Olkiluoto Biosphere Description 2012

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Olkiluoto Biosphere Description 2012
POSIVA 2012-06
Olkiluoto Biosphere Description 2012
Posiva Oy
April 2013
POSIVA OY
Olkiluoto
FI-27160 EURAJOKI, FINLAND
Phone (02) 8372 31 (nat.), (+358-2-) 8372 31 (int.)
Fax (02) 8372 3809 (nat.), (+358-2-) 8372 3809 (int.)
ISBN 978-951-652-187-2
ISSN 1239-3096
Posiva-raportti – Posiva Report
Raportin tunnus – Report code
POSIVA 2012-06
Posiva Oy
Olkiluoto
FI-27160 EURAJOKI, FINLAND
Puh. 02-8372 (31) – Int. Tel. +358 2 8372 (31)
Tekijä(t) – Author(s)
Ari T.K. Ikonen, Lasse Aro, Reija Haapanen,
Jani Helin, Ville Kangasniemi, Anne-Maj
Lahdenperä, Tapio Salo, Karen Smith, Mikko
Toivola, Thomas Hjerpe, Teija Kirkkala, Sari
Koivunen
Julkaisuaika – Date
April 2013
Toimeksiantaja(t) – Commissioned by
Posiva Oy
Nimeke – Title
Olkiluoto Biosphere Description 2012
Tiivistelmä – Abstract
This report is a part of the safety case, denoted TURVA-2012, addressing the long-term
performance and safety of the disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel being developed in support
of the application for a construction license. This report supports the biosphere assessment, a part
of the safety case, to adequately address how does the surface environment evolve after closure of
the repository; how do hypothetical radionuclide releases from the geosphere migrate and
accumulate in the geological-hydrological-biological cycles of the surface environment; how do
humans utilise and change the surface environment and to what extent might people be exposed to
radionuclide releases from the repository ending up in the surface environment; and what kind of
biotopes are there available for plants and animals and how and to what extent might they get
exposed to the radionuclide releases.
Projections concerning the future evolution of the surface environment in the Olkiluoto area are
based on knowledge on the development of the area during the past 10 000 years; this report
presents an analysis of past conditions and summarises the evaluation of future conditions. The
characteristics of the components of the surface environment as observed at present, and
representing analogues of the future conditions, are presented as well, which is also the basis for
constructing the mass and element pool and flux budgets presented in a latter part of the report,
followed by a summary of the most relevant features, events and processes governing the
radionuclide transport and the evolution of the biosphere otherwise described in more detail in
another report. Also, the use of the environment and its resources by people is described, and
representative plants and animals and their behaviour relevant to radiation exposure are identified
in this report for the use in the subsequent assessment modelling.
Compared with the earlier Biosphere Description reports, more site-specific data and longer timeseries are now available, better interdisciplinary understanding has been established, and the
information in sectors such as agriculture and freshwater bodies has been improved. Knowledge
of the ecosystem components have thus increased and knowledge of Olkiluoto and its
surroundings is better. Respectively, the scope of the report has been refined and the contents
made more focused on the requirements of the biosphere assessment.
Avainsanat - Keywords
Ecosystems, post-glacial crustal rebound, overburden, flora, fauna, water quality, agriculture, land
use, TURVA-2012, BSA-2012
ISBN
ISSN
ISBN 978-951-652-187-2
Sivumäärä – Number of pages
292
ISSN 1239-3096
Kieli – Language
English
Posiva-raportti – Posiva Report
Raportin tunnus – Report code
POSIVA 2012-06
Posiva Oy
Olkiluoto
FI-27160 EURAJOKI, FINLAND
Puh. 02-8372 (31) – Int. Tel. +358 2 8372 (31)
Julkaisuaika – Date
Huhtikuu 2013
Tekijä(t) – Author(s)
Toimeksiantaja(t) – Commissioned by
Ari T.K. Ikonen, Lasse Aro, Reija Haapanen,
Jani Helin, Ville Kangasniemi, Anne-Maj
Lahdenperä, Tapio Salo, Karen Smith, Mikko
Toivola, Thomas Hjerpe, Teija Kirkkala, Sari
Koivunen
Posiva Oy
Nimeke – Title
Olkiluodon biosfäärin kuvaus 2012
Tiivistelmä – Abstract
Tämä raportti on osa TURVA-2012:ksi nimettyä, rakentamislupahakemuksen tueksi laadittua
turvallisuusperustelua, joka käsittelee käytetyn ydinpolttoaineen loppusijoitusjärjestelmän
pitkäaikaista toimintakykyä ja turvallisuutta. Tämä raportti muodostaa pohjan
turvallisuusperusteluun sisältyvälle biosfääriarvioinnille, joka käsittelee maanpintaympäristöä
loppusijoitustilojen sulkemisen jälkeen: miten pintaympäristö kehittyy mm. maankohoamisen
myötä; kuinka hypoteettiset radionuklidipäästöt kulkeutuvat ja kertyvät geologis-hydrologisbiologisessa kierrossa päästyään kallioperästä maanpinnalle; kuinka ihmiset käyttävät ja
muuttavat pintaympäristöä ja missä määrin he saattavat altistua näille radionuklidipäästöille;
millaisia biotooppeja kasvien ja eläinten käytettävissä on ja missä määrin nämä saattavat altistua
em. päästöille.
Olkiluodon pintaympäristön kehityskulkujen projisointi tulevaisuuteen pohjautuu alueen
menneiden 10 000 vuoden kehityksen tuntemukseen; tämä raportti esittää aiempien
kehityskulkujen analyysin sekä lyhyen yhteenvedon tulevien kehityskulkujen keskeisistä
mallinnustuloksista. Raportti esittelee myös pintaympäristön nykytilan, mikä toimii
tulevaisuuden olosuhteiden analogioina ja biotooppikohtaisten ainekiertolaskelmien pohjana sekä
taustana keskeisten ominaispiirteiden, tapahtumien ja prosessien toisessa raportissa esitetyille
yksityiskohtaisille kuvauksille. Myös ihmisten nykyiset tavat käyttää pintaympäristöä ja sen
resursseja kuvataan, kuten myös lajistoa edustavat kasvit ja eläimet ja niiden käyttäytyminen
suhteessa mahdollisille radionuklidipäästöille altistumiseen. Kaiken kaikkiaan tässä raportissa
esitettyjä tietoja hyödynnetään edelleen myöhemmissä biosfääriarvioinnin vaiheissa.
Aikaisempiin Olkiluodon biosfäärin kuvaus -raportteihin verrattuna nyt on ollut käytettävissä
enemmän paikkakohtaista aineistoa ja pidempiä aikasarjoja, eri osa-alueiden välinen ymmärrys
on kohentunut, ja aiemmin puutteellisesti edustetuilla osa-alueilla (kuten maatalous ja
sisävesistöt) aineiston taso on olennaisesti parantunut. Tietämys ekosysteemien osista ja niiden
toiminnasta on siten kehittynyt, ja Olkiluoto ja sen ympäristö tunnetaan paremmin. Raportin
sisältöä on vastaavasti täsmennetty vastaamaan paremmin biosfääriarvioinnin vaatimuksia.
Avainsanat - Keywords
Ekosysteemit, maankohoaminen, maaperä, kasvit, eläimet, vedenlaatu, maatalous, maankäyttö,
TURVA-2012, BSA-2012
ISBN
ISSN
ISBN 978-951-652-187-2
Sivumäärä – Number of pages
ISSN 1239-3096
Kieli – Language
292
Englanti
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................. 1 PREFACE ....................................................................................................................... 5 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 7 1.1 Spent fuel generation and management .......................................................... 7 1.2 Regional context and the Olkiluoto site ............................................................ 8 1.3 Assessment context ....................................................................................... 16 1.3.1 Safety case ............................................................................................. 17 1.3.2 Biosphere assessment ............................................................................ 17 1.3.3 Legal and regulatory context ................................................................... 21 1.4 Ecosystem characterisation programme ........................................................ 24 1.4.1 Characterisation strategy ........................................................................ 25 1.4.2 Study locations and modelled areas ....................................................... 26 1.5 Role and structure of this report ..................................................................... 29 2 PRESENT CHARACTERISTICS AND LINES OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE
BIOSPHERE ................................................................................................................. 33 2.1 Past development in the region ...................................................................... 33 2.1.1 Climatic and land uplift history ................................................................ 34 2.1.2 Overburden and its depositional history .................................................. 39 2.1.3 Littoral processes and forest primary succession ................................... 46 2.1.4 Development of freshwater bodies.......................................................... 50 2.1.5 Mire formation and development............................................................. 53 2.1.6 History of land use and settlement .......................................................... 56 2.2 Identification of habitats within biosphere object types .................................. 60 2.3 Projecting biosphere objects and biotopes into the future.............................. 63 2.4 Description of biosphere object types at the present ..................................... 68 2.4.1 Open sea................................................................................................. 68 2.4.2 Coastal areas .......................................................................................... 72 2.4.3 Lakes....................................................................................................... 79 2.4.4 Rivers ...................................................................................................... 86 2.4.5 Small water bodies .................................................................................. 93 2.4.6 Mires ....................................................................................................... 97 2.4.7 Forests .................................................................................................. 102 2.4.8 Croplands .............................................................................................. 109 2
3 LAND USE AND OTHER USE OF RESOURCES BY HUMANS ........................ 113 3.1 3.1.1 Cultivation ............................................................................................. 113 3.1.2 Animal husbandry ................................................................................. 115 3.1.3 Fish farms ............................................................................................. 119 3.2 Fishing................................................................................................... 119 3.2.2 Hunting .................................................................................................. 120 3.2.3 Berries and mushrooms ........................................................................ 122 Water resources ........................................................................................... 123 3.3.1 Communal water distribution................................................................. 123 3.3.2 Wells ..................................................................................................... 124 3.3.3 Other sources of drinking and irrigation water ...................................... 125 3.3.4 Other use of water resources ................................................................ 127 3.4 Dietary habits ............................................................................................... 127 3.5 Recreational land use and potential uses of ecosystems ............................ 131 3.6 Raw material resources................................................................................ 131 3.7 Other land use .............................................................................................. 133 REPRESENTATIVE FLORA AND FAUNA AND THEIR COMMUNITIES .......... 135 4.1 Representative species ................................................................................ 135 4.1.1 Community structure of ecosystem types ............................................. 136 4.1.2 Other selection criteria .......................................................................... 139 4.1.3 The selected representative species..................................................... 143 4.2 5 Natural food resources ................................................................................. 119 3.2.1 3.3 4 Farming practises ......................................................................................... 113 Habits of the representative species ............................................................ 158 4.2.1 Biotope occupancy ................................................................................ 158 4.2.2 Habitat occupancy................................................................................. 161 ELEMENT TRANSPORT AND FATE.................................................................. 165 5.1 Element pools and fluxes ............................................................................. 165 5.1.1 Sea ........................................................................................................ 167 5.1.2 Lakes..................................................................................................... 177 5.1.3 Mires ..................................................................................................... 181 5.1.4 Upland forests ....................................................................................... 187 5.1.5 Agriculture ............................................................................................. 194 5.1.6 Terrestrial and avian fauna ................................................................... 206 3
6 5.2 Site-scale key element pools and fluxes ...................................................... 209 5.3 Main features, events and processes........................................................... 214 5.3.1 General representation ......................................................................... 214 5.3.2 Aquatic systems .................................................................................... 218 5.3.3 Mire and upland forest .......................................................................... 218 5.3.4 Agriculture ............................................................................................. 218 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ...................................................................... 223 6.1 Main characteristics of Olkiluoto and analogous areas ................................ 223 6.2 Feedback to research and modelling activities ............................................ 232 6.3 Concluding remarks ..................................................................................... 233 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................... 235 APPENDICES............................................................................................................. 281 App. A. Species names used in the report .............................................................. 281 App. B. Overall maps on the study sites ................................................................. 287 4
5
PREFACE
This Olkiluoto Biosphere description report has been written by experts from Posiva Oy
and from various organisations commissioned by Posiva. On behalf of Posiva, the
project has been lead by Ari Ikonen, who also edited the final version of the report. The
following experts were involved in the writing, with the main aspects to which they
contributed also indicated:
 Ari Ikonen (Posiva Oy), overall planning and editing, ecosystems
characterisation strategy, land uplift, terrain and ecosystems development
modelling;
 Lasse Aro (Finnish Forest Research Institute), forests, peatlands;
 Reija Haapanen (Haapanen Forest Consulting), forests, peatlands, regional
context;
 Jani Helin (Posiva Oy), GIS analyses, layout of most of the maps, land use,
monitoring data;
 Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute), aquatic systems;
 Anne-Maj Lahdenperä (Saanio & Riekkola Oy, formerly Pöyry Finland Oy),
overburden, bedrock, land uplift;
 Tapio Salo (MTT Agrifood Research Finland), agriculture;
 Karen Smith (Eden Nuclear and Environment Ltd., later RadEcol Consulting
Ltd.), biota dose assessment and food web descriptions;
 Mikko Toivola (FM Meri & Erä Oy), terrestrial and avian fauna, waterfowl and
aquatic mammals.
 Thomas Hjerpe (Saanio & Riekkola Oy), material common to the biosphere
assessment and links to other reports in the safety case portfolio;
 Teija Kirkkala (Pyhäjärvi Institute), aquatic systems;
 Sari Koivunen (Lounais-Suomen vesi- ja ympäristötutkimus Oy), aquatic
monitoring information.
In addition, we thank the following experts for their contributions: Teea Penttinen,
Pöyry Finland Oy (a number of illustrations as acknowledged in the figure captions);
Fiia Haavisto, FM Meri & Erä Oy (fauna); Graham Smith, GMS Abington Ltd. (various
descriptions of the assessment approach); Natalia Pimenoff, Finnish Meteorological
Institute (climate development); Duncan Jackson, Eden Nuclear and Environment Ltd.
(biota dose assessment); and Pirjo Hellä, Saanio & Riekkola Oy (geoscientific
description of Olkiluoto site).
Several other experts have reviewed and provided useful comments on parts or the
whole of the report. The final drafts of the report were reviewed by Ulla Bergström
(SKB International), Paul Degnan (Catalyst Geoscience), Annika Hagros (Saanio &
Riekkola Oy), Ulrik Kautsky (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.,
SKB), Heini Laine (Saanio & Riekkola Oy) and Mike Thorne (Mike Thorne and
Associates Limited). The authors wish to thank all who have contributed to reviewing
and commenting on the report.
6
Unless otherwise mentioned, the maps are shown in the Finnish National Coordinate
System, Zone 1 (KKJ1). The projection is Gauss-Krüger. The coordinate numbers (in
metres) refer to this system.
The time is indicated in this report, as a rule but with a few stated exceptions, using
calendar years, i.e. years in the Common Era (CE), which is a designation for the
world's most commonly used year-numbering system; the numbering of years is
identical to the numbering used with Anno Domini (BC/AD) notation, 2012 being the
current year.
7
1 INTRODUCTION
In 2001, the Finnish parliament endorsed a Decision in Principle whereby the spent fuel
generated in the four current commercial nuclear power units at Loviisa (LO1 and LO2)
and Olkiluoto (OL1 and OL2) will be disposed of in a geological repository at
Olkiluoto, in the 1800 – 1900 million years old shield area of southern Finland. This
decision represents the milestone prior to entering the phase of confirmatory site
characterisation. The Decision in Principle also states that the repository should be
developed according to the KBS-3 method. Two further Decisions in Principles were
made in 2002 and 2010 that allow for the expansion of the disposal facility to
accommodate fuel from the new power plants OL3 and OL4. According to the decision
of the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) of 23 October 2003 (Decision
9/815/2003), Posiva Oy (Posiva) is to submit an application for a construction licence
for a disposal facility at Olkiluoto by the end of 2012. The present report is part of the
safety case addressing the long-term performance and safety of the disposal facility
being developed in support of the application for a construction license. The remaining
licensing steps include an application for an operating licence prior to the start of the
operation in 2020 and subsequent updates to the safety case before licensing of closure
of the repository in the 22nd century.
1.1 Spent fuel generation and management
Posiva Oy was established in 1995 by the two Finnish nuclear power companies,
Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum) (present
names), to implement the disposal programme for spent nuclear fuel from their nuclear
power reactors and to carry out the related research, technical design and development.
The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed of in a KBS-3 type of repository to be
constructed at a depth of about 420 metres in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto
site, a concentration of nuclear facilities for the production of electricity.
The KBS-3 method was originally put forward by the Swedish waste management
organisation (SKB). TVO embraced the method more than 30 years ago and, since then,
TVO and later Posiva have been carrying out scientific research, technical design and
development to further refine the method, in close cooperation with SKB.
In the KBS-3 method, spent fuel encapsulated in water-tight and gas-tight sealed copper
canisters, further surrounded by bentonite clay, is emplaced deep underground in a
repository constructed in the bedrock. Currently, two variants of the KBS-3 method are
under development in both Finland and Sweden: KBS-3V, in which the canisters are
emplaced vertically in individual deposition holes constructed in the floors of deposition
tunnels, and KBS-3H, in which canisters are emplaced horizontally in deposition drifts.
The reference design considered in the TURVA-2012 safety case for the construction
license application is based on KBS-3V. In Posiva’s current repository designs, the
repository is constructed at a single level in the Olkiluoto bedrock. In the reference
design, each canister includes a cast iron insert enclosed entirely within a copper
overpack. The void space around the canisters in the deposition holes will be filled with
a compacted bentonite clay buffer. The deposition tunnels will be backfilled with clay
materials, mainly with Friedland clay.
8
Figure 1-1. Fennoscandia is a geographic and geological term used to describe the
Scandinavian Peninsula, the Kola Peninsula, Karelia and Finland. Geologically, the
term also alludes to the underlying Fennoscandian Shield. 1 The map is based on
Lahtinen et al. (2011, fig. 1) and Lidmar-Bergström & Näslund (2005, ch. 1), layout by
Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
1.2 Regional context and the Olkiluoto site
The Olkiluoto site is located on the coast of the Bothnian Sea, which is part of Gulf of
Bothnia and further part of the Baltic Sea, in the municipality of Eurajoki of the region
of Satakunta, in southwestern Finland, in Northern Europe.
Southwestern Finland in the national perspective
Finland is located between the 60th and 70th latitudes in the north-western corner of
Eurasian continent, lying in the centre of a stable rock area known as the Fennoscandian
Shield (Figure 1-1). The Finnish Precambrian crust is mainly composed of crystalline
rocks, i.e. granites, gneisses and schists (Simonen 1990, p. 1)
The development of Baltic Sea and Finland's terrestrial environment began during or
after the latest glaciation. The still ongoing postglacial crustal uplift causes new land to
emerge from below the sea surface, resulting in the occurrence of primary vegetation
succession and soil formation processes, which usually take centuries before reaching
climax stages. The lake basins in southern and in western Finland have isolated from
various stages of the Baltic Sea, and new lakes are still developing on the coast. Due to
the remote location, there has been only limited in-migration of plant species since the
1
A more detailed bedrock map, with main tectonic structures, on the region around the Olkiluoto site is presented in Figure 2-9.
9
last glaciation. Thus, presently there are only four coniferous native tree species in
Finland, and generally, the number of plant species is small (Kalliola 1973, p. 124).
Finland exhibits characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate.
Furthermore, the distribution of land and sea areas in the Northern Europe and
especially the airflows from the Atlantic Ocean warmed by the Gulf Stream inland
make the mean temperature in Finland several degrees higher than that of other areas in
similar latitudes. However, the annual variation in the of sun's radiation causes four
clearly differing seasons with characteristic temperatures, light conditions and water
balance. The growing season starts by the end of April and ends around mid-October.
Annual precipitation is relatively low (500 – 750 mm; Hyvärinen 2008, p. 83), and 30 –
40% of it falling as snow, causing a peak in run-off during spring (Keränen & Korhonen
1951, p. 108). Evapotranspiration is at its highest in June (Solantie 1987, p. 18)
The Baltic Sea is now a brackish water system gaining its waters from rivers,
precipitation and salty marine water of the North Sea. It is shallow with a small water
volume (21 000 km3). The area of the watershed is five times (1 700 000 km2) the sea
area, and contains intensive agriculture and industrial activities. Thus, it is prone to
eutrophication (Vehviläinen 2005, p. 20, 22). The freshwater input is larger than
evaporation; the excess waters flow via the Danish Straits to the North Sea (Ehlin 1981,
p. 132). The water is stratified due to differences in salinity and temperature
(Vehviläinen 2005, p. 20). Lunar driven tides are minor and of no importance
(Kullenberg 1981, p. 151). The number of faunal and floral species is low, but both
freshwater species and marine species are present (Hällfors et al. 1981, p. 219). The
Bothnian Sea, bordering on southwestern Finland, is separated from the main water
volume (Baltic Proper) by the island-rich Archipelago Sea and submarine continuations
of great glacial ridges (for the bathymetry and names, see Figure 2-22 in section 2.4.1).
Compared with the Baltic Proper, mixing in the Bothnian Sea is effective due to the low
salinity, meaning that stratification is weaker. The water residence time is also shorter
(5 – 10 years vs. 25 years in the Baltic Proper; Vehviläinen 2005, p. 20, 22). The
Finnish commercial fish catch from the Baltic Sea is dominated by Baltic herring (76%
in 2009), with the majority of the catch from the Bothnian Sea (RKTL 2010a, p. 9). The
shallow coastal waters support special habitats. The Baltic Sea is also an important
wintering area and migratory route.
About 80% of Finland may be classified as lowland (< 200 m a.s.l) (Tikkanen 1994, p.
183). The eroded bedrock surface determines the major features of Finland's relief - the
influence of overlying soils is much less marked. Bedrock is usually covered by 3 – 4 m
thick glacial till deposits, which reflect the chemical composition of the underlying
bedrock in the region. The most common glaciofluvial formations are eskers, which
often have a submarine continuation. In southwestern Finland bedrock consists mainly
of sandstone, rapakivi granite and volcanic-sedimentary rocks. (Koljonen et al. 1992,
ch. 5; Tikkanen 1994, p. 257–260). Clay soil types are characteristic for southwestern
Finland (a third of the surface soils), but bedrock outcrops are typical of the coastal
areas (Lilja et al. 2008, p. 34). Clays are often found in thick layers. Occasionally they
may be sulphide-rich, and, when drained, could result in very acid soils (pH 2.5 – <5;
Palko 1994, p. 17). As precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration, the groundwater
resources are large. The groundwater table is generally located quite near to the ground
10
surface (at 2 – 5 m depth). Approximately 60% of the total water supply distributed by
Finland’s waterworks consists of groundwater (Isomäki et al. 2007, p. 11).
