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new eurogazette (Page 1)
A Force for the European Union and the Atlantic Alliance
Eurocorps Magazine
Summer 2009
BP 70082
F- 67020 Strasbourg
Tel: 00 33 (0)388 43 20 12
Fax: 00 33 (0)388 43 20 05
Internet: www.eurocorps.org
Publication Director:
Director
Colonel Raúl Suevos
Chief Editor:
Editor
Commandant Hans
Haegdorens
Layout:
Layout
Christine Authier-Debes
Contents
pages 3-6
COMMAND PERIOD
pages 7-8
20TH
ANNIVERSARY
OF THE FRENCH GERMAN BRIGADE
pages 9-10
IV ANNUAL
NATO LEGAL
CONFERENCE
pages 11-12
THE NATO
RESPONSE
FORCE 15
PREPARATION
page 13
MARCHE-LESDAMES
COMMANDO
TRAINING HQ SPT
BN
page 14
MILITARY TRAINING
pages 16-18
EUROPEAN
ENDEAVOUR 09
Pictures:
Pictures
Joseph Patry, Cristina
Fernandez, Philippe
Demeyer, Olivier Maucotel,
FGB
Printing:
Printing
Print House Belgian
Defence
Copies:
Copies
2500
Distribution:
Distribution
HQ Eurocorps
© PAO Eurocorps
pages 19-20
pages 26-27
MULTINATIONAL
COMMAND SUPSUPPORT BRIGADE
(MNCS BDE) ON
THE WAY TO NRF
15
THE ENTRY INTO
FORCE OF THE
TREATY OF
STRASBOURG
page 21
ITALY ARRIVES AT
HEADQUARTERS
EUROCORPS
page 22
A
3
STAFF WITH
DIVISIONS
page 23
MEDICAL BRANCH
pages 24-25
ROTATION CYCLE
pages 28-29
NEW WEB SITE
EUROCORPS
pages 30-31
VISITS/EVENTS
COMMAND PERIOD
Lieutenant General Pedro PITARCH
Commander EUROCORPS
T
wo years ago and for the
very last time in my military
career I took over the command of a unit. We are now getting
closer to the day when I will hand over
the Eurocorps command to
my successor, Lieutenant General Domröse. Therefore it is
time for me to take stock of
those two years, which undoubtedly belong to the most
intense and exciting ones of
my career.
what we could call “Eurocorps corporate culture” has been the key factor of
our success.
Eurocorps culture is built on a strong European identity and the belief that a Eu-
When France and Germany
expressed in 1991 their wish
of a military cooperation
which would go beyond the
sole French-German Brigade,
they initiated a process that directly led to the creation of Eurocorps two years later. Since
then, Eurocorps headquarters
have kept developing their
military capabilities thanks to
the standing support of our nations and the continuous efforts of the commanders, who
all - one after the other and independently from their nationality - made their best with the
full allegiance - and that is a
remarkable point - of a high
level and proactive staff, fully
convinced that they were
going in the right direction: the
development of European Defence.
The military relevance of Eurocorps is
embodied by its 16-year-long history
made of operational commitments in
Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan, long
range exercise programs and NATO certification processes. In this domain,
is vital. This way of doing things proved
to be efficient since, while sceptic minds
said multinationality was incompatible
with operational efficiency Eurocorps
was certified by NATO in the same conditions as all national corps Headquarters and was deployed in
the same operations as all of
them. Moreover, the recent
experience of our Headquarters shows that, when
one of our nations is overstretched and cannot provide the expected support,
Eurocorps can always rely
on the assets of the other
Framework Nations. Such a
possibility of having recourse to such a wide range
of assets is not that common.
But, beyond its undeniable
operational capabilities, Eurocorps is a unique unit due
to the entry into force of the
Treaty of Strasbourg on 26th
February 2009, which gives
its HQ an own legal status
as well as an own financial
and contractual autonomy,
thus providing more reactivity for its daily operations.
rope made of a peaceful union of
peoples and cultures is our common future. This peculiarity has led us to an organization where no single nation can
take full control of Eurocorps and to an
operating system where interoperability
There is however an issue
that still does not seem to be
well understood by some:
the Treaty of Strasbourg is a
law applicable in all five
signatory countries: France,
Germany, Belgium, Spain
and Luxemburg, since it
was ratified by their respective parliaments. This is a fact of capital importance because in every of these
countries any national rule, regulation
or instruction below the normative level
of law is null and void if not compliant
3
COMMAND
PERIOD
Now is the right time to overcome inertia and get rid of old habits and procedures, to work hard in order to
implement and consolidate the Treaty of
Strasbourg, to review the way of doing
business within the “Eurocorps world”.
This new status of Eurocorps, when fully
implemented, will alleviate the workload of our Defence staffs while dealing
with Eurocorps issues. As the perspectives opened by this treaty are unique in
Europe referring to a military unit, I do
think that we are only at the beginning
of broad and extensive changes that will
surely need several years to reach their
true importance.
shows a genuine European vocation
since article 47 opens the status of
Framework Nation (party to the treaty)
exclusively to EU member states. It also
empowers the Common Committee to
authorize any third country to assign soldiers to our headquarters. This senior
body is composed by the Chiefs of Defence and the Political Directors of the
Ministries of Foreign Affairs of the parties
to the treaty. Such an aspect should not
be ignored because it gives Eurocorps a
permanent political dimension, at least
at the highest decision-making level.
This legally recognized presence of our
Ministries of Foreign Affairs takes Eurocorps back to its origins: a specific and
common military tool at the disposal of
nations willing to go forward, towards a
form of common, reinforced and permanent military cooperation.
Moreover, the Treaty of Strasbourg
However, such a political dimension
with the Treaty. From this viewpoint, the
Treaty of Strasbourg definitively constitutes a kind of re-foundation of Eurocorps.
EUROCORPS
4
should not have any influence on the
way we prepare ourselves for operations. The operational dimension is the
first priority for all Eurocorps members,
a priority that will remain applicable to
the regular and extensive operational
preparation of any Headquarters of this
level.
The two resolutions of the European Parliament (5th June 2008 and 19th February 2009) providing a strong political
support to Eurocorps in the framework
of the ESDP, as well as the ongoing
process of negotiations with Poland for
becoming the 6th party to the Treaty of
Strasbourg and the recent arrival of Italian officers at our staff (American and
Romanian officers will follow) are encouraging examples of growing international visibility and recognition far
beyond expectations. This is the result of
military excellence, a way paved by all
COMMAND
PERIOD
the previous commanders, the dedication of the staff personnel, the Command and Support Brigade and the HQ
Support Battalion.
Eurocorps has definitely grown over the
last sixteen years and its relevance increases year after year. Obviously, the
developments which took place in the
two last years have shown that Euro-
corps is at the beginning of a new cycle
which will show that this highly operational and splendid unit has cleared the
path to a more efficient, rational and restructured European Defence.
5
20TH
ANNIVERSARY
OF THE
FRENCH GERMAN
BRIGADE
T
EUROCORPS
he French German Brigade
(FGB), under operational
command of HQ Eurocorps
since 1993, celebrated its 20th birthday.
On November 13, 1987 the German
federal chancellor Helmut Kohl and the
president of the French Republic
François Mitterrand decided to set up
of a common brigade. 2 years later in
Böblingen (Germany), on October 2
1989, the French-German brigade was
born.
Four major events marked this anniversary. In the week from 20 to 27 June
2009, these events associated the FGB
garrisons, the twin towns and the population of the Black Forrest region, the
South of Bundesland Baden-Würtenberg
and the Alsace region:
6
On June 20th in the Fleurus barracks
(Donaueschingen) the festivities started
with the open door of the 110 French
Infantry regiment.
On June 23rd a French-German military raid was organized from Immendingen through the Black Forrest.
This march involved the French 3rd
Hussars regiment, the German Artillery
battalion 295 and the German engineer company 550.
From 24 to 26 June detachments
from different units of the French-German Brigade walked over the Black
Forrest mountains. In the morning of
June 26th a river crossing of the Rhine
was prepared at Breisach (Germany) /
Neuf-Brisach (France). Some 500 soldiers passed over this bridge. The
Chiefs of the Army Staff from France,
General IRASTORZA, and Germany,
Lieutenant General BUDDE, symbolically met on the river. In the evening
of June 26th 1500 soldiers gathered in
Camp Texas, near to Müllheim for a
bivouac.
On June 27th the French-German
Brigade marched through the streets of
Müllheim and gathered in the Robert
Schumann barracks for a festivity closing parade. In the presence of the
Chiefs of the Army Staff from France
and Germany the commanding general of the brigade, Brigade General
(DEU) BERG and his deputy, Colonel
(FRA) LAUGEL, used the opportunity
to highlight the brigade’s achievements
and political importance as a milestone for the French-German military
cooperation.
