamy sand, or their gravelly or very gravelly analogues.
Strata of finer textures occur in some pedons. Rock fragment content ranges from 0 to 60 percent. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline.
Competing Series: These are the Fishtrap and Timakwa (T) series. Fishtrap soils have a difference of less than 16 degrees F., between mean summer and mean winter soil temperatures and
are more acid than slightly acid in the mineral underlying materials. Timakwa soils are derived
primarily from woody organic materials and have woody fragments 3/4 inch to a foot in diameter in some part of the organic materials. Timakwa soils are also in wetter regions of Land Resource Region R and S and have a mean annual precipitation of 47 inches.
Geographic Setting: Adrian soils formed in herbaceous organic material over sandy deposits
and occupy shallow closed depressions primarily on outwash plains, lake plains, lake terraces,
and flood plains, but can occur within moraines and till plains. Areas range from a few acres to
several hundred acres in size. Slope gradients range from 0 to 1 percent. Usually adjacent upland soils are sandy. Mean annual temperature ranges from 48 to 53 degrees F., mean annual
precipitation ranges from 29 to 45 inches, frost-free period ranges from 120 to 180 days, and
elevation ranges from 580 feet to 1,530 feet above sea level.
Geographically Associated Soils: These are the Antung, Edselton, Houghton and Granby
soils. The very poorly drained Antung, Edselton, and Houghton soils are on similar landform
positions as Adrian soils. Antung soils formed in less than 16 inches of herbaceous organic material. Edselton soils are underlain by marl and sand. Houghton soils formed in herbaceous organic deposits more than 51 inches thick and are the most common associate. The poorly
drained or very poorly drained Granby soils are sandy throughout, and generally are at the margins of the depressions.
Drainage and Permeability: Very poorly drained. The potential for surface runoff is negligible. Permeability is moderately slow to moderately rapid in the organic material and rapid in the
sandy material. The depth to the top of an apparent seasonal high water table ranges from 1 foot
above the surface to 1 foot below the surface from September to June in normal years. In the
flooded phase, areas are subject to frequent flooding for long periods between October and
June.
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B-2
Use and Vegetation: Most of this soil is in native vegetation. Much of it is in marsh grasses
including sedges, reeds, grasses, and shrubs such as willow, alder, quaking aspen, and dogwood. Some areas have been drained to various degrees and are used for hay and pasture. A
small proportion is used for cropland. Corn and truck crops are the principal crops.
Distribution and Extent: MLRAs 95B, 96, 97, 98, 99, 111, 115, and possibly in 100, 105, 110,
114, and 120 in the southern parts of lower Michigan, Connecticut, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin. The soils are of
large extent, about 395,000 acres.
MLRA Office Responsible: Indianapolis, Indiana.
Series Established: Sanilac County, Michigan, 1955.
Remarks: Several flooded phases and depth phases have been recognized. These phases will
need to be evaluated during modernization updates. Drained and undrained phases have been
recognized.
Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are: sapric material - from the surface
to 34 inches (Oa1, Oa2, Oa3, and Oa4 horizons); terric feature - mineral material from 34 to 60
inches (Cg horizon).
Map Symbol: FNAT (Fluvaquents and udifluvents, 0-3 percent slopes, frequently flooded)
Soil Series: Adrian
Characteristics:
Local Physiographic Area: Countywide
Geomorphic Setting: River valley, flood plain
Parent Material: Recent alluvium
Drainage Class: Somewhat poorly drained
Soil Depth Class: Very deep
Slope: 0 to 3 percent
Associated Soils
Udifluvents
Taxonomic Classification
Fluvaquents
Typical Pedon
Fluvaquents loam in an area of Fluvaquents, loamy, 0 to 3 percent slopes, frequently
flooded, in other grass/herbaceous cover; located in Byram Township, approximately
390 feet northwest from the intersection of Waterloo Road and River Road in
Lookwood. USGS Stanhope quadrangle; Latitude: 40 degrees, 55 minutes, 19.50
seconds N.; Longitude: 74 degrees, 43 minutes, 50.63 seconds W.
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B-3
A1—0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) loam; moderate fine granular
structure; friable; 1 percent fine distinct red (2.5YR 4/6) iron-manganese masses;strongly acid;
clear smooth boundary.
A2—5 to 12 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) silt loam; moderate fine granular structure;
friable; 30 percent fine distinct red (2.5YR 4/6) iron-manganese masses; strongly
acid; clear smooth boundary.
C1—12 to 18 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy clay loam; massive; friable; 30
percent medium prominent yellowish red (5YR 4/6) iron-manganese masses;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
C2—18 to 24 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) sandy clay loam; massive;
friable; 30 percent medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) iron-manganese
masses; 15 percent medium distinct light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron
depletions; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C3—24 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) sandy loam; massive; friable; 30
percent medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) iron-manganese masses;
strongly acid.
Range in Characteristics
Thickness of solum: 6 to 30 inches or more
Depth to bedrock: greater than 60 inches
Content and size of rock fragments: 0 to 35 percent gravel, by volume throughout
the soil
Reaction: variable
Permeability: variable
A horizon:
Color - hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 to 6
Texture - variable
Structure - weak to moderate granular
Redoximorphic features - iron concentrations in shades of dark red
C horizon:
Color - hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 3 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 6
Texture - variable
Structure - massive
Redoximorphic features - iron depletions in shades of light brownish gray and iron
concentrations in shades of strong brown to yellowish red
Map Symbol: HhmCa
Soil Series: Hibernia
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
B-4
The Hibernia series consists of very deep, somewhat poorly drained soils in low positions on
undulating uplands. The soils are shallow or moderately deep to a fragipan. They formed in till
and colluvial material. Slope ranges from 0 to 25 percent. Permeability is moderate above the
fragipan, slow in the fragipan, and moderate to rapid in the substratum. Mean annual temperature is about 52 degrees F. and mean annual precipitation is about 50 inches.
Taxonomic Class: Coarse-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Fragiudults
Typical Pedon: Hibernia cobbly loam - in a wooded area at an elevation of about 1195 feet.
(Colors are for moist soil.)
A--0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) cobbly loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fibrous and fine roots; common fine vesicular pores; common uncoated
sand grains; 30 percent stones, cobbles, and gravel; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (1
to 5 inches thick)
BA--5 to 9 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) cobbly sandy loam; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; common fibrous and fine roots; common fine vesicular pores; few
faint silt coatings on pebbles and faces of peds and faint bridging with silt and sand grains; few
clean sand grains; 20 percent stones, cobbles, and gravel; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
(0 to 8 inches thick)
Bt1--9 to 16 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) cobbly sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fibrous and few fine roots; common fine vesicular
pores; few faint brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds and in sand pebble niches; 20
percent stones, cobbles, and gravel in approximately equal proportions; common fine and medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) iron accumulations and common fine and medium
prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) and light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) iron accumulations;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bt2--16 to 25 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) cobbly sandy loam; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; few fibrous and fine roots; few fine vesicular pores; few
distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds and in sand and pebble niches; 20 percent stones, cobbles, and gravel in approximately equal proportions; common fine and medium
prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) iron accumulations and common fine and medium prominent grayish brown (10YR 5/2) and light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron depletions; strongly
acid; clear smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bt horizons is 5 to 32 inches.)