Inland waters cover 10% of Finland's area (Peltola & Ihalainen 2009, p. 44). Finnish
lakes have mostly developed along bedrock fault lines or rift valleys (Tikkanen 1990, p.
240; Salonen et al. 2002, p. 33). At global scale, the Finnish lakes are small and shallow
(Särkkä 1996, p. 15). The proportion of lakes is smaller in southwestern Finland than
the average for the country as a whole (Renqvist 1951, p. 156). Drainage and
conversion for agricultural use have decreased the area of lakes – in some watersheds by
as much as 50% (Laitakari 1925, p. 336, Huttunen 1981, p. 39). The lakes and rivers are
typically small (see Figure 2-14), with small watersheds. Lakes are shallow, humus-rich
(surrounded by mires and agricultural lands), nutrient-poor with low productivity.
Stratification is rare due to the shallowness. Due to their small volumes, the lakes easily
react to changes in the water input (runoff from the catchment), which, in turn, causes
variation in river discharges. The clay-rich nature of the landscape makes the rivers and
lakes prone to erosion (Hanski 2000, p. 48) and keeps the river water turbid. Rivers are
also humus-rich. The wintertime ice period in Southern Finland is ca. 140 days, and the
shallowest lakes ice from top to bottom. The maximum ice thickness of lakes in
Southern Finland is 50 cm on average. (Korhonen 2005, p. 29, 39)
Due to climatic and edaphic2 conditions, remote location and low population pressure,
forests dominate the landscape of Finland where 86% of the land area is in forestry use
(Peltola & Ihalainen 2009, p. 44). These boreal forests are mainly dominated by
Norway spruce and Scots pine. The majority of forests are privately owned (Peltola &
Ihalainen 2009; p. 51, 55). The forest industry has had a significant role in the Finnish
economy and forests have been intensively managed (Holopainen 1981, p. 5). The endusers of Finnish forest products are mainly in the European Union (Peltola 2009, p.
337). However, 48% of the wood finally ends up in energy production, mainly as
residues from the forest industry (Ylitalo 2010, p. 264). Finland is the largest importer
of raw wood in Europe (Mäki-Simola 2009, p. 396). In southwestern Finland the land
area that is forested is the lowest in the country at 65% (Peltola & Ihalainen 2009, p.
45). As southwestern Finland harbours e.g. Finland's largest paper mill in Rauma, the
cuttings only account for 40% of the raw wood consumption in the area and a large
portion is imported from abroad (in 2009 12% of consumed wood; Ylitalo 2010, p. 278
& 279; Mäki-Simola & Uotila 2010, p. 185).
Originally, before large-scale ditching activities, the coverage of mires has been as high
as 34% of Finland's land area (Päivänen 2007, p. 23). This is due to climate
(evapotranspiration is less than precipitation) and poorly permeable soils overlying flat
topography. (Virtanen 2008, p. 12). Today, drained mires cover 16% and mires in
natural state 13% of the land area, and the rest has been converted to other land uses
(Päivänen 2007, p. 23). Many mires have been converted into agricultural fields by
draining, and draining has also caused some of the thinnest peat layers to disappear.
Energy form peat comprises 6% of total energy production in Finland. In southwestern
Finland the proportion of mires is smaller than the average for Finland as a whole.
(Peltola & Ihalainen 2009, p. 46; Korhonen et al. 2000, p. 343).
2
Related to the soil, including drainage, texture, or chemical properties such as pH.
11
The climatic conditions make Finland one of the northernmost areas where agriculture
is practiced in the world. However, soil properties restrict the potential for cultivation.
Of the terrestrial land area, 7.5% is in agricultural use (Niemi & Ahlstedt 2010, p. 25).
Due to the short growing season and low temperature sum the yields of grain crops are
ca. half of those in the Central Europe (Niemi & Ahlstedt 2010, p. 5). The number of
potentially cultivated species is also smaller in Finland (Pölkki 1986, p. 19).
Economically, dairy is the most important production process for Finland as a whole.
During winter, feeding is based on stored forage. Farms are privately owned and forest
is an essential part of the unit. (Niemi & Ahlstedt 2010, p. 21, 23). The proportion of
agricultural land is highest in the southern part of southwestern Finland (VarsinaisSuomi; >30% of terrestrial land area; Statistics Finland 2011, p. 121), where presently
almost all economically profitably usable agricultural land is utilised. The soils in
southwestern Finland are fertile, and, in addition to clay, the surface soils contain fine
sand. Agriculture is diverse compared with Finland in general, and there is a cluster of
food processing facilities. Cattle farming is less typical, and livestock are kept in large
units (Lehtonen & Pyykkönen 2005, p. 13).
Use of game, berries and mushrooms is common, as a continuing historical practice in a
forest-dominated country. These articles are also exported. Forest areas also support
vigorous game populations that are actively managed. Two large mammals, moose and
white-tailed deer, make up the bulk of the meat in the game catch (77% and 11%,
respectively; RKTL 2010b, p. 24, 25), which, in turn, accounts for ca. 3% of the meat
consumed in Finland (TIKE 2010, p. 7). Consumption of fish in Finland is considerable
compared with many countries in the world (FAO 2009, p. 215). Fish stocks are
managed actively. There is commercial fishing also in inland waters. Furthermore, due
to everyman's rights3 use of local fish is common. Fish farming accounts for 8% of the
production in tonnes (RKTL 2010c, p. 2) and is mainly practiced in coastal areas
(RKTL 2010c, p. 11).
Finland is still relatively rural with 41% of the population living in countryside (Niemi
& Ahlstedt 2010, p. 81). Built-up land and traffic areas account for 5% of the land area
Peltola & Ihalainen 2009, p. 44). The average population density is 17 per km². The
largest sector of the economy is services followed by manufacturing and refining. The
largest industry sectors are machinery, forest products and electronics (www.stat.fi). In
the southern part of southwestern Finland (Varsinais-Suomi) there is close connection
with agricultural and urban areas, meaning that there are great differences in population
density within small distances. Mean population density is 43 per km². Sources of
livelihood are diverse, but do not much differ from the country as a whole. Industry,
especially metal industry, and construction have been emphasized compared with other
areas. The better-than-average conditions for agriculture are not reflected in the share of
labour. Commerce and services are less important than in the country as a whole.
(Varsinais-Suomen liitto 2006, p. 5, 7, 8). The population density is lower in the
northern part of southwestern Finland (Satakunta), with 29 inhabitants per km². There
3
Freedom to roam, right of public access to the wilderness: Everyone may walk, ski or cycle freely in the countryside where this
does not harm the natural environment or the landowner, except in gardens or in the immediate vicinity of yards. One may stay or
set up camp temporarily in the countryside, a reasonable distance from homes, pick mineral samples, wild berries, mushrooms
and flowers (as long as they are not protected species). One may fish with a rod and line, row, sail or use a motorboat on
waterways (with certain restrictions), and swim or bathe in both inland waters and the sea. One can walk, ski and ice fish on
frozen lakes, rivers and the sea. Income from selling picked berries or mushrooms is tax-free.
12
also, industry accounts for a greater share of labour than in Finland on average.
(www.stat.fi; www.satamittari.fi).
Olkiluoto site
Olkiluoto is a regionally large island (currently approximately 12 km²), on the coast of
the Baltic Sea, separated from the mainland by a narrow strait (Figures 1-2 and 1-3).
The island is partly covered by forest and shoreline vegetation typical of coastal areas in
southwestern Finland. However, land use on the Olkiluoto Island is heavily
characterised by activities related to energy production: The nuclear power plant, with
two reactors in operation, and a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste are
located on the western part of the island. The construction of a third reactor unit (OL3)
is underway at the site, and the Finnish Parliament ratified a Decision-in-Principle
concerning a fourth unit (OL4) in July 2010. The repository for spent fuel will be
constructed in the central-eastern parts of the island after the construction licence
procedures for a nuclear facility have been completed. The construction of an
underground rock characterisation facility, called ONKALO, started at the repository
site in June 2004. Rock waste created by the excavation work is transported to a landfill
area common with the nuclear power plant construction activities. Furthermore,
investigations to determine the detailed characteristics on the repository site and in its
surroundings have been underway since the 1980s. Concerning other anthropogenic
land-cover types, there are some agricultural areas and holiday homes.
The first parts of Olkiluoto emerged from the sea 2500 – 3000 years ago due to crustal
uplift, which is currently 6 – 6.8 mm/y (Eronen et al. 1995, p. 17). The most common
soil types on Olkiluoto Island are fine-textured and sandy tills. The young age of the
soils and the closeness of the sea are reflected in the soil properties, e.g. the base cation
concentrations in the surface soils are higher than in mainland areas (Tamminen et al.
2007, Appendices 3 and 4). However, soils are on average acidic (e.g. Lahdenperä
2009).
The local climate at Olkiluoto is largely affected by the sea; southern winds prevail, and
the annual average wind speed is 4.0 m/s. The annual average temperature for 1993 –
2010 is 5.9 °C with February being the coldest month (corresponding monthly average 4.4 °C) and July the warmest (17.3 °C). In the period, the lowest observed temperature
has been -27.1 °C and the highest 32.6 °C, although on average there are only 7 days
with daily maximum over 25 °C in a summer (range 0 – 19 d (Haapanen 2011, table C14)). The annual precipitation in the period has been on average 550 mm, with a
maximum daily amount of 52 mm. On average, there are 13 days of rainfall exceeding
10 mm in a year. Due to the proximity to the sea, the relative humidity is on average
84%. (Haapanen 2011, table 3). Evapotranspiration fluxes have been computed to be
310 mm/y, average runoff 175 mm/y, and recharge through bedrock on average around
10 mm/y (1.7% of annual precipitation; Karvonen 2008, p. 54). The thermal growing
season starts on average on 26 April and lasts until 24 October and on average sums to
181 days, 1431 °C-days and 318 mm of rainfall, using the statistics of 1992 – 2010 4
(Haapanen 2011, table 5).
4
The respective extremes were: from 29 March – 14 May until 3 October – 18 November, 158 – 234 days, 1151 – 2031 °C-days,
and 155 – 501 mm (Haapanen 2011, table 5).
13
Figure 1-2. An overview map of the Olkiluoto area, layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
Figure 1-3. Olkiluoto Island is situated on the coast of the Baltic Sea in south-western
Finland. Photograph by Helifoto Oy.
14
Intensive forest management and the nutrient-rich soils in addition to the long shoreline
are reflected in the species composition, biomass and growth rate of tree stands. The
area of mires is small for Finnish conditions (16% of forestry land; Saramäki &
Korhonen 2005, p. 40). Concerning terrestrial fauna, Olkiluoto does not deviate of other
coastal forest areas in southern Finland (see section 2.4.7 for details). In birdlife, some
human-induced changes, relating to changes in land-use or tree species composition of
forests have been observed during the last decade (Yrjölä 2008, p. 32).
The west and north of the island is exposed and the winds affect currents in the area.
The discharges of the rivers Lapijoki and Eurajoki increase the concentrations of
nutrients and solids especially at the river mouths. Deep hard and soft sand bottoms, as
well as shallow bottoms with mostly soft clay, mud and silt are found. The aquatic flora
in the Olkiluoto offshore ranges from the algae-dominated hard bottom communities in
the outer archipelago to the vascular plant-dominated soft-bottom communities in
sheltered locations. The cooling water intake and discharge by the nuclear power plant
significantly affect the temperature and the currents, but only in close vicinity to the
plant where in winter an unfrozen water area of a few square kilometres forms. The
oxygen levels have mainly remained good near the sea bottom. The nutrient
concentrations in the water in the sea area off Olkiluoto have been typical of the coastal
waters of the Bothnian Sea. Growing conditions (eutrophication, short and mild winters)
have affected the phytoplankton biomasses. Due to eutrophication, the proportions of
different species have changed. The year-to-year variation in the bottom fauna
biomasses has been considerable.
The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes (Aaltonen et al. 2010, ch.
6; see also Figure 1-4): supra-crustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various
migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz
gneisses, and mafic gneisses; and igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and
diabase dykes. The metamorphic supra-crustal rocks have been subjected to polyphase
ductile deformation producing thrust-related folding, shearing, strong migmatisation
and pervasive foliation.
The fault zones at Olkiluoto are mainly southeast-dipping thrust faults formed during
contraction in the latest stages of the Svecofennian orogeny, approximately 1 800
million years ago, and were reactivated in several deformation phases. In addition,
northeast-southwest striking strike-slip faults are also common (Figure 1-4). (Aaltonen
2010, ch. 6).
15
Figure 1-4. Above, three-dimensional representation of the main hydrogeological zones
at Olkiluoto (HZ in blue) and their correlation with the fault zones (BFZ, in red); the
outline of the island is shown in the figure, oblique view towards the northeast. Below, a
surface geological map of Olkiluoto Island showing the lithology and the brittle fault
zones (BFZ) defined as layout determining features, i.e. the ones that restrict the
repository layout.
16
In the crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto, groundwater flow takes place in hydraulicallyactive deformation zones (hydrogeological zones; HZ in Figure 1-4) and fractures. The
larger scale hydrogeological zones, which are related to brittle deformation zones, carry
most of the volumetric water flow in the deep bedrock. There is a general decrease of
transmissivity of both fractures and the hydrogeological zones with depth. Under
natural conditions, groundwater flow at Olkiluoto occurs mainly as a response to
freshwater infiltration dependent on the topography, although salinity (density)
variation driven flow also takes place to a lesser extent. The porewater within the rock
matrix is stagnant but exchanges solutes by diffusion with the flowing groundwater in
the fractures. (Site Description).
The brackish-Cl and saline groundwaters below 300 m depth are assumed to be very old
and their water compositions are missing distinct features from the Quaternary glacial
cycles that have occurred over the last approximately two million years. Shallower
groundwaters, in the range down to 300 m depth have been affected by infiltrating
waters of glacial, marine and meteoric origin during the alternating periods of
glaciations and interglacials. However, only features from the latest Weichselian
glaciation and postglacial period are observed as indicating the dynamic
hydrogeological characteristics of this upper bedrock compared with the deeper rock.
Present-day Baltic seawater, which is basically diluted Littorina5 seawater, is also
recognised from shallow depths. Water-rock interactions, such as carbon and sulphur
cycling and silicate reactions, buffer the pH and redox conditions and stabilise the
groundwater chemistry. In addition, weathering processes during infiltration play a
major role in determining the shallow groundwater composition. (Site Description).
The bedrock of the Olkiluoto site is described in more detail in the Site Description
report, whereas the present report focuses on the surface environment.
1.3 Assessment context
The role of the biosphere assessment is closely related to the overall safety objective
and criteria for the protection of people and the environment after closure of a disposal
facility: “the safety objective is to site, design, construct, operate and close a disposal
facility so that protection after its closure is optimized, social and economic factors
being taken into account. A reasonable assurance also has to be provided that doses
and risks to members of the public in the long term will not exceed the dose constraints
or risk constraints that were used as design criteria” (IAEA 2011, §2.15). Even though
the surface environment itself has no safety function for the disposal, it is here these
potential harmful radiation risks may occur. Hence, to compile the safety case, it is in
the surface environment that the effects of ionising radiation need to be assessed. ICRP
set down the same, at least in a broad sense, basic principle in the recommendations of
ICRP Publication 81 (ICRP 2000): “the Commission recommendations rely on the basic
principle that individuals and populations in the future should be afforded at least the
same level of protection as the current generation.” Of special importance is that
protecting future generations to at least the same level as current generations implies the
use as indicators of the current quantitative dose and risk constraints derived from
5
Littorina Sea is a past brackish-water stage of the Baltic Sea, which existed around 7500 – 4000 before present; the period was
characterised by maximum salinity during the warmer Atlantic period of European climatology.
17
considering the associated health detriment (ICRP 2000). In order to meet the basic
principles, the biosphere assessment intends to answer four fundamental questions,
expressed as follows:
 How does the surface environment evolve after closure of the repository?
 How do hypothetical radionuclide releases from the geosphere migrate and
accumulate in the geological-hydrological-biological cycles of the surface
environment?
 How do humans utilise and change the surface environment and to what extent
might people be exposed to radionuclide releases from the repository ending up
in the surface environment?
 What kind of biotopes might there be available for plants and animals and to
what extent might they be exposed to radionuclide releases from the repository
ending up in the surface environment?
To answer the questions, the biosphere assessment needs to obtain sufficient
understanding of the surface environment at the disposal site, utilising that knowledge
to produce credible forecasts of the development of the site, and produce estimates for
appropriate radiation exposure quantities. These three aspects – understanding the
surface environment, projecting its development and estimating radiation exposure
quantities – are the main products of the overall biosphere assessment. The sections
below briefly present the context of the overall safety case and the biosphere
assessment.
1.3.1 Safety case
This report is a part of the safety case ('TURVA-2012') supporting the repository
construction licence application. A safety case is a synthesis of evidence, analyses and
arguments that quantify and substantiate the long-term safety, and the level of expert
confidence in the safety, of a geological disposal facility for radioactive waste (IAEA
2006; NEA 2009).
TURVA-2012 was developed according to the plan published in 2008 (Posiva 2008).
The first safety case plan of 2005 (Vieno & Ikonen 2005) introduced the Posiva safety
case portfolio as the documentation management approach, facilitating a flexible and
progressive development of the safety case; this approach was further developed in
Posiva (2008). The safety case will be documented in a report portfolio, presented in
Figure 1-5.
1.3.2 Biosphere assessment
This section briefly addresses how Posiva conducts the biosphere assessment to meet
the principles above. One vital aspect of the overall approach is that it is iterative and
knowledge from preceding biosphere assessments is presumed in the process. In
practice, the present assessment is the second iteration applying basically the same
approach; the two predecessors are presented in (Hjerpe et al. 2010), (Broed et al. 2007)
and references within.
18
The overall purposes of the biosphere assessment in the safety case are:
 to describe the relevant past, present and future conditions at, and prevailing
processes in, the surface environment of the Olkiluoto site;
 to model the transport and fate of radionuclides hypothetically released from the
repository through the geosphere to the surface environment; and
 to assess possible doses to humans and other biota.
The process is called the biosphere assessment for tradition, and in this report the
biosphere refers in the general use to the surface environment at the disposal site even
though it is acknowledged that biosphere in its literal meaning extends deep into the
bedrock especially in respect of the microbial life. The bedrock conditions, including its
biogeochemistry, are addressed in the Site Description report.
The surface environment will evolve significantly on a timescale comparable to that of
variations in the radionuclide release from the geosphere. Most notably, some areas that
are currently sea bottom will develop into terrestrial areas and lakes will be formed over
a period of a few millennia. The main approach in the present biosphere assessment is
to develop a fully dynamic model for the development of the surface environment,
radionuclide transport and dose calculations. The modelling approach is a further
development of the approach applied in the BSA-2009 assessment (Hjerpe et al. 2010).
The most significant new features are the introduction of shallow anthropogenic wells
and farm animal products in the dynamic modelling. The biosphere assessment is
conceptually implemented as a process divided into five main sub-components. These
are discussed in detail in the Biosphere Assessment report and can briefly be
summarised as follows:
 Biosphere description (BSD): performing environmental studies and monitoring,
and the compilation of a description of the present properties and on-going
processes at the Olkiluoto site.
 Scenario formulation and identification of calculation cases: developing the
methodology for the formulation of scenarios to be assessed. Scenarios are
assessed by means of reasoning and of scoping calculations whenever needed or
analysed by means of calculation cases.
 Surface environment development: predicting the development of the surface
environment, including for example the development of the topography,
overburden, surface hydrology and ecosystem types. This is called (conditional)
forecasting and is carried out within the terrain and ecosystems development
modelling (TESM), in close connection with the surface and near-surface
hydrological modelling (SHYD).
 Landscape modelling: defining the ecosystem-specific radionuclide transport
(RNT) models and the landscape model (LSM), and performing the analysis of
the scenarios. The LSM is a state-of-the-art time-dependent and site-specific
radionuclide transport model used for analysing the fate of radionuclides
released from the geosphere.
 Dose assessment (DA): assessing potential radiation doses to humans, plants and
animals and putting them in the context of regulatory requirements.
19
TURVA-2012
Synthesis
Description of the overall methodology of analysis, bringing together all the lines of arguments for
safety, and the statement of confidence and the evaluation of compliance with long-term safety
constraints
Site Description
Biosphere Description
Understanding of the present state and past
evolution of the host rock
Understanding of the present state and evolution of the
surface environment
Design Basis
Performance targets and target properties for the repository system
Production Lines
Design, production and initial state of the EBS and the underground openings
Description of the Disposal System
Summary of the initial state of the repository system and present state of the surface environment
Features, Events and Processes
General description of features, events and processes affecting the disposal system
Performance Assessment
Analysis of the performance of the repository system and evaluation of the fulfillment of performance
targets and target properties
Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios
Description of climate evolution and definition of release scenarios
Models and Data for the
Repository System
Biosphere Data Basis
Models and data used in the performance
assessment and in the analysis of the
radionuclide release scenarios
Data used in the biosphere assessment and summary
of models
Biosphere Assessment: Modelling reports
Description of the models and detailed modelling of surface environment
Assessment of Radionuclide
Release Scenarios for the
Repository System
Biosphere Assessment
Analysis of releases and calculation of doses and activity fluxes.
Complementary Considerations
Supporting evidence incl. natural and anthropogenic analogues
Main reports
Main supporting documents
Figure 1-5. Safety case report portfolio. Green background represents the main reports
and blue background represents the main supporting documents; the present report is
highlighted with a red box.
20
In addition to these five main sub-components, a screening approach is applied in
parallel to the landscape modelling to identify radionuclides that are highly confidently
expected to result in insignificant radiation doses. The screening avoids the need to
obtain parameter values for the landscape modelling and the dose assessment in the
present assessment, and evaluate their uncertainties, for elements and radionuclides to
which the overall assessment results are not sensitive. Furthermore, the outcome of
screening provides guidance for the development work to improve the data basis for the
landscape model, and the associated environmental monitoring programme, by
establishing a set of most likely key elements and radionuclides for the next iteration of
the biosphere assessment. The work of obtaining high-quality parameter values to be
used in the biosphere assessment modelling is time-consuming and, consequently, has
to be based on the outcome of the previous iteration of the biosphere assessment. The
key set of radionuclides for the biosphere assessment BSA-2009 (Hjerpe et al. 2010) is
presented in Table 1-1; the work presented in the present report is based on this set. The
screening analysis performed in the biosphere assessment BSA-2012 is discussed in
detail in the Biosphere assessment report and will be used as a tool for guiding the
future work, such as outlining the ecosystems characterisation strategy..
