cingulate cortex

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cingulate cortex
(11
Four pioneer studies in Neuroaesthetics:
Relevant litterature:
H. Kawabata, S. Zeki, “Neural Correlates of Beauty”, Journal of
Neurophysiology 91, 2004, ss. 1699-1705.
O. Vartanian and V. Goel, ”Neuroanatomical correlates of aesthetic
preference for paintings”, NeuReport, Vol 15 9. April 2004, pp. 893897
C-J Cela-Conde et alli, ”Activation of the Prefrontal Cortex in the
Human Visual Aesthetic Perception”, PNAS, April 2004, pp. 63216325
T. Jacobsen, R. I. Schubotz, L. Höfel, D. Yves v. Cramon,.,”Brain
correlates of aesthetic judgment of beauty”, NeurImage 29 (2006), ss.
276-285.
T. Ishizu, S. Zeki, “Toward a Brain-Based Theory of Beauty”, PLoS
ONE 6 (2011), e21852.
C. Di Dio, E. Maculoso and G. Rizzolatti, “The golden beauty: brain
response to classical and renaissance sculptures”, PLoS ONE 11
(2007), e1201.
Complex cognitive processing:
planning and execution
Paul Broca described this emotional part of the brain il grand lobe
limbique: the great limbic ring:
cortex cinguli, hypothalamus, the anterior nuclei of thalamus, and the
hippocampus form what is called the "classic limbic ring".
Paul Broca described this emotional part of the brain il grand lobe
limbique: the great limbic ring:
cortex cinguli, hypothalamus, the anterior nuclei of thalamus, and the
hippocampus form what is called the "classic limbic ring".
In the 1930s it was James Papez who first put forward the hypothesis
that these structures were organized as a system of emotions. The
limbic system was therefore also called "Papez circuit".
Paul Broca described this part of the brain il grand lobe limbique: den store limbiske ring:
cortex cinguli, hypothalamus, the anterior nuclei of thalamus, and the hippocampus form what is called the
"classic limbic ring".
In the 1930s it was James Papez who first put forward the hypothesis that these structures were organized
as a system of emotions. The limbic system was therefore also called "Papez circuit".
After these pioneering works, there has been intensive research on this system:
the amygdala, a network of nerve cells located anteriorly (i.e. in front) of hippocampus is now considered
to be one of the key structures of the limbic system, which also include the orbitofrontal cortex, parts of
the basal ganglia, and more nuclei of the thalamus than was previously suggested.
The cerebral cortex:
Neocortex=the new cortex
sensoric, motoric, and association areas
*mesocortex
the paralimbic areas
cortex cinguli, parahippocampal
gyrus, cortex insula,
orbitofrontal cortex
*allocortex
hippocampus, olfactory
cortex=the part of cortex receiving
impulses from the olfactory bulbs
* Both mesocortex and allocortex is part of the
limbic system
The cerebral cortex:
Neocortex=the new cortex
sensoric, motoric, and association areas
*mesocortex
the paralimbic areas
cortex cinguli, parahippocampal
gyrus, cortex insula,
orbitofrontal cortex
*allocortex
hippocampus, olfactory
cortex=the part of cortex receiving
impulses from the olfactory bulbs
* Both mesocortex and allocortex is part of the
limbic system
The cerebral cortex:
Neocortex=the new cortex
sensoric, motoric, and association areas
*mesocortex
the paralimbic areas
cortex cinguli, parahippocampal
gyrus, cortex insula,
orbitofrontal cortex
*allocortex
hippocampus, olfactory
cortex=the part of cortex receiving
impulses from the olfactory bulbs
* Both mesocortex and allocortex is part of the
limbic system
The cerebral cortex:
Neocortex=the new cortex
sensoric, motoric, and association areas
*mesocortex
the paralimbic areas
cortex cinguli, parahippocampal
gyrus, cortex insula,
orbitofrontal cortex
*allocortex
hippocampus, olfactory
cortex=the part of cortex receiving
impulses from the olfactory bulbs
* Both mesocortex and allocortex is part of the
limbic system
The cerebral cortex:
Neocortex=the new cortex