Bx--25 to 36 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) gravelly sandy loam; coarse wedgeshaped elongated mottles that have strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) exteriors and light yellowish
brown (2.5Y 6/4) to light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) interiors; weak thick platy structure; firm,
brittle; few very fine noncontinuous pores; 25 percent gravel, cobbles, and stones; few strong
brown to yellowish red iron oxide and black manganese stains on plate surfaces; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary. (6 to 18 inches thick)
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B-5
C1--36 to 62 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) gravelly sandy loam; massive; firm; few very
fine continuous pores; 25 percent gravel, cobbles, and stones; common coarse distinct light
brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron depletions and common coarse prominent yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) and brown (7.5YR 4/4) iron accumulations; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
C2--62 to72 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) and light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) very gravelly loamy
sand; single grain; loose; 40 percent gravel, cobbles, and stones, strongly acid.
Type Location: Passaic County, New Jersey; Township of West Milford, 20 feet west of Lud
Day Road at a point 1.83 miles north of intersection of Stickles Road and Lud Day Road;
USGS Newfoundland quadrangle; latitude N. 41 degrees 06 minutes 15 seconds, longitude W.
74 degrees 27 minutes 42 seconds, NAD 27.
Range In Characteristics: Thickness of the solum ranges from 24 to 50 inches. Depth to the
fragipan ranges from 18 to 36 inches. Depth to bedrock is typically greater than 6 feet. Rock
fragments range from 5 to 35 percent throughout the solum, and from 0 to 60 percent in the C
horizon. Rock fragments are a mixture of gravel, cobbles, stones, and boulders in varying proportions. The rock fragments are primarily granitic gneiss with smaller amounts of sandstone,
quartzite, and shale. Quartz, feldspar, and mica, with smaller amounts of ferromagnesian minerals dominate mineralogy. Reaction ranges from extremely acid through strongly acid in the A
and BA horizons, except where limed, and is very strongly acid or strongly acid in the B and C
horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of 1 through 3. Ap
horizons have hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 2 through 4. Textures range from silt loam to sandy loam in the fine-earth fraction. Structure is weak or moderate, fine or medium granular or subangular blocky. Consistence is friable or very friable.
Some pedons have an E horizon 2 to 5 inches thick. It has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4 or
5, and chroma of 4. The range for texture, structure, and consistence is the same as that for the
A horizon.
The BA or BE horizon has hue of 7.5YR through 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4
through 6. Texture ranges from silt loam to sandy loam in the fine-earth fraction. Structure is
weak or moderate, fine or medium subangular blocky. Consistence is friable or very friable.
The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR through 2.5Y, value of 4 through 6, and chroma of 4 through
6. It has redoximorphic features with high and low chroma in these and other hues. Texture in
individual subhorizons ranges from loam or sandy clay loam to sandy loam in the fine-earth
fraction. Structure is weak to moderate, fine to coarse subangular blocky. Consistence is friable.
The Bx horizon has hue of 7.5YR through 2.5Y, value of 4 through 6, and chroma of 4 through
6. It has high and low chroma redoximorphic features in these and other hues. Redoximorphic
features are commonly concentrated along vertically oriented streaks in vertical sections and
polygonal patterns in horizontal sections. Structure is weak or moderate thick or very thick
platy, weak very coarse prismatic, subangular blocky, or the horizon is massive. Consistence is
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
B-6
firm or very firm.
The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR through 5Y, value of 4 through 6, and chroma of 2 through 8,
or it is mottled with these and other hues. Texture is commonly loamy sand or sandy loam in
the fine-earth fraction but the range includes sandy clay loam, clay loam, or silty clay loam in
some pedons.
Competing Series: There are no other series currently in the same family.
Geographic Setting: Hibernia soils are on nearly level to moderately steep ground moraines, at
the base of steeper sloping uplands, and in shallow concave drainageways. Slope ranges from 0
to 25 percent. The soils developed in coarse textured till and colluvium derived primarily from
granitic gneiss with small amounts of quartzite, sandstone and shale. The mean annual precipitation ranges from 40 to 50 inches. The mean annual temperature ranges from 45 to 52 degrees
F. The frost-free days range from 140 to 160 days.
Geographically Associated Soils: These are the Netcong, Rockaway, Ridgebury, and Riverhead soils on nearby landscapes. Netcong and Rockaway soils usually occupy higher positions
on the landscape. Ridgebury soils usually occupy lower positions on the landscape. Riverhead
soils are typically on terraces and outwash plains in major valleys and are in stratified gravelly
and sandy deposits.
Drainage and Permeability: Hibernia soils are somewhat poorly drained. Surface runoff is
negligible to high. Permeability is moderate above the fragipan, slow in the fragipan, and moderate to rapid in the substratum. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately low to high
above the fragipan, moderately low or moderately high in the fragipan, and moderately low to
very high in the substratum. A perched water table is commonly ranges within a foot of the surface in late winter and early spring and following periods of extended rainfall. Lateral seepage
to the surface is common, particularly at slope breaks.
Use and Vegetation: Most areas are wooded or in idle fields. Natural vegetation is largely
woodland dominated by oak, ash and birch with some maple and hemlock. In urban areas much
of this soil has been drained or overfilled and is used for housing or industrial development.
Distribution and Extent: Northern New Jersey; MLRAs 144A and extreme northern portions
of MLRA 148. The series is of moderate extent, with a total of about 30,000 acres.
MLRA Office Responsible: Amherst, Massachusetts
Series Established: Morris County, New Jersey, 1971.
Remarks: The argillic horizon in Hibernia soils is weakly to moderately well expressed. In the
same landscape with the Hibernia soils are similar pedons that have soil characteristics more
closely associated with cambic horizons.
Cation exchange activity class determined from a review of limited data.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
B-7
Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon include:
1. Ochric epipedon - the zone from 0 to 9 inches (A and BA horizons).
2. Argillic horizon - the zone from 9 to 25 inches (Bt horizon).
3. Fragipan - the firm, brittle zone from 25 to 36 inches (Bx horizon).
4. Aquic feature - low chroma depletions are in the upper 10 inches of the argillic horizon (Bt2
horizon).
Map Symbol: PHG
Soil Series: Pits , Sand and Gravel
Characteristics: Human alteration created the Pits, Sand and Gravel soil series, that identifies
areas mined for sand, gravel and rock. It is difficult to characterize these soils because they
have been extensively disturbed. The NRCS does not describe the limitations of these soils.
Map Symbol: RkgBb, RkgBc
Soil Series: Ridgebury
The Ridgebury series consists of very deep, somewhat poorly and poorly drained soils formed
in till derived mainly from granite, gneiss and schist. They are commonly shallow to a densic
contact. They are nearly level to gently sloping soils in low areas in uplands. Slope ranges from
0 to 15 percent. Saturated hydraulic conductivity ranges from moderately low to high in the
solum and very low to moderately low in the substratum. Mean annual temperature is about 49
degrees F. and the mean annual precipitation is about 45 inches.