It should be emphasised that the radionuclides in Table 1-1 concerns only the time
window where the dose constraints are assumed to apply and for the scenarios analysed
in the biosphere assessment BSA-2009. The resulting set of key radionuclides in the
BSA-2012 does not necessarily be exactly the same. Taking the updated radionuclide
inventory in the canisters into account (Description of the Disposal System) and the
scenarios to be analysed (Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios), it is
anticipated that Sr-90 will disappear from the set and that Ag-108m will be added.
The Biosphere Assessment Portfolio was introduced in (Vieno & Ikonen 2005) and
revised in (Ikonen 2006). The overall biosphere assessment process is now conceptually
fully integrated into the safety assessment, but the reporting of the biosphere assessment
component has been retained as a distinct entity for practical reasons. This means that
the reporting of the biosphere assessment will continue, with a few modifications, to
follow the Biosphere Assessment Portfolio of (Ikonen 2006). The biosphere assessment
BSA-2012 will produce three main reports and four supporting reports; the portfolio
and how it feeds into the TURVA-2012 portfolio is presented in Figure 1-6.
Table 1-1. Key set of radionuclides from the biosphere assessment BSA-2009 (Hjerpe et
al. 2010, table 2-11)
Key set of radionuclides
Top priority
High priority
*
C-14
Cl-36
I-129
Mo-93*
Nb-94
Cs-135
Ni-59
Se-79
Sr-90*
Pd-107
Sn-126*
Radionuclides that decay to nuclides which are themselves radioactive. The
activity build-ups of the progeny are taken into account in the dose
calculations, assuming secular and environmental equilibrium with the parent
radionuclides.
21
Topic (role in the biosphere assessment)
Report title (shortened)
Report no.
Scientific basis: site understanding; description of the
surface environment at the disposal site; features,
events and processes; conceptual models
Olkiluoto biosphere description 2012
POSIVA
2012-06
Analysis of scenarios: biosphere synthesis (terrain
development, geo-/biosphere interface, radionuclide
transport, dose assessment)
Biosphere assessment BSA-2012
POSIVA
2012-10
Input data to biosphere assessment modelling and
summary of the assessment models
Data basis for the Biosphere
Assessment BSA-2012
POSIVA
2012-28
Models and results on the evolution of the biosphere
Terrain and ecosystems
development modelling
POSIVA
2012-29
Models and results for the geosphere-to-biosphere
interface
Surface and near-surface
hydrological modelling
POSIVA
2012-30
Models and results from the radionuclide transport
modelling and dose assessment for humans
Radionuclide transport and dose
assessment for humans
POSIVA
2012-31
Models and results from the dose assessment for
other biota
Dose assessment for the plants and
animals
POSIVA
2012-32
Main biosphere assessment reports
Supporting biosphere assessment reports
Figure 1-6. The biosphere assessment portfolio: the present report is highlighted. The
main biosphere assessment reports are also part of the safety case portfolio (Figure 15), and the supporting biosphere assessment reports provide the details on the
modelling summarised in the two main reports.
1.3.3 Legal and regulatory context
Nuclear waste management in Finland is regulated by the Nuclear Energy Act
(990/1987) and the Nuclear Energy Decree (161/1988). According to the law, the
Ministry of Employment and the Economy (TEM) decides on the principles to be
followed in nuclear waste management. The legislation concerning nuclear energy was
updated in 2008. As part of the legislative reform, a number of the relevant Government
Decisions were replaced with Government Decrees. These entered into force on 1st
December 2008. The Government Decision (478/1999) regarding the safety of disposal
of spent nuclear fuel, which particularly applied to the disposal facility, was replaced by
Government Decree 736/2008. The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is
in the process of updating its YVL Guides to comply with the new legislation
(currently, the valid YVL Guides pertaining to nuclear waste management are Guides
8.1  8.5). With the publication of the new STUK-YVL Guides, the guidelines will be
updated and the number of separate Guides will be reduced. According to the current
drafts, the Guides pertaining to the disposal of spent nuclear fuel will belong to the
STUK-YVL-D series, where Guide STUK-YVL-D.5 will deal with the disposal of
nuclear waste. The latest draft of the Guide D.5 (Draft 4, 22.9.2010; in Finnish only)
was consulted for the preparation of this report.
This section summarises the general regulatory requirements regarding long-term
safety, with an emphasis on the requirements relevant for the biosphere assessment. The
regulations are in most aspects very clear and straight-forward; however, there are a few
issues needing a certain degree of interpretation or further explanation. How Posiva
understands and applies the key aspects in regulation regarding biosphere assessment
are also discussed.
22
Regulatory requirements of the long-term safety
According to the Finnish Government Decree (GD) 736/2008, compliance with the
long-term radiation protection requirements as well as suitability of the disposal method
and site shall be demonstrated by means of a safety case, which covers both expected
evolution scenarios and unlikely events impairing long-term safety. The regulatory
requirements for the long-term safety of disposal are given in STUK Guide YVL D.5
and its appendix, which gives the framework for the safety case that aims to prove the
safety of the disposal.
The protection target for humans is related to radiation dose. The regulations require
that disposal of nuclear waste shall be planned so that as a consequence of expected
evolution scenarios the annual dose6 to members of the public remains below given
constraints (see Table 1-2). However, the protection target for other biota is related to
radiation effects. The regulations require that disposal shall not detrimentally affect
species of fauna and flora. This shall be demonstrated by assessing the typical radiation
exposures of terrestrial and aquatic populations in the disposal site environment. No
quantitative constraints are given, but it is stated that the assessed exposures shall
remain clearly below the levels which, on the basis of the best available scientific
knowledge, would cause decline in biodiversity or other significant detriment to any
living population.
Table 1-2 summarises key regulatory requirements relevant for the biosphere
assessment, including, where appropriate, how Posiva understands and applies some of
the key aspects of the regulations.
Table 1-2. Key regulatory requirements for the biosphere assessment, including, where
appropriate, comments or interpretations relating to how Posiva applies the
regulations. Keywords on the topic of the requirement are underlined by the authors of
the present report.
Reference
YVL-D5 §306 and
GD 736/2008
Requirement
These constraints are applicable in
an assessment period, during which
the radiation exposure of humans
can be assessed with sufficient
reliability, and which shall extend at
a minimum over several millennia.
YVL-D5 §306
Disposal of nuclear waste shall be
planned so that as a consequence of
expected evolution scenarios the
annual dose …
Comment/interpretation
Uncertainties in predicting the conditions of the surface
environment, especially due to uncertainties in the
behaviour of future human generations, will significantly
increase with time. Posiva judges that assessing radiation
exposure to humans is no longer sufficiently reliable in the
period beyond 10 000 years after disposal of the first
waste canister in the repository.
Posiva understands that expected evolution scenarios are
formulated from the most likely lines of evolutions (the
base scenario and variant scenarios). However, it is the
view of Posiva that it is not feasible to identify most likely
lines of evolution for the surface environment due to the
inherent unpredictability of future human activities
associated with large uncertainties.
Posiva understands the radiation dose constraints to apply
to evolutions scenarios based on credible lines of
evolution, though not unduly pessimistic in respect to
radiological exposure of humans and the environment.
6
Annual dose refers to the sum of the effective dose arising from external radiation within the period of one year, and the
committed effective dose from the intake of radioactive substances within the same period of time (GD 736/2008). In this report
“dose” refers to effective dose, and “annual dose” refers to the annual effective dose, unless otherwise explicitly stated.
23
Reference
YVL-D5 §A104
YVL-D5 §306
Requirement
….scenarios shall be constructed so
that they cover the features, events
and processes which may be of
importance to long-term safety and
which may arise from interactions
within the disposal system, caused
by radiological, mechanical, thermal,
hydrological, chemical biological or
radiation induced phenomena, and
external factors, such as climate
changes, geological processes or
human actions.
…the annual dose to the most
exposed people shall remain below
the value of 0.1 mSv.
YVL-D5 §306
…the average annual doses to other
people shall remain insignificantly
low.
YVL-D5 §310
… these doses shall not be more
than one hundredth - one tenth of
the constraint for the most exposed
individuals given above
In applying the dose constraints ….
The climate type as well as the
human habits, nutritional needs and
metabolism can be assumed to
remain unchanged.
In applying the dose constraints,
such environmental changes need to
be considered that arise from
changes in ground level in relation to
sea.
YVL-D5 §307
YVL-D5 §307
YVL-D5 §308
YVL-D5 §309
YVL-D5 §317
At least the following potential
exposure pathways shall be
considered: use of contaminated
water as household water, as
irrigation water and for animal
watering, and use of contaminated
natural or agricultural products
originating from terrestrial or aquatic
environments.
The dose constraint for the most
exposed individuals stands for an
average dose e.g. in a selfsustaining family or small village
community living in the environs of
the disposal site… In the living
environment of this community, i.e. a
small lake and shallow water well is
assumed to exist.
Disposal shall not affect
detrimentally to species of fauna and
flora. This shall be demonstrated by
assessing the typical radiation
exposures of terrestrial and aquatic
populations in the disposal site
environment, assuming the present
kind of living populations.
Comment/interpretation
Scenarios for the surface environment are formulated in
the Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios report,
but the basis for the development of the biosphere, landuse and exposures, as well as most important conceptual
uncertainties are provided in the present report.
Posiva understands that assessing the annual dose to the
most exposed people corresponds to assessing the mean
annual effective doses received by the critical group, as
recommended by the (ICRP 2000).
The approach to assessing doses to other people is
cautiously based on deriving average doses to all exposed
inhabitants, excluding the most exposed people, at or near
the site.
Posiva judges that it is appropriate to assume that presentday conditions, such as for land use and demographic
data, are appropriate to apply throughout the whole dose
assessment. Site-specific or regional-specific conditions
are preferred.
The regulation emphasises that the site is dynamic. Posiva
judges that a fully dynamic assessment approach is
needed to meet current purposes, mainly since the surface
environment at the site will evolve significantly on a
timescale comparable to that of variations in potential
radionuclide release from the geosphere.
All required exposure pathways are considered in the dose
assessment
Posiva strives to apply present-day site-specific or
regional-specific conditions in conjunction with a dynamic
evolving landscape. It is Posiva’s view that it is appropriate
to assume existence of a self-sustaining family, a small
village community and shallow water wells throughout the
time window for dose assessment. However, the existence
and properties of lakes will be given by the modelling
results and not stipulated a priori.
Posiva interprets this as meaning that it is appropriate to
derive absorbed dose rates to a set of representative
species and evaluate against the ERICA screening value
for absorbed dose rate, applying the same assessment
time window as for humans. This is discussed in detail in
the Dose Assessment for the Plants and Animals report.
24
Reference
YVL-D5 §A106
YVL-D5 §A108
YVL-D5 §A107
YVL-D5 §A107
YVL-D5 §A110
Requirement
In order to analyse the release and
transport of disposed radioactive
substances, conceptual models shall
be drawn up to describe the physical
phenomena and processes
controlling the safety functions. …
From the conceptual models, the
respective computational models are
derived, normally with
simplifications. Simplification of the
models and the determination of the
required input shall be based on the
principle that the performance of a
safety function will not be
overestimated while neither overly
underestimated.
Selection of computational methods
and input data shall be based on
principle that the actual radiation
exposures or quantities of released
radioactive substances shall with
high degree of certainty be lower
than those obtained through safety
analyses.
Modelling and determination of input
data shall be based on high-quality
scientific knowledge and expert
judgement obtained from laboratory
experiments, site investigations and
evidence from natural analogues.
The models and input data shall be
consistent with the scenario,
assessment period and disposal
system.
The safety case shall be
documented carefully. In each part
of the safety case, the basic
assumptions, methods used, results
obtained and coupling to the
wholeness case shall be evident
(clarity) and the justifications for the
adopted assumptions, input data
and models shall be easily found in
the documentation (traceability).
Comment/interpretation
It is Posiva’s view that this requirement applies also for the
biosphere assessment, though the surface environment
has no safety function.
Formally this applies only to the safety functions of the
disposal system, but based on several occasions of
feedback from the regulator, a similar approach is
expected to be followed also in the biosphere assessment
– in addition to the formal requirement of describing the
disposal system (incl. the natural environment (YVL D.5
§A102) by conceptual and mathematical models (YVL D.5
§704). See also the discussion in (Hjerpe et al. 2010,
section 10.3) regarding ecosystem models versus a
transfer factor approach in radionuclide transport
modelling.
The biosphere assessment aims at reaching an
appropriate level of conservatism in the modelling,
meaning that the parameter values and assumptions used
are selected to ensure that the estimates of potential
radiation doses are cautious, but still plausible and hence
not unduly pessimistic.
All activities in the biosphere assessment conform to good
scientific practice. All models and applied input data are,
as far as readily achievable, validated for the scenarios to
be analysed.
All activities in the biosphere assessment conform to good
scientific practice. All models and applied input data are,
as far as readily achievable, validated for the scenarios to
be analysed.
The biosphere assessment aims at documenting all work
in a clear and traceable manner using a portfolio of reports
(see Figure 1.6).
1.4 Ecosystem characterisation programme
The ecosystems on the Olkiluoto Island and nearby sea areas have been characterised in
the spent fuel repository programme since the early 2000s. Some studies, carried out
during the environmental impact assessment process toward the end of the 1990s are
useful in this context as well, as are some of the monitoring studies by the Olkiluoto
nuclear power plant, the oldest of which date back to the 1970s. To acquire data also on
lakes and mires, not existing in Olkiluoto at present but expected to form in the future,
studies have been carried out also on so-called reference lakes and mires (section 1.4.2).
25
1.4.1 Characterisation strategy
The ecosystem characterisation is an iterative process aiming to achieve an adequate site
understanding in order to evaluate the appropriateness of different models and of the
literature data to the site, and to provide data of sufficient scope and quality to underpin
the safety case development. The iterative nature also implies that there already are
well-established models in use, so derivation of entirely new models based on the site
data is not very useful as it would easily disregard the earlier modelling experience.
However, the existing models, too, need to be audited and evaluated for
comprehensiveness and fitness for purpose, and also updated according to the best site
knowledge and data. The development in the modelling, on the other hand, tends to
raise needs for new data and process understanding. Some iteration arises also from the
time schedules and stages of the repository programme with increasing demands on the
quality of the safety case and the need to produce updated versions of the assessments.
Naturally, the extent of the ecosystem characterisation efforts needs to be undertaken in
reasonable relation to the overall repository programme development, the significance
to the safety of the spent fuel disposal and the regulatory requirements  this graded
approach means providing continuous improvement at a level that is reasonable in the
overall context and in relation to the programmatic time schedule and the time required
for thorough enough data analysis and synthesis. Therefore, the characterisation and
assessment work needs to be kept focussed on systematically identified key issues of
safety relevance. This identification process involves feedback from the regulator and
from other stakeholders as well.
As said, data requirements do change with time due to model development, but also due
to repository development (e.g. changes in layout details), changes in regulatory or
other external requirements etc. and especially in the biosphere due to land use changes
and environmental change. Thus, at any stage of the programme, the scope may not be
too narrow since the more basic-level information changes the more difficult it is to
derive any other way to take the changes properly into account than survey, sampling
and measurement at the time. Furthermore, the location of the Olkiluoto site on a land
uplift coast (see e.g. section 2.1.1) warrants studies on the consequences of shoreline
displacement on the biosphere assessment. This includes also predicting the changes in
the ecosystem so that the characterisation activities are sufficient also in respect of the
long-term development of the site. Clearly, consistent long-term studies are needed
throughout the planning, construction and operation stages of the repository, and the
iteration may be necessary on all levels of the characterisation, analysis and assessment
programme from time to time, including the very basic characterisation.
Most of Posiva's ecosystem characterisation work has been and will be done in the
context of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme (Posiva 2003), which has just been
updated (Posiva 2012) to better take into account the specific needs of the biosphere
assessment in the formalism of biotope classes and key elements discussed later
throughout this report and in other material (especially in the Data Basis for the
Biosphere Assessment report and in the Biosphere Assessment report). For a wider scope
to the development of the site, a Reference Area has been delineated (sections 1.4.2 and
26
2.3) where especially lakes, mires and agriculture practically lacking from the Olkiluoto
site at the present are studied.
In the characterisation, a hierarchy is applied to the spatial and temporal intensity of the
studies: Basic data and understanding is collected from extensive areas with relatively
inexpensive survey methods. This provides the foundation for the targeting of more
detailed studies. This stage has been largely passed in the present programme (although
continuous follow-up of possible changes or revision of the fundamental concepts shall
not be ceased). The acquisition of more detailed and focused data is being done at
smaller scales (intensive monitoring of ecosystems in a few plots, including time-series
datasets on e.g. climatic and hydrological parameters from a few locations) or with
sparser sampling schemes. This requires a structured approach so that the results of the
more expensive or longer term studies can be generalised to the whole site, and in
Posiva's case, to the future site conditions within the assessment context. Development
of such a structured approach does not seem possible without the high-quality nontargeted basic characterisation methods and results mentioned above, as too focused
studies introduced too early might induce bias to the entire data basis and
understanding.
The maturity of the site-specific data basis and the balance of site and generic data fed
into the present assessment in respect to the repository programme stage are discussed
in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report and in the Biosphere Assessment
report. The present report identified most prominent needs for future research in section
6.3.
1.4.2 Study locations and modelled areas
The programme for monitoring at Olkiluoto during the construction and operation of the
ONKALO underground rock characterisation facility (Posiva 2003) also provides input
data for the biosphere modelling. This programme has focused on the forest ecosystems,
but also relates to overburden, surface hydrology and more traditional observations of
e.g. dust emissions and noise needed when assessing environmental impacts on both
local inhabitants and nature. The monitoring programme has been updated recently for
the repository construction period (Posiva 2012) with a closer tie to the biosphere
assessment especially regarding coverage of the overburden types and biotopes used in
the assessment, as well as by defining better the suite of key elements in the analytical
programmes of samples. The Olkiluoto nuclear power plant also has surveillance
programmes relating to the sea ecosystem and to the radioactivity in the environment.
These monitoring and surveillance programmes define the basic framework for
biosphere characterisation.
The forest ecosystem characterisation network on Olkiluoto Island consists of several
nested levels of varying spatial extent (Aro et al. 2010, section 2; Haapanen 2009, app.
C): The most extensive level consists of the analysis of the land use and characteristics
of the natural environment. It includes surveys of vegetation types and forest resources,
and an updated record of changes in the land use. The second level is a permanent and
systematic plot network (Figure 1-7), which consists of originally over 500 grid-based
measurement plots. A subset of the plots (ca. 90) was selected for more comprehensive
27
studies, including sampling and analysis of soil and vegetation. The third level is
concentrated on four intensive monitoring plots, supported by some additional wet
deposition sampling plots. Whereas the observations on the first and on the second level
are typically at intervals of several years, the intensive level comprises observations
made annually, daily or even hourly. The forest characterisation network is also used to
sample the surface soil. In addition, soil samples have been taken from investigation
trenches originally dug for geological survey of the rock surface and from deep soil pits
dug by an excavator (Figure 1-9).
The studies in the sea area have been focused on unlinked sampling plots (Figure 1-8)
for water, radioactivity and aquatic macrophytes in the surveillance programmes of the
nuclear power plant with a justifiable collection bias related to the cooling water and
radionuclide discharges from the plant (Haapanen 2011, section 3.6.1). The sampling
network is to be augmented to provide data more focused on the biosphere assessment
(Posiva 2012). The seafloor has been mapped by acoustic-seismic soundings and a
number of surface sediments have been cored focusing on the coastline and on key
deposit types (Figure 1-9).
The Eurajoki and Lapijoki rivers, together with their catchments (Figure 1-10) have the
largest effects on the water exchange in the lake and river system that is expected to
form north of Olkiluoto in the future (the Terrain and Ecosystems Development
Modelling report). There are several established programmes to monitor water and
sediment quality in these rivers by the local industry and authorities and also campaignlike studies on e.g. aquatic vegetation and fauna (Haapanen 2011, section 3.5.2).
In addition to biosphere studies on Olkiluoto Island and in its surroundings, a so-called
Reference Area has been delineated (Figure 1-10), from which objects that are poorly
represented on Olkiluoto at the moment (lakes, mires) have been selected as analogues
to the future ones that will develop in the area due to the land uplift (Haapanen et al.
2010). Also, the age of the present objects is young, and the 9 000  10 000 years of
development covered by the Reference Area can be used as an analogue for future
development at the Olkiluoto site (discussed further in sections 2.1  2.3). In total seven
lakes and three mires of different types within the Reference Area were selected to
represent these habitats (Haapanen et al. 2010, ch. 6 and 7; Haapanen et al. 2011, p.
S649). The characterisation of the lakes and mires has so far included campaign-type
sampling for water chemistry, aquatic and mire vegetation and peat (e.g. Kangasniemi
et al. 2011; Kangasniemi & Helin 2013; Haapanen et al. 2012).
Agricultural data are obtained from various statistics within the area covering the city of
Rauma and the Eurajoki, Eura, Köyliö and Säkylä municipalities (Figure 1-10). Some
crop samples have been collected near Olkiluoto (Helin et al. 2011) and the nuclear
power plant analyses radioactivity concentrations from the surroundings of Olkiluoto
Island. Game catch statistics are utilised from the entire Reference Area, but the extent
varies between species.
28
Figure 1-7. Schematic presentation of the forest monitoring network on Olkiluoto;
layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
Figure 1-8. Schematic presentation of aquatic monitoring locations around the
Olkiluoto site; layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
Figure 1-9. Schematic presentation of sampling and survey locations of soils and
sediments in Olkiluoto and in the surrounding sea area; layout by Jani Helin, Posiva
Oy.