sensoric, motoric, and association areas
*mesocortex
the paralimbic areas
cortex cinguli, parahippocampal
gyrus, cortex insula,
orbitofrontal cortex
*allocortex
hippocampus, olfactory
cortex=the part of cortex receiving
impulses from the olfactory bulbs
* Both mesocortex and allocortex is part of the
limbic system
The cerebral cortex:
Neocortex=the new cortex
sensoric, motoric, and association areas
*mesocortex
the paralimbic areas
cortex cinguli, parahippocampal
gyrus, cortex insula,
orbitofrontal cortex
*allocortex
hippocampus, olfactory
cortex=the part of cortex receiving
impulses from the olfactory bulbs
* Both mesocortex and allocortex is part of the
limbic system
The cerebral cortex:
Neocortex=the new cortex
sensoric, motoric, and association areas
*mesocortex
the paralimbic areas
cortex cinguli, parahippocampal
gyrus, cortex insula,
orbitofrontal cortex
*allocortex
hippocampus, olfactory
cortex=the part of cortex receiving
impulses from the olfactory bulbs
* Both mesocortex and allocortex is part of the
limbic system
The cerebral cortex:
Neocortex=the new cortex
sensoric, motoric, and association areas
*mesocortex
the paralimbic areas
cortex cinguli, parahippocampal
gyrus, cortex insula,
orbitofrontal cortex: higher order
cx. for smell and gustation;
rewarding mechanisms!!!
*allocortex
hippocampus, olfactory
cortex=the part of cortex receiving
impulses from the olfactory bulbs
* Both mesocortex and allocortex is part of the
limbic system
The cerebral cortex:
Neocortex=the new cortex
sensoric, motoric, and association areas
*mesocortex
the paralimbic areas
cortex cinguli, parahippocampal
gyrus, cortex insula,
orbitofrontal cortex
*allocortex
hippocampus, olfactory
cortex=the part of cortex receiving
impulses from the olfactory bulbs
* Both mesocortex and allocortex is part of the
limbic system
6 layers of cells
1 cell layer
functional Magnetic Resonance Immagining: f-MRI
Vartanian and Goel, 2004 fMRI; anteriore cingulate cortex, occipital cortex.
Kawabata and Zeki, 2004 fMRI; mediale orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC).
Jacobsen et al., 2006 fMRI; dorsomediale prefrontal cortex (mPFC), intraparietal sulcus.
Activation of the prefrontal cortex in the human visual aesthetic
perception
Camilo J. Cela-Conde,*† Gisèle Marty,* Fernando Maestú,‡ Tomás
Ortiz,‡ Enric Munar,* Alberto Fernández,‡ Miquel Roca,* Jaume
Rosselló,* and Felipe Quesney‡§
Abstract.
Visual aesthetic perception (“aesthetics”) or the capacity to visually
perceive a particular attribute added to other features of objects, such
as form, color, and movement, was fixed during human evolutionary
lineage as a trait not shared with any great ape. Although prefrontal
brain expansion is mentioned as responsible for the appearance of
such human trait, no current knowledge exists on the role of prefrontal
areas in the aesthetic perception. The visual brain consists of “several
parallel multistage processing systems, each specialized in a given task
such as, color or motion” [Bartels, A. & Zeki, S. (1999) Proc. R. Soc.
London Ser. B 265, 2327–2332]. Here we report the results of an
experiment carried out with magnetoencephalography (MEG) which
shows that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is selectively activated in
humans during the perception of objects qualified as “beautiful” by
the participants. Therefore, aesthetics can be hypothetically
considered as an attribute perceived by means of a particular brain
processing system, in which the prefrontal cortex seems to play a key
role.
memory
The neural processing of aesthetics includes affective mechanisms activating limbic areas,
leading to felt emotions, as well as cognitive mechanisms involved in an objective judgment
of beauty. In this model on brain activation in response to visual art, the primary perceptual
analysis leads through implicit memory and classification to cognitive mastering.