FRENCH GERMAN BRIGADE
Colonel (FRA) T. GAUCI
French-German Brigade
The spearhead of Eurocorps in charge of the turbulent
Northern Kosovo from January to May 2009
A
region, somewhere between
an independent state and a
Serb province
a dominated Albanian independent state
Ten years after NATO bombed Serb
forces to halt ethnic cleansing in Kosovo
and one year after Kosovo Albanian majority proclaimed independence (February 17th 2008), Kosovo is still looking
for wider international recognition and
a real authority on its Serb northern part
and Serb enclaves spread in the whole
country.
So far more than 50 countries, including
the United States and 22 European
Union member states, have recognised
Kosovo.
Since its declaration of independence,
Kosovo has adopted a new constitution,
national anthem and flag. It has established an independent government and
a parliament in a capital, Pristina, 18
embassies, nine consular missions and
issued its first passports.
For the Kosovo Albanians (KOA), 90% of
the population, the situation is clear: the
country is independent.
a Serb province subordinated to Belgrade
Nevertheless this independence has
been rejected by Belgrade arguing it is
still a Serb province while Serbia and
Russia are blocking its membership of
the United Nations and various international institutions.
The Serb dominated areas in Kosovo, including the Kosovo Police, do not obey
Pristina, still use the Serb dinar and rely
on Belgrade to survive.
For the Kosovo Serbs (KOS), 8% of the
population, the situation is clear: this
province cannot be independent and its
Serb character should be defended by
all means including force if necessary.
a complicated international
mixed position
However the international community
represented in Kosovo by four main organisations UNMIK (United Nations),
EULEX and ICO (European Union) and
OSCE are simultaneously
working on the basis of UN resolution 1244, which proclaims that
Kosovo is a Serb province;
establishing the traditional tools of
independence : customs, a justice system and security forces (KSF).
A local police force (KP) has been built
by UNMIK; they take over the traditional
missions of proximity police and crowd
and riot control. This KP is actually divided into two different police corps, a
Serb one in the Serb dominated areas
and an Albanian one in the Albanian
areas. This KP is the so-called first responder in case of troubles.
The EULEX police (2,500 police officers)
is monitoring, mentoring and advising
the KP; EULEX police is also composed
of crowd and riot control units (450
men). EULEX police is the second responder in case of troubles.
KFOR troops are the third responder,
acting, at least in theory, when the level
of violence overcomes the first and second responders. KFOR, through its tight
layout and permanent patrolling, is often
the first to be on the spot when incidents
Such opposite positions trigger
fear, troubles and violence.
KFOR,
the
military
actor among various
other actors.
In this context, Kosovo Force’s
(KFOR) mission is to guarantee a
permanent safe and secure environment and freedom of movement,
thus
creating
the
conditions for the civilian actors
to work in a safe environment.
KFOR (15,000 soldiers) has divided Kosovo into five parts; each
of them under the responsibility
of one Task Force (equivalent to a small
brigade).
KFOR is not the only actor in uniform in
Kosovo.
occur and is therefore regularly placed
in first responder but the efficient EULEX
police have an ever growing role.
7
FRENCH
GERMAN
BRIGADE
French German Brigade in
lead of Multinational Task
Force North
French German Brigade (FGB), reinforced by some French staff and units,
has taken over Multinational Task Force
North (MNTF N with about 3,000 soldiers) responsible for the Northern part
of Kosovo, the most sensitive region due
to the fact that it is divided into an Albanian area and a Serb area backed
along the administrative border line with
Serbia.
Under the lead of France, MNTF N is
also permanently composed of units and
staff personnel from Belgium, Denmark,
Estonia, Greece, Luxemburg and Morocco.
EUROCORPS
The FGB, represented by a total of 550
soldiers within MNTF N, has built the
core of the staff of the Task Force
(French, German and Belgian personnel
from FGB staff Müllheim), the French
battalion (3RH reinforced by 110RI), 3
Liaison and Monitoring Teams (3RH and
BCS/FGB) and the CIS component of
MNTF N (BCS/FGB).
Its main activities were divided into two
fields.
The framework operations consist in a
high visible presence and daily protecting actions aiming at bringing security
and confidence among the local population groups, such as among others:
the daily patrols performed everyday by the units, mounted or dismounted, on the roads and paths of
Northern Kosovo, and through the
streets of the different towns, villages
and Serb enclaves in Albanian dominated areas, gathering information on
economic or mafias’ issues or any kind
of factors that could affect the fragile
stability of the country and thus preventing any kind of violence from one
8
ethnic group to the other one;
EOD intervention on the hand
grenades regularly thrown at night in
Mitrovica city or on the weapons or
ammunition caches discovered here
and there;
CIMIC actions, in coordination with
UN or NGOs, in order to develop the
acceptance of the force by fostering
development projects.
The focused operations linked with
planned or unexpected events, such as
among others:
the numerous demonstrations of Albanian or Serb sides, linked to commemorations of past events or protests
against evolutions or economic difficulties, had to be closely monitored by
FGB soldiers as a support to the local
police or European Union police. To
that purpose crowd and riot control
skills have been developed throughout
the whole mandate;
Albanian rebuilding of houses in
Serb dominated areas although not accepted by Serb populations determined to expel by force those
newcomers; the establishment of a
common EU/MNTF N plan was made
necessary to face all possible scenarios
from the interposition to the cordoning
off of the area;
trials in the courthouse in Mitrovica
North, in the Serb dominated area, a
sensitive place where the Serbs are always demanding the Serb law should
be applied while Albanian Pristina
government is firmly pushing so that
EU, responsible for justice matters,
conduct the processes under new Albanian laws of the independent state
of Kosovo.
Each trial had to be prepared as a military operation, from the defence of the
courthouse against a huge demonstration or a direct attack, such as one year
ago, to the extraction of the justice staff
and protection of police officers.
As a key for success of all these daily or
events driven operations, the information gathering and intelligence manoeuvre is of utmost importance. Following
the information collected by the battalions and very specialized sensors, the
analysing process and intelligence conclusions were always rapidly achieved.
Based on the latter the operations could
develop a timely and proper response
and the appropriate layout of forces to
face the upcoming issue.
Building the core of S2/G2 and S3/G3
branches at French Battalion and Task
Force levels, FGB officers and NCOs
have taken the main responsibility in
those two main fields of operations.
Having French German Brigade soldiers
in such a context of hate between two
communities has obviously an interesting symbolic value. What our two peoples have overcome and then built
together is well known, even by Balkan
people.
Some months before Eurocorps takes
responsibility of the 15th rotation of
NATO RESPONSE FORCE, this Kosovo
experience of FGB brings to our higher
echelon in Strasbourg a solid pillar of
competence it can easily rely on.
IV ANNUAL
NATO LEGAL
CONFERENCE
Lieutenant Colonel (ESP) MILLAN
Eurocorps’ Nato Legal Conference OPR
O
n the 9th June 2009 the
opening session of the IV
Annual NATO Legal Conference took place at Quartier Aubert
de Vincelles, Strasbourg, the permanent
Headquarters of Eurocorps.
The first of the NATO legal conferences
took place in Bydgoszcz, Poland in
2006, then at Stavanger, Norway in
2007 and at Istanbul, Turkey in 2008.
The series of the NATO legal conferences aim to devise and implement innovative approaches to resolving critical
legal issues arising from all aspects of
support to operations, including the development of legal doctrine, policy and
improved methods of legal training.
The overall theme of this year’s conference held at Strasbourg between the 8th
and the 12th June was the legal contribution to the NATO comprehensive approach. This year, the attendance to the
conference included more than 80 legal
advisers from more than 43 NATO staffs
from the Command and the Force structures, as well as from NATO and nonNATO Ministries of Defence.
Eurocorps supported the organization of
this year’s conference and hosted the activities of the opening day, with the participation of General James N. Mattis,
Supreme Allied Commander Transformation (SACT), and of Mr. José María
Aznar, former Spanish Prime Minister.
Lieutenant General Pedro Pitarch, Commanding General Eurocorps (COMEC),
delivered the opening address, welcoming the attendees to the conference. Describing the unit hosting the event,
General Pitarch outlined Eurocorps’
unique level of multinationality, by
which no one single nation can take full
control over the unit, making Eurocorps
a model for European military cooperation. With an unequivocal pledge for the
European defence and a consistent operational NATO background –now preparing to play the role of LCC HQ in NRF
15 next year- the Eurocorps model has
received an outstanding political support of the European Parliament. Two
resolutions of the European Parliament
proposed to place Eurocorps under EU
command as a standing force (5th June
2008 resolution) and reaffirmed that Eurocorps should be at the core of a force
of 60.000 soldiers composed by EU
member states (19th February 2009 resolution). Another unique characteristic
of Eurocorps comes from its legal foundations: following the ratification by the
parliaments of Eurocorps’ five framework nations, the Treaty of Strasbourg
(ToS) entered into force on 26th February 2009. This treaty defines the basic
principles to be applied in its missions,
its organization, its working methods
and its status. No other military unit in
Europe can claim to have a specific international treaty that structures and
governs its and consequently provides it
with its own law.
and numerous other European institutions and agencies. It is, definitely, one
of the greatest symbols of peace and reconciliation in Europe. The close links between the City of Strasbourg and
Eurocorps were materialized through
the outstanding support provided by the
Mairie de Strasbourg, which hosted two
days of conference sessions at the City
Hall, and offered an official reception,
at the same place, for the conference attendees and the Eurocorps representatives. This modern European capital
continues to show its intention to become the capital of European defence.