29
Figure 1-10. Schematic presentation of the Reference Area, the selected reference lakes
and mires and the catchments of Eurajoki and Lapijoki Rivers (left), the main area of
the agricultural data (right). Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
1.5 Role and structure of this report
As discussed above in sections 1.3.1 and 1.3.2, this report is one of the two main
biosphere reports (Figure 1-6) and one of the main supporting reports in the safety case
portfolio (Figure 1-5). The report documents the scientific basis of the biosphere
assessment with a focus on key concepts and paradigms applied in the assessment
modelling and interpretation of the results (Table 1-3 and section 6.2.1). Thus,
summarising the site characterisation results is intentionally referenced to the earlier
edition (Haapanen et al. 2009). Further details are given in numerous background
reports in Posiva's series, and in the literature as referred to in the documentation. A
compilation of the site and regional data feeding into the assessment is presented in an
appendix to the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report, where documentation
of the input data to the assessment models is presented all in one report. This is in
contrast to the earlier edition of the Biosphere description which included also the key
input data to the assessment. To summarise, the major enhancements in the collection of
Olkiluoto and Reference Area data since the previous version (Haapanen et al. 2009)
are:
 starting of field campaigns on the selected reference mires (peat, understorey
plants and forest properties) and lakes (water, macrophytes, bottom fauna, fish);
30















similar aquatic studies on Olkiluoto;
expanding the network of forest intensive monitoring plots with a new one;
more detailed Olkiluoto-specific data on fine roots;
tree biomass samples;
dimensions and weights of representative species of forest plants;
more data on the species composition and abundances of small mammals;
line transect sampling of ants, terrestrial snails and earthworms;
starting of systematic monitoring of island birds;
monitoring campaign on sediment load and factors affecting sediment
transportation into Eurajoensalmi Bay;
sea sediment cores off Olkiluoto;
lake sediment soundings and coring in the reference lakes;
starting of laboratory experiments on the sorption properties of mineral soils of
Olkiluoto and peat from a reference mire;
sampling of crops;
recording changes in landscape and land-use using a series of maps;
faunal samples from Olkiluoto and the Reference Area.
The role and focus of this report being the long-term safety of the repository, certain
other reporting needs within the repository licensing have been excluded from
consideration, even though the information provided is useful also to them; these
include
 description of the facility site in the license application (although the biosphere
description is feeding into, from the long-term safety view, the description of the
disposal system in the safety case portfolio);
 considerations of unlikely events caused by human actions (e.g. inadvertent
intrusion to the repository addressed in the Biosphere Assessment report; some
information on drilled wells is provided here, though);
 operational safety;
 environmental impacts assessment;
 baseline conditions.
Compilation of the biosphere description is a learning process, where gaps in data or in
knowledge encountered in earlier iterations are the basis for improvements when the
next versions are processed. The main developments of this report since the 2006 and
2009 versions can be summarised as follows:
 longer and more extensive site-specific data series available;
 targeted data from reference lakes and mires instead of literature values;
 increased understanding of the most important processes considered relevant to
long-term safety;
 more detailed mass storage and flux presentations.
Not only has the biosphere description process been developed further, but also the
ways of working. The main challenges observed during the compilation of the earlier
edition were gone through in a meeting, where the outline for the present version was
also drafted, deriving from the key issues of the biosphere assessment. More meetings
and workshops were arranged than earlier, and many of them included a field trip. Field
31
campaigns to the reference lakes and mires (Helin et al. 2011; Kangasniemi et al. 2011;
Haapanen et al. 2012; Kangasniemi & Helin 2013) were carried out by persons writing
this report, which further ties the theoretical background into this specific case. The
description of the biosphere involves multiple disciplines, and many of the persons
taking part in this work have also been involved in the earlier iterations. Planning of the
sampling campaigns together increased the usefulness of data and enhanced a
multidisciplinary interpretation of those data.
As set out on in the beginning of section 1.3, the biosphere assessment should answer 
with the scientific support of the present report  the following questions:
 How does the surface environment evolve after closure of the repository?
 How do hypothetical radionuclide releases from the geosphere migrate and
accumulate in the geological-hydrological-biological cycles of the surface
environment?
 How do humans utilise and change the surface environment and to what extent
might people be exposed to radionuclide releases from the repository ending up
in the surface environment?
 What kinds of biotopes are there available for plants and animals and how and to
what extent might they be exposed to radionuclide releases from the repository
ending up in the surface environment?
Whereas the focus of the biosphere assessment and thus also of this report is on the
following first 10 000 years, the longer time windows of the repository development are
addressed in the other reports in the safety case portfolio (Figure 1-5).
This is reflected in the report structure. These main questions and the related key
concepts and paradigms are revisited at the end, in section 6.2, together with other
thematic summaries reflecting the contents of the present report from the point of view
of issues that have been under discussion nationally and internationally, but are not
directly addressed in any specific part of the report. Before the concluding remarks in
section 6.4, also feedback to research and modelling activities is provided (section 6.3).
For convenience, a list of scientific and common Finnish names of the biota referred to
in this report, as well as general maps of the biosphere modelling area and the Olkiluoto
site, the Reference Area and the reference lakes and mires, are presented in the
appendices.
33
2 PRESENT CHARACTERISTICS AND LINES OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE
BIOSPHERE
In this Chapter, the knowledge basis on the past development of the Olkiluoto site and
the Reference Area (Figure 1-10; section 1.4.2) is summarised and used to project the
future development of the site; this sets the context to describe the biosphere object
types (ecosystems and biotopes) that exist at present (section 2.4). The description of
the past succession forms the basis for assessment models applied in the context of site
development, addressed in the Terrain and Ecosystems Development Modelling report
using input data given in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report. The
description of the object types at present also feeds into the conceptual element storage
and flux calculations presented in Chapter 5, which in turn feed into the radionuclide
transport models presented in the Biosphere Radionuclide Transport and Dose
Assessment report with input data specifications in the Data Basis for the Biosphere
Assessment report. The present Chapter also forms the basis for summarising the
knowledge basis on the exposure pathways of humans and other biota addressed in
Chapters 3 and 4, respectively.
To give a focus to the studies of the past 10 000 years of development, taking into
account the need to apply this information to projections of the future geological,
geomorphological, climatic and vegetational characteristics of the site for assessment
purposes, a Reference Area (section 1.4.2) has been delineated (Haapanen et al. 2010;
Haapanen et al. 2011). The discussion below in this section, and generally in the present
report, is focused on the Reference Area or specifically on the Olkiluoto site, unless
mentioned otherwise.
2.1 Past development in the region
As discussed in section 1.3.3, the time window for the biosphere assessment is up to
10 000 years into the future. In order to perform an assessment over that period for the
selected repository site taking post-glacial crustal rebound ("land uplift") into account,
the knowledge on the past development in the region is used to outline potential patterns
of landscape succession that are then used in the terrain and ecosystem development
modelling (the Terrain and Ecosystems Development Modelling report) to project
plausible lines of future biosphere development at the Olkiluoto repository site.
In Finland as in glaciated areas in general, the bedrock and overlying sediments usually
lie in sharp contact. Sediments and soils have formed during Quaternary, the youngest
period in the history of the earth, when continental ice sheets repeatedly covered
northern Europe. Mineral sediments predominate and till, which is found nearly
everywhere, is the most common of these. The till was formed from bedrock, pre-glacial
sediments, and “in situ” weathered bedrock when the slowly flowing glacial ice
dislodged, crushed, and ground the mineral matter. The rock material in the till is
mainly of local origin, although some stones and boulders may have been transported
over several kilometres (Reiman et al. 1997, section 1.4). The melt waters from ice
sheets, and flowing waters in general, have abraded, rounded, and sorted the sediments
during transport, and accumulated them in glaciofluvial deposits Sorting of mineral
matter by water also takes place nowadays in littoral environments. (Koljonen 1992, ch.
34
4). With the post-glacial crustal rebound new land areas have emerged and lakes have
been isolated, although there have also been transgressions and lake phases of the Baltic
Sea with higher water levels. The patterns of succession of terrestrial and freshwater
ecosystems are described in this section, after an overview of the climatic and land
uplift history.
2.1.1 Climatic and land uplift history
Past climate and development of the Baltic Sea
Past climate at the Olkiluoto site and in Finland in general has been described e.g. in
(Haapanen et al. 2009, section 2.2.3) and in light of climate simulations in (Pimenoff et
al. 2011, ch. 4). In the present report, the focus is on the era since the last deglaciation,
but a summary of the longer Quaternary history is also provided in this introduction.
The climate of the last 500 000 years has varied from glacial to interglacial conditions
with a strong, approximately 100 000-year cyclicity (EPICA community members
2004). Within the glaciations the climate varied from cold periods, stadials, to relatively
warm periods, interstadials, that lasted several hundreds or thousands of years. During
the cold stadials ice sheets usually grew and during the warmer interstadials ice sheets
usually shrank.
In Fennoscandia7, evidence for the impact of glacial advances is obtained from the most
recent glaciations, the Saalian and the Weichselian. During the Saalian, which began
about 200 000 years ago, an ice sheet covered in its maximum extent the whole of
Fennoscandia and large parts of the North Eurasia. Over Olkiluoto the ice sheet was
about 2.5 km thick (Fjedskaar 1994, p. 2-8; Peltier 1994, p. 195-201). The Saalian
glacial was terminated by the Eemian interglacial about 130 000 years ago, after which
the climate warmed rapidly, leading to the ice sheet retreating and Finland becoming
ice-free. However, due to isostatic depression of the crust, large parts of western and
southern Finland  including Olkiluoto  were submerged in the saline Eemian Sea.
The Eemian interglacial ended by a rapid cooling of climate about 117 000 years ago,
and the Weichselian glaciation started; northern Fennoscandia became covered by ice.
Most of the southern Finland, however, remained ice-free during the Early Weichselian
with very cold (arctic) tundra conditions prevailing. At the beginning of the Middle
Weichselian (approximately 70 000 – 60 000 years ago), the climate cooled, and the
Scandinavian ice sheet spread over most of the Fennoscandia, followed again by icefree conditions in southern and central Finland for several thousands of years (Ukkonen
et al. 1999; Saarnisto & Lunkka 2004). During the coldest stage of the last glaciation
(appr. 20 000 – 18 000 years ago), the Scandinavian ice sheet grew to its Weichselian
maximum. Over the Olkiluoto area, the ice sheet was at its maximum thickness of 2 –
2.5 km about 20 000 years ago (Siegert et al. 2001). After the glacial maximum, the
climate warmed and the ice sheet started melting fast until the Younger Dryas stadial
about 12 700 – 11 500 years ago, when the retreat of the ice halted for a period of
approximately a thousand years. After the insolation maximum for the Northern
7
Note that the whole region is Fennoscandia (Figure 1-1), whereas the ice sheet is Scandinavian according to its place of origin.
35
Hemisphere 11 500 years ago, the climate warmed enough to enter the current
interglacial, the Holocene.
The Baltic Sea area experienced rapid and extreme changes as the Scandinavian ice
sheet retreated. About 12 600 – 10 300 years ago a freshwater lake, the Baltic Ice Lake,
was gradually formed in the basin (Figure 2-1). As the Scandinavian ice sheet retreated
from central Sweden about 10 300 years ago, straits opened from the Baltic Sea basin to
the ocean. This started the brackish-water Yoldia Sea stage. Due to the isostatic land
uplift the straits closed up about 9 500 years ago and the Yoldia Sea became the
freshwater Ancylus Lake, which then turned into the Littorina Sea about 7 500 years
ago when the eustatically rising ocean levels broke through the Danish Straits (Björck
1995, p. 30-32). After this, the Littorina Sea turned gradually to the present brackish
Baltic Sea.
The retreat of the ice sheet and the development of the climate also had an effect on the
vegetation types of the region (Figure 2-2). Olkiluoto Island was submerged until about
3000 years ago (see below) when the general development of the present vegetation
types was already complete in the region, so the development of the vegetation
commenced much later than farther inland (Figure 2-3).
Figure 2-1. Schematic figure of the Baltic Sea development: Baltic Ice Sea, Yoldia Sea,
Ancylus Lake (modified from Björck 1995, fig. 5, 7 and 14), and Littorina Sea (modified
from Eronen 1990, fig. 13d, p. 13). Drawing by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
36
Figure 2-2. Development of the climate, the Baltic Sea and vegetation in Fennoscandia,
as modified from (Tolonen 1966; Rydin & Jeglum 2006), drawn by Teea Penttinen,
Pöyry Finland Oy.
Figure 2-3. Vegetation development after deglaciation for continental Finland (on
higher elevations than the Reference Area) and for coastal areas such as the Olkiluoto
site, based on data from (Kakkuri & Virkki 2004; Tolonen & Ruuhijärvi 1976) as
presented in (Pastina & Hellä 2006, p. 117). The time axis presents years after present
(AP), i.e. after year 1950 in the common calendar.
Temperature oscillations have occurred also during the last millennia: For example, the
climate was on average warmer in the ‘Medieval warm period’ 1 000 – 800 years ago.
A colder period, the ‘Little Ice Age’, prevailed 400 – 150 years ago (Eronen 1990, p.
234-236). During the last 150 years, the global mean temperature has increased by
approximately 0.8°C (IPCC 2007).
Future climate scenarios for the Olkiluoto site are addressed in the Formulation of
Radionuclide Release Scenarios report based on the simulations of (Pimenoff et al.
2011, 2012). Regarding the biosphere assessment, it is assumed following the
regulatory guidance (see section 1.3.3) that the climate type will remain as at present.
37
However, during the current century, temperature and precipitation are projected to
increase at Olkiluoto, with the increase being greatest in winter – projections depending
on greenhouse gas emissions and on the climate model (Jylhä et al. 2009). These
changes are considered still the present climate type, because the area has experienced
similar changes also within a time scale comparable to the biosphere assessment time
window in the past. This could affect the input data to the assessment (dealt with in
specific calculation cases as detailed in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment
report) but not the overall landscape development.
Land uplift
The removal of the past glacial load on the bedrock of Fennoscandia has resulted in land
uplift (or rather post-glacial crustal rebound). Actually, the land uplift is just one
consequence of the whole glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) (Poutanen 2011, p. 25). As
a broad picture (following the presentation of Poutanen 2011, p. 26), at the onset of a
glaciation, oceanic water is transferred to an ice sheet by precipitation and the global sea
level sinks. However, in the very near vicinity of the ice sheet, where the increasing ice
mass locally creates a gravitational attraction, the local sea level may rise above the
global average. It should be noted that an ice sheet also depresses the crust locally due
to elastic deformation, and hence a depression can form along an ice sheet margin that
can accumulate water (Figure 2-4). Depending on the dynamics of a global fall in sea
level, compared to the local effects of gravitation and elastic deformation of the crust,
the relative sea level will be affected. Furthermore, with increasing glacier thickness, a
viscoelastic process in the mantle causes a slow mass flow of the mantle and land uplift
typically occurs further outside the immediate region of the ice sheet loading, reflected
in a further, relative, sea level fall in this region. After the deglaciation, the system
reverts: the crust affected by elastic deformation responds relatively quickly with a rapid
rebound in the area previously overlain by the ice sheet, whereas the slow viscoelastic
rebound component continues much longer  it is still going on in Fennoscandia since
the last deglaciation. As implied above, the GIA signal observed, however, is mixed
with several other spatially and temporally varying mass changes and crustal
deformations. The observable sea level change is a mixture of the GIA-related vertical
crustal motion (Figure 2-5), eustatic rise of the sea level8, changes in sea surface
topography and geoid changes. (Poutanen 2011, p. 26-27).
There are several physical models available for GIA and land uplift such as, for
example, those of Cathles (1975), Clark et al. (1978) and Lambeck & Purcell (2003).
However, some of the parameters used in these models are very difficult to estimate and
the meaning of the parameters varies between the models (Pohjola et al. 2011, p. 37). In
more practical semi-empirical regional models of land uplift (e.g. Påsse 1996, 1997,
2001, Påsse & Andersson 2005), the uplift rate can be presented in relation to download
and inertia factors that depend on local conditions such as the ice-sheet thickness (load)
and the thickness (Figure 2-5) and other properties of the crust, respectively (Vuorela et
al. 2009, p. 62, 73). The eustatic component is also applied as a curve fitted to
observations (Påsse 2001, p. 14; Vuorela et al. 2009, p. 37; Pohjola et al. 2011, p. 40;
Pohjola et al. 2012, p. 4-6).
8
Eustatic change, as opposed to local change, is due to changes in either the sea water total volume or net changes in the volume of
the sea basins e.g. due to topographic changes such as crustal rebound (clarification by the authors of the present report).
38
Figure 2-4. Schematic presentation of glacial isostatic adjustment, sea level change and
gravity change at the onset (left), peak (middle) and after (right) a glaciation (modified
from Poutanen 2011, fig. 1 by Teea Penttinen, Pöyry Finland Oy); see the text for
further explanation.
Figure 2-5. Present isostatic vertical crustal movement, mm/y (the NKG2005LU model
of the Finnish Geodetic Institute; as presented in Vuorela et al. 2009, fig. 6), and the
crustal thickness in kilometres ± about 10% (Grad & Tiira 2008, Grad et al. 2009;
reproduced by Vuorela et al. 2009).
39
After the last deglaciation, the coastal areas of Finland, including the Reference Area
and the Olkiluoto site, experienced a slightly different development from the supraaquatic areas in northern and eastern Finland; the ice sheet retreated first from
southwestern Finland about 9 500 years ago (Eronen & Lehtinen 1996, section 2.1), but
the area was immediately submerged by the Yoldia Sea and/or Ancylus Lake (Crawford
& Wilmot 1989, section 2.2.1; Anttila et al. 1999, p. 42-43); Figures 2-1 and 2-6. As an
example of the past land uplift development in the Reference Area, Figure 2-6 presents
the submerged areas approximately at the highest level of the Ancylus lake, at the
change of the Ancylus to the Littorina stage, and about the time of the beginning of
agriculture in the region (Vuorela 2000, p. 13) which coincides roughly with the end of
the Littorina Sea phase, dated according to (Salonen et al. 2002, p. 29-30). For
reference, the present situation is shown in the last panel of the figure. According to the
simulations presented in the figure, before the formation of the Ancylus Lake most of
the Reference Area was submerged in the Yoldia Sea with only some areas of high
ground above water. Those are the highest ground also at present, 110-170 m above sea
level (due to the uplift gradient, the shoreline of the time is now lower in the southern
parts than in the north of the Reference Area).
Similar development has occurred also at the Olkiluoto site (Figure 2-7) which has been
submerged practically until present in the geological time scale. The highest areas of
Olkiluoto Island rose above sea level about 2800  3000 years ago and about a
millennium later there existed still only several separate small hills (Mäkiaho 2005, p.
17). Development of the hydrological conditions in the overburden and bedrock and the
past bedrock hydrogeochemical development are discussed in (Karvonen 2011, ch. 3;
see also the Site Description report).
Figures 2-6 and 2-7 show also the present distribution of soil types in the Reference
Area and at the Olkiluoto site, respectively, overlaid by the projected past sea and
Ancylus lake levels. The development of the soils and sediments of the Reference Area
is discussed in the following sections.
2.1.2 Overburden and its depositional history
The geological history of the present Baltic Sea has resulted in profound changes in the
hydrographic and hydrochemical conditions and consequently also in the physical,
chemical and biological features of the sea and the sediments (Flodén & Winterhalter
1981, p. 1-54; Ignatius et al. 1981, p. 54-105; Ehlin 1981, p. 123-133; Kullenberg 1981,
p. 134-181; Grasshoff & Voipio 1981, p. 183-213, Nuorteva 1994, p. 29-76); the relief
and configuration of the basement rock, the quality of the types of rock and movements
of the continental glaciers have all had their effect on the present topography and
overburden in the area.
40
Terrain model derived from the topographic database of the National Survey extended with data from (Seifert et al. 2001).
Land uplift model of (Påsse 2001) with uplift model parameters of (Vuorela et al. 2009, p. 119, figs. 76, 77).
Present distribution of soil types according to the soil map of Geological Survey.
Figure 2-6. Past land uplift development of the Reference Area according to model
projections. The present soil types are also shown (data not yet available over the whole
area). The terrain model and thus also the results are coarser outside the Reference
Area. The locations of the reference lakes and mires are also shown, cf. Figure 1-10.
41
Terrain model (Pohjola et al. 2009), land uplift model of (Påsse 2001) with uplift model parameters of (Vuorela et al. 2009, p. 119, figs.
76, 77). For the present distribution of soil types see the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report (section 8.2).
Figure 2-7. Past land uplift development at the Olkiluoto site according to model
projections; the present soil types are also shown. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
General stratigraphy and depositional history
The Quaternary stratigraphy of the Baltic Sea bottom sediments is usually subdivided
into glacial, late-glacial, post-glacial and recent stages (Nuorteva 1994, p. 6-9). A
conceptual figure showing the sediment stratigraphy linked to the Baltic Sea stages is
presented in Figure 2-8 that was originally drawn for the Olkiluoto area but depicts the
general situation as well. The land uplift and general rise of sea level after deglaciation
have caused transgressional and regressional phases in the area, but extent and duration
have varied significantly in different locations (Björck 1995, p. 30-35).
A well-defined border is found between the bedrock and overlying sediments (Koljonen
& Tanskanen 1992, ch. 4). Topography, bottom currents and water depth have had a
great influence on the deposition of typically fine-grained post-glacial sediments which
filled the depressions, whereas the coarser glacial and transitional9 clays and silts were
distributed much more widely. The thickness of post-glacial deposits varies greatly
depending on the local topography. Topography and water depth did not have any
significant influence on the distribution of tills transported and deposited by ice
(Nuorteva 1994, p. 29-76). Sand deposits were deposited during both periods of
glaciation and periods of deglaciation/interglacial (Hirvas & Nenonen 1990, p. 14;
9
Referring here to the transition from the glacial to the post-glacial stage.
42
Kujansuu 1990, p. 14), after which they may have experienced erosion and transport
when exposed.
Late-glacial (clay) deposits in the region of the Olkiluoto repository were formed during
the late Yoldia – early Ancylus Lake phase (Rantataro & Kaskela 2009, p. 15). In the
varved silty clay the spring and early summer proportion of varves typically consists of
fine-grained sand and the material changes rapidly upward to silt/clay that was
deposited during autumn and winter (Nuorteva 1994, p. 8). The total thickness of the
varved clay unit is usually about 2 m; the thickness is less than the original deposited
thickness due to erosive currents or wave action and in some cases, the whole unit has
been eroded completely. The Ancylus clay is composed of nearly homogenous,
sulphide-stained clay deposited within a calm environment during the Baltic Ancylus
lake phase. The upper part of the Ancylus unit, a rather homogeneous layer with
disseminated sulphide spots and or thin sulphide concretions (Rantataro 2002, p. 8), is
found almost everywhere in the Baltic Sea area. The thickness of the total Ancylus clay
sequence at Olkiluoto is generally 2  3 m, but attains 8  10 m in deep basins
(Rantataro 2001, apps. 4-39).