Taxonomic Class: Loamy, mixed, active, acid, mesic, shallow Aeric Endoaquepts
Typical Pedon: Ridgebury sandy loam - on a 3 to 8 percent slope in an extremely stony
wooded area at an elevation of about 1095 feet. (Colors are for moist soil.)
A--0 to 5 inches (0 to 12 cm.); black (N 2/0) fine sandy loam; weak medium and coarse granular structure; friable; many very fine, fine and medium tree roots; 5 percent gravel and 5 percent
cobbles; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to l0 inches thick)
Bw--5 to 9 inches (12 to 22 cm.); brown (10YR 4/3) sandy loam; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; few fine tree roots; 5 percent gravel and 5 percent cobbles; very
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (3 to 9 inches thick)
Bg--9 to 18 inches (22 to 46 cm.); dark gray (10YR 4/1) gravelly sandy loam; massive; friable;
10 percent gravel and 5 percent cobbles; common fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
and common medium distinct reddish brown (5YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (4 to 17 inches thick)
Cd--18 to 65 inches (46 to 165 cm.); gray (5Y 5/1) gravelly sandy loam; massive; firm; l0 perBorough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
B-8
cent gravel and 5 percent cobbles; common fine prominent reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) masses
of iron accumulation; very strongly acid.
Type Location: Hampshire County, Massachusetts; Town of Pelham; 1,600 feet east of Route
202 at a point 3,950 feet south of its junction with Amherst Road; USGS Shutesbury quadrangle; latitude 42 degrees 22 minutes 53 seconds N. and longitude 72 degrees 23 minutes 45 second W., NAD 27.
Range In Characteristics: Depth to the dense till commonly is 14 to 19 inches. The A horizon
has 5 to 25 percent gravel, 0 to 10 percent cobbles, and 0 to 25 percent stones by volume. The B
and C horizons have 5 to 25 percent gravel, 0 to 5 percent cobbles and 0 to 5 percent stones.
Rock fragments within the soil range from 5 to 35 percent by volume and are subangular fragments. The unlimed soil ranges from very strongly acid through moderately acid but some horizon within a depth of 40 inches is moderately acid.
The O horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 2, 2.5, or 3 and chroma of 0
to 2.
The A or Ap horizon is neutral or has hue of l0YR to 5Y, value of 2, 2.5, or 3 and chroma of 0
to 2. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam or loam in the fine-earth fraction.
Some pedons have a thin E horizon with hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 or
2. Texture is the same as the A horizon.
The B horizon is neutral or has hue of 7.5YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 0 to 3. The
chroma is 4 in some places. Chroma of 3 or 4 is restricted to subhorizons. Redoximorphic features are few to many and are distinct or prominent. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam,
very fine sandy or loam in the fine earth fraction with fifteen percent or more fine sand or
coarser and clay content less than 18 percent. The B horizon has subangular blocky structure,
weak to moderate very thin to medium platy structure or is massive. It is very friable or friable.
The Cd layer has hue of l0YR to 5Y, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of l to 4. It commonly has distinct or prominent redoximorphic features which generally become less abundant with depth but
the range includes faint. Texture is coarse sandy loam, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, very fine
sandy or loam in the fine-earth fraction. Consistence is firm or very firm and brittle. It is massive or has plates. Any physical aggregation is considered to not be pedogenic.
Some pedons have a C horizon below the Cd that is firm but not brittle.
Competing Series: There are no series currently in the same family.
The Painesville, Punsit, and Sun series are in a closely related family. Painesville soils lack a
densic contact. Punsit soils have more than 60 percent silt plus very fine sand in the particle size
control section. Sun soils formed in till derived from limestone and sandstone.
Geographic Setting: The nearly level to gently sloping Ridgebury soils are in slightly concave
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B-9
areas and shallow drainageways of till uplands. Slope ranges from 0 to 15 percent. The soils
formed in loamy till derived mainly from granite, gneiss and schist. Mean annual air temperature ranges from 45 to 52 degrees F. and mean annual precipitation ranges from 40 to 50 inches.
Mean growing season ranges from l00 to l95 days.
Geographically Associated Soils: These include the Charlton, Chatfield, Hollis, Leicester,
Paxton and Sutton, Whitman and Woodbridge soils. Ridgebury is a member of a drainage sequence that includes the well drained Paxton, moderately well drained Woodbridge, and very
poorly drained Whitman soils. Charlton and Sutton soils are better drained and have friable substrata. Chatfield and Hollis soils have bedrock within depths of 40 and 20 inches respectively.
Leicester soils do not have a densic contact.
Drainage and Permeability: Commonly poorly drained but the range includes the wetter part
of somewhat poorly drained. Runoff is negligible to medium. Saturated hydraulic conductivity
ranges from moderately low to high in the solum and very low to moderately low in the substratum. A perched, fluctuating water table above the dense till saturates the solum to or near the
surface for 7 to 9 months of the year.
Use and Vegetation: Largely forested to gray birch, yellow birch, red maple, hemlock, elm,
spruce and balsam fir. Cleared areas are used mainly for hay and pasture.
Distribution and Extent: Glaciated landforms in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, and Rhode Island. (MLRAs 142, 144A, 145, and 149B) The series is extensive.
MLRA Office Responsible: Amherst, Massachusetts.
Series Established: Franklin County, Vermont, l948.
Remarks: An analysis of Ridgebury soils in 2002 for 38 surveys showed that this series most
commonly has a densic contact at 16 to 24 inches including 8 surveys with the depth to a densic
contact at 20 inches. The average depth to a densic contact was 20 inches - the data showed an
almost even split between depth class occurrences. A review of characterization data for Ridgebury soils shows a very slight dominance in the acid reaction class. Any physical aggregation in
the Cd is considered to not be pedogenic. The type location is currently within the officially
designated mesic zone in Massachusetts.
Diagnostic horizons and features in this pedon include:
1. Ochric epipedon - the zone from 0 to 5 inches (A horizon).
2. Aeric feature 100 percent of the zone from 5 to 9 inches has hue of 10YR and both color
value moist of 4 and chroma moist of 3 (Bw1 horizon).
3. Cambic horizon - the zone from 5 to 18 inches (Bw and Bg horizons).
3. Densic contact root limiting material begins at 18 inches (Cd).
4. Endosaturation the zone from 9 to 18 inches is saturated above the densic contact (Bw2
horizon). A seasonal high water table is perched above the densic materials.
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B-10
5. Reaction - the pH in the zone from 10 to 18 inches (control section for reaction) is presumed less than 5.0 in 0.01 M CaCl2 (1:2) (see remarks).