After the opening address of COMEC,
the floor was granted to General Mattis
who outlined the key role of legal advisors in current operations. When commenting on pre-requisites for NATO to
implement the comprehensive approach, General Mattis praised the Eurocorps headquarters model, with its
shared multinationality and adding a variety of civil experts in the staff.
Mr. Aznar followed suit with a speech
proposing a global NATO, looking for
allies wherever necessary, without geographical limitations.
General Pitarch encouraged the attendants “to facilitate the work of our soldiers on the ground as much as possible,
also taking into account the multinational perspective”. He also promoted
the idea of achieving interoperability in
the legal field, aiming at a common
legal approach or, at least, a better coordinated legal approach to operations.
General Pitarch praised the choice of
Strasbourg to hold the four days of conference sessions. There could barely be
a better place to hold this conference
than the Alsatian capital. Besides being
one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, Strasbourg is the seat of the European Parliament, the Council of Europe,
the European Court for Human Rights
Mr. Steve Rose, Director of Legal Affairs,
Supreme Allied Command Transformation, moderated the panel discussion
which included Gen. Mattis, LTG.
Pitarch, Mr. Aznar, and Dr. Jean-Yves
Haine, from the University of Toronto.
The sessions were conducted under the
Chatham House Rule, encouraging a direct exchange of views between participants and guest speakers. The minutes
will sum up in due time the information
that the guest speakers will agree to release. A group photo and the lunch
closed the opening session.
Discussions continued in the afternoon
at Eurocorps, with interventions by Mr.
Gert-Jan Van Hegelsom from the Legal
9
IV ANNUAL
NATO LEGAL
CONFERENCE
Service of the General Secretariat of the
Council of the European Union, and
from Mr. Serge Lazareff, author of “Le
Statut des Forces de l’OTAN et son application en France, Ed A. Pedone,
1964”.
EUROCORPS
At the end of the day the conference attendees and Eurocorps members gathered at the reception offered by the City
of Strasbourg at the City Hall. The First
Deputy Mayor of Strasbourg and VicePresident of the Urban Community of
Strasbourg Mr. Robert Herrmann outlined on this occasion the close links between the City of Strasbourg and
Eurocorps, mentioning the permanent
deployment in the near future of a German Battalion of the French German
Brigade in Strasbourg.
The Conference convened the following
day at the City Hall of Strasbourg, with
the presence of Mr. De Vidts, the legal
Adviser to the NATO Secretary General.
The morning session proposed to the audience the legal views coming from
both permanent and ad hoc Courts. The
vice-President of the International Criminal Court, Judge Hans-Peter Kaul, and
Judge Nina Vajic from the European
Court of Human Rights gave their com-
10
ments on the impact of the jurisdiction
and procedures of their permanent
Courts on operations of NATO Nations.
Similarly, Mr. Daryl Mundis prosecutor
at the International Criminal Tribunal for
the Former Yugoslavia, and Judge Pierre
Boutet from the Special Court for Sierra
Leone, produced their relevant briefs
representing the work of ad hoc Courts.
Judge Frederik Harhoff, from ICTY, moderated the panel discussion. In the afternoon of the second working day, the
strategic location of Eurocorps amid the
European institutions allowed for a dedicated visit to the European Court of
Human Rights, rich of legal procedures
content.
Law. Then, the legal services of the Israeli Defence Forces provided their view
on the implementation of the Law of
Armed Conflict. Mr. Thomas Randall,
Director of Legal Affairs, Supreme Allied
Command Operations, moderated the
panel discussion. Mrs. Sibylle Scheipers,
from the Oxford University discussed in
the afternoon session about unlawful
combatants. The day was closed by Mr.
de Vidts views on NATO’s future.
The final day of conference sessions focused on NATO information management and its implications for the legal
services. The expertise was provided by
Mrs Catherine Gerth, head of the NATO
Headquarters registry services.
The third day of sessions was again conducted at the City Hall of Strasbourg,
this time dedicated to the Law of Armed
Conflict, Humanitarian Law and Human
Rights. Ms. Mona Rishmawi, the legal
Adviser of the Office of the UN High
Commissioner for Human Rights
(OHCHR) opened the session stressing
the permanent applicability of Human
Rights principles and law. Mr. JeanMarie Henckaerts, from the legal service
of the International Committee of the
Red Cross promoted the validity of the
customary International Humanitarian
It has been Eurocorps’ hope that by hosting and supporting the IV Annual NATO
Legal Conference we enabled the efforts
pursuing a better contribution of law to
operations, that serve the cause of
human rights and the rule of law in the
kernel of military action. All serving men
and women having the privilege of
being part of this great military organization take pride in serving under Eurocorps’ banner fully convinced that in
whatever circumstances we have to act
with the deepest respect to law and
human rights.
THE NATO
RESPONSE FORCE 15
PREPARATION
Major (BEL) ALEXANDER
G5
B
ackground
In September 2002, the then US Secretary for Defence put forward a proposal
to create a so called NATO Rapid Reaction Force (NRF). The launching of the
NRF initiative was announced at the
Prague Summit on 21 November 2002
as follows: “NATO must be able to field
forces that can move quickly to wherever they are needed, upon a decision
by the North Atlantic Council, to sustain
operations over distance and time, including in an environment where they
might have to face nuclear, biological
and chemical threats, and to achieve
their objectives. Effective military forces,
an essential part of the overall political
strategy, are vital to safeguard the freedom and security of the populations and
to contribute to peace and security in
the Euro-Atlantic region.”1 The NRF is a
highly ready and technologically advanced force made up of land, air, sea
and special forces components that the
Alliance can deploy quickly wherever
needed. It is capable of performing missions worldwide across the whole spectrum of operations. These include for the
time being evacuation, disaster management, counter-terrorism and acting as an
Initial Entry Force for larger Follow-on
Forces. The Force gives NATO the means
to respond swiftly to these various types
of crises anywhere in the world and is
also the driving engine of NATO’s military transformation. The NRF can number up to 25,000 troops and start to
deploy after a five-day notice to move
and sustain itself for operations lasting
30 days or longer if resupplied.
Further developments
Since its inception the NRF has varied in
size and capability from rotation to rotation as a result of force generation chal-
lenges. The lower fill rates over the last
years have changed little despite repeated initiatives. The latest development of the NRF Concept therefore
foresees three possible options which
provide an approach that moves away
from the current NRF success measurement based on the CJSOR2 fulfilment. It
is based on the principles of deployability, employability, affordability, credibility and efficiency in the use of scare
resources which combines the NRF
Graduated Option and a Response
Force Pool.
Another evolving aspect is the revision
of the NRF mission set. The more focused primary mission of the NRF
should
be to provide
a rapid show of force and the early establishment of a NATO military presence in support of an Article 5 or Crisis
Response Operation, leading to specified tasks such as initial entry operation,
peace support operation, demonstrative
force package and embargo operation.
Also under consideration is the common
funding or innovative funding arrangements which may assist in some circumstances to improve the burden sharing
and could allow nations to contribute
forces more widely. The exercise and
certification programme for the entire
NRF packages will be maintained because it is a crucial incentive and a
driver for transformation of the capabilities provided by the nations. It goes
without saying that the redesign of the
NRF will also deeply influence HQ EC’s
NRF 15 preparation.
HQ EC NRF participation
Already in June 2006, HQ EC
was certified as NRF 7 Land
Component Command (LCC).
The capabilities of that Response Force were tested in a
major live exercise, Steadfast
Jaguar 06, in the Cape Verde Islands where HQ EC participated with approximately
2,000 soldiers. The challenging
location was specifically designed to demonstrate and
prove the viability of the NRF
concept.
HQ Eurocorps is again designated to be the Mounting Headquarters for the NRF 15 LCC. Its
NRF 15 package will be based
on national force contributions,
which will rotate through periods of
training and certification as a joint
force, followed by an operational “stand
by” phase of six months starting in July
2010. The training of the NRF HQ and
forces will be performed prior to this, including exercises to be conducted sequentially in order to achieve the
desired level of readiness and joint &
1
Prague Summit declaration, issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting
of the North Atlantic Council in Prague on 21 November 2002.