Post-glacial deposits, characterising the Littorina Sea phase are composed of olivegreen muddy clay (Ignatius et al. 1981, p. 63). If the usually poorly-identifiable
transitional Mastogloia clay between the Ancylus and Littorina clays is absent, a very
pronounced thin layer of coarser material is found indicating an obvious erosion and/or
non-deposition transition zone (Ignatius et al. 1980, p. 32-33). In the lower part of the
Littorina clay, there are two or three sections of laminates, gyttja-banded clays generally
found separated from each other by clay layers. In the upper parts, the laminated texture
disappears for a generally homogeneous layer, although with faint macroscopic layering
(Eronen et al. 1995, p. 2). At Olkiluoto, the Littorina unit is 5  8 m thick in the nearshore depressions but attains 10 m in the deeper offshore (Rantataro 2001, apps. 4-39).
Figure 2-8. Conceptual Quaternary overburden stratigraphy of the Baltic Sea (Posiva
2003, fig. 5-5).
43
The younger, 'sub-recent and recent', sediment consists of organic-rich black
mud/gyttja. Very often, biogenic material is found as un-decomposed organic matter.
The topmost surface is mostly oxidised and has a reddish-brown colour, but below this
anaerobic conditions prevail. The sub-recent and recent sediment generally contains a
large amount of hydrogen sulphide gas (Ignatius et al. 1980, p. 34-35; Hutri 2007, p. 32;
Rantataro & Kaskela 2009, p. 13). The sub-recent and recent sediment was generally
deposited in several tranquil areas on a sharp erosive contact on the older sediments, but
in the deeper offshore basins the deposition has been more continuous (Ignatius et al.
1981, p. 54-69).
Both at present and in the past, the dynamics processes affecting the deposition of
cohesive particles (grain size < 0.02 mm) has been controlled in submerged conditions
by both wind-generated waves and baroclinic currents (Brydsten 2009, p. 8). Particles
are normally resuspended from the bottom by wave orbital motion and transported by
currents; less often particles are resuspended and transported only by currents (Brydsten
1999, p. 29; Brydsten 2009, p. 8). In such areas, three main processes contribute to the
sedimentation dynamics (Brydsten 1999, p. 29):
 shoaling effect: the shallower the water, the higher the horizontal orbital speed
of the waves at the bottom and thus the degree of resuspension is higher  with
land uplift this process adds to local erosion;
 wave energy filter effect: waves with high energy generated in the open sea
break on island shores or pass shallow areas without breaking, i.e. high wave
energies are filtered out  with land uplift the increased density of islands and
shallow areas becoming even shallower increases the effect, and thus adds to
sedimentation as a result of calmer water conditions;
 wave breaking effect occurs only at the bottom of a water body where the
morphometry results in waves breaking at depths of less than approximately 5
metres  under these conditions the water movements occurring under the
breaking wave are generally much higher than wave-induced near-bottom
horizontal orbital movements under non-breaking waves  as a result land uplift
enhances erosion at near-shore bottoms because the wave breaking effect
dominates over the filter effect.
Under these processes, fine-grained particles are resuspended from the sediments in the
shallower zones and are transported to and settle in the deeper zones (Likens & Davis
1975 cited by Brydsten 2009, p. 54) both in lakes and in the sea (Brydsten 2009, p. 54).
In a coastal area undergoing land uplift and a developing archipelago, such as Olkiluoto,
this leads to a typical development exemplified by Brydsten (2009, p. 53) wherein the
dominant process at a given location progressively changes from sediment
accumulation to transport, erosion, accumulation and finally results in land areas as the
surface becomes exposed (unless forming a lake). The accumulation bottoms are close
to the shore in semi-enclosed bays or on the leeside of larger islands and in the deepest
parts of the open sea. Respectively, erosion bottoms are found to occur on shallow
bottoms exposed to the strongest winds, and the transport bottoms occur as a wide belt
between the erosion and accumulation bottoms.
44
Bedrock and Quaternary deposits in Reference Area
The majority of the bedrock of the Reference Area forms part of formations that
originated in the Late Precambrian period (Figure 2-9; Tikkanen 1981, p. 257; Kahma
1951, p. 5-8). These formations, which differ in their age and in their rock types, are:
rapakivi granite, sandstone and diabase. These areas are surrounded by metamorphic
and igneous rocks belonging to the Svekofennidic basement, the most important of
which are granites, granodiorites, gabbros and mica schists.
Figure 2-9. Bedrock types (modified from the dataset of Geological and geophysical
maps of the Fennoscandian Shield 1:1 000 000, © Geological Survey of Finland),
terrestrial soilscapes of (Lilja et al. 2006, 2009) and aquatic soilscapes of (Al-Hamdani
et al. 2007) in the Reference Area. Map layout Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
45
The nature of the bedrock determines the relative differences in height throughout
virtually the whole of southern and southwestern Finland both in the sea and land areas.
There is a correlation between high relief areas and the diabase bedrock and between
low relief areas and the sandstone in the region. The most marked variations in height
are found at points where the diabase occurrences abut onto sandstone, although the
diabase zones also stand out to some extent when adjacent to the rapakivi granites and
the basement complex. The most distinctive trend surfaces is that for the sandstone
region, since this describes the mean height of the land surface formed by the loose
deposits, the sandstone itsekf coming to the surface only in few cases of the contacts
between bedrock types. Large numbers of borings and seismic soundings experiments
in this sandstone area have pointed out that the bedrock surface remains in practice at
the depth of many metres, customarily as much as 20-30 m, the maximum thickness of
the surficial deposits being about 100 m. (Tikkanen 1981, p. 270-271).
The terrain relief of the Reference Area, variable with gentle gradients and falling away
relatively steadily towards the coast, is mainly a result of bedrock features or the
influence of glacial or glaciofluvial deposits (Tikkanen 1981, p. 254). Large low-lying,
flat areas formed by clays deposited in the former sea are encountered in the river
valleys. In depressions of the diverse and fractured bedrock there are deep sedimentary
beds (up to almost 100 m; Tikkanen 1981, p. 271). The summits of the diabase hills are
either exposed or covered with thin layers of Quaternary deposits (Lindroos et al. 1983,
p. 13).
In the Reference Area, the glacial till is mainly sandy (Figures 2-6, 2-9), and the sand
content is especially high in the tills of the Jotnian sandstone area, whereas in the
eastern regions the tills are coarser due to rock types resistant to erosion and weathering
(Lindroos et al. 1983, p. 13-14). Eskers occurring in the coastal area have very
commonly a submarine continuation (Kukkonen 1969, p. 65-69). Clay soil types cover
about one-third of the soil-covered areas in Southwestern Finland, whereas in other
areas in Finland the proportion is under 1.5 % (Lilja et al. 2006; table 2-3, fig. 2-12).
Koljonen (1992, ch. 5) has described the geochemical provinces of these soils according
to the co-occurrence of elements in the fine fraction of till soils in the Reference Area.
Bedrock and Quaternary deposits at Olkiluoto
The highest areas of the Olkiluoto Island rose above sea level about 2800  3000 years
ago and some 800 years later there existed only several separate small islands (Mäkiaho
2005, p. 17). Hilltops that emerged from the sea during this phase have experienced
intense periods of littoral erosion and then rainfall providing running water that have
transported unconsolidated sediment away from these highs and which has resulted in
bare rock surfaces and exposed boulder fields consisting of strongly rounded boulders
in these areas. Most of the areas that emerged from the sea 1 500 years ago (Figure 2-7)
have a classic shape of roches moutonnées (Tikkanen 1981, p. 278-279; Seppälä 2005,
p. 38-39). Some or all of these formations may have had a till cover after the
deglaciation, but strong littoral processes, e.g. wave action have washed away these
glacigenic sediments, sorting and depositing them to lower elevations and revealing
these present rock surfaces. Most of the bare rock surfaces face west, which has been
the direction of most effective wave action. (Mäkiaho 2005, p. 19). This is almost the
46
same direction that originally had the thinnest soils, since the glacial deposits are
thinnest in the direction of the strongest glacial erosion, which in this area is the northwest slopes of the hills (Seppälä 2005, p. 39-42).
The bedrock surface is variable in height, but the ground surface gradients are subdued,
even where the bedrock surface changes abruptly. The depressions in the bedrock
surface are filled with thicker layers of deposits with varying stratigraphy and, as a
result of the last glaciation; the highest elevations in the bedrock (at present up to 18 m
a.s.l) emerge through modest soil layers. The thickness of the overburden is usually 2 
5 m, however in some places thicker soil layers (up to 14 m) have been found.
(Lahdenperä et al. 2005, p. 11).
The soils (Figure 2-10) are mainly sandy till with some clay, silt, sandy and gravel
layers. In some isolated depressions, fine-grained glacio-lacustrine sediments are also
observed. The till is weakly laminated and rich in fines and the clay content generally
varies from 0  18% (Lintinen et al. 2003, ch. 7, app. 3; Lintinen & Kahelin 2003, ch. 6,
app. 2; Lahdenperä et al. 2005, p. 19, 62-63; Lahdenperä 2009, sections 2.1, 3.4, p. 7788). Slightly chemically-altered, disintegrated rock layers (the so-called “palarapakallio”) are found in the contact of the overburden with the bedrock in most of the
investigation trenches, with the thickness of such layers varying from some centimetres
to 2  3 m. (Huhta 2007, ch. 3, app. 6; Huhta 2008, section 3.4, app. 4; Huhta 2009, ch.
3, apps. 4-38; Huhta 2010, ch. 3, apps. 4-31).
The geological characteristics of the seafloor have been mapped by acoustic-seismic
soundings (Figure 2-10; Rantataro 2001, 2002, Rantataro & Kaskela 2009), and by
analyses of sediment samples (Lahdenperä & Keskinen 2011). The surface of the
Precambrian bedrock undulates, and the basins and depressions have been filled with
Quaternary sediments. The sedimentary rock has infilled the topography of the
basement surface, which has resulted in a more gently undulating general topography
(Rantataro & Kaskela 2009, p. 10). The sedimentary rock area is a continuation of the
Satakunta sandstone domain where it is met on outcrops and in some rock areas (Figure
2-9; Tikkanen 1981, p. 259; Lehtinen et al. 1998, p. 311-315). The sea area off
Olkiluoto has extensive areas of gaseous, acoustically “bubbling” sediments (Rantataro
& Kaskela 2009, p. 15, app. 5), which are likely to be anoxic deposits of decomposing
organic matter  a feature under further investigation.
2.1.3 Littoral processes and forest primary succession
On the aquatic side of the littoral zone, waves, currents and ice physically transport
material. Sheltered or very shallow shores accumulate fine sediments and litter carried
by the waves, and are typically covered by these materials regardless of the original
surface material. Sheltered shores are found between islands and in bays. In more
exposed shores, the water movement washes the lighter fractions away, leaving only
stones, rock and boulders. Small stones may be in constant movement due to the waves.
On the terrestrial side of the littoral zone, the former sediments (i.e. young soils) are
affected by wind, rain and snow, in addition to the waves and ice. Vegetation binds the
sediment with roots, takes up nutrients and produces organic litter.
47
Figure 2-10. The surface soil and sediment types at Olkiluoto, based on (Rantataro
2001, 2002; Rautio et al. 2004; Rantataro & Kaskela 2009) and the national soil map
of the Geological Survey of Finland, reclassified to the soil types used in the biosphere
assessment (Table 2-2 in section 2.2). The map shows also the area of sandstone
bedrock (cf. Figure 2-9), identified from the acoustic-seismic sounding profiles
(Rantataro 2002), as well as water depth contours with 10-m intervals. Map layout by
Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
The coastal areas can be divided into four zones, which are affected by the littoral forces
in different degrees: sea zone, outer archipelago zone, inner archipelago zone and
mainland zone:
 The sea zone is an area with the land being only treeless, very exposed islets.
 In the outer archipelago zone the islands are generally small and low. The
growing conditions are harsh; trees are short, the smallest islands may be
treeless. The shores are rocky or covered by boulders and stones. In a given area
within the outer archipelago zone, the proportion of land is approximately the
same as that of sea.
 In the inner archipelago zone, the area of land exceeds that of water. Islands are
forested, and the forests may extend to the shores. Fine sediments accumulate
around the islands and sheltered bays are surrounded by reed. Flads and glos10
are typical of this zone.
 The mainland zone consists of large, forested areas that were formerly islands,
but which have merged with the mainland. The shores are sheltered and reed
covered.
10
Flads and gloes are clearly limited small water bodies, either still connected with the sea or cut off due to land uplift
(Munsterhjelm 1997, p. 1).
48
The temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrient contents of seawater follow this
zonation. (Hänninen & Vuorinen 2004, p. 108; Munsterhjelm 1997, p. 4; Rinkineva
1999, p. 84).
Effects of land uplift (section 2.1.1) are most visible in the littoral areas. The phases of
plant colonisation and further primary succession on different types of shores are
described in more detail in Haapanen (2007b, ch. 3) and summarised below and in
Figure 2-11. Figure 2-12 shows a compilation of typical shoreline habitats at Olkiluoto.
The transition from shallow coast to mature primary successional phases has been
studied at Olkiluoto on six transects as reported in (Ilmarinen et al. 2009) and
(Haapanen & Lahdenperä 2011).
After the aquatic phases, the terrestrial succession proceeds through different vegetation
compositions, depending, for example, on the soil type, degree of exposure, topography,
salinity and climate (Svensson & Jeglum 2000, p. 16). Reaching the climax stage may
take two to three centuries of succession (Svensson & Jeglum 2003, p. 280; Aikio et al.
2000, p. 1092). The general patterns for succession, most typical for southwestern
Finland (Figure 2-11) are:
 Stony or rocky shores can support some scattered meadow-species depending on
the amount of gaps filled by finer soil fractions. Otherwise, lichens are the
dominant group (Toivonen & Leivo 1994, p. 51). Later, also mosses and dwarfshrubs occupy the surfaces, whereas the gaps are occupied by bushes and trees.
Scots pine is the climax tree species of these rock forests, but the stand stocking
depends on the amount of loose soil (Kontula et al. 2005, p. 93).
Approx. 300 years
0 years
Boulders,
stones
(Algae)
Till
Sparse shore
meadows or
stone fields
Low shore
meadows
Dwarf shrubs,
lichen, mosses
Low yielding pine
forests
Deciduous
(alder, birch)
forests
Bushes
(Algae)
Sand,
gravel
Occasional
bushes
Sparse or no shore
vegetation
Spruce
forests
Pine forests
(Vascular plants)
Clay, silt,
mud
(Vascular plants)
High shore
meadows
(reed)
Alder
dominated
forests or
mires
Deciduous
groves or mires
Spruce forests
or mires
Figure 2-11. Schematic presentation of typical primary succession stages at the coasts
of the Reference Area, modified from (Haapanen et al. 2009, fig. 4-1) originally based
on (Haapanen 2007b).
49
Figure 2-12. Typical shoreline habitats at Olkiluoto. From top left by rows: a) An islet
at the transition from sea zone to outer archipelago. b) Typical shallow rocky shoreline
with gyttja and mud on the aquatic side, an exposed stone field, and a low shore
meadow and alder-dominated zone on somewhat higher grounds. c) Shore meadow with
medium-high vegetation. d) Black alder zone with a minor bush zone. e) Black alder
zone with a well-developed bush zone dominated by sea buckthorn. f) Managed spruce
forest about 100 m from the shoreline. Photographs by a) Joel Ahola, Finnish Geodetic
Institute, and b-f) Reija Haapanen, Haapanen Forest Consulting.
50


On till shores the littoral stages are dominated by grasses and low-growing
shrubs. The primary forested stage is dominated by broadleaves, followed by a
secondary forested stage, usually dominated by Norway spruce (Svensson &
Jeglum 2000, p. 4). These heath forests cover a considerable range of soil
fertility. Fewer successional stages are met on sand, because the lower limit of
vegetation is located higher up on the shore (Vartiainen 1980, p. 75). Scots pine
heath forests will eventually dominate on these less fertile, dry soils (Aikio et al.
2000, p. 1092).
The littoral stages of line sediment surfaces are typically dominated by common
reed and other vascular plants. After the shore phases, black alder or other
deciduous species dominate first and spruce invades gradually. The resulting
forest type is a grove or grove-like heath forest. (Mäkinen et al, p. 45, 54;
Tamminen & Mälkönen 2003, p. 143). These soils may undergo primary mire
formation, as well (see section 2.1.5).
After rising to the geolittoral zone (above the normal water level), the former sediment
starts to develop into a dry land soil, typically a podzol at the Olkiluoto site. The
podzolisation is a complex ensemble of processes in which organic material and soluble
minerals, commonly iron and aluminium, are leached from the surface soil down to the
subsoil. These constituents then form a leached eluvial horizon and typically an
enrichment layer, or an iron-aluminum-rich band. (Tamminen & Mälkönen 2003, p.
129, 132). The formation of a podzol horizon is a slow process and may take centuries
(Koljonen 1992, p. 48); based on studies on soil formation at a land uplift shore about
300 km north of Olkiluoto, it is said that the podzolisation development stabilises after
2500 years (Starr 1991, p. 102).
2.1.4 Development of freshwater bodies
For a lake to be generated, a basin is needed. These may be formed, in addition to the
effects of past glacial activity (moraines, scours, relict lakes), by e.g. landslides, river
and wind activity (Wetzel 2001, p. 23-34). Finnish bedrock is fractured by nature and it
was further shaped during the last glaciation. The lakes in Finland have mostly
developed along bedrock fault lines or rift valleys (Salonen et al. 2002, p. 33).
For a lake to survive as a permanent water body, the precipitation and inflow must at
least equal losses by evaporation and evapotranspiration, outflow and seepage through
the bottom. Most lakes have a natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, but
endorheic lakes lose water solely by evaporation or underground seepage or both.
(Wetzel 2001, p. 46-48).
The generally accepted trend in the development of lakes in Finnish conditions is from
oligotrophic to eutrophic (e.g. Heinonen 1980, p. 5-6; Rintanen 1996, p. 101; Simola &
Arvola 2005, ch. 5.3), but the development can also be reversed (Särkkä 1996, p. 123).
Many external factors, such as tilting caused by the land uplift, soil and bedrock
composition of the drainage area, erosion, topography, climate and human impact,
affects to the development of the lakes (Särkkä 1996, p. 124). After the ice age, the
Finnish lakes were on average more eutrophic than today (Särkkä 1996, p. 123) and
51
according to the sediment studies in isolated lakes in the Satakunta region (Ojala 2011,
ch. 4.3) the development of the lakes does not follow the same general pattern.
The initial general acidification of the lakes is mainly caused by the low buffering
capacity of the granite bedrock and high organic matter content in the catchment area
(Renberg et al. 2005, p. 385-388; Salonen et al. 2002, p. 186-187). In a cool and moist
climate, humus accumulates on the forest floors and low lying lands are paludified,
causing inputs of humic substances with low pH to the lakes (Salonen et al. 2002, p.
186). Furthermore the leaching of nutrients gradually makes the soils poorer.
Exceptions are thick clay areas rich in nutrients: there the nutrient situation of lakes is
generally good. On coastal areas the acid sulphate (alum) soils are a significant cause of
acidification (Friedrich et al. 1996, p. 181). They occur below the upper limit of the
Littorina Sea, which is presently about 40-100 m above sea level (Edén et al 2012, p.
31). These soils are formed in the anaerobic and brackish conditions of the Littorina Sea
(Erikson 2012, p. 41).
Above the highest shoreline of the Baltic Sea (in eastern and northern Finland, in the socalled supra-aquatic areas) the lake basins were formed immediately after the
glaciations (Alhonen 1983). Lakes below the highest shoreline of the Baltic Sea and its
previous lake and sea stages  as in the Reference Area  have their origin in
depressions at the bottom of these large aquatic systems. As the land uplift proceeds,
these areas are successively transported upwards to become shallow bays along the
coast (Brunberg & Blomqvist 1999, p. 34). These coastal bays have a morphological
succession series: they start with an opening or openings to the sea, which are slowly
cut off and this then leads to the development of a lake or a mire (Figure 2-13). There is
a threshold in the movement of water through the inlet and into the coastal basin: if the
proportion of inflow to the volume of water in the basin is low, this allows settling of
fine material in the basin. Developing shallow, clearly delimited, water bodies are called
flads when they are connected to the sea by one or few narrow openings and glos when
the contact with the sea is only occasional. A glo receives seawater only during high
water level conditions or storms, and the main difference from a lake is the slight
salinity of the water. (Munsterhjelm 1997, p. 4; Sydänoja 2008, p. 7). The development
from a juvenile flad to a glo may be completed in some cases within 100 – 200 years,
but faster development is also possible (Munsterhjelm 1997, p. 8). The isolation is
sometimes accelerated by sea ice, currents and storms depositing sand and gravel banks
in the outlet (Sydänoja 2008, p. 7).
The characteristic vegetation at the bottom of the basin changes as the land uplift and
the sediment and organic matter accumulation make the bay shallower (Munsterhjelm
1997, p. 27; Munsterhjelm 2005, p. 23-33). When the depth of the water is less than 2 –
3 metres, different pondweeds, especially stoneworts of the Charales family (e.g. Chara
tomentosa), colonise the photic soft bottom sediments. Along the shore, common reed
and other aquatic vascular plants also begin to colonise the system. (Brunberg &
Blomqvist 1999, p. 34). The flora and fauna of flads and glos are described in more
detail in section 2.4.5.
52
Figure 2-13. Development lines of freshwater bodies. Developed from Aario (1932, fig.
6), Sydänoja (2008, fig. 1), Brunberg & Blomqvist (1999, fig. 4-1) and Andersson
(2010, fig. 8-2), and drawn by Teea Penttinen, Pöyry Finland Oy.