6. Series control section - the zone from 0 to 28 inches.
Map Symbol: RNRE, RocB, RocC, RomC, RomD, RomE
Soil Series: Rockaway
The Rockaway series consists of very deep well or moderately well drained soils. They are
moderately deep to a fragipan. The soils formed in till on uplands. Slope ranges from 3 to 60
percent. Permeability is moderately rapid or moderate above the fragipan and slow or very slow
in the fragipan. Mean annual temperature is about 52 degrees F. and mean annual precipitation
is about 50 inches.
Taxonomic Class: Coarse-loamy, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Fragiudults
Typical Pedon: Rockaway gravelly sandy loam - wooded. (Colors are for moist soil.)
A--0 to 4 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) gravelly sandy loam; weak medium
granular structure; very friable; many roots; common fine vesicular pores; very dark gray to
black stains on most rock fragments, sand grains and surfaces of peds; 25 percent stones, cobbles and gravel; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (1 to 4 inches thick)
Bt1--4 to 9 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) gravelly loam; weak fine subangular blocky
structure; friable; common roots; common fine vesicular pores; many sand grains stained; few
faint silt and clay coats on faces of peds and on rock fragments; discontinuous silt and very fine
sand coatings in pores; 20 percent stones, cobbles, and gravel in equal proportions; strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bt2--9 to 22 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) gravelly loam; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; common fine vesicular pores; few distinct clay films on faces of peds,
in sand and gravel niches, and in pores; 20 percent gravel and cobbles with a few stones;
strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bt horizons is 8 to 30
inches.)
Bx--22 to 38 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) gravelly sandy loam; moderate thick platy
structure; very firm, brittle; few very fine vesicular pores; common distinct clay films on surfaces of peds; few fine black (10YR 2/1) stains on surfaces of peds; 25 percent rock fragments
of mostly gravel and cobbles and a few stones; common fine and medium faint strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6 and 10YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation, and
common fine and medium faint pale brown (10YR 6/3) iron depletions; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary. (12 to 36 inches thick)
C1--38 to 56 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3), light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2), and light olive
brown (2.5Y 5/4) gravelly sandy loam; faint olive yellow (2.5Y 6/6) and yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) variegation that fades into matrix colors; massive; firm, weakly brittle when dry;
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
B-11
few very fine vesicular pores; 25 percent rock fragments of mostly gravel and cobbles with a
few stones; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 30 inches thick)
C2--56 to 72 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3), light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2), and light olive
brown (2.5Y 5/4) very gravelly loamy sand; massive; very friable; 40 percent rock fragments of
mostly gravel and cobbles with a few stones; strongly acid.
Type Location: Passaic County, New Jersey; Township of West Milford, 10 feet east of new
unimproved dirt road, 0.8 mile north of junction with Stonetown Road. Junction is 425 feet
west of intersection of Stonetown Road and Greenwood Lake Turnpike. USGS Greenwood
Lake quadrangle, lat. 41 degrees 7 minutes 35 seconds N. and long. 74 degrees 18 minutes 15
seconds W., NAD 27.
Range In Characteristics: Thickness of the solum ranges from 30 to 50 inches. Depth to bedrock is typically greater than 6 feet. Depth to the fragipan is 18 to 40 inches and the thickness
ranges from 12 to 36 inches. Rock fragments range from 5 to 40 percent by volume in the
solum and from 25 to 65 percent in the C horizon. They range from gravel to boulders in size.
In some cultivated areas surface stones and boulders have been removed. Mineralogy is dominated by quartz and feldspars with some mica and ferromagnesian minerals. Reaction is
strongly acid or very strongly acid throughout, except where limed.
Some pedons have O horizons.
The Ap or A horizon is neutral or has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 0
to 4. Texture ranges from sandy loam to loam in the fine-earth fraction. Structure ranges from
weak or moderate, fine or medium granular to weak fine or medium subangular blocky.
Some pedons have an E horizon that has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2
to 6. Texture and structure have the same range as the A horizon.
The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 8. Texture
ranges from loam to sandy loam in the fine-earth fraction. Structure is weak to strong fine to
coarse subangular blocky. Consistence is friable.
The Bx horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 6. Color variegation or redoximorphic features of brown, olive or gray are common. Texture ranges from loam
to sandy loam in the fine-earth fraction. The Bx horizon commonly has weak to strong thick
platy or weak or moderate very coarse prismatic structure but in some pedons it is massive or
has moderate medium subangular blocky structure. Consistence is firm or very firm. It is commonly brittle or semi-deformable.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 8, or it is mottled
with these and other hues. Texture is sandy loam or loamy sand in the fine-earth fraction. Consistence is friable to loose. The C horizon may be slightly or moderately hard when dry.
Competing Series: There are no other series in the same family.
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
B-12
Soils in related families are the Annandale, Bartley, Hibernia, Netcong, Swartswood, Troy, and
Woodbridge series. Annandale, Bartley, and Troy soils have fine-loamy textural control sections. Hibernia soils have low chroma iron depletions within the upper 10 inches of the argillic
horizon. Netcong soils do not have a fragipan. Swartswood and Woodbridge soils have a cambic horizon.
Geographic Setting: Rockaway soils are on complex hilly to mountainous glaciated topography. Slope ranges from 3 to 60 percent, but commonly is 8 to 25 percent. The soils developed in
coarse or moderately coarse textured till composed primarily of granitic gneiss with smaller
amounts of quartzite, sandstone, and shale, and in some pedons, limestone. Mean annual temperature ranges form 45 to 52 degrees F. and mean annual precipitation ranges from 44 to 54
inches. Frost-free period ranges from 140 to 160 days.
Geographically Associated Soils: These are the Chatfield, Hibernia, Hollis, Netcong, Ridgebury and Riverhead soils on nearby landscapes. Rockaway, Hibernia, and Ridgebury soils form
a drainage sequence and formed in similar materials. Hibernia soils are somewhat poorly
drained and are on lower landscape positions. Ridgebury soils are poorly drained and typically
are on the lowest positions on the landscape. Chatfield and Hollis soils are moderately deep and
shallow to bedrock and are on summits. Riverhead soils are on glacial outwash terraces and
have porous stratified substrata.
Drainage and Permeability: Rockaway soils are commonly moderately well drained but the
range includes well drained. They have moderately rapid or moderate permeability above the
fragipan, slow to very slow permeability within the fragipan, and moderately rapid or rapid permeability below the fragipan. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately low to high above
the fragipan, moderately low to very low in the fragipan, and moderately high or high below the
fragipan. Surface runoff is medium or high. A perched water table on the fragipan is common in
late winter and early spring and following periods of extended rainfall.
Use and Vegetation: Most areas are wooded or in idle fields but some areas are used for residential or industrial development. Natural vegetation is largely woodland dominated by oak,
ash, and hickory with some maple, birch, and hemlock.
Distribution and Extent: Glaciated uplands in Northern New Jersey; MLRA 144A. The series
is of moderate extent.
MLRA Office Responsible: Amherst, Massachusetts
Series Established: Orange County, (Black Rock Forest Area) New York, 1939.
Remarks: Cation exchange activity class was determined from a review of limited available
data.