2
CJSOR: Combined Joint Statement Of Requirements.
11
THE NATO
RESPONSE
FORCE 15
PREPARATION
combined interoperability.
EUROCORPS
The NRF 15 preparation
The National Training Phase
(01 Jan – 31 Dec 09)
The aim of this phase is to ensure that
all personnel and units have acquired
and trained the military skills required
at individual and tactical unit level.
This is primarily a national responsibility. By the end of this period, the contributing nations will certify that their
NRF assigned units have met the training requirements in compliance with
NATO standards and national regulations. In the meantime, HQ EC will
prepare its NRF assigned staff members
through individual and collective training activities. This includes individual
pre-deployment training, specialist
training in order to fulfil the CE/PE job
requirements, CIS training, operational
planning process training, workshops,
study days and seminars. For HQ EC
the National Training Phase will reach
its highest intensity during the Exercise
Common Tenacity 09 in WILDFLECKEN from 09 till 27 Nov 09. The
main training objectives of this exercise are to rehearse the NRF Combat
Readiness
E va l u a t i o n
(CREVAL) of
HQ EC with
regard to the
NRF
missions and to
synchronize
the
command and
control relations
between
the
LCC Forward
Command
Post, the HQ
EC
home
base,
the
12
French German Brigade Command
Post and possibly with a Deployable
Joint Staff Element, also comprising the
Joint Logistic Support Group participating as well, both as response cells.
The NRF Preparation Phase
(01 Jan - 30 Jun 10)
The NRF 15 (Land) package will be
trained in a multinational and joint environment, culminating in the validation of the NRF readiness of the LCC
forces. HQ EC will exercise a delegated authority to conduct and control
the component level training as programmed and will evaluate and certify
that its component HQ and forces
have achieved the prescribed readiness
and certification standards. The main
training events are scheduled as follows:
(1) The NRF 15 LCC Training (11 - 16
Jan 2010), in the form of a seminar and
functional workshops. It is designed to
enhance HQ EC ability to operate as
an LCC Command under a Joint Force
Command in an NRF environment.
(2) The Command Post Exercise (CPX)
Brilliant Ledger I (16 - 26 Mar 10), with
the aim to exercise the NRF 15 LCC internal chain of command focussing on
the expeditionary nature of the NRF
deployment and evaluating and improving interoperability and integrating
tactical land based operations at the Task Force
level. In addition, it provides an opportunity for
the COM EC to validate
the combat readiness of
the available forces under
his command.
(3) The Exercise Steadfast
Cathode 2010 (19 - 30
Apr 10) will focus on interoperability and standardization training. It will
validate the NRF 15 CIS
interoperability and pro-
vide a CIS interoperability assessment
for COM NRF on the force elements
assigned to NRF 15.
(4) The Command Post Exercise Steadfast Juncture (03 – 16 May 10) with the
aim to train, integrate and evaluate the
NRF 15 Force Package while applying
the new NATO Command Structure’s
ability to plan and conduct NRF operations.
The standby period
(01 Jul - 31 Dec 2010)
During this six-month period, HQ EC
will lead and conduct training activities in order to maintain the readiness
of the whole NRF 15 (L) force package.
The main training event will be the exercise Common Tenacity 10, which
will be conducted in STRASBOURG.
Conclusion
The NRF 15 training and preparation
cycle will be a challenging and demanding task. There is no doubt that thanks to
the support of the EC Framework Nations, the already gained NRF experience and the high professionalism of its
personnel, HQ EC will once again be
able to master this challenge and
demonstrate to the full extent its unique
capacity as a spearhead of the European
security and defence identity within
NATO.
MARCHE-LES-DAMES
COMMANDO
TRAINING HQ SPT BN
23-27 February 09
Captain (FRA) RICHARD
HQ Spt Bn S3
A
s a replacement of the yearly
HQ Spt Bn commando training in GIVET, the Belgian
Commando Training Centre (CTC) in
Marche-les-Dames (near to Namur)
agreed to welcome an EC platoon for a
one week commando initiation course.
Since the French Commando training
centre in GIVET was to be dismantled
soon in the frame of the reorganization
of the French Army, the HQ Spt Bn decided to take advantage of the fact that a
fully qualified Belgian commando instructor (OR-8 VERSTRAETEN) had been
assigned to the EC Sports Cell, and thus
to ask for a commando course in Belgium.
30 soldiers participated in this course,
mainly from the HQ Spt Bn, but with a
few from the EC HQ. After a
short preparatory training in
Strasbourg, organized by the
EC Sports Cell, this multinational detachment spent five
days in Belgium, from the 23rd
to the 27th of February 2009.
thing they had been taught on the days
before.
The purpose of this course
was to provide an introduction to the various commando techniques, through
a short but demanding
training, in order to improve the robustness, basic
military skills, self-confidence and team spirit of
the EC soldiers.
And it did. The trainees, led by
OR-8 NESZ, were taught
rock climbing, which
they practiced extensively, but also how to
set up and use
dinghies (small inflatable boats), hand
to hand fight, and
how
to
walk
through rough terrain, day and
night,
while
keeping
their
bearings.
Eventually, they
went through a
cohesion escape exercise
in the damp darkness of
underground passages
below an old castle. The
training was concluded
by a 35 minute- test, very
intense, during which the
trainees had to use every-
This initiation course succeeded fully in
creating a fine cohesion between the EC
platoon members belonging to four nations. The general feeling was that the
course had been as perfect as initiation
goes, but some EC personnel felt definitely ready to go back for a real commando course.
13
Captain (FRA) RICHARD
HQ Spt Bn S3
MILITARY
TRAINING
10-11 March 2009
I
n the frame of the NATO Response
Force (NRF) preparations, the Eurocorps Headquarters’ staff personnel
went through a specific training in
March 2009. It was designed to remind
them of all the various know-hows involved in a NRF deployment.
This training activity took place in the
vicinity of Haguenau (France), on the
French training Camp of Oberhoffen,
home to the 54 and to the 12 (FR) Artillery regiments.
EUROCORPS
Owing to the fact that 300 participants
were expected, the training was repeated on two days in a row (10th and
11th of March 2009), with a EC Cross-
14
run on the 9th as starters. The training itself was composed of a series of workshops, followed by a 12 kilometer
march in the Haguenau Forest.
On the two days, the participants gathered at 07:00 Hrs on the Aubert de Vincelles (AdV) parade ground, were
divided into pre-established groups and
went through a well-needed roll call,
before boarding the busses and traveling
to Oberhoffen. Upon arrival, they gathered shortly in order to be briefed by the
organizing team before being sent on
their way, ready to undergo the series of
trainings waiting to be delivered in the
various workshops.
Those workshops dealt with FAMAS
field dismounting and reassembly,
FAMAS shooting, CBRN procedures and
equipment, mines and IEDs awareness,
first aid and reacting to an accident in
an operational context.
The weather was a proper “train hard –
fight easy” one on the first day, and the
participants were drenched with rain by
the time they finished the march. Comparisons between the different national
rain gears were duly made. The second
day, albeit too sunny, was as effective as
the first and all trainees ended up having fresh knowledge of those NRF basics.
EUROPEAN
ENDEAVOUR 09
Contributions from
G3 - G5 - G6 - G7 and AREC
O
peration “Lasting Summer”
– no, we are not referring to
a peace enforcement action
in Afghanistan. “Lasting Summer” was
the name of the operation conducted in
EUROPEAN ENDEAVOUR 09 (EE09),
the multinational German-led capstone
exercise carried out under an EU umbrella. On 08 MAY 09 – the STARTEX
day - some 4000 exercise participants
(among them 457 EC members) gathered in the highlands of WILDFLECKEN
(DEU), the Navy Base of GLÜCKSBURG and the Air Force Base of
KALKAR to participate in this challenging joint training event.
The chosen scenario – the Middle Continent Scenario – was well known by
those who had participated in EX Common Tenacity 2007. RFOC had adjusted
it to meet the real joint demands of EE
09. Land Operations were simulated by
means of the KORA CAX system.