Figure 2-14. Locations and sizes of lakes (Topographic Database of National Land
Survey) and locations of flads (Sydänoja 2008, app. 2), springs (Topographic Database
of National Land Survey and the Spring Water Database of the Geological Survey of
Finland) in the Reference Area. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
53
The development of lake basins does not end with the isolation from the sea and, in the
perspective of longer-term environmental changes, the eutrophic lakes with an average
depth of less than 7 metres can be considered short-lived (Särkkä 1996, p. 123). The
inflow and outflow channels erode and in-flowing sediments make the basins shallower
(Figure 2-13). Into many Finnish lake bottoms, a 2 – 4 m deep gyttja/mud layer has
been accumulated after the glaciation. (Haapanen et al. 2010, p. 12). With increasing
aquatic vegetation, the overgrowing of lakes goes on and the lakes develop towards
mires (see section 2.1.5). There are three main modes of infilling, which can occur
simultaneously (Figure 2-13): along the bottom (mainly helophytes), intra-aquatic
(submerged plants) and along the surface (Sphagnum mosses) (Aapala & Lappalainen
1998 p. 48; Huttunen & Tolonen 2006, p. 81). After the infilling, the mire development
continues in the form of peat formation. As an alternative line of development, a
shallow flad may be directly overgrown, without the glo stage. In shallow places, the
net vertical growth may exceed the land uplift rate, as the fine material carried by the
water accumulates to the bottom. The vegetation may speed up the process by
decreasing water flow and increasing the accumulation of organic sediment. (Figure 213) (Brunberg & Blomqvist 1999, p. 36).
2.1.5 Mire formation and development
Mires are ecosystems maintained by a moist local climate and characterised by high
groundwater levels, where only partially decomposing organic matter accumulates as
peat. In geological terminology, mires are defined as sites with at least 30 cm thick peat
layers. According to their botanical definition, mires are habitats that are dominated by
peat forming vegetation (Laine et al. 2000, p. 5). Mires may form through three main
processes: primary mire formation, paludification and terrestrialisation of lakes
(Korhola & Tolonen 1996, p. 20).
Primary mire formation is a process in which the fresh soil surface is occupied directly
by mire vegetation e.g. after emergence from water due to land uplift (Korhola &
Tolonen 1996, p. 20). Requirements include poorly permeable land with flat topography
or small depressions. Secondary mire formation includes paludification and
terrestrialisation. (Huikari 1956, p. 13; Korhola 1990, p. 258-260).
Paludification refers to the conversion of a forest to a mire ecosystem, occurring mainly
in places where topography directs enough runoff to create waterlogged conditions
(Huikari 1956, p. 11; Korhola & Tolonen, 1996, p. 20). However, it is rarely the sole
origin of a mire (Huikari 1956, p. 13). On poorly permeable lands, surface waters may
fill depressions, after which Polytrichums, and later white mosses invade the spots
(Kivinen 1948, p. 98). Other factors promoting paludification include forest fires, storm
damage and wide clear cuttings (Korhola & Tolonen 1996, p. 21). On highly permeable
lands, a rise in groundwater level is needed, after which white moss (Sphagnum sp.)
hummocks increase (Kivinen 1948, p. 99). Mires may also expand to nearby forest
areas via lateral growth. This process is mainly regulated by topography. (Korhola
1992, p. 79–81).
In both primary mire formation and paludification, the high groundwater level causes
moist conditions and low oxygen concentration, after which mire vegetation can invade
54
and further accelerate the process. The decomposition of organic material is slowed
down, and the development of peat may begin. White mosses (Sphagnum sp.) especially
contribute significantly to mire development (Laine & Vasander 1996, p. 15). They
absorb and store water efficiently (Kivinen 1948, p. 21), and decrease the diffusion of
oxygen to the ground, as they (being rootless) do not need it. They photosynthesise at
the level of the capitulum and decompose from the other end. They diffuse organic
acids and other slowly decomposing substances to the bottom material and are not
eaten by animals (Laine & Vasander 1996, p. 15). Sedges (Carex sp.), in turn, are peat
producers in conditions too moist for white mosses: they have open stems that transport
air to their roots (Kivinen 1948, p. 33).
Terrestrialisation means a hydroseral succession from open water basin to mire
(Korhola & Tolonen 1996, p. 20). Terrestrialisation may proceed from surface to
bottom or from bottom to surface (Kivinen 1948, p. 94-95):
 Eutrophic, low, sheltered lakes: from bottom to top, started by sedges, reed and
horsetail, and followed by mosses which initiate the height growth of the mire.
 Ombrotrophic, small lakes: from top to bottom, initiated by floating moss
carpets and followed by sedges.
A typical mire succession on land uplift coasts starts at the meadows located slightly
above the mean water level (Figure 2-15; Aario 1932, p. 34; Huikari 1956, p. 11). At the
beginning of the mire development, the climate, topography, moisture and soil nutrients
define the mire vegetation:
 In an open, shallow shore, brackish water pools develop into depressions, which
are then colonized by hygrophilic vegetation. Later, in favourable hydrologic
conditions, these meadows change into swampy fens characterised by aquatic,
shore and mire vegetation (Korhola 1990, p. 257). In sheltered bays, aquatic
plants produce limnic peat in the shallow areas, to be then colonised by white
mosses and sedges (Sauramo 1940, p. 138; Elveland 1976, p. 86-87).
 Further from the shore, treeless fens or fens with deciduous trees (black alder,
birch) and spruce mires develop. Here the moss cover is thicker and terrestrial
sedges and grasses substitute the aquatic vegetation (Sauramo 1940, p. 138).
 When the influence of surface and ground water decreases, the accumulation of
white mosses turns the development toward nutrient-poor site types.
Minerotrophic conditions can remain only in places that are constantly
influenced by surface waters or ground water (Korhola & Tolonen 1996, p. 23;
Ruuhijärvi 1980, p. 152).
 At an elevation of about 10 – 20 metres above sea level (after 1500 – 3500 years
of succession), a thicker bed of white mosses has formed, disconnecting the mire
surface from groundwater, resulting in concentric bogs with hummocks and
hollows. The centres of mires are again treeless or near treeless (Ruuhijärvi
1980, p. 153).
Also secondary mire formation via a water body (terrestrialisation) occurs on the shores
(bay → flad → glo → (lake) → mire). The initial phases have been described in section
2.1.4 above, and the later development mainly follows the lines presented above.
55
Figure 2-15. Mire succession from shore marshes to inland ombrotrophic raised bogs
in southwestern Finland; modified from fig. 8 of (Aario 1932) and drawn by Teea
Penttinen, Pöyry Finland Oy.
The peat accumulation rate of a mire is regulated by local hydrological and edaphic
factors and their changes in time, which in turn are regulated by climate, mineral soil
composition, topography, fires and human actions (Aaby & Tauber 1975, p. 10–14;
Korhola 1992, p. 26; Mäkilä 1997, p. 10; Mäkilä & Grundström 2008, p. 2).
Composition of mire vegetation and species-specific decomposition properties affect the
peat accumulation rate (Johnson & Damman 1991). Peat bogs in southwestern Finland
have increased their thickness by about 0.3 – 1.5 mm/y, with the highest rates found in
young, coastal areas (Mäkilä & Grundström 2008, ch 4). Peat accumulation ceases
when vertical growth has reached a point where primary production, i.e. the amount of
organic matter annually added to the peat column, can no longer exceed the amount lost
by decay and mineralisation (Clymo 1984). The lateral expansion of a peat bog is
constrained by the hydrological factors; once the water table in the peat permanently
lowers sufficiently, the peat-producing vegetation starts to wither (Clymo 1984). The
oldest peat bogs in Finland are about 10 000 years old, i.e. formed soon after the last
deglaciation, but still having a long-term peat accumulation rate in the order of 1.1
mm/y (Mäkilä & Grundstöm 2008, p. 10, 29).
Further information on the development of peat bogs in southwestern Finland is
presented in Mäkilä & Grundström (2008, ch. 2-4) and Haapanen et al. (2010, sections
6.2 and 7.2), and regarding the reference mires selected for analogues to those forming
at the Olkiluoto site in the future in Haapanen et al. (2011, p. 19-27).
56
2.1.6 History of land use and settlement
Information on prehistoric human habits, settlement and agriculture in the Satakunta
region, and thus also in the Reference Area, has been summarised in (Vuorela 2000).
The earliest settlement was rather transient, and people moved around by foot or by
skiing and by primitive boats; lowland forests were a rough terrain, but rivers, riversides
and pine forests on eskers were practically unobstructed. Stone-age settlement, from
about 10 000 years ago, was located mainly on coastal clayey slopes. Later, settlements
were on drier shores, usually on sandy soils. During the so-called hammer-hatchet
culture, 4 500  4 000 years ago, dwellings were usually located on flat tops of hills
close to passages (rivers and brooks) and clay soils that were likely used already then as
pastures. Eskers have likely been important also for hunting as deer and moose prefer
pine-dominated drier forests, and traps would be easy to dig on such ground. (Vuorela
2000, p. 11-12).
The first culture-based clearings were developed on the inland till and clay soils during
the so-called hammer-hatchet culture. Those clearings, which in time turned to new
deciduous forest, were important hunting areas. Clayey hay and sedge meadows of
coastal and river valley areas were a unique, treeless landscape providing a moist and
nutritious pasture; according to investigations from other parts of the Europe. In this
setting it is evident that animal husbandry and pasturage were practised before the
cultivation of land in the late Stone Age. Since the Bronze Age (Figure 2-16), the leaves
of deciduous trees have apparently been used as a cattle fodder. (Vuorela 2000, p. 1213). In the Satakunta and Varsinais-Suomi regions, cultivation began about 4000 years
ago i.e. in the late Stone Age (Vuorela 2000, p. 24). Figure 2-16 presents an illustration
of pollen signatures reflecting cultivation near mires in the Reference Area.
In the Satakunta region, fishing must have played an important role in the lives of the
early residents. The relatively good living standard in the Bronze Age probably was
based on animal husbandry, in addition to cultivation. (Vuorela 2000). Unlike several
other regions, in Finland agriculture did not fully replace the traditional gathering,
hunting and fishing activities until relatively recently (Vuorela 2000, p. 30); cf. also
section 3.2.
During the last two centuries the landscape has been significantly altered by natural
processes like post-glacial land uplift, as well as by human activities. Development of
local land-use from the mid-1800s to the present day is presented in (Koistinen &
Käyhkö 2011) and summarised in Table 2-1 below. Since the 1800s, in general, the area
of cultivated land has increased, the area of meadows has been radically reduced,
several lakes have been dried out and dwelling areas have spread as population has
increased. Spatially the most significant changes in land use have taken place near the
rivers Eurajoki and Lapijoki, where human activities concentrated also in earlier times,
because the river sides are lowlands of mainly clay and sand soils and thus are easily
utilised for cultivation.
57
Figure 2-16. A simplified illustration of pollen signatures reflecting cultivation near
mires in the Reference Area in order of decreasing altitude, i.e. decreasing age of dry
land, as modified from Vuorela (2000, fig. 17; apparently based on Aalto et al. 1981,
Vuorela 1991, Vuorela & Hicks 1996).
In the mid-1800s, the cultivated area consisted mainly of meadows and croplands that
were usually small and fragmented. The most dramatic changes in agriculture took
place in the latter part of the 1800s and early 1900s as traditional cultivation practices
were replaced by more modern and technically intensive agriculture, leading also to an
increase in the cropland area (Figure 2-17, Table 2-1; Koistinen & Käyhkö 2011). Since
the mid-1900s, fields have been taken into other uses especially near dwelling areas.
Meadows were turned into fields, particularly when the field area increased radically. A
major decline is noticeable also in the number of lakes, many of which were dried out in
the late 1800s (Koistinen & Käyhkö 2011), at least partially for cultivation11. Mires, on
the other hand, were not taken into cultivation as intensively as lakes as there probably
were enough potential fields in the clay and sand areas. However the largest mires in the
eastern parts of the Eurajoki municipality have been opened up for peat production. The
land use in the mid-1800s and at present are compared to the present soil types in Figure
2-18; clearly, clay, gyttja and fine-grained mineral soils have been favoured for
agriculture.
11
There were plans to dry Lake Pyhäjärvi (155 km²) at least in 1920s to gain more agricultural land (Laitakari 1925).
58
Table 2-1. Key phases in the development of land use and society since the mid-1800s,
compiled from the discussion in (Koistinen & Käyhkö 2011). The areas refer to the
areas under the land use type within the study area shown in Figure 2-17, or in
Koistinen & Käyhkö (2011, p. 41).
mid-1800s
late 1800s
Agriculture
early 1900s
mid-1900s
late 1900s
early 2000s
modernisation
Croplands
17 km²
63 km²
70 km²
68 km²
Meadows
40 km²
19 km²
3 km²
0.7 km²
Residential
river valleys
Villages
Transport
connections
some new farms
expansion and development
historical road network
railroad
dwellings in
forest areas
growth of
main village
recreational dwellings
at coastline
recession of
other villages
new national
main road
Figure 2-17. Changes in the cropland area in a study area within the Eurajoki
municipality compared to the baseline based on maps of 1840 (Koistinen & Käyhkö
2011, fig. 16). Blue areas indicate new cropland areas compared with the 1840
baseline, orange those that have been taken into other use and black cropland areas
that have prevailed the whole period. The scale bar is presented in kilometres.
The main dwelling areas were, in the mid-1800s, concentrated in river valleys and a few
villages elsewhere (Koistinen & Käyhkö 2011, p. 59). Dwellings followed this pattern
up to the mid-1900s as the existing villages and smaller dwelling centres expanded,
although population and housing density increased. Some new farms were established
in formerly uninhabited areas in the late 1800s and early 1900s, but by the mid-1900s
new sparsely populated areas also formed between villages as the economic structure
shifted from a traditional agricultural society towards an industrial and later postindustrial society12. By the mid-1900s the Eurajoki main village began to grow and
towards the present day it has become the most densely inhabited area of Eurajoki
municipality. Another trend during the last decades has been building of new dwellings
along the shores, but this is mainly for recreational use instead of as permanent
dwellings. Until the mid-1990s, dwellings were primarily in close proximity to fields
but since then this trend has declined as the significance of agriculture as a livelihood
has decreased. (Koistinen & Käyhkö 2011).
12
From 1877 to 1930s in Kaunissaari Island, near Olkiluoto, an industrial community lived around a saw mill, but the community
dried up after the saw mill was closed. Kaunissaari Island was also the first harbour in Eurajoki. (Heino 1992, p. 113, 122-129).
59
According to Koistinen & Käyhkö (2011, p. 63, 66-67) the road network has in general
followed the historical network of roads between the villages and the road between the
town of Rauma and the Eura municipality. By the 2000s, the network had intensified
but was still largely following the old framework. In the mid-1900s a new main road
connecting the cities along the west coast of Finland was built. The Eurajoki main
village has grown at the intersection of the Eurajoki River and this main road. A
railroad to Rauma was built in the late 1800s and it runs mainly through sparsely
inhabited areas of the Eurajoki municipality13. There is a harbour on Olkiluoto Island
although the nearest major harbour is in Rauma. Suitable places have also been used as
natural harbours before these permanent harbours were established.
Figure 2-19 presents the land use distribution of the present day in the Reference Area
and the present population density around the Olkiluoto site. The attractiveness of the
town of Rauma to the people is clearly seen in the southern part of the area, as well as
the Eurajoki main village along the national main road.
1840s
2007
100 %
100 %
90 %
90 %
80 %
80 %
70 %
70 %
60 %
60 %
50 %
50 %
40 %
40 %
30 %
30 %
20 %
20 %
10 %
10 %
0 %
0 %
Soil type in the soil map of the present
Land use at the time
Meadows and other agric.
Croplands
Forests and other land use
Mires
Lakes
Rivers
Soil type in the soil map of the present
Figure 2-18. Distribution of land use according to the present soil type in the maps of
the 1840s (left) and at present (2007; right); data from (Koistinen & Käyhkö 2001, figs.
23, 26).
13
There was also a short lived railroad from north-eastern parts of Eurajoki municipality to Eurajoensalmi Bay from 1912 to 1918 to
transport lumber to be shipped further (Heino 1992, p. 86–87, 116).
60
Figure 2-19. Land use in the Reference Area (CORINE Land Cover 2000 of Finnish
Environment Institute) and population density for a 250 x 250 m² grid cell (Grid
Database of Statistics Finland). Also the main roads, railways and sea lanes
(Topographic Database of National Land Survey) are shown. Map layout by Jani Helin,
Posiva Oy.
2.2 Identification of habitats within biosphere object types
For the biosphere assessment in the context of the Olkiluoto site, projections of the
future development of the site are needed (section 1.3.2), upon which the radionuclide
transport modelling is based on by delineating relevant interconnected areas (biosphere
objects) that are homogeneous enough considering the development history. For the
assessment models, appropriate input data needs to be defined  or rather, data sets are
required that are consistent internally and with the assessment scenario. For this, the
ecosystem types (or biosphere object types) have been divided into biotopes which refer
to uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage
of plants and animals, i.e. data sets needed to model the radionuclide transport and
exposure of people and other biota to the potential releases (see the Biosphere
Radionuclide Transport and Dose Assessment report, and the Dose Assessment for the
Plants and Animals report). The biotopes need to be defined so that it is possible
establish their likely occurrence in the future biosphere settings resulting from the
various scenario specifications with the assessment models based on the development
lines described above in section 2.1. The assessment input data sets are presented in the
Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report, as well as the specifications for biotope
identification in the models. The central characteristics of the biotopes are presented
from section 2.4 onwards. In the following section an outline of the projected future
biosphere is first presented as a framework to the further discussion in this report.
61
Table 2-2. Classification of the soil and sediment types in the biosphere assessment and
their linkage to the most commonly used soil and sediment type names (for further
details on linking to the types in the various data sources and on geochemical
properties of the soil and sediment types, see the Data Basis for the Biosphere
Assessment report). The most common soil bodies in the site conditions corresponding
to the soil and sediment type as the surface layer (Lilja et al. 2006, table 15) are also
shown.
Soil/sediment types
Rocky soil
Coarse-grained mineral soil
Medium-grained mineral soil
Fine(-grained) mineral soil
Clay
Gyttja
Peat
*
Common names of soil and sediment types
bedrock (outcrop), rock soil
gravel, gravelly till
sand, sandy till, mixed sediments
fine-textured till, fine sand, very fine sand, washed sand, silt
clay, glacial clay, Ancylus clay, Littorina clay
gyttja, gyttja clay, mud, gaseous sediments
peat, Sphagnum peat, Carex (sedge) peat
Common soil bodies*
Leptosols
Podzols
Podzols, Regosols
Regosols
Cambisols
Gleysols
Histosols
Common soil bodies representative to the soil/sediment type as the dominating surface layer; also other soil/sediment types may
occur in the deeper horizons of a soil body.
Following the idea of forest site classifications based on the fertility of the growth site,
the soil and sediment types are taken as the basis for the biotope classification; the
properties of the substrate determine to a great degree the type and growth of the
vegetation, and further the available habitats for the fauna that can be expected to be
present in the long term. Possibilities to specify the biotope-determining factors for the
future thus largely depend on the quality of the soil and sediment data for the site. As
discussed further in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report, the data
availability and uncertainties in characterising the present distribution of the soil and
sediment types and their properties lead to the classification presented in Table 2-2.
Based on these soil and sediment types, first forest and mire biotopes were defined
following the approach adopted already for the previous biosphere assessment
(Haapanen et al. 2009, table 11-7). Based on experience, the former two heath forest
types were merged. This was then extended to the aquatic ecosystems: based on the
fertility of the bottom substrate and on the attachment possibilities of plants and bottom
fauna on the sediment type, and on the lighting conditions in the water column,
combinations of hard and soft bottom types and photic (well-lit) and aphotic (dark)
bottoms were outlined. In addition, dense emergent vegetation areas (typically reed
beds) were identified as a clearly separate biotope that is rather homogeneous regarding
the bottom type on sheltered littoral areas. These aquatic biotopes were found to be
applicable to both coastal areas and lakes. Continuing the reasoning, acknowledging the
limited modelling possibilities, only the classes of shaded and well-lit river parts are
identified for rivers, although it was recognised that rapids are a distinct biotope worth
describing separately in this report regardless of the fact that there is little possibility to
identify the environment with the present inputs to the projection models. For the open
sea, using a single biotope was judged adequate based on its minor relevance to the dose
assessment; due to the large effective mixing volume, the concentrations remain small
with any reasonable releases as the open sea is already several kilometres from the
presently coastal site, the distance growing with crustal rebound (land uplift). This
biotope classification is illustrated in Table 2-3 and in Figure 2-20.
62
In addition to the (semi-)natural ecosystems, a similar kind of classification is applied
also to croplands. However, in addition to the suitability of the soil type (a reason for
the division between the coarse and medium-grained mineral soils, cf. Table 2-3), the
classes are based also on the type and uses of the crop (relevant to radionuclide
transport and exposure pathways) and the varying cultivation methods described in
section 2.4.8.
The present distributions of the biotopes at the site and in the Reference Area are
presented within the ecosystem-specific descriptions in section 2.4, and projections to
the future at the site are exemplified in the following section (Figures 2-21a and 2-21b).
In addition to the descriptions of the biotopes in the present report, the Data Basis for
the Biosphere Assessment report discusses explicitly the justification for the biotope
division in respect of the adequateness of the resolution and the reliability of projecting
their occurrence into the future.
Table 2-3. Classification of biotopes in the biosphere assessment based on soil/sediment
fertility, availability of photosynthetic radiation and degree of physical exposure. The
terrestrial biotopes include also various types of cropland defined in the future
projections by several suitability factors in addition to the suitability of the soil to the
crop type, thus not being unambiguously attributable to the soil type alone.
Peat
Grove
Mire

Photic soft
bottom

Aphotic
hard bottom
Aphotic soft
bottom

Open sea
Heath forest
Photic hard
bottom
Shaded river
Rock forest
Open river
Rocky soil
Coarse-grained mineral soil
Medium-grained mineral soil
Fine(-grained) mineral soil
Clay
Gyttja
Aquatic biotopes (sea/lake/river)
well-lit
dark
Forest and
mire biotopes
Reed bed
Soil/sediment type

Figure 2-20. Conceptual illustration of the biotopes of lakes and coastal sea areas
(PAR, photosynthetically active radiation), drawn by Teea Penttinen, Pöyry Finland
Oy.
63
2.3 Projecting biosphere objects and biotopes into the future
Providing the biosphere assessment with the biosphere settings over the next 10 000
years (the assessment time frame; section 1.3.3) is addressed in detail in the Terrain and
Ecosystems Development Modelling report, but a framework for describing the biotopes
(identified in the previous section) is provided in Figures 2-21a and 2-21b of the present
report for selected time points derived from the projections in the assessment , both for
the immediate surroundings of the repository site in the middle of the present Olkiluoto
Island and for the Gulf of Bothnia. The Bothnian Bay is expected to develop into a large
lake within a couple of thousand years and the water exchange between the Bothnian
Sea offshore of the Olkiluoto site and the Baltic Sea proper will decrease as the
connection through the Archipelago Sea ceases  consequently the present brackish
seawater off Olkiluoto will develop into an even less saline water. In the case illustrated
in Figure 2-21b the development is similar to the reference case (Figure 2-21a), but a
faster land uplift and a climate simulation resulting in a lower sea level are assumed to
enlarge the terrestrial areas. In addition, in the case of Figure 2-21b it assumed that there
would be no agriculture at the Olkiluoto site, and thus more groves and mires can
develop in this projection than in the reference case.