Diagnostic horizons and other features recognized in this pedon include:
1. Ochric epipedon - from 0 to 4 inches (A horizon).
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
B-13
2. Argillic horizon - from 4 to 22 inches (Bt horizon).
3. Fragipan - from 22 to 38 inches (Bx horizon).
Map Symbol: UR (Urban Land), USROCC (Urban land-Rockaway complex, 3-15 percent
slopes) , USROCD (Urban land—Rockaway complex, 15-25 percent slopes)
SOIL SERIES: None
Characteristics: Urban lands are those that have been altered by human activity such as grading
or filling to such an extent that the original soil type has been altered. These can also be areas
where a large percent of the land surface has been covered by impervious surfaces such as
concrete, asphalt, and buildings.Urban lands are generally gently sloping to nearly level. Urban
lands are impossible to characterize because of their disturbed nature. They are usually not assigned to a Hydrologic Soil Group although sometimes assigned to Group D. The NRCS does
not describe the limitations of these soils.
Map Symbol: WhvAb
Soil Series: Whitman
The Whitman series consists of very deep, very poorly drained soils formed in glacial till derived mainly from granite, gneiss, and schist. They are shallow to a densic contact. These soils
are nearly level or gently sloping soils in depressions and drainageways on uplands. Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the solum and slow or very slow in the substratum. Mean
annual precipitation is about 45 inches and mean annual temperature is about 49 degrees.
Taxonomic Class: Loamy, mixed, active, acid, mesic, shallow Typic Humaquepts
Typical Pedon: Whitman loam - on a 0 percent slope in an idle area at an elevation of about
702 feet. (Colors are for moist soils.)
Ap--0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loam, dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; weak medium granular
structure; friable; 10 percent rock fragments; common medium distinct red (2.5YR 4/8) masses
of iron accumulation lining pores; moderately acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (4 to 12 inches
thick)
Bg--10 to 18 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam; massive; friable; 10 percent rock fragments, few medium distinct pale olive (5Y 6/4) and light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) masses of iron
accumulation; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (5 to 25 inches thick)
Cd1--18 to 31 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sandy loam; moderate medium plates; firm; 10 percent
rock fragments; many medium distinct light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) masses of iron accumulation; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary. (6 to 40 inches thick)
Cd2--31 to 48 inches; olive (5Y 4/3) fine sandy loam; massive; firm; 10 percent rock fragments; few medium prominent dark reddish brown (2.5YR 3/4) masses of iron accumulation;
moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 40 inches thick)
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
B-14
Cd3--48 to 65 inches; olive (5Y 5/3) fine sandy loam; massive; firm; 10 percent rock fragments; moderately acid.
Type Location: Worcester County, Massachusetts; Town of Leominster, 1 mile west intersection of Pleasant and Wachusett Streets, and 500 feet north of Wachusett Street. USGS Sterling
quadrangle; Latitude 42 degrees 30 minutes 4 seconds N.; longitude 71 degrees 47 minutes 42
seconds W., NAD 27.
Range In Characteristics: Depth to a densic contact commonly is 12 to 20 inches. The A horizon has 5 to 25 percent gravel, 0 to 15 percent cobbles, and 0 to 25 percent stones by volume.
The B and C horizons have 5 to 25 percent gravel, 0 to 5 percent stones and 0 to 5 percent cobbles. The soil reaction, unless limed, ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid however,
some horizon within a depth of 40 inches is moderately acid or slightly acid.
Some pedons have organic horizons overlying the A horizon. They are fibric hemic or sapric
material, and are up to 5 inches thick.
The A horizon is neutral or has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 2 to 3, and chroma of 0 to 2. It
sandy loam, fine sandy loam, very fine sandy loam, loam, or silt loam in the fine earth fraction.
Structure is weak granular or subangular blocky or the horizon is massive. Consistence is very
friable or friable.
The Bg horizon is neutral or has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 0 to 2. Redox concentrations range from few to many where matrix chroma is 2 and none to many where
chroma is 1. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam or loam in the fine earth fraction. It has
fifteen percent or more fine sand or coarser with clay content less than 18 percent. Structure is
weak granular or subangular blocky or the horizon is massive. Consistence is very friable or
friable.
The Cd layer is neutral or has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 0 to 2. The
chroma is 3 in some places. Redoximorphic features range from few to many. Texture is loam,
fine sandy loam or sandy loam in the fine earth fraction. Consistence commonly is firm to extremely firm and the layer may be brittle in some part. The structure is geogenically derived,
commonly appearing in the form of weak or moderate thin plates in the upper part or is massive
throughout.
Competing Series: There are no series currently in the same family.
Geographic Setting: Whitman soils are nearly level and gently sloping soils in depressions and
in drainage ways of glacial uplands. Slopes are typically 0 to 2 percent but range up to 8 percent
where wetness is due to seepage water. The soils formed in loamy, glacial till derived mainly
from granite, gneiss and schist. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 40 to 56 inches and
mean annual temperature ranges from 45 to 52 degrees F. The frost free period is 100 to 195
days.
Geographically Associated Soils: These are the Charlton, Chatfield, Hollis, Leicester, Paxton,
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
B-15
Ridgebury, Sutton and Woodbridge soils. The well drained Paxton, moderately well drained
Woodbridge, and somewhat poorly and poorly drained Ridgebury soils are in a drainage sequence with Whitman soils. Charlton, Leicester, and Sutton soils have friable substrata. Chatfield and Hollis soils have bedrock within depths of 40 and 20 inches respectively.
Drainage and Permeability: Very poorly drained. Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid
above the dense till and slow or very slow within it. Saturated hydraulic conductivity ranges
from moderately high or high in the solum to very low to moderately high in the densic material. Runoff potential is negligible to high. A perched water table, or excess seepage water, is at
or near the surface for about 9 months of the year.
Use and Vegetation: Nearly all areas are forested. Only a few areas are cleared and drained and
used for pasture. Alder, gray birch, red maple, hemlock, elm, spruce, balsam fir, sedges, rushes,
cattails, and other water-tolerant plants are the principal vegetation.
Distribution and Extent: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York,
Rhode Island, and Vermont. (MLRAs 142, 144A, 145, and 149B) The series is extensive.
MLRA Office Responsible: Amherst, Massachusetts.
Series Established: Plymouth County, Massachusetts, 1911.
Remarks: Location revised to 500 feet north of Wachusetts Street after review of soil map
showed no Whitman map unit 50 feet north of road. Some pedons have previously been correlated as Whitman that are moderately deep to a densic contact.
Diagnostic horizons and features in this pedon include:
1, Umbric epipedon - the zone from the soil surface to a depth of 10 inches (Ap horizon).