EE09 compared with other
Exercises
Even if some characteristics – EU-led operation, the scenario and the training location WILDFLECKEN - were not
unfamiliar to the HQ EC personnel, EE
09 was exceptional for us:
The FHQ, our Higher Echelon, was
present with a 100% filled establishment and not portrayed as HICON Response Cell ( as it had usually been the
case in the recent EC Exercises) and assumed its Joint Command and Control
The STARTEX day marked the end of a
responsibility,
more than 18 months long Exercise
All sister CCs were fully represented
Planning Process in which HQ EC was
and part of the Training Audience (TA),
deeply involved all the time.
rendering the operational and organizational area
Main characteristics of EE09
more
chalThe overall aim of EE 09 was to plan, prepare, execute and evaluate an lenging, e.g.
exercise featuring a joint and combined EU-led crisis management opmanning liaieration in order to train the Land, Air, Maritime and Special Operations
Component Commands as Primary Training Audience (PTA) and FHQ son elements
- portrayed by Response Force Operations Command (RFOC) - as Sec- and steering
ondary Training Audience (STA) in a scenario with significant High Inten- the informasity Warfare (HIW) elements. In this framework the national certification tion flow via
and validation of DEU ACC and DEU SOCC has taken place.
these
elements,
This EUled operation
was designed
without recourse
to
NATO assets
– a simple
sentence with
significant impact, especially in the
field of Communication
and Information Systems
(see also the
G6 paragraph),
The dense timeframe required a
24/7 mode of simulation and consequently an LCC CP working in day and
night shift,
HQ EC, rather than acting as command “conducting” the exercise, was
in a contributory role in important
areas,
The LCC enabler force package that
differed from the standard one we normally use forced our functional areas
to adapt to the specific means and capabilities of these units. This was especially true for G2, which had to deal
with a mixed DEU Recce Battalion instead of an ISTAR unit, and our engineers, who controlled 59 different
engineer platoons and an EOD task
force to tackle the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) threat.
The force package consisted of three
Major Subordinate Units, 6 (AUT) Inf
BDE, 17 (POL) BDE and the French German BDE. The LCC Troops were provided by DEU, except for the PSE
portrayed by AUT.
Conclusion from the G7
point of view
Taking the afore-mentioned differences
into account, the planning process for
this exercise differed from those of other
HQ EC exercises.
This was the price to be paid – but in return HQ EC gained a unique training experience in a real joint environment by
15
EUROPEAN
ENDEAVOUR
09
the EU CIS concept and the few developed EU Functional Services forced us
to show pragmatism. Quite naturally, the
NATO oriented experience of each Staff
Officer led to a convergence of our efforts in the research of NATO procedures. Thus, the famous STANAG 5048
represented the cornerstone to be respected.
EE 09 has confirmed the Eurocorps CIS
capability to act in a flexible way,
switching from an EU to a NATO framework and vice versa, depending on the
mission. If the more advanced state of
the NATO CIS framework was a source
of inspiration, EE 09 will be considered
an important milestone for HQ EC G6 in
mastering an EU CIS deployment.
Overall CIS Architecture used in EE09
EUROCORPS
contributing to the joint collaborative
planning process and execution. In the
end a 100% win–win situation for both
– the Component Command Headquarters and HQ Eurocoprs.
EE09 – A real CIS
challenge
The number of participating Component
Commands, the complexity of the C2
structure and the different kinds of deployed IT systems confronted the CIS
community with multiple challenges.
Moreover, the scenario was conducted
in a pure EU environment. This decision
was a courageous one and impacted the
types of IT services to be deployed. The
CIS community worked hard to clear up
the CIS smog we encountered during the
preparation.
HQ EC contributed by deploying a mission-tailored and robust network, interconnecting the 3 MSUs and the LCC
troops in line with our approved multinational CIS concept. SICF Mission Se-
16
cret, tactical phones and the Mission Secret VTC were part of the CIS package.
In addition, both the Mission Secret VTC
and the so- called Multi Site SICF were
extended to the Aubert de Vincelles barracks, thus maintaining the technical
know-how. Obviously this ensured a
smooth information exchange between
LCC CP and EC Home Base.
CIS interoperability was once more one
of the major aims. The mosaic of deployed IT systems, the uncertainties regarding information systems provided
by the Host Nation and the compulsory
IT security constraints were factors engendering such a technical complexity
that the only way to exchange information was the well-known swivel-chair
process. This manual procedure was not
the quickest way to achieve interoperability, but it remained reliable by applying clear procedures.
As stated before, the design for an EUled exercise was particularly challenging
and demanding. The lack of maturity of
Parallel planning for EE09 ambitious and demanding
From 15th September till 10th October
2008, HQ EC conducted the Operational Planning Process (OPP) to produce the Land Component Command
(LCC) OPLAN for Operation “LASTING
SUMMER”. This was not a new situation
- EC G5 Plans is used to leading the
Core Planning Group (CPG) in the
preparation of every exercise. What
made a big difference between EE09
and previous EC exercises, however,
was that this exercise gave EC the opportunity to develop an OPP with both
higher echelons planning simultaneously. Therefore, a parallel planning
process with the Operation Headquarters (OHQ) and the Force Headquarters
(FHQ) as well as with sister Component
Commands (CCs) was carried out in a
real joint environment. To experience
such an integration of command levels
and planning procedures was not easy
for HQ EC in its LCC capacity.
Manning limitations required a constant
switching of roughly the same planners
between the OHQ planning team and
EUROPEAN
ENDEAVOUR 09
the FHQ JOPG. This successive “re-hatting” was not an easy task for those officers, who were thus forced to re-focus
their concerns and approach from one
day to the next, shuttling between the
strategic and the operational levels.
During the first phase (the production of
OHQ CONOPS) the CCs had to deal
with the OHQ planning team, two echelons above, without the necessary
guidance from the operational level. Assumptions, limitations, objectives and
even the mission analysis were initially
determined and conducted mainly from
a strategic perspective and then released
directly to the CC level without the necessary translation and re-focussing to
the operational level language and concerns. Then, as far as the conceptual
part of the planning concluded with the
OHQ, the CONOPS was strategically
oriented. Once the FHQ JOPG entered
into business, the FCdr had not much
room to identify options and develop a
Campaign Plan covering his operational-level concerns. Nevertheless,
during this second phase, the FHQ
JOPG had to refine the CONOPS to fit
the operational-level needs. Because
the CCs had to develop their CONOPS
during the first phase, this led to some
difficult and time-consuming refinements.
including those pertaining to the operational level courses of action (COAs) yet
to be determined. As a result, painful
discussions and coordination were
needed once the FHQ JOPG started developing its own COAs, as the already
existing CC ones had to be adapted accordingly.
Also, thanks to the 3-echelon interaction (OHQ-FHQ-CCs) and due to the
specificity of the multinational framework of HQ EC (not being a DEU-led
HQ like all other EE09 actors), a challenging discussion arose between the
OHQ/FHQ Commanders and COM
LCC regarding force and capabilities needs and generation. This
was quite unique in peacetime
exercises and led to a very realistic exchange of arguments on issues of political-military interest,
as well as on Commanders’ freedom of decision.
EE 09 – A fully joint exercise seen from the AREC
perspective
During the EX, the Air Representation to
Eurocorps (AREC) provided the nucleus
of the Air Operations Coordination Center to LCC (AOCC (L)). Augmentation by
reservists and personnel from the air
forces of the Framework Nations allowed meeting the requirements of 24hour operations.
Finally, EE09 brought interesting lessons
into HQ EC’s basket.
Firstly, at the CC level, the most challenging issue was that the OHQ/FHQ
cooperative planning, involving the
simultaneous activation and planning work of the (initially) strategic
and CC levels, led to the development of planning products of the
CCs ahead of the operational
level. This forced the CCs to have
recourse to too many assumptions,
17
EUROPEAN
ENDEAVOUR
09
plan for the “Deep Operation”. The joint picture in this
planning process was provided by FHQ. Due to the
complexity of the operation,
the Force Cdr agreed to support LCC HQ during the planning process. CCs and FHQ
planners were integrated in
the LCC CPG to ensure the appropriate joint support and
command and control. To plan
the Deep Op, LCC activated
its Deep Operations Working
Team (DOWT) (according to
EC SOP 3270). It consists of
G3 Plans Deep Op, G3 Targeting, G3 Air Plans, G3 Air
AOAD, G3 SpecOps and of
course G4 for ensuring the appropriate logistic support.
During the operation, when
the Deep Op was launched,
the Deep Ops Coordination
Planning Challenges
Cell (DOCC)1 was activated in
during Operation
the LCC JOC.
The operation nicknamed “STRONG RESOLVE" was
LASTING SUMMER
It is obvious that such a comconducted within the LCC Area of Operation (AOO) to
In this joint environment the mid- block and contain the 20th ALD Bde moving to the
plex process could only be
term planning played an important west to reinforce the 1st echelon of the 2nd ALD DIV.
portrayed if nearly all relevant
role in solving several planning is“players” (ACC, a strong Resues, some triggered by a FHQ Joint
sponse Cell AMTF) were repoperational timeline between X+24 and
Coordination Order (JCO) and others X+96-120 hours. One great opportunity resented. As this was the case here. EE
generated by COM LCC decision.
to train our procedures (contained in EC 09 provided us a unique training opporIn exercises and operations, the HQ EC SOP 6320 in the decision-making tunity.
mid-term planning process covers the process) was the development of the I
EUROCORPS
For the first time in its history, AREC
was subordinated to the German
Luftwaffe ACC HQ from KALKAR
and coordinated air operations with
its integrated Air Operations Center
(AOC), both deployed to WILDFLECKEN. This Operational / Tactical Command was made up of the
staff of KALKAR–based Air Force
Operational Command extensively
augmented by personnel from the
Luftwaffe and the allied nations. A
mid and long term Operations Planning Capability was also implemented in the Air Component
Command Rear in KALKAR.