There are no proper lakes or peat bogs at the Olkiluoto site at present, but several will
develop in the future as shown in Figures 2-21a and 2-21b. Thus, a so-called Reference
Area has been delineated (Figure 1-10), in which seven lakes (Table 2-4, Figure 1-10)
and three mires (Table 2-6, Figure 1-10) of different types have been selected as
analogues for the future ones that are expected to form at Olkiluoto (Haapanen et al.
2010, ch. 6, 7; Haapanen et al. 2011). Also, the age of these present-day biosphere
objects is young, and the 9 000  10 000 years of development already experienced in
the Reference Area can be considered to mirror the future development at the Olkiluoto
site, as discussed in section 2.1 and in (Haapanen et al. 2010, ch. 6, 7).
Key properties of future lakes and mires forming at the Olkiluoto site are presented in
Tables 2-5 and 2-7, respectively, for comparison with the respective properties of the
reference lakes and mires presented in Tables 2-4 and 2-6. The lakes predicted to
develop in the nearby areas of Olkiluoto Island are a lake chain14 and a small
overgrowing lake, all of which are expected to be very shallow (mean depth ca. 1 – 5 m)
from their formation. In addition, a deeper and larger lake is expected to form to the
southwest of the present Olkiluoto Island. The future mires will initially cover small
areas and be situated mainly on till and clay soils. A large variation in the shape of these
biosphere objects is to be expected due to the sub-soil topography and by merging of
initially separate mires by lateral extension even though the model (Clymo 1984;
Terrain and Ecosystems Development Modelling) as such would produce a half of a flat
ellipsoid on an even, horizontal surface.
14
Smaller lakes in the chain have been almost totally overgrown already by year 4000 presented in Figures 2-21a and 2-21b. The
lake chain forms to the north of the present Olkiluoto Island and persists in some calculation cases considerably longer. In some
calculation cases, there are lake chains also downstream of the area shown in Figures 2-21a and 2-21b.
64
Figure 2-21a. Future development of the Gulf of Bothnia and of the Olkiluoto site
according to the reference case in Biosphere assessment BSA-2012 (the Terrain and
Ecocystems Development Modelling report). The numbering and the letters refer to
Tables 2-5 and 2-7, respectively.
65
Figure 2-21b. Future development of the Gulf of Bothnia and of the Olkiluoto site
according to a case of reasonably maximised terrestrial areas without crop cultivation
(the Terrain and Ecocystems Development Modelling report). The numbering and the
letters refer to Tables 2-5 and 2-7, respectively.
66
Table 2-4. Key properties of the present lakes selected as the analogues of the simulated
future lakes near Olkiluoto (n.a., data not available). Data from (Haapanen et al. 2010:
Valkjärvi p. 88, Poosjärvi p. 106, Kivijärvi p. 92, Lampinjärvi p. 93, Koskeljärvi and
Suomenperänjärvi p. 81, Lutanjärvi p. 112).
Size, ha
Shape
Elevation,
m a.s.l.
Water depth,
mean (max), m
6
Volume, 10 m³
Length of
shoreline, km
Water residence
time, y
Catchment, km²
Nature of the lake
Land cover in
catchment
Soil types in
catchment *
Represents
53
Hourglass
Lampinjärvi
82
Oblong
Koskeljärvi
657
Complex
Suomenperänjärvi
122
Round
31
25
21
42
41
14
2.9 (5.2)
1.6 (n.a.)
n.a.
n.a.
1.2 (3.2)
n.a.
1.6 (6.5)
9.6
5.6
n.a.
n.a.
7.4
n.a.
0.64
17.5
36.8
9.4
11.7
31
11.3
3.3
2.5–3.5
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
0.55
n.a.
3.2
12.3
Headwater
31.8
12.9
65.0
Drainage
14.2
Drainage
Heath and
rocky
forests
Heath and
rocky
forests
36.6
Drainage
Heath
forests,
mires,
croplands
Heath
forests,
mires,
croplands
Heath and rocky forests,
mires
Mediumand finegrained
mineral
soils
Mediumand finegrained
mineral
soils
Medium- and finegrained mineral soil,
peat
5.0
Headwater
Heath and
rocky
forests,
croplands
Mediumand finegrained
mineral soil,
rocky soils,
peat
Valkjärvi
Poosjärvi
Kivijärvi
335
Oblong
350
Oblong
51
Mediumand finegrained
mineral
soil, rocky
soil, peat
Mediumsized
Mediumand finegrained
mineral
soils
Overgrowing by
vegetation
Lake chain
Lutanjärvi
40
Oblong
Small
Table 2-5. Key properties of future lakes forming at Olkiluoto at about 10 000 years
after present, according to the reference case (REF) and to the case of reasonably
maximised terrestrial areas without agriculture (Terr_noAgri) in Biosphere assessment
BSA-2012 (the Terrain and Ecosystems Development Modelling report). Locations of
the lakes are indicated in Figures 2-21a and 2-21b.
Size, ha
Elevation, m a.s.l.
Water depth,
mean, m
6
Volume, 10 m³
Shoreline, km
Water residence
time, y *
Catchment, km²
Nature of the lake
*
**
1. Liponjärvi
REF
Terr_noAgri
346
275
31
57
2. Luolanjärvi
REF
Terr_noAgri
9.7
9.0
32
59
4.7
4.0
2.6
2.5
18.1
26.1
17.8
24.0
0.8
2.1
1.3
2.1
0.7
0.8
0.3
0.5
23
3.4
23
Drainage
3.4
Headwater
3. Susijärvi
REF
Terr_noAgri
25
2.3
28
55
2.3
1.7
2.2
0.1
5.0
0.9
0.001
0.0002
(12 h) **
(2 h) **
8.0
8.0
Drainage
Calculated from the water volume and the mean annual discharge through the lake.
These water residence times are really short since the continuation of the Eurajoki and Lapijoki Rivers flow through the small lake;
essentially this lake is a broader section of the river (mean annual discharge about 12 m³/s).
67
Table 2-6. Key properties of the present mires selected as analogues of the simulated
future mires near Olkiluoto (n.a., data not available).
Pesänsuo
18
Size, ha
Shape
Round
Origin
Primary mire
formation,
paludification
Type of sub-soil
Lastensuo
440
Ellipsoid with
two centres
Not known
R1
Clay
Clay, sand
R5
Elevation, m a.s.l.
Age, y
Peat thickness,
mean (maximum), m
Peat types, % of volume *
Accumulation rate mm/y
R5
80 – 87
R5
9 200
n.a. (6.3)
S 80, C 20
R5
0.69
R11
Vegetation cover
Forested
Catchment, km²
0.2
Fields
Heath forests
Fine-grained
R17
mineral soils
Medium- and
fine-grained
mineral soils
Soil types in catchment
*
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
S Sphagnum peat; C Carex (sedge) peat.
Ikonen 1993, fig. 3 and 4.
Also easily weathering mafic diabase dykes in the
bedrock; Mäkilä & Grundström 2008, p. 23.
Tuittila 1983, p.80; Korhola 1992, p. 61.
Leino 2011, p. 14-16.
Mäkilä & Grundström 2008, table 1.
Tuittila 1983, p.72-80.
Eronen et al. 1995, Fig. 11
Väliranta et al. 2007, p. 1094.
Eronen et al. 1995, table 1.
Tuittila et al. 1988, p. 119; Ikonen 1993, p.9-11.
R18
R11
R12
R14
R15
R16
R17
R18
R19
Round
Complex
Paludification,
expansion
Clay
R3
80 – 86
R8
9 400
C
R5
1.08
Open in the
centres
11
Land cover in catchment
Olkiluodonjärvi
12
R6
44 – 48
R5
5 300
R10
4.1 (6.7)
R2
Kontolanrahka
880
4.2 (7.1)
Primary mire formation,
terrestrialisation,
paludification
Gyttja-clay, clay,
R4
sand
R7
1.5
R9
500
R12
n.a.
S 88, C 12
R14
0.5
Treeless and
forested parts
R15
12.4
Clay fields,
heath forests
S, C
n.a.
Treeless and
forested parts
R16
0.5
Heath forests, small
fallows
Medium- and
fine grained
R19
mineral soils
Medium- and finegrained mineral soils,
peat, rocky soils
Mäkilä & Grundström 2008, p. 23.
Väliranta et al. 2007, p.1094; Tuittila 1983, p. 74; Korhola
1992, p. 62.
0.2  4, average 0.59 mm/y (Mäkilä & Grundström 2008,
p. 17).
Tuittila 1983, p. 72-80; Korhola 1992.
Calculated from the digital terrain model of (Pohjola et al.
2012).
Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 161-163.
Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 132.
Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 157.
Table 2-7. Key properties of future mires forming at Olkiluoto at about 10 000 years
after present, according to the reference case (REF) and to the case of reasonably
maximised terrestrial areas without agriculture (Terr_noAgri) in Biosphere assessment
BSA-2012 (the Terrain and Ecosystems Development Modelling report). Locations of
the mires are indicated in Figures 2-21a and 2-21b.
Size, ha
Shape
Age, y **
Peat thickness,
mean (max.), m
A. Satamansuo
REF
Terr_noAgri
5.2
15.8
Complex
Complex
8 000
8 500
n.a. (4.2)
n.a. (4.4)
B. Liiklanperä
REF
Terr_noAgri
21.8
42.1
Oblong
Oblong
(complex)
>10 000 ***
n.a. (4.6)
n.a. (4.6)
C. Susijärvensuo
REF
Terr_noAgri
6.5
6.6
Round
Round
8 000
8 000
n.a. (4.4)
n.a. (4.4)
*
Highest elevation on top of the peat bog.
** Simulation time steps are 500 years beginning from year 2020, the emplacement of the first disposal canister.
*** Already existing at present, age unknown.
68
The biosphere assessment considers several scenarios and calculation cases
(Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios; Terrain and Ecosystems Development
Modelling). Even though different combinations of drivers affecting to the future
development of the biosphere have been considered, the results are rather similar. The
largest differences arise from variants assuming that there is no crop cultivation in the
area: in this case the croplands e.g. in Figure 2-21a are mainly groves and mires as
exemplified in Figure 2-21b, whereas in the cases assuming present type of agriculture
both groves and mires are rather few and small as they are most suitable areas for
cultivation.
2.4 Description of biosphere object types at the present
2.4.1 Open sea
The open sea is characterised by a maximal water exchange and no direct influence of
littoral areas. It is a relatively deep open water area with a water depth of at least 10
metres (on the other hand, not all areas with a water depth over 10 m can be considered
as an open sea, cf. definition of the coastal areas in section 2.4.2). In addition, other
distinguishing features are a large volume of water and entirely aphotic (dark) bottom.
Typical characteristics of the open sea biotope are provided in Table 2-8 and these are
discussed further in the text below. Figure 2-22 presents the bathymetric and sediment
type map from the area of the Gulf of Bothnia  at this scale practically all of the area is
considered as open sea, except the Archipelago Sea, which is a larger area of coastal
biotopes discussed in the following section.
Table 2-8. Typical characteristics of the open sea biotope in the Bothnian Sea, adjacent
to the Olkiluoto site.
Geology
Hydrology and water
chemistry
Primary producers
Fauna
Human activities
*
**
Open sea
 topmost surface sediments mostly oxidised down to 0.1-10 cm
 below the oxidised sediments, anaerobic conditions prevail due to decomposition
of organic matter
 counter-clockwise circulation prevails
 short period of thin ice cover during the normal winter
 relatively cold environment with wide annual variation in water temperature
 strong thermocline, i.e. strong vertical stratification due to water temperature
differences between surface and bottom
 brackish water, salinity on average 6 ‰
 water column is well oxidised
 concentrations of nutrients and suspended solids lower than at coasts
 distinct annual cycles of inorganic nutrients due to abiotic and biotic factors
 phytoplankton species are the only primary producers, due to absence of photic
bottoms
 all phytoplankton production occurs in the euphotic surface zone
 level of primary production depends on the nutrient levels
 diversity of the fauna is low
 zooplankton is the important link between the primary producers and fish
 dominating macro-zoobenthos species are Baltic macoma, amphipod Monoporeia
affinis and the originally invasive polychaeta Marenzellaria sp.
 common fish are Baltic herring and sprat, both small and pelagic species
 waterfowl and mammal communities are scarce; eider duck and grey seal are the
only common ones
 fishing *
 maritime activities **
Further information in (RKTL 2011b), esp. table 4.
Further information in (HELCOM 2009), section 6.2.
69
Figure 2-22. Water depth distribution (Seifert et al. 2001) and classification of the
bottom types (based on Al-Hamdani & Reker 2007) in the northern Baltic Sea. The
border of the open sea biotope would not identify from the thickness and detail of the
coastline in this scale. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
Geology
In the Bothnian Sea the bedrock undulates, whereas the sedimentary rock areas have
more gentle features (Rantataro & Kaskela 2009, p. 10). The Quaternary stratigraphy is
subdivided into glacial, late-glacial, post-glacial and recent sediments, discussed in
section 2.1.2.
The hard bottoms consist typically of Precambrian and sedimentary rocks, till, and
stony and gravelly sediments. In the soft bottoms, the sediments may be very fine and
fine tills and sands, glacial silts, clays and gyttja clays, mixed glacioaquatic sediments,
gaseous sediments or recent clays/gyttja/mud. About 50  80% of the bottom of the
Baltic Sea is covered by post-glacial deposits (e.g. Emelyanov 1988, p. 127-128;
Rantataro 1992, p. 68, ch. 10). The areas over which active sedimentation still continues
are, however, quite limited (Ignatius & Niemistö 1971, p. 76). Wave induced water
movements are eroding bottom deposits at depths at depths as great as 40 m in open sea
areas (Haavisto & Kukkonen 1975, p. 18).
Some surface sea-bottom sediments (< 50 cm) of sand and silty and muddy sand, with
some gravel, have been cored from the open sea area off Olkiluoto (Lahdenperä &
Keskinen 2011, table 1). Long sections of sediment core are still lacking, but they are
planned to cored in the near future. The geochemistry of the surface sea samples is
described in Lahdenperä & Keskinen (2011, section 3.1); as expected, the distribution
70
pattern of most elements is strongly linked to that of organic matter, carbon and the fine
fraction.
The topmost sediments are mostly oxidised between 0.1-10 cm, but even down to 40 cm
at some locations, below which anaerobic conditions prevail due to the decomposition
of organic matter (Lahdenperä & Keskinen 2011, table 1). The oxic (or sub-oxic)
sediments surface layer is fluffy with high water content, and brown or greyish brown in
colour. According to Kotilainen et al. (2007, p.60), the occurrence of laminated
sediments in the topmost part of the sedimentary column suggests that conditions have
shifted between oxidising and reducing several times at the seafloor. The laminated
structure is preserved in these sediments probably due to the depleted oxygen conditions
of the sea floor, and thus decreased bottom fauna activity. This is also supported by the
results of macro-zoobenthos monitoring (Haahti & Kangas 2006, p. 11-13).
Hydrology and water chemistry
The Bothnian Sea is a relatively cold sea with an annual mean temperature of 5 ºC, but
there are wide annual temperature ranges from 0 to over 20 ºC (Wijnbladh et al. 2008,
p. 19). In summer, surface water is warmer and a strong thermocline is created (vertical
stratification), as in deep areas the temperature near the bottom is fairly constant (4–6
ºC) throughout the year (Wijnbladh et al. 2008, p. 19). In wintertime, the open sea is
covered with ice for a shorter period than coastal areas, and the ice cover is also thinner.
The Bothnian Sea freezes on average in mid-February and melts in mid-April (Kirkkala
& Oravainen 2005, p. 10).
The salinity of the Bothnian Sea is much lower (6 ‰; Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 37;
Kiirikki et al. 2004, p. 7) than that of the world oceans (35 ‰); more generally, the
Baltic Sea is brackish. However, the salinity of the open sea area is still considerably
higher than in the bays with major freshwater inflows. The low salinity results from the
limited connection of the Baltic Sea to the Atlantic Ocean and to a large freshwater
input from rivers. In most of the Baltic Sea, there is a permanent halocline between the
lighter, less saline native water, and the heavier saline water from the Atlantic Ocean,
reflecting the separation of these layers from each other. The thickness of the different
layers varies from basin to basin (Kullenberg 1981, p.138). The stratification prevents
the vertical mixing of the water and the transport of oxygen from the surface to the
bottom. However, in the Bothnian Sea, the vertical differences in salinity are smaller
because underwater sills at Ahvenanmaa (Åland) prevent the saline deepwater from
moving north (Vehviläinen 2005, p. 20). Thus, atmospheric oxygen is more easily
mixed to the whole water column and anoxic bottoms are less common.
The currents in the Baltic Sea have an anti-clockwise direction (Kiirikki et al. 2004, p.
9). As the main current direction at the west-coast of Finland is from south to north,
nutrient-rich waters from the Archipelago Sea affect the water quality of open sea areas
near Olkiluoto (Helminen & Kirkkala 2005, p. 25). In the open sea, concentrations of
nutrients and suspended solids as well as turbidity are lower than in the coastal areas.
Due to seasonal variation, inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations show clear
annual cycles (Wijnbladh et al. 2008, p. 21). In winter, the uptake of inorganic nutrients
by phytoplankton is low and nutrient concentrations increase reaching maximum values
71
before the onset of the spring bloom. In spring and summer, most of the inorganic
nutrients are taken up by phytoplankton, and the concentrations fall considerably lower.
Primary producers
The major part of the primary production takes place during the well-lit open water
season, i.e. during the ice-free period (Haapanen et al, 2009, p. 28) and only in the
euphotic zone (quantitatively defined for the Olkiluoto site in the Data Basis for the
Biosphere Assessment report, section 3.3.1 and ch. 7). Due to the absence of photic
bottoms, the various phytoplankton species are the only primary producers in the open
sea. Seasonal variation of the primary production level is high and the major part of the
production takes place in spring and late summer (Andersson et al. 1996, p. 796). In
general, diatoms (mainly Chaetoceros wighamii) dominate the community in spring and
cyanobacteria (mainly Aphanizomenon sp.) in late summer (Haapanen et al. 2009, fig.
7-25). The level of the production is mainly dependent on the nutrient concentrations of
the sea water (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 198) and the limiting nutrient is nitrogen
(Andersson et al. 1996, p. 797). Other factors that affect the level of primary
productivity are salinity (HELCOM 2009, p. 30) and low temperatures (Schiewer 2008,
p. 11).
Fauna
Both marine and freshwater species meet their physiological limit in the brackish water
environment and the diversity of the open sea fauna is low (HELCOM 2009, p. 12); the
homogenous environment and the aphotic bottom offer few habitats for species.
Zooplankton forms an important link between the primary producers and the fish
(HELCOM 2009, p. 43). Due to the brackish water conditions and the relatively small
availability of primary producers, the diversity and density of the zooplankton
community is low (Schiewer 2008, p. 12; HELCOM 2009, p. 12). The dominating
species are calanoid copepods and few cladocera species (Vuorinen & Rajasilta 1978, p.
21; Schiewer 2008, p. 11; HELCOM 2009, p. 43).
Diversity of the bottom fauna is low and fluctuations in the species density are high
(Laine 2005, p. 98). The dominating species are Baltic macoma, the amphipod
Monoporeia affinis and the originally invasive polychaeta Marenzellaria sp. (Sarvala et
al. 2005, p. 101). In general, two fish species are common in the open sea area: Baltic
herring and sprat, both of which are small and pelagic species (HELCOM 2009, p. 55).
There are major seasonal changes in the Bothnian Sea bird community during the year.
In the ice-free period, many bird species migrate to and through the Bothnian Sea for
nesting, and the majority of the waterfowl leave the area before the winter (Skov et al.
2011, ch. 3; Backer & Frias 2012, p. 29). Generally, information on the open sea avian
species is scarce. Common eider, the most numerous waterfowl in the area, occupies the
outermost islets of the Bothnian Sea and migratory bird species do rest in the open sea
areas (HELCOM 2002, p. 170-171; Backer & Frias 2012, p. 29). Grey seal is the most
common aquatic mammal (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry 2007, p. 27-28; Backer
& Frias 2012, p. 29).
72
2.4.2 Coastal areas
The coastal area can be characteristic as a relatively shallow and rather open area
between the open sea and the coastline with water depth usually less than 10 metres
(local depressions excluded). Another distinguishing feature is that the salinity of the
water is higher than in freshwater and often less than in the open sea. A coastal area is
directly connected to the open sea and the water level follows the sea level. The
interaction between the sediment, the water chemistry and physical factors is more
intensive than in the open sea. Typical characteristics of the coastal biotopes are
summarised in Table 2-9 and discussed further in the text below. Figure 2-23 presents
photographs showing typical settings of the coastal biotopes at Olkiluoto, and Figure 224 shows the distribution of the coastal and open sea biotopes at the present Olkiluoto
site based on the water depth and surface sediment types, as outlined in section 2.2
(Table 2-3).
Photographs: A Hannu Vallas, Lentokuva Vallas Oy; B1, B3, D1, D2 Reija Haapanen, Haapanen Forest Consulting; B2, D3 Ari Ikonen,
Posiva Oy; B4, C4, D4, E2 Anne Haapanen, Haapanen Forest Consulting; C1, C2, C3 Jani Helin, Posiva Oy; E1 Ville Kangasniemi,
Pyhäjärvi Institute.
Figure 2-23. Typical representatives of the coastal biotopes at the Olkiluoto site.