2. Cambic horizon - the zone from 10 to 18 inches (Bg horizon).
3. Aquic conditions - as evidenced by chroma of 1 in the Bg horizon.
4. Densic contact - root limiting layer begins at 18 inches.
5. Shallow depth class depth to a densic contact is less than 20 inches (Cd1 is at 18 inches.).
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
B-16
Appendix C:
Wildlife of Butler
In 1989 the Borough of Bloomingdale commissioned a Natural Resource Inventory. This Inventory was created
by the firm Geonics with assistance from the Bloomingdale Environmental Commission. The document
provided a list of potential wildlife in the Bloomingdale area, and is a reasonable starting point for a wildlife
inventory of Butler. It is included here with supplemental data provided by the author and by Don Pruden, a
noted naturalist living in Riverdale who has created an extensive photographic record of local wildlife.
List of Mammals
“Xp” indicates that a photographic record of this animal exists. Habitat preferences are listed as Wwoodland; O-open country (meadows, fields); R-riparian habitat (streams, lakes, wetlands). State threatened and endangered species are also indicated (* - endangered, **- threatened).
Common name
Latin name
Potential Observed
(from
(Don Pruden
Geonics) and Ross
Kushner)
Habitat
Preference
Black Bear
Ursa americanus
X
W
Bobcat**
Felix rufus
X
Cottontail Rabbit
Sylvilagus floridanus
X
Coyote
Canis latrans
Eastern Chipmunk
Tamias striatus
Eastern Mole
Xp
W
Xp
W/O
X
W/O
X
Xp
W
Scalopus aquaticus
X
X
W/O
Gray Fox
Urocyom cinereoargenteus
X
Grey Squirrel
Sciurus carolinensus
Little Brown Bat
Myotis lucifugus
X
Long Tailed Weasel
Mustela frenata
X
W/O
Masked Shrew
Sorex cinereus
X
W/O
Meadow Vole
Microtus pennsylvanicus
X
O
Mink
Mustela vison
X
X
R
Muskrat
Ondatra zibethicus
X
X
R
Opossum
Didelphus marsupalis
X
X
W/O
Raccoon
Procyon lotor
X
X
W/O/R
Red Fox
Vulpes fulva
X
Xp
W/O
Red Squirrel
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus
X
River Otter
Lutra canadensis
X
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
W/O
X
W
Xp
W/O/R
W
X
R
D-1
List of Mammals (continued)
“Xp” indicates that a photographic record of this animal exists. Habitat preferences are listed as Wwoodland; O-open country (meadows, fields); R-riparian habitat (streams, lakes, wetlands). State threatened and endangered species are also indicated.
Common name
Latin name
Potential Observed
(from
(Don Pruden
Geonics) and Ross
Kushner)
Habitat
Preference
Striped Skunk
Mephitus mephitus
X
W/O
Southern Red-backed Vole
Cletbrionomys gapperi
X
O
Southern Bog Lemming
Synaptomys cooperi
X
O
Southern Flying Squirrel
Glaucomys volans
X
W
White-footed Mouse
Peromyscus leucopus
X
W/O
White-tailed Deer
Odocoileus virginianus
Xp
W/O
Woodchuck
Marmota monax
X
O
X
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
X
D-2
List of Birds
“Xp” indicates that a photographic record of this bird exists. State threatened and endangered species are
also indicated (* - endangered, **- threatened).
Common name
Latin name
Potential
Observed
(from Geon- (Don Pruden and
ics)
Ross Kushner)
American black duck
Anas rubripes
X
American bittern*
Botarus lentiginosus
American Coot
Fulica americana
X
American goldfinch
Sinus tristus
X
American woodcock
Philohela minor
X
Barn swallow
Hirundo rustica
X
Barred owl**
Strix varia
X
Belted kingfisher
Ceryle alcyon
Xp
Black-capped chickadee
Parus atricapillus
X
Black-crowned night heron**
Nycticorax nycticorax
X
Black vulture
Coragyps atratus
Xp
Blue jay
Cyanocitta cristata
X
Blue-winged teal
Anas discors
X
Bobwhite quail
Colinas virginianus
X
Broad winged hawk
Buteo platypteris
Canada goose
Branta canadensis
X
Xp
Cardinal
Richmondena cardinalis
X
X
Carolina chickadee
Parus carolinensis
X
Catbird
Dumatella carolinensis
X
Cedar waxwing
Bombycilla cedorum
Chimney swift
Chaetura peligica
X
X
Chipping sparrow
Spizella passerina
X
X
Common crow
Corvus btachyrhynchos
X
X
Common grackle
Quiscalus quiscula
X
X
Common merganser
Mergus merganser
X
Common night hawk
Chordeiles minor
X
Common snipe
Gallinago gallinago
X
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
Xp
Xp
X
X
X
X
X
Xp
D-3
List of Birds (continued)
“Xp” indicates that a photographic record of this bird exists. State threatened and endangered species are
also indicated (* - endangered, **- threatened).
Common name
Latin name
Potential
(from
Geonics)
Common sparrow
Spizella pusilla
X
Common yellowthroat
Geothlypis trichus
X
Cooper’s hawk**
Accipiter cooperii
Downy woodpecker
Picoides pubescens
Eastern bluebird
Sialis sialis
Eastern kingbird
Tyrannus tyrannus
Eastern phoebe
Sayomis phoebe
X
Gadwall duck
Anas strepera
X
Great blue heron
Ardea berodias
Great egret
Casmerodius albus
Great horned owl
Bubo virginianus
Green heron
Butorides virescens
Hairy woodpecker
Picoides villosus
X
Hermit thrush
Catharsus guttatus
X
Hooded merganser
Lophodytes cucullatua
House sparrow
Passer domesticus
X
House wren
Troglodytes aedon
X
Least bittern
Ixobrychus exilis
Mallard duck
Anas platyrhynchas
Mute swan
Cygnus olor
X
Northern mocking bird
Mimus polyglottos
Xp
Northern oriole
Icterus galbula
X
Northern rough-winged sparrow
Stelgidopteris serripennis
Osprey**
Pandion haliaetus
Pied-billed grebe
Podylimbus podiceps
Pileated woodpecker
Dryocopus pileatusi
Red-eyed vireo
Vireo olivaceus
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
Observed
(Don Pruden and
Ross Kushner)
X
X
X
X
X
X
Xp
Xp
X
X
X
Xp
Xp
X
Xp
X
X
X
Xp
X
D-4
List of Birds (continued)
“Xp” indicates that a photographic record of this bird exists. State threatened and endangered species are
also indicated (* - endangered, **- threatened)..
Common name
Latin name
Red-tailed hawk
Buteo jamaicensis
Red-winged blackbird
Agelainus phoeniceus
X
X
Red/Yellow shafted flicker
Colaptes auratus
X
X
Robin
Turdus migratorius
X
Xp
Rubythroated hummingbird
Archilochus colubris
Rufous-sided towhee
Pipilo erythropthalmus
Scarlet tanager
Piranga olivacea
Screech owl
Otis asio
X
Short eared owl*
Asio flammeuis
X
Song sparrow
Melospiza melodia
X
Spotted sandpiper
Aetitus macularia
X
Starling
Sturnus vulgaris
X
Swamp sparrow
Melospiza georgiana
X
Turkey vulture
Cathartes aura
Virginia rail
Rallus limicola
Whip-poor-Will
Caprimulgus vociferous
White-eyed vireo
Vireo grisus
Wild turkey
Meleagris gallopavo
Winter wren
Troglodytes troglodytes
X
Wood duck
Aix sponsa
X
Wood thrush
Hylocichla mustelina
X
Yellow-crowned night heron**
Nyctanassa violaceus
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
Potential
(from
Geonics)
Observed
(Don Pruden and
Ross Kushner)
Xp
X
X
X
Xp
X
X
X
Xp
X
X
X
X
Xp
Xp
X
D-5
List of Reptiles and Amphibians
“Xp” indicates that a photographic record of this animal exists. State threatened and endangered species
are also indicated (* - endangered, **- threatened)..