An Air Liaison Element (ALE) to LCC
made up of two officers from the
Luftwaffe was sent by ACC to provide operational level air expertise
to the LCC planning process and to
cover the requirements of intercomponents liaison.
1
DOWG : DOCC plus G3 Air, AOCC, G2 and EW
leaded by JOC Director
18
MULTINATIONAL
COMMAND SUPPORT
BRIGADE (MNCS BDE)
ON THE WAY TO
NRF 15
Ready- Steady- Go!
Lieutenant (DEU) TIBBETS
MNCS Bde
T
alking about exercises in HQ
Eurocorps regularly evokes
pictures of large maps with
big arrows, a myriad of meetings to attend and a lot of snow and/or rain to
cope with. The Distinguished Visitors
Day (DVD) has become an integral part
of the battle rhythm where we can with
due reason proudly present our various
Command Posts (CPs) to distinguished
visitors from all over the world.
That’s fair- but have you ever wondered
who is actually erecting the maze of
tents and shelters, providing phones and
CIS equipment and –most importantly,
of course - food, drinks and linen?
Indeed, it is the MNCS Bde who takes
over these responsible tasks, either by
deploying its generic entities as the
Headquarters Support Battalion (HQ Spt
Bn) and the two CIS Coys or by relying
on Framework Nations (FN) detachments tailored to the specific mission.
Way before the main body of the HQ,
our team from HQ installation is on the
spot to coordinate the assembling of the
EUROPEAN
ENDEAVOUR LCC
shelters and tents in accordance with
the respective layout of the Functional
Areas (FA). The Real Life Support Coordination Centre (RLSCC) takes care of
food, linen, laundry services and various
other things to make the exercise period
as comfortable as possible for each participant.1
to do a large part of the cabling as well
in often virtuous handiwork.
Interoperability is a question of attitude
and of profound and coherent leadership. Various conceptual mismatches
occurring in previous exercises had exhausted the possibilities of the MNCS
Bde structure ever since NRF 7. EspeMNCS C2 Structure for EE 09
Besides, the CIS Coordination Centre
(CISCC) ensures the timely provision of
a wide range of CIS services. In doing
so, the subordinated CIS Units do not
only distribute the various assets, such
as telephones and computers, but have
90 Shelters
20 Containers of Material
15 Tactical Tents
ca. 300 SICF Workstations
ca. 2000m Power Cable
cially in the CIS sector, the challenging
technical architecture in connection
with the –to put it frankly – largely ponderous implementation of the operational control (OPCON) over FN CIS
detachments had considerably impeded
Foreseen LCC-Structure NRF 15
In total, a capacity of approximately 850tons had to
be moved from Strasbourg
to Wildflecken. And back,
of course.
1
Well, comfortable in military terms that is and does not necessarily include hot water or clean
accommodation blocks which remain the responsibility of the respective training area.
19
MNCS BDE
ON THE WAY
TO NRF 15
EUROCORPS
the workflow.
Hence, MNCS Bde has decided to develop a new C2 concept based on the
Lessons Learned (LL) process of exercise
COMMON EFFORT 08. The overall aim
was a new, more flexible approach by
establishing the MNCS Bde Command
Cell physically in the Class I area of LCC
CP in exercise EUROPEAN ENDEAVOUR 09 (EE 09). Gathering all key capacities within reach of COM MNCS
Bde did not only literally decrease the
distance between the brigade and its
subordinated formations but did furthermore significantly facilitate the workflow by transparent leadership and a
clear delineation of responsibilities.
In hindsight, the newly established
MNCS C2 structure passed the acid test
of EE 09. However, this is just half the
20
battle won
right here. In
the upcoming
months, MNCS
Bde will further improve its C2 concept by
integrating under OPCON
not only the FN CIS detachments
but furthermore additional support elements, such as Force Protection. Based
on conclusions deriving from the ongoing evaluation process, the formerly
neglected MNCS Bde will form an integral part of the LCC structure for NRF
15:
Naturally, drawing some boxes on a
piece of paper is far easier than the actual implementation. Major challenges
will be the integration of the FN detachments into a coherent concept, with the
CIS
r e maining one
of
the
major points of
concern. Additionally, the dualism between
operational play and the smooth and reliable execution of real life tasks is due
to serious personnel constraints as of
now not solved.
Coming back from the theoretic realms
to life’s humdrum routine, MNCS Bde
continues to seek its original purpose: to
remain largely invisible to the bulk of
the exercise participants as this is the
most prominent kudos a support element can receive….
I
ITALY ARRIVES AT
HEADQUARTERS
EUROCORPS
Major (BEL) HAEGDORENS
PAO
E
arly in 2008 Italy decided to
accept the invitation of the
five Eurocorps Framework
Nations and officially announced their
intention to provide a permanent contribution of personnel to the Headquarters Eurocorps (HQ EC) peacetime
establishment as soon as possible.
It is a milestone for Eurocorps, as it
shows the Italian Army’s commitment to
Eurocorps by sending officers to this
multinational Headquarters which is at
the disposal of the European Union and
NATO. The Italian decision to join Eurocorps as a sending
nation is an event of
great importance, in
a moment when, as
Lieutenant General
Pedro Pitarch, Eurocorps Commanding
General, said in his
speech, the “European Union is gaining new momentum”, and Eurocorps
“benefits from a
strong backing by
the European Parliament and is supported
by
an
international treaty
which is unique for
a Headquarters of
this level”.
formation of the Multinational Battalion
of Eurocorps Headquarters, General
Pitarch was pleased “to voice our gratitude to the Italian military authorities,
especially to general Vincenzo Camporini, Chief of Italy’s Defence Staff, for the
decision to provide a contribution to this
vital and challenging endeavour called
Eurocorps, starting by appointing two
Italian officials to join Headquarters Eurocorps”. It could be said that, with the
incorporation of Italy, the Northern
Shore of the Mediterranean Sea, from
the Gibraltar Strait to the Middle East, is
now represented in Eurocorps.
Two posts are now filled by the Italian
Army. Within the Operations Division
there are two Italian staff officers
(Major/Lieutenant Colonel) serving in
different Branches: one staff officer is integrated in the Engineer Branch (exercices and operations section) and one staff
officer is integrated in the G3 Branch (Information Operations).
From HQ EC’s perspective this contribution of Italy represents a well-balanced
and valuable participation in the HQ EC
Staff. The Italian participation will form a
major step forward in the efforts to further enhance the multinationality of our
HQ and will have a positive impact on
HQ EC.
I
On June 22nd 2009
the Italian flag was
officially
hoisted
during a ceremony
at the Aubert-deVincelles barracks.
During the military
ceremony with the
21
Captain (DEU) SCHMITT
DOS
A STAFF
WITH
3 DIVISIONS
Train and organize
as you fight!
T
his Maxim of military leadership has been the cornerstone
of the process of reviewing the
Peacetime Establishment (PE) of Headquarters Eurocorps, a process initiated
by the Common Committee in 2006.
EUROCORPS
Thus, the objective has been to adapt the
peacetime structure of the Staff - so far
divided into two Divisions - as much as
possible to the operational requirements. A lesson of the recent ISAF mission and the NRF preparation and
stand-by phase of HQ EC had been that
the entire spectrum of operational tasks
had one element in common: the Headquarters structure always rested on three
pillars: CP Fwd/Main, RSC/ Rear CP,
Homebase.
22
Another aim has been to maintain an adequate level of multinationality, which
implied offering attractive posts in the
Staff to potential new Sending Nations.
And finally a driving aspect of the PE review process has been the objective to
create a structure that is closer to that of
other HRF headquarters, since this facilitates not only cooperation but also the
implementation of new NATO doctrines
such as EBAO.
A direct comparison of the criteria: Operational capabilities, Multinationality,
Attractiveness, Peacetime duty capabilities and Functional approach yields a
clear picture.
All these considerations finally led to the
creation of a third Staff Division.
Re-structuring the Corps Staff, which included the creation of 70 new posts, has
managed to give the Corps an even more
multinational profile. In addition to
Poland's decision to provide a strongly
increased
personnel
contribution
headed by an OF-6 in the function as
DCOS SPT, Italy, Romania and USA have
followed the invitation to join Eurocorps
as well.
This proposal to join HQ Eurocorps offers attractive posts in an organization
that has become the real symbol for a
successful European Defence Policy. Furthermore has the Corps proven its operational value and organizational
capabilities in the ever evolving NATO
Command and NATO Force Structure.
I
MEDICAL BRANCH
Major MED (BEL) WEUTS
GMED
all
other
staff
branches.