Beautiful vs. ugly
Medial orbitofrontal cortex! BA 11
left parietal cortex BA 39
Beautiful vs. neutral
Orbitofrontal cortex BA 11
Cortex
cinguli
BA 32
Orbitofrontal cortex BA 11
Ugly vs. beautiful
”Parameter estimates show that it is actually change in relative activity in the orbito-frontal
cortex that correlates with the judgment of beauty and ugliness. Much the same pattern,
though in reverse order, is characteristic of the motor cortex.”
Semir Zeki’s group in London has recently
documented (2011) that music and visual
artworks that by each person are considered to
be beautiful (subjective beauty) activates the
same area in the brain, the medial
orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC).
This has led the researchers to formulate a
brain-based theory of beauty:
«Almost
anything can be considered to be art, but only
creations whose experience has, as a correlate,
activity in mOFC would fall into the
classification of beautiful art».
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NlzanAw0
RP4
mOFC
mOFC
Vartanian and Goel (2004) investigated rating of paintings as aesthetic preference as viewed
in the f-MRI scanner. Their results document rating according to a first-person point of view:
i.e. subjective states of experience:
Vartanian and Goel (2004) investigated rating of paintings as aesthetic preference as viewed
in the f-MRI scanner. Their results document rating according to a first-person point of view:
i.e. subjective states of experience:
The data demonstrate that activation in cortical structures implicated in processing emotion
or reward covaried as a function of preference rating; particularly important is the activation
of the caudate nucleus and the cingulate sulcus (parts of the limbic system).
f-MRI data shoving positive evaluation : this is beautiful activites the left cingulate cortex
and the right nucleus caudatus
f-MRI data shoving positive evaluation : this is beautiful activites the left cingulate cortex
and the right nucleus caudatus
AJ vs. SJ
SJ vs. AJ
BA24
BA23
BA32/
BA30
33
BA 11
BA38
Memory
hippocampus
emotion/reward value:
amygdala
orbito-frontal cortex BA11
temporal pole BA38
cingulate gyrus BA 32, 33,
23, 24, 30
caudate nucleus
Common for the fMRI studies by Kawabata and Zeki (2004), Vartanian and Goel (2004), and
Jacobsen et al. (2006), is that they demonstrate increased activity along with increased
preference in limbic structures associated with positive affect and reward mechanisms: the
orbitofrontal cortex (Kawabata & Zeki), the anterior cingulate sulcus, the caudate nucleus
(Vartanian & Goel), and the temporal pole (Jacobsen et al., 2006).
BA24
BA23
BA32/
BA30
33
BA 11
BA38
Memory
hippocampus
emotion/reward value:
amygdala
orbito-frontal cortex BA11
temporal pole BA38
cingulate gyrus BA 32, 33,
23, 24, 30
caudate nucleus
Common for the fMRI studies by Kawabata and Zeki (2004), Vartanian and Goel (2004), and
Jacobsen et al. (2006), is that they demonstrate increased activity along with increased
preference in limbic structures associated with positive affect and reward mechanisms: the
orbitofrontal cortex (Kawabata & Zeki), the anterior cingulate sulcus, the caudate nucleus
(Vartanian & Goel), and the temporal pole (Jacobsen et al., 2006).
BA24
BA23
BA32/
BA30
33
BA 11
BA38
Memory
hippocampus
emotion/reward value:
amygdala
orbito-frontal cortex BA11
temporal pole BA38
cingulate gyrus BA 32, 33,
23, 24, 30
caudate nucleus
Common for the fMRI studies by Kawabata and Zeki (2004), Vartanian and Goel (2004), and
Jacobsen et al. (2006), is that they demonstrate increased activity along with increased
preference in limbic structures associated with positive affect and reward mechanisms: the
orbitofrontal cortex (Kawabata & Zeki), the anterior cingulate sulcus, the caudate nucleus
(Vartanian & Goel), and the temporal pole (Jacobsen et al., 2006).
BA9/
10
cognitive mastering:
prefrontal cortex:
BA9/BA10
cf. Jacobsen et al.