Common name
Latin name
American toad
Bufo americanus
Xp
Black rat snake
Elaphe o. obsoleta
X
Bull frog
Rana catesbeiana
X
Xp
Common snapping turtle
Chelydra s. serpentina
X
X
Cricket frog
Acris crepitans
Eastern box turtle
Terrapene c. carolina
X
Xp
Eastern garter snake
Thamnophis s. sirtolis
X
Xp
Eastern painted turtle
Chrysemys p. picta
X
Xp
Eastern red-spotted newt
Notophthalmus viridescens
X
Five-lined skink
Eumeces fasciatus
X
Gray tree frog
Hyla versicolor
X
Green frog
Rana clamitans
X
Marbled salamander
Ambystoma opacum
X
Northern black racer
Coluber c. constrictor
X
Northern red salamander
Pseudotriton r. ruber
X
Northern water snake
Natrix s. sipedo
X
X
Pickerel frog
Rana palustris
X
X
Timber rattlesnake*
Crotalus h. horridus
X
Wood frog
Rana sylvatica
X
Wood turtle**
Clemmys insculptata
X
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
Potential
(from
Geonics)
Observed
(Don Pruden and
Ross Kushner)
Xp
Xp
X
D-6
List of Fish
Common name
Latin name
Observed
(Ross Kushner)
Bass, largemouth
Micropterus salmoides
X
Bass, smallmouth
Micropterus dolomieui
X
Bluegill sunfish
Lepomis macrochirus
X
Blacknose dace
Rhinichthys atratulus
X
Brown bullhead
Ictalurus nebulosus
X
Brown trout
Salmo trutta
X
Carp
Cyprinus carpio
X
Chain Pickerel
Esox niger
X
Common shiner
Notropis cornutus
X
Creek chub
Semotilus atromaculatus
X
Fallfish
Semotilus corporalis
X
Pumpkinseed sunfish
Lepomis gibbosus
X
Tessellated darter
Etheostoma olmstedi
X
White sucker
Catostomus commersoni
X
Yellow perch
Perca flavescens
X
Borough of Butler, Environmental Resource Inventory
D-7
Appendix G:
Sample Environmental Impact Statement Ordinance
From Borough of Far Hills
BOROUGH OF FAR HILLS
§ 904
Environmental Impact Statement
A.
An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required as part of any application for
development involving new buildings or any land disturbance which requires approval of
the Planning Board.
B.
Contents of EIS. The EIS shall discuss and analyze those factors required for the particular
project as provided in subsection E. and any other factors pertinent to the project. Where
the information is provided elsewhere in the application, it may be incorporated by
reference. The applicant may request a preapplication conference with the Planning Board
to discuss the scope and detail of the EIS, and the Planning Board may seek the advice of
the Environmental Commission in determining said scope and detail. The EIS shall address
each of the items outlined below to the degree and extent it is pertinent to the project. In
preparing the EIS, the applicant may utilize resource information available from the
Borough.
C.
The following information shall be submitted in accordance with the requirements of
subsection E. as to the scope of the proposed project:
D.
(1)
Plan and description of proposed project: A project description, complete with site
plans, which shall specify the purpose of the proposed project, including products
and services, if any, being provided, and the regional, municipal and neighborhood
setting, including current land use of the project site and properties within five
hundred (500) feet of the site.
(2)
Inventory of existing natural resources: Generally, an inventory will consider the air
quality, topography, surface water bodies, surface water quality, aquatic biota, soils,
geology, groundwater, vegetation, wildlife, archaelogical and historical features and
the presence of wetlands. Forest vegetation is to be classified by type and age class.
The distribution of types and classes will be indicated on a map, the scale of which
will be one. (1) inch equals one hundred (100) feet or such other scale as may be
required. The location, species and diameter at four and one half (4 1/2') feet above
the ground of all isolated trees four (4") inches or more in diameter are to be shown
on the same or on a separate map.
Assessment of environmental impact of project: An assessment supported by
environmental data of the environmental impact of the project upon the factors described
in subsection C.2. above, and specifically the following:
(1)
Wastewater management. An estimate of the expected quantity and type of
wastewater from the proposed development. If disposal is on site, discuss the relation
to topography, soils, wetlands and underlying geology, including water table, aquifer
recharge areas and all wells within five hundred feet (500) of the disposal areas;
include results of percolation tests and soil logs required by ordinance.
If disposal is to an existing private facility or to a public facility, identification,
owner and location of the plant and location of the existing collection point to which
the proposed project would be connected. Documentary evidence that the expected
flows from the proposed facility will be accepted and can be treated adequately by
the private or public facility must accompany the environmental impact statement.
The applicant should demonstrate compliance with all applicable state, county and
Borough health regulations.
ANJEC Ref #0409; VF: Database Only
1
BOROUGH OF FAR HILLS
§ 904
Environmental Impact Statement
(2)
Water supply. If the water is to be supplied from the site and a flow of one hundred
thousand (100,000) gallons per day or less is required, an impact assessment of water
supply is required if the anticipated demand exceeds the available safe yield of the
aquifer contained within the property limits indicated in the Borough's resource
inventory. In such case the applicant must substantiate and explain the anticipated
demand, present proof that the aquifer contained within the property limits can yield
the desired amount of water, demonstrate that wells proposed for installation will
meet acceptable standards and assess the effect of proposed withdrawals on existing
and proposed wells and surface water bodies within-the geologic formation. If the
plan includes fifty (50) or more dwelling units, certification of the adequacy of the
proposed water supply and sewerage facilities must be obtained from the New Jersey
Department of Environmental Protection and must be included in the EIS.
If the water is to be supplied from any existing private or public facility, the
identification, owner and location of the facility and the location of existing
distribution point to which the proposed project would be connected shall be
provided. The applicant will submit documentary proof that the facility has the
available excess capacity in terms of its allowable diversion and equipment to supply
the proposed project and is willing to do so. The applicant must demonstrate to the
satisfaction of the Planning Board that the total consumption of groundwater from
on-site and off-site sources will not exceed the available safe yield of the aquifer
contained within the property limits.
(3)
Surface drainage and stormwater management. Discussion of the stormwater
management plan to be submitted in accordance with Section 915 and compliance
with the provisions of that Section.