The Medical Intelligence and Epidemiology section provides
relevant data on the
health situation in the
area of interest and establishes a medical
risk assessment as a
starting point for the
mission
planning
cycle and the Plans
section within GMED.
I
n HQ Eurocorps, GMED, an independent branch, has recently become a part of the new internal organization. The GMED medical branch
is responsible for the planning and coordination of medical support throughout the EC area of operations.
In current operations, medical support
has proven to be a highly specialized
activity, focused on the optimal care of
the individual soldier. This requires a
global force health protection policy,
from disease and casualty prevention to
casualty care and management. GMED’s
overall aim is to implement this policy
in accordance with the commander’s
tactical plan.
In order to meet these challenges, ACOS
GMED is supported by an administrative
element and three sections: the Intelligence and Epidemiology section, the
Plans section and the Operations section.
ACOS GMED also acts as medical adviser (MEDAD) to the Commanding
General. The MEDAD gives advice on
health and medical matters to him and
The Plans section is responsible for the
development of medical support plans
in the Corps’ area of operations, focusing on multinational integration and interoperability of the medical support in
the theatre.
The Operations section implements the
medical support plans, directs and coordinates medical operations and provides
the
branch with
the medical
operational
picture. The
Ops section is
also
the
branches’ link
to the Patient
Evacuation
Coordination
Cell
(PECC)
and the Joint
Operations
Centre (JOC).
bourg in 2009
changed the
status of HQ
Eurocorps.
This requires
the development of new
capabilities in
different areas
like food and water control, hygiene and
environmental medicine.
In the field of Real Life Support, the efforts for continuous internationalization
of HQ Eurocorps’ own infirmary will include the multinational procurement of
medical equipment and the further integration of medical personnel from sending nations.
Medical personnel are used to work in a
supportive role, daily taking care of all
patients. Even if the work is done
silently, the provision of medical support
during exercises and deployments is
paramount for the success of any mission.
Future challenges
and
way ahead:
The entry-intoforce of the
Treaty of Stras-
23
Major (ESP) AGUADO ARROYO
G1 - MN Pers Mgt
ROTATION
CYCLE
T
he Eurocorps Headquarters
is a military unit currently
made up of about one thousand men and women from 111 nations1. But its multinationality is more
than mere statistical figures on the origin of its members. Most importantly, it
acts as a multiplier to increase the efficiency of the Headquarters, since it allows to tackle subjects from different
angles in one single working cycle.
EUROCORPS
How this concept of multinationality
can serve as a factor for cohesion in the
field of human resources management
can best be perceived through the assignment of posts to the different nations.
Every Eurocorps member holds an international position with two main characteristics2:
It carries a specific international job
description.
The incumbent is responsible to international authority.
Once the principle of multinationality
has been laid down through the drafting
of a job description stating the details of
the missions to be accomplished and the
structural hierarchy of the respective Eurocorps member, the next step is to determine the nationality of the person
24
suitable to occupy the post. There are
two types of positions at Eurocorps with
different criteria regarding its tours of
duty and assignation procedures:
Quota post
An international post which a particular
nation has accepted to fill indefinitely2.
It is the majority of posts at the Headquarters.
The main reason for determining a position as “quota post” is to optimize the
contribution of the framework nations
and simplify the supply of personnel.
The fact that one nation holds a post
within the framework of Eurocorps for
an indefinite period of time does not
limit its multinational character. The balance established between the nations
within different functional areas and
units at the Headquarters allows to
maintain and even to strengthen a multinational approach in the line of work.
Garding a balanced presence of different nationalities is a basic principle of
Eurocorps’ staff organization.
Rotational post2
A manpower post filled on a rotational
basis. It may be confined to specified nations.
As a general rule, the rotational posts at
headquarters and multinational units are
posts with special responsibilities, often
linked to the command or the direction
of staff bodies which cannot be occupied by a specific nation on a permanent basis due to their special nature
and value, as well as their symbolic
character.
Occasionally, rotational posts are also
held by multinational liaison bodies.
In the case of Eurocorps, there are 31 rotational posts (3% of the Peace Establishment). These positions are filled by four
of the five framework nations (Luxembourg not being part of the rotational
system) following a pre-established
order for a two-year period (three years
in the case of the Director of Staff).
The rotational posts of Eurocorps are
grouped according to the following criteria:
Posts linked to command
tasks
COMMANDER
EUROCORPS
(COMEC). Lieutenant General Pedro
Pitarch Bartolome (OF-8, Spain) is currently manning this post for the 20072009 period.
DEPUTY COMMANDER EUROCORPS (DCOM). Major General
Philippe Sommaire (OF-7, France) is
currently manning this post for the
2007-2009 period.
ROTATION
CYCLE
COMMANDER MNCS BDE. Assigned to France for the 2007-2009 period.
COMMANDER HQSPT Bn. Assigned to Belgium for the 2008-2010
period.
CHIEF PIO. Manned by an officer of
the same nationality as the COMEC´s.
Posts of special importance
within the staff
Chief of Staff. Assigned to Germany
for the 2007-2009 period.
Deputy Chief of Staff Operations.
Assigned to Belgium for the 20072009 period.
Deputy Chief of Staff Support. Assigned to Spain for the 2007-2009 period.
Deputy Chief of Staff Training and
Resources. This Division will be activated this year. It will be assigned to
Germany for the 2009-2011 period.
Director of Staff. It is assigned to
Germany until July 2009 prior to
being occupied by Spain from 2009
through 2012 (three years).
itime representations and to the different
divisions of AREC (Air Representation
Eurocorps).
Eurocorps has decided to limit the number of such posts, If these post were increased, we would have to face the
following consequences:
For the framework nations
Increased difficulties to provide
the adequate human resources.
Need of a rotational calendar to
ensure continuity.
Provision of staff in areas with
limited capacities or considered as
priorities in the respective national
areas.
For Eurocorps
Obstacles for the integration of
newcomers.
Difficulties to support and man-
age the staff both from a multinational perspective and with regards
to the national support provided by
the NSD´s.
The rotational posts are essential to Eurocorps for quality reasons, as the rotation of posts at higher levels, established
by the framework nations, ensure the
continuity of action at the command
level, providing Eurocorps with a Command Group that reflects the proportional representation of the contingents
that currently constitute it.
From a staff perspective, the rotational
posts can therefore be considered as an
instrument to keep a high level of cohesion and multinationality in the field of
planning and management of the personnel provided by the framework nations.
Posts at the Generals´
Offices
The Eurocorps Generals´ Offices have
a similar structure. They are all composed of an Executive Officer, a Chief
Secretary and a Clerk /Driver.
The COMEC´s, the DCOM´s and the
COS’s offices comprise also a Military
Assistant, the one at the COMEC´s office being a quota post permanently assigned to France, the one at the COS
office is normally held by Luxembourg.
Posts at the Navy and Air
representations at EC HQ
There are 5 posts which correspond to
the command posts of the air and mar-
1
The number of nations depends on whether the American staff has been integrated or
not before the publication of this article.
2
NATO glossary of terms and definitions (AAP-6)
25
Mr. Frank BURKHARDT
Chief Legal Branch
THE ENTRY
INTO FORCE
OF THE
TREATY OF
STRASBOURG
(Practical
repercussions:
Four months later)
T
he Treaty of Strasbourg was
concluded at Brussels on 22
November 2004 between Belgium, France, Germany, Luxemburg and
Spain. It deals with the European Corps
and the status of its Headquarters. It
was only on 26 February 2009 when it
entered into force after having been ratified by the parliaments of the nations
concerned.
EUROCORPS
The Treaty refers to article 17 of the
Treaty on European Union and to the
Final act of the Intergovernmental Conference of the Member States agreed
upon in Nice on February 26, 2001. By
doing so the Treaty of Strasbourg anticipates the idea of a common European
Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) as
laid down in articles I-41 and III-309 to
III-312 of the consolidated versions of
Treaty on European Union and the
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
Eventually it means to reach the top of
the objectives agreed on Petersberg
Declaration (June 19th 1992) where
three new missions in the field of the European military Defence, being one of
them the combat missions connected
with “Crisis Response Operations”
(close to the peace enforcement Operations) were targeted on the EU. This is
26
more important since it was ratified by
EU (Ministers of Defence Summit which
took place in Brussels in 2000) after the
adhesion to the full scope of the Petersberg Missions by United Kingdom in
1998 (French-British Summit in SaintMalo).
With their preparedness to establish the
Eurocorps the signatory nations of the
Treaty of Strasbourg gave an unequivocal signal of their willingness to build
the spearhead in the effort to reach the
common goal of Europe’s identity even
in the field of a common defence. The
Eurocorps was established to be ready to
react on the various challenges faced
not only by the European Union (EU)
but also by the United Nations (UN), the
Western European Union (WEU) and, of
course, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO).