(2006)
Cela-Conde et al.
(2004) and (2011)
On the other hand, a MEG study by Cela-Conde et al.(2004) demonstrates increased activation within
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC: BA10) when subjects viewed artworks judged as beautiful as
compared to not-beautiful. Jacobsen et al. (2006) were able to demonstrate that the ´hottest` voxels
for the judgment beautiful versus ugly were found in the medial dorsal premotor cortex within BA 10.
The results from Jacobsen et al. and from Cela-Conde et al. (2004) correlate with the role assigned to
the dorsal PFC in processing of information from external stimuli (Cela-Conde et al., 2011, p. 9).
Vartanian and Goel, 2004 fMRI
Vartanian and Goel, 2004 fMRI
Cela-Conde et al., 2004 MEG
Vartanian and Goel, 2004 fMRI
Cela-Conde et al., 2004 MEG
Kawabata and Zeki, 2004 fMRI
Vartanian and Goel, 2004 fMRI
Cela-Conde et al., 2004 MEG
Kawabata and Zeki, 2004 fMRI
Jacobsen et al., 2006 fMRI
Vartanian and Goel, 2004 fMRI; anteriore cingulate cortex, occipital cortex.
Cela-Conde et al., 2004 MEG; dorsolaterale prefrontal cortex (dlPFC).
Kawabata and Zeki, 2004 fMRI; mediale orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC).
Jacobsen et al., 2006 fMRI; dorsomediale prefrontal cortex (mPFC), intraparietal sulcus.
Man kan konkludere med at nevrokognitiv forskning viser
resultater som indikerer at visse objektive faktorer kan ligge i
bunn for vår oppfattelse av hva som er skjønt. For eksempel
kan det gylne snitt være en objektiv faktor for skjønnhet slik
Di Dio et al.(2007) viser; symmetri kan også være en slik
faktor, som Jacobsen et al. dokumenterer.
Man kan konkludere med at nevrokognitiv forskning viser
resultater som indikerer at visse objektive faktorer kan ligge i
bunn for vår oppfattelse av hva som er skjønt. For eksempel
kan det gylne snitt være en objektiv faktor for skjønnhet slik
Di Dio et al.(2007) viser; symmetri kan også være en slik
faktor, som Jacobsen et al. dokumenterer.
På den andre siden har Zekis gruppe vist at det er ett område
i hjernen, den mediale orbitofrontal cortex, som blir aktivert
når den enkelte synes noe er skjønt, det være seg bilder
(Kawabata og Zeki 2004) eller musikk (Ishizu og Zeki 2011).
Man kan konkludere med at nevrokognitiv forskning viser
resultater som indikerer at visse objektive faktorer kan ligge i
bunn for vår oppfattelse av hva som er skjønt. For eksempel
kan det gylne snitt være en objektiv faktor for skjønnhet slik
Di Dio et al.(2007) viser; symmetri kan også være en slik
faktor, som Jacobsen et al. dokumenterer.
På den andre siden har Zekis gruppe vist at det er ett område
i hjernen, den mediale orbitofrontal cortex, som blir aktivert
når den enkelte synes noe er skjønt, det være seg bilder
(Kawabata og Zeki 2004) eller musikk (Ishizu og Zeki 2011).
Dette vil, imidlertid, ikke si at Jacobsen et al. og Di Dio et
al., på den ene siden, og på den andre siden Zekis gruppe vil
påstå at objektive egenskaper ved objekter respektive
subjektive reaksjoner hos hver især, kan forklare alt.
Fra og med framveksten av gestaltpsykologien, og dens
forlengelse, slik som Daniel Berlyne sine studier på 1970tallet, har man kommet til at vår hjerne ikke er en passiv
mottaker av objektive stimuli; snarere er den en aktiv
komponent i bearbeidelsen av det som persiperes. Det er
dette som kan avleses som processing fluency. Som vi har
sett, innbefatter processing fluency både det perseptuelle
(perceptual fluency) og det konseptuelle (conseptual
fluency), og begge er affektive mekanismer (jfr. Leder et al.
2004, Fig).