(4)
Stream corridors. A description and map of any streams and immediate environs,
steep banks, springs and wetlands and streamside vegetation located on the property,
in accordance with the standards of Article VIII concerning stream corridors, and
evidence of compliance with these standards. Include a map depicting the floodway
and flood hazard area as reflected on flood hazard area delineation maps on file with
the Borough, along with evidence of compliance with Section 906. The applicant
shall supply copies of all resource information provided to the Division of Water
Resource in support of an application for any required encroachment permit.
(5)
Solid waste disposal. Estimate the volume of solid wastes, by type, including excess
earth, expected to be generated from the proposed project during construction and
operation and describe plans for collection, storage, transportation and disposal of
these materials; identify the location(s), type(s) and owner(s) of the facility
(facilities) which will receive such solid wastes; demonstrate compliance with the
requirements of the Statewide Mandatory Source Separation and Recycling Act.
(6)
Air quality. Describe each source, its location, the quantity and nature of materials to
be emitted from any furnace or other device in which coal, fuel oil, gasoline, diesel
fuel, kerosene, wood or other combustible material will be burned, or if any other
source of air pollutants, including automobiles attracted by the facility, will be
present on the site during or after construction. Evidence of compliance with any
applicable state and federal regulations shall accompany the EIS. If a state or federal
ANJEC Ref #0409; VF: Database Only
2
BOROUGH OF FAR HILLS
§ 904
Environmental Impact Statement
emission permit is required, a copy of all resource data submitted with the
application for the permit shall also accompany the EIS.
(7)
Noise. A statement of anticipated effects on noise and vibration levels, magnitude
and characteristics related to on-site activities and proposed method(s) of control.
Background levels of noise throughout the anticipated area affected must be
determined. Any applicant for industrial and commercial enterprises must show that
after construction and during normal operation the enterprise will not exceed the
State of New Jersey regulations controlling industries and commercial stationary
sources (N.J.A.C. 7:29-1.1 et seq.).
(8)
Traffic. Determine the present traffic volume and capacity of the road(s) serving the
project and the nearest major intersection; calculate the traffic generated by the
proposed project and any increase in background levels during the course of the
project's completion; set forth projected volumes for roads and intersections upon
completion of the project, and compare the projected level of service (LOS) to the
existing LOS; and, describe traffic control measures that will be incorporated to
mitigate the impact.
(9)
Community impact. An analysis of the factors affecting the finances of the Borough,
which shall include a comparison of the estimated tax receipts and fiscal outlay for
municipal services; estimated number and types of jobs to be provided; calculation
of the number of school-age children to be produced; and, any addition to existing
municipal services rendered by the project.
(10) Visual impact. Discuss how the natural or present character of the area will be
changed as a result of the proposed development, and the steps taken to mitigate the
impact.
(11) Artificial light. A statement of anticipated effects on light, magnitude and
characteristics related to onsite activities and proposed methods of control, with
particular attention to the control of sky glow.
(12) Critical and environmentally sensitive area. Quantify and discuss the impact on
critical areas, including stream corridors, wetlands and slopes greater than fifteen
percent (15%); and environmentally sensitive areas, including highly erodible soils,
areas of high water table, mature stands of native vegetation, aquifer recharge and
discharge areas and other environmentally sensitive features, areas, or conditions not
addressed elsewhere in the EIS. The analysis should include a quantification of predevelopment and post-development conditions on the site.
(13) Energy conservation. A description of the site in terms of its physical orientation to
solar access and prevailing winds, addressing the building and site design and
arrangement in terms of energy efficient principles and maximum utilization of
renewable energy sources.
(14) Environmental protective measures. The EIS shall contain a listing of all
environmental protective measures which will be used should the proposed project
be implemented. These are measures which will avoid or minimize adverse effects
on the natural and man-made environment of the site and region during the construction and operation of the facility.
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BOROUGH OF FAR HILLS
§ 904
Environmental Impact Statement
(15) Adverse impacts which cannot be avoided. The EIS shall contain a summary list,
without discussion, of the potential adverse environmental impacts which cannot be
avoided should the proposed project be implemented. Short-term impacts should be
distinguished from irreversible impacts. Any impacts on critical areas, which include
but are not limited to streams, floodways, wetlands, slopes of fifteen percent (15%)
or greater; and environmentally sensitive areas, which include but are not limited to
highly erodible soils, areas of high water table, aquifer recharge areas and mature
stands of native vegetation, should specify the type of criteria involved and the
extent of similar areas which will not be affected.
(16) Summary environmental assessment. The EIS shall contain a concise summary of
the environmental impact assessment for the proposed project. This summary will
evaluate the adverse and positive environmental effect of the project should it be
implemented and the public benefits expected to derive from the project, if any.
(17) Permits. List any permits required for this project from federal, state, local, or other
governmental agencies, including the name of the issuing agency, whether the permit
has been applied for, and if so, the date of the application, whether the application
was approved or denied (include date) or is pending, and the number of the
application or permit.
E.
Environmental impact statement requirements shall be specific to the scale of the project,
as follows:
EIS Item (Sec. 904)
C.1 Description of project
C.2 Inventory of existing natural
resources
D.1 Wastewater management
D.2 Water supply
D.3 Surface drainage
D.4 Stream corridors
D.5 Solid waste disposal
D.6 Air quality
D.7 Noise
D.8 Traffic
D.9 Community impact
D.l0 Visual impact
D.11 Artificial lighting
D.12 Critical areas
D.13 Energy conservation
D.14 Environmental protection
measures
D.15 Adverse impacts
D.16 EIS summary
D.17 Permits
ANJEC Ref #0409; VF: Database Only
Residential
1 and 2 3 to 9 10 or more Nonlots
lots lots
Residential
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X
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BOROUGH OF FAR HILLS
§ 904
Environmental Impact Statement
F.
G.
Planning Board review. In reviewing an EIS the Planning Board shall take into
consideration the effect of the proposed project upon all aspects of the environment,
including but not limited to sewage disposal, water quality, water supply, preservation of
trees and vegetation, protection of watercourses, protection of air resources, protection of
aquifers, protection of public lands and their uses and ecosystems and the avoidance of any
nuisance factors. The Planning Board will submit the EIS for review to the Environmental
Commission and may submit such statement to such other governmental bodies and to
such consultants as it may deem appropriate. The Planning Board shall request that an
advisory report shall be made to it by the governmental body or consultant within fortyfive (45) days of the submission of the EIS to such governmental body or consultant. The
Planning Board shall reject the proposed project on an environmental basis, if it can
reasonably determine that the proposed project:
(1)
Will result in appreciable harm to the environment or to the public health and safety;
(2)
Has not been designed with a view toward the protection of natural resources; and
(3)
Will place any excessive demand upon the total resources available for such project
and for any future project.
Conditions. The steps to be taken to minimize the adverse environmental impacts during
construction and operation and the alternatives which may be approved by the Planning
Board shall constitute conditions of the approval of the EIS, together with such other
conditions as the Planning Board may impose. No certificate of occupancy shall be issued
until compliance shall have been made with such conditions.
ANJEC Ref #0409; VF: Database Only
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