This widespread focus allows next to the
signatory nations also other nations offering own military personnel to be assigned to Eurocorps. And indeed as of
today several nations decided to provide
personnel. This gave next to NATO nations like Greece, Italy, Poland and
Turkey also the EU member Austria the
opportunity to send personnel to Eurocorps.
In article 3 of the Treaty the signatories
agreed to use Eurocoprs not only for defence missions but also for humanitarian
and rescue missions as well as for
peacekeeping and peacemaking missions in accordance with the terms
agreed in Petersberg above mentioned.
The interest of US foreign policy has,
even after the end of the east-westconflict, left its marks sustainable on European foreign, security and defence
policy. Bearing this in mind it is obvious
that Eurocorps’ linkage with NATO as
laid down in the said article of the Treaty
as well as in the special Agreement between NATO’s Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) and the
Eurocorps’ Chiefs of Defence Staff concerning the conditions for employment
of the Eurocorps within the framework
of NATO is of paramount importance in
the defence cooperation between the allies on both sides of the North Atlantic.
Since the development of a European
Security Strategy the European Union’s
policy is assessed by its will to act not
only in the economical field but – if inevitably required – also as a military
actor. In this respect the Treaty of Strasbourg allows its signatory nations to
present the Eurocorps as the nucleus of
a European military force the EU might
make use of.
Although laid down only in a few articles of the Treaty the political key message is that European nations have by
setting up the Eurocorps started to contribute to the establishment of any future
military capabilities of Europe.
The political key aspect of a common
European defence is implemented by
the establishment of the Eurocorps.
Moreover to stress the importance of this
European defence identity it was decided that the Treaty of Strasbourg
should be a binding international treaty
ratified by all national parliaments and
hence binding for everybody.
Less relevant for the political vision
linked with the conclusion of the Treaty
of Strasbourg but still important for the
Eurocorps Headquarters as such are the
provisions dealing with its functioning.
The signatory nations vested the Eurocorps Headquarters with legal capacity
recognising the Commanding General’s
the overall authority for the HQ EC and
THE ENTRY
INTO FORCE OF
THE TREATY OF
STRASBOURG
(Practical
repercussions:
Four months later)
Doctor Ramón S. CANDIL
Legal Adviser at the EC Legal Branch
Subordinated Units as an entity with legal capabilities, and
consequently giving him legal competences to conclude contracts and to deal and sign agreements on behalf of Eurocorps.
Furthermore COMEC may be mandated by the Common
Committee to negotiate accords in the territory of a third state
in order to organize and conduct operations.
For the time being and four months later than treaty entered
into force, our fears fall down when we realize how important
things are nowadays changing.
Eurocorps as independent legal body has the opportunity
to get off to a good start attending and holding international
forums on equal footing with other multinational organizations in particular with NATO. Its voice is heard and its view
about all spectra of political decisions linked with the European Defence is now acknowledged as the contribution by
an essential protagonist called to become one of the most
important European military Forces.
The internal structure now is also stronger since the treaty
increased the existing Steering Bodies by two new ones: the
‘Budget and Finance Committee’ charged to draw the financial regulations to be submitted to the Common Committee
and the ‘Auditing Committee’ monitoring the observance of
those regulations. Both mean an important step to make easier the internal work on line with the way to manage these
matters at the international organizations in Europe.
The status of HQ Eurocorps and the status of its personnel are now clearer and more reliable than before. From
the point of view of the personnel assigned to Eurocorps
the Agreement between the Parties to the North Atlantic
Treaty regarding the Status of their Forces (SOFA) is foreseen on the Preamble of the treaty and it is perfectly applicable with the exception of some terms that are
already decided and also included in the body of the
treaty. In particular only the following provisions are
not under the SOFA rules: carrying of weapons, driving
licences, wearing uniform, jurisdictional competences
of the States on the personnel, fiscal aspects and control of non-nationals. In the long run the advantages
of this new framework about the status will be understood as reasonable as satisfactory.
A Technical Arrangement between all the Framework nations on the modalities of support to be provided by France
was also drafted at the end of the last year and once it enters
into force it will be a great tool to face the new challenges
arising on the horizon. A ‘Temporary Authorisation of Utilisation’ (on the infrastructure to be used by HQ EC in its
peacetime location) and a ‘Letter of Commitment’ (pure logistic matters) are in progress as well.
The financial provisions on the treaty could not be fully
implemented yet and we must still wait till the January 1st in
2010. It was advised to start keeping and checking the financial account in a proper way from the beginning of the year,
and the inconvenience does not really exist since meanwhile
France is taking care of this financial issue anticipating the
necessary support to the Common budget.
In the operational field the advance is being also important regarding the Terms for the Use of the European Corps
within the Context of the North Atlantic Alliance of 21st January 1993. Since our NATO certification as LCC in 2006, the
treaty could now open the door to the possibility to operate
in future NRF missions as a FHQ.
As a résumé to emphasize that the treaty is more than a political declaration is strongly needed. Treaty is a binding legal
document and therefore an integral part of the legal system in
the five Framework nations with the same legal hierarchy of
the national laws as a consequence of the endorsements of
the national parliaments. Now we can assess that the lack
of this condition, before the treaty, was being hardly compatible with the important role clearly expected for Eurocorps by the European community.
Nowadays the European governments could start to see
Eurocorps as one of the entities able to make real the
old European dream arisen for the fist time in Petersberg seventeen years ago: pure European military
Forces ready to defend as far as may be required,
and in close coordination with NATO, the freedom and democracy like the unequivocal values
of our civilization.
27
Major (BEL) HAEGDORENS
PAO
NEW
WEB SITE
EUROCORPS
lessons learned of the previous versions, the implications
of providing a multilingual
web site and the increasing
information need for the Eurocorps community have
shaped the features and characteristics of this new web
site:
EUROCORPS
T
he first web appearance of HQ Eurocorps occurred in 1999. It was a simple homepage with
some little amount of information.
In 2001 this situation was changed by the creation of a real web site, written in the five languages of the Framework Nations. This website
provided a wide variety of information, from organizational HQ EC’s structure to a selection of
articles published in the Eurogazette, Eurocorps’ information magazine. It also provided
all relevant information of a HQ EC’s mission
as HQ ISAF VI, from August 2004 to February
2005.
In 2006 the current web site was created. At
first it was only available in English. It became
multilingual again in 2007 and was mainly focused on providing information to the press.
The constraints of the used web software
(TYPO3) reduced the possibilities for major
changes and the introduction of new elements.
Therefore, the last days of July 2009 a new web
site of HQ Eurocorps will be put on line. The
28
The first important change
is that it will be able to provide direct access to the majority of the information on
the web site. Therefore, the
homepage gives the possibility to immediately access all
the multi-media information:
text, pictures, magazines and
videos. Only very specific information like organization,
links, biographies and contacts are still to be selected
on the top row bar. By rearranging the information, the use of tumble down lists can be
avoided. The web site applies a two-click policy (each information is available in only two clicks).
NEW WEB SITE
EUROCORPS
The second major change is the introduction of a members only area. This password protected domain provides internal information to the Eurocorps community members.
This so called “Extranet” allows Eurocorps members and
families to access information specifically addressed to
them. Almost each Eurocorps member has Internet access at
home. Therefore, this is the information dissemination tool
with the largest distribution potential. The further development of the Extranet is likely to provide Eurocorps with a very
effective internal information
capability, thus enhancing the
cohesion and the awareness of
Eurocorps’ activities among its
community.
new web site finalizes the house style adaptation effort.
The new Eurocorps web site was developed by Eurocorps personnel: OR8 (FRA) Robert Pinçon and PAO’s civilian webmaster Ronan Calonnec.
A third important new feature was the adaptation of the
web site to the Eurocorps
house style. From this moment
on the printed documents
such as the Eurocorps leaflet,
the Eurocorps gazette, the Eurocorps magazine and Eurocorps brochure, as well as the
web site apply the same layout
rules. The introduction of this
29
Some
Visits/Events
A selection from
January to June 2009
On May 12th, 2009
Visit to the Belgian Chief of Defence,
General Delcour.
EUROCORPS
On January 09th, 2009
Müllheim
Jean-Marie Bockel, French Secretary of
State for Defence and Veterans, and Eurocorps Commander at the Farewell
Ceremony of the French-German
Brigade’s contingent to be deployed in
Kosovo
On May 12th, 2009
Visit to the Luxembourg Chief of Defence,
General Reinig
On January 29th,
2009
Visit of the President
and Secretary General
of the European
Security and Defence
Assembly, Robert
Walter and Colin
Cameron
30
Some Visits/Events
On June 9th, 2009
Visit of Mr. Jose Maria Aznar,
former head of the Spanish government.
On June 3rd, 2009
Visit of
Defence Attachés
in Paris
On June 9th, 2009
Visit of
General Mattis,
Supreme Allied
Commander
Transformation
(SACT).
31

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