*
**



















fishing **
maritime activities **
dredging
waste water releases
shoreline (and offshore) construction
Photic soft bottom
Aphotic hard bottom
Aphotic soft bottom
 exposed deep areas
 sheltered deep areas
 sheltered shallow areas
 weak littoral forces
 high concentration of
elements due to active
 high concentration of
sedimentation
elements due to active
sedimentation
relatively shallow water (< 10 m)
brackish to freshwater depending on effect of river discharges and connection to open sea
water column and surface sediments well oxidised
high concentration of nutrients and suspended solids near river mouths
mean duration of ice cover 80  100 days
 high primary production
 only phytoplankton production (euphotic zone)
moderately high primary
production
 diverse community of
 brackish and freshwater species
brackish and freshwater
hard bottom restrictive to
species
macrophytes
bladder wrack and
 emergent and submerged
stonewort dominate
macrophytes dominate
 moderately high species
high species diversity
 high species diversity
 low species diversity
diversity
 brackish and freshwater
 brackish and freshwater
brackish and freshwater
 brackish and freshwater
species
species
species
species
 macro-zoobenthos
 macro-zoobenthos
macro-zoobenthos
 macro-zoobenthos
dominated by amphipods
dominated by Baltic
dominated by amphipods
dominated by burrowing
species
macoma, oligochaetes and
invasive polychaeta *
 diverse fish community
fish dominated by perch and
 fish dominated by Cyprinids
 fish dominated by perch,
dominated by perch and
roach
roach, bottom-dwellers
(eelpout, ruffe) and Baltic
roach
herring
 diverse waterfowl
 scarce waterfowl
 scarce waterfowl
moderately diverse
community, dominated by
community, dominated by
community, dominated by
waterfowl community,
dominated by common
common eider, other ducks
common eider and seagulls
common eider and seagulls
eider, other ducks and
and seagulls
seagulls
grey seal
 grey seal
 grey seal
 grey seal
Photic hard bottom
 exposed shallow areas
 strong littoral forces
Baltic macoma being a typical burrowing soft-bottom species, the oligochaetes being Tubificidae, and the invasive polychaeta being Marenzelleria sp.
For further information on fishing, see (RKTL 2011b, table 4), and on maritime activities (HELCOM 2009, section 6.2).
Human activities
Fauna
Primary
producers
Hydrology and
water chemistry
Geology
Table 2-9. Typical characteristics of the biotopes in coastal areas at the Olkiluoto site.
very high primary production
dense macrophyte beds
common reed dominates
freshwater and terrestrial
species
 occasionally freshwater or
terrestrial mammal species
 important reproduction
habitat for several fish
 major foraging and shelter
area for juvenile fish
 waterfowl common
 typically mallard, goldeneye,
mute swan
 freshwater and terrestrial
species
 macro-zoobenthos
dominated byinsect larvae
 very high species diversity




Reed bed
 sheltered littoral areas
 relatively high concentration
of elements due to active
sedimentation and high
input of dead organic matter
 dense vegetation retains
organic matter and nutrients
 weak water exchange
 high nutrient content
73
74
Figure 2-24. Water depth distribution (Pohjola et al. 2012), surface sediment types
(Rantataro & Kaskela 2009) and the corresponding distribution of the coastal and open
sea biotopes (cf. Table 2-3) at the Olkiluoto site. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
Geology
Generally, in the coastal area of the offshore areas at Olkiluoto, the hard bottoms consist
of areas dominated by exposed granitic or sedimentary bedrock, about 15  20% of the
whole sea floor, and till with a respective share of 40  50% (Figures 2-10 and 2-24;
Rantataro & Kaskela 2009, p. 18). Sedimentary rocks are at the closest about 5  6 km
offshore from the western parts of Olkiluoto (Rantataro & Kaskela 2009, p. 8). The
gently dipping northwest-southeast structure in the sea bottom geology is dominant,
especially in large till-based formations. On the till base, narrow troughs in the hard
75
bottom filled by softer sediments are clearly observable. Typically exposed bedrock
areas are found in shallow waters. (Rantataro & Kaskela 2009, p. 7, 18).
The soft sediment bottoms cover some 15  20 % of the sea bottom offshore at
Olkiluoto and the percentage of soft bottoms increases towards the inner archipelago
(Figures 2-10, 2-24; Rantataro & Kaskela 2009, p. 18). The recent/sub-recent mud/clay
covers about 60  80 % of the sea floor in the sheltered near-shore basins and active
sedimentation is taking place in the inner archipelago where rivers carry material.
Glacial, Ancylus clay and Littorina gyttja-clay cover typically only very shallow shoals
or straits with currents where recent sediments cannot be deposited or have been
eroded away, with the erosion likely continuing to shave off the older clay deposits at
present (see section 2.1.2). There are also extensive areas of gaseous, so-called
“acoustically bubbling” sediments around Olkiluoto (Rantataro & Kaskela 2009, p. 15).
Surficial/erosion-remnant sand, some centimetres thick, accumulates on the top of older
sediments due to wave and current action. Erosion forces disturb fine-grained particles
and re-sedimentation will take place in a calm environment, such as sheltered bays,
deep basins or in the open sea. As a consequence of this washing effect, heavier
particles stay in place as erosional remnants. Thus, the border between the hard and soft
bottom areas is not sharp and the conditions can vary and change gradually (Ignatius et
al. 1981, p. 55-117).
The littoral forces (mainly waves and ice) are much stronger on steep shores exposed to
an extensive body of water with no islands, compared to the situation where there are a
gentle sloping shores protected by islands. Similarly, shores composed of relatively
fine-grained sorted sandy and till soils are more susceptible to the effect of the littoral
forces compared to stony shores, not to mention bare bedrock (Haapanen et al. 2009,
p.135, fig. 5-1). The accumulation of organic matter resulting, in part, from the input of
suspended matter from river discharge and the development of reed beds, results in
enhanced shoreline displacement than that on open shorelines of similar slope
(Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 39-40).
Offshore at Olkiluoto, the topmost sediment (0-10 cm) is mostly oxidised with a brown,
olive grey or greenish brown colour (Lahdenperä & Keskinen 2011, table 1), but below
this horizon anaerobic conditions prevail.
The distribution of trace and heavy element concentrations in surface sediments (down
to a depth of 50 cm) are linked to the distribution of organic matter, i.e. the
concentrations are much higher in the recent (i.e. post-Littorina) mud and gyttja-clay
sediments, which are under active accumulation, than in sand- and till-dominated hard
erosion bottoms (Lahdenperä & Keskinen 2011, p. 90). The pH decreases with the
sediment depth and varies from very acidic to alkaline; acidic surface sediments are
found in the sheltered Olkiluodonvesi bay area south of Olkiluoto Island and in the
Eurajoensalmi Bay (Lahdenperä & Keskinen 2011, p. 89). Compared with the element
concentrations of the surface sea-bottom sediments, the respective concentrations in the
soils of the Olkiluoto Island are lower for most of the elements (Lahdenperä &
Keskinen 2011, p. 91; Lahdenperä 2009, apps. 2.1, 2.3).
76
Hydrology and water chemistry
The hydrology of the coastal areas near Olkiluoto is characterised by mixing of nutrientand solids-rich freshwater from rivers and the brackish sea waters. This is pronounced
in the river mouths of Eurajoki and Lapijoki (Lauri 2008, sections 4.1 and 4.2; Lindfors
et al. 2008, ch 3; Mykkänen et al. 2013). The impact of winds on water current
conditions north of Olkiluoto is, due to the lack of islands, exceptionally strong
(Mykkänen et al. 2013). The effect of cooling water from the nuclear power plants on
Olkiluoto Island is visible off the western parts of the island, where it changes the flow
conditions and increases the seawater temperature (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 189-192).
The effect of the cooling water is seen most clearly in winter, when the nearby sea area
stays unfrozen. In a normal winter, the mean duration of the ice cover is several months
elsewhere in the coastal area of Olkiluoto (Haapanen et al. 2009, fig. 7-10). The oxygen
saturation of near-bottom waters around Olkiluoto has mainly remained good
(Haapanen et al. 2009, fig. 7-11). The oxygen conditions are affected, for example, by
thermal stratification, bottom quality and the amount of decomposing material
(Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 193). Aphotic soft bottoms may be more prone to oxygen
deficiency than photic bottoms, but this depends in detail on temperature conditions and
on the amount of decomposing organic material which is consuming oxygen.
The nutrient concentrations in the seawater off Olkiluoto are typical of the coastal
waters of the Bothnian Sea (Haapanen 2009, p. 194). Especially in the Eurajoensalmi
Bay, water is rich in nutrients and suspended solids, and salinity is lower due to mixing
with freshwater from the rivers (Koivunen 2011, p. 26-27). The influence of river
waters is seen especially during rainy periods and in spring when snow is melting. In
sheltered and shallow areas with limited water exchange, the levels of nutrients and
suspended solids are typically higher than those of other coastal areas (Alahuhta 2008,
p. 12-13; Lindfors et al. 2008, p. 9-14; Haapanen et al. 2010, p. 220).
Primary producers
The general condition of the Bothnian Sea coastal waters and loading from the mainland
by the Eurajoki and Lapijoki rivers, as well as local waste-water loading, impact the
water quality and biological production of the Olkiluoto coastal area (e.g. HELCOM
2009b, Fig. 3.1). Irregular climatic variation also exerts a considerable influence on the
nutrient economy and biological production (Schiewer 2008b, p. 404). Compared with
the open sea, the level of primary production is higher in the coastal areas due to higher
nutrient levels (Schiewer 2008b, p. 404; HELCOM 2009b, Fig. 2.6) and the presence of
macroalgae and macrophytes. During an average winter, the coastal area of Olkiluoto is
covered by ice (Haapanen et al. 2009, fig. 7-10) which prevents the growth of
macrophytes and shades the environment. The phytoplankton production and
composition is mainly comparable with the open sea: phytoplankton production takes
place in the euphotic zone (see the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report,
section 3.3.1) and seasonal variation of the production is high (Andersson et al. 1996, p.
796; Haapanen et al. 2009, fig. 7-25; Turkki 2011, p. 48) and the dominating species
vary during the growing season (Andersson et al. 1996, table 1; Turkki 2011, p. 56).
The phytoplankton community structure and production is practically similar in all
coastal biotopes.
77
Macrophytes and macroalgae occur only in the photic-bottom biotopes. Hard bottoms
prevent the growth of macrophytes and in those areas macroalgae dominate the flora
(Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 138). Species richness is high in the macroalgae communities
and common species are bladder wrack and stonewort (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 140,
214; Schiewer 2008, fig. 1.6). Macroalgae communities contain also numerous small
epiphytic species. On soft bottom areas, the primary production and diversity of flora is
high and freshwater macrophytes dominate the flora (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 138;
Kangasniemi & Helin 2013, ch. 4). Submerged species such as fennel pondweed, water
milfoil and yellow water lily, are common with the emergent common reed (Haapanen
et al. 2009, p. 140-141, 214; Kangasniemi et al. 2011, table 1; Kangasniemi & Helin
2013, ch. 4).
The littoral zone is a shallow-water interface between the aquatic and terrestrial
environments where the diversity of flora and fauna is high (Ekstam 2007, p. 54). These
‘water-edge’ environments represent the starting point for primary succession on landuplift areas; the photic zone being colonised by aquatic vegetation which varies with
shore type. Stony, rocky and gravel surfaces are typically colonised by meadow species
whereas till shores are dominated by grasses and low-growing shrubs and fine sediment
bottoms. A soft and nutritious substrate favours emergent macrophytes and especially
the common reed, which forms an almost continuous belt around Olkiluoto Island
(Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 138; Haapanen & Lahdenperä 2011, p. 66; Kangasniemi et al.
2011, Table 1; Kangasniemi & Helin 2013, ch. 4).
Fish and bottom fauna
Coastal aquatic communities are a mixture of freshwater, brackish and marine species
and the diversity is higher than in the open sea (Bonsdorff 2006, p. 387; HELCOM
2009, section 3.3, p.55; Ojaveer 2010, fig 5, p. 12). The zooplankton community is
dependent on the abiotic (e.g. temperature, salinity and oxygen) and biotic (e.g.
phytoplankton production) competition and predators (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 201).
The most important zooplankton species are the cladocera Bosmina longispina maritima
and the copepoda Acartia tonsa (Haapanen et al, 2009, p. 215). Zooplankton
communities are practically similar in all coast biotopes. Compared with the open sea,
the diversity of bottom fauna and fish communities is higher in the coast biotopes due to
ecologically more complex habitats and the lower level of salinity, which enables
persistency of freshwater species (Bonsdorff 2006, p. 386-387). The coastal bottom
fauna at Olkiluoto are dominated by bivalve molluscs, gastropod snails, amphipods and
polychaete worms (Ilmarinen et al. 2009, p. 17; Kangasniemi 2010, Table 3). Around
50 different fish species have been recorded with Baltic herring, roach, perch and pike
being the most ecologically and commercially important species present (Lehtonen
2005b, p. 102).
An aphotic hard substrate with lack of flora means fewer habitats for the various
organisms. The environment is homogenous and only a few ecological niches exist.
Benthic amphipods (Monoporeia affinis and Saduria entomon) are the major group of
macro-zoobenthos (HELCOM 2002, p. 69). The fish community is dominated by perch
78
and roach and other common species are the pelagic Baltic herring and bottom dwellers
eelpout and ruffe (Koli 2002, p. 225; HELCOM 2006b, p. 4).
Aphotic soft substrate offers more possibilities for macro-zoobenthos and the diversity
of burrower species can be high. Common species are Baltic macoma, oligochates
(Tubificidae), Chironomid larvae as well as New Zealand mud snail and polychaeta
Marenzelleria sp., which both are originally invasive species (Leppäniemi & Olenin
2001, p. 204; Leppäkoski et al. 2002, p. 256; Kangasniemi 2010, table 3). The diverse
fish community is dominated by perch and roach (Koli 2002, p. 134, 276).
Photic conditions and a hard substrate offers various niches and complex habitats due to
diverse flora. Benthic amphipods dominate the macro-zoobenthos community (Gogina
& Zettler 2010, fig. 2; Ilmarinen et al. 2009, app. 3). There are also numerous niches on
the photic soft bottom areas due to dense vegetation and the soft substrate. Common
macro-zoobenthos species on these bottoms are similar to aphotic soft bottom areas, but
insect larvae (e.g. chironomids) and gastropods are more common (Ilmarinen et al.
2009, p. 18). On the photic bottoms, the fish community is dominated by cyprinids and
perch (HELCOM 2006b, p. 3-4).
In the reed bed biotope, emergent macrophytes form dense stands, which offer habitats
for numerous organisms (Ekstam 2007, p. 54). Bottom fauna is mainly freshwater
species: insect larvae and gastropods are the common groups (Below & Mikkola-Roos
2007, p. 42; Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 141). Reed beds are important reproduction
habitats for several fish species and major foraging and shelter areas for juvenile fish
(Kallasvuo et al. 2011, p. 6-8).
Mammals and birds
Compared with the open sea, the coastal bird community is more diverse due to the
availability of numerous habitats. The western shoreline area of Olkiluoto Island is
classed as regionally valuable as a nesting and migratory area for waterfowl (Haapanen
et al. 2009, p. 65). Common eider is the most abundant species (Yrjölä 2009, p. 26)15.
During a normal winter, the coastal biotopes do not support suitable areas for waterfowl
and the majority of the species migrate to the south (Skov et al. 2011, ch. 3; Backer &
Frias 2012, p. 29).
Three marine mammal species are found in the Finnish regions of the Baltic Sea;
harbour porpoise, grey seal and a sub-species of the ringed seal (Haapanen et al. 2009,
p. 205). Of the mammals present, the grey seal is clearly the most abundant (Ministry of
Agriculture and Forestry 2007, p. 27-28; Backer & Frias 2012, p. 29).
In the reed beds of Olkiluoto, waterfowl, e.g. mallard, goldeneye and mute swan, are
common (Yrjölä 2009, p. 19). Mammalian species recorded in the reed bed areas
include yellow-necked mice, bank voles and field voles (Nieminen & Saarikivi 2008, p.
8-9). Other species such as common lizards, ants and carabid beetles have been
15
See (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 139) for a more extensive description of the birds and their habitats in the Olkiluoto area.
79
recorded, also (Ranta et al. 2005, table 2; Nieminen & Saarikivi 2008, p. 8-9; Santaharju
et al. 2009, ch. 6).
2.4.3 Lakes
Lakes can be defined as relatively uniform permanent freshwater basins, typically larger
than one hectare (cf. small water bodies, section 2.4.5). A formal definition of lakes is
given in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report. Typical characteristics of
the lake biotopes are summarised in Table 2-10 and discussed further in the text below.
Figure 2-25 presents photographs of typical settings of the lake biotopes in the
Reference Area (at present there are no proper lakes at the Olkiluoto site, see sections
1.4.2, 2.3), and Figure 2-26 indicates the water depth distribution in the selected
reference lakes and the biotope classification on the two lakes for which such data are
so far available  further studies are in progress.
Geology
In Finland the lakes are mostly developed on bedrock fault lines or in rift valleys, a few
even in craters created by meteorites (e.g. Tikkanen 1990, p. 240; Salonen et al. 2002, p.
33; Ojala 2007, p. 27). The lake basins were isolated from the various stages of the
Baltic Sea, mainly from the Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea phases, as a result of postglacial crustal rebound and the related tilting of the topography in the submerged coastal
areas in southern, western and central Finland (section 2.1). The crustal rebound is still
continuing and thus new lakes are emerging from the coastal bays.
At present, freshwater ecosystems are few in the Olkiluoto area and there are no natural
lakes on the island. In order to obtain of the properties of the future lakes developing
from the emerging land, lakes of various successional stages were selected from the
Reference Area as analogues of those expected to form at the Olkiluoto site (section 2.3;
Haapanen et al. 2010, ch. 6 and 7; Haapanen et al. 2011, p. S649). The reference lakes,
like coastal areas, are heterogeneous with both hard and soft bottoms. Within sheltered
bay areas and in the vicinity of inlets, soft shores are evident in each reference lake.
The post-glacial sediment thickness of the eight lakes in the Reference Area was studied
using ground-penetrating radar on ice cover, and the stratigraphy was confirmed by a
core sampling in each lake (Ojala 2011, p. 9-11). The lakes contained a 2-8 m thick
section of post-glacial sediments (Ojala 2011, section 4.3). The sediment stratigraphy
and chemical and physical properties differ between the lakes and within a lake.
Sediment erosion, transportation and deposition/re-deposition are significant but often
slowly-operating processes in a lacustrine environment. The rate of erosion and
sediment yield depend primarily on water depth in different parts of the lake, wind and
current action, hydrological and palaeohydrological changes. The accumulation in the
studied lakes was high and the lake basins are becoming shallower. Due to a decrease in
the water volume, the hydrological and limnological properties will change as the flow
increases and water residence time becomes shorter, water stratification decreases, and
the temperature and oxygen content normally increase. All these changes will affect the
quality and quantity of the sediment and biogeochemical processes. (Ojala 2011, section
4.3).
80
Photographs: A Hannu Vallas, Lentokuva Vallas Oy; B1, D1, D2, E1, E3 Reija Haapanen, Haapanen Forest Consulting; B2, B3, D3 Ari
Ikonen, Posiva Oy; B4, D4 Anne Haapanen, Haapanen Forest Consulting; C1, C2, C3 Jani Helin, Posiva Oy; C4, E2, E4 Ville
Kangasniemi, Pyhäjärvi Institute.
Figure 2-25. Typical representatives of the lake biotopes in the Reference Area.
 moderate primary
production
 moderately diverse
macrophyte community
 submerged and isoëtid
species dominate
 high species diversity
Primary
producers





 fish community dominated
by perch and roach
 ducks most common
waterfowl
 most of bottom fauna
burrowers and bivalves;
insect larvae and
gastropods dominate
 fish community dominated
by perch and roach
 ducks most common
waterfowl
 macro-zoobenthos
dominated by aquatic
sowbug and insect larvae
 macro-zoobenthos
dominated by burrowing
bivalves, insect larvae and
gastropods
 fish community dominated
by cyprinids
 ducks most common
waterfowl
water regulation, flood protection
dredging
restoration
release of waste water effluents
fishing, hunting, recreation
 fish community dominated
by perch and roach
 ducks most common
waterfowl
 moderate species diversity
 low species diversity
 very high species divesity
* For a more elaborate list, see (Haapanen et al. 2010, table 4-2).
Human activities
*
Fauna
 macro-zoobenthos
dominated by aquatic
sowbug and insect larvae
 more organic matter, carbon
and nutrients than in hardbottom lakes
 eutrophication relatively
common
 interaction between water
and sediment stronger than
on hard bottoms
 only phytoplankton
production (euphotic zone)
 typically acid
 low electrolyte and high
humus content
 near coast relatively high
content of marine ions
 more organic matter, carbon
and nutrients than in hardbottom lakes
 eutrophication relatively
common
 interaction between water
and sediment stronger than
on hard bottoms
 high primary production
 diverse macrophyte
community
 submerged and emergent
species dominate
 typically acid
 low electrolyte and high
humus content
 near coast relatively high
content of marine ions
Hydrology and
water chemistry
 only phytoplankton
production (euphotic zone)
Aphotic soft bottom
 post-glacial sediment
deposits 2  7.5 m
 fine-grained, reactive
sediments
Aphotic hard bottom
 very rare in Reference Area
 origin mainly due to
intensive erosion
Photic soft bottom
 post-glacial sediment
deposits 2  7.5 m
 fine-grained, reactive
sediments
Geology
Photic hard bottom
 very rare in Reference Area
 origin mainly due to
intensive erosion
Table 2-10. Typical characteristics of the lake biotopes in the Reference Area.
 fish community dominated
by cyprinids
 numerous waterfowl species
(e.g. mute swan, ducks)
 terrestrial bird species
 mammals (e.g. beaver,
moose, mink)
 common frog
 extremely high species
diversity
 macro-zoobenthos
dominated by aquatic
sowbug and insect larvae
 very high primary production
 dense emergent vegetation
 common reed dominates
Reed bed
 sheltered littoral areas
 relatively high concentration
of elements due to active
sedimentation and high
input of dead organic matter
 dense vegetation retains
organic matter and nutrients
 weak water exchange
 high nutrient content
81
82
Figure 2-26. Water depth distribution (topographic database of National Land Survey complemented with sounding data of Ojala 2011,
app. 1; Kangasniemi & Helin 2013, ch. 2) in the reference lakes (sections 1.4.2, 2.3) and biotope classification based on vegetation surveys
(Salmi 2006, fig. 5; Sydänoja et al. 2004, p. 35) on the two lakes for which such data is so far available. Map layout Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
83
The sedimentation conditions of lakes differ from rivers and sea environments; due to
the smaller size, the impact of waves is minor and water flow velocities are lower in
lakes. The lake sediments can be classified in different ways, e.g. according to the
lithogenic, biogenic and autigenic sediments, sediment stratigraphy and chemical
composition. However, the lake sediments are mostly a mixture of different types.
(Ojala 2011, p. 28-29).
Sediments containing organic material have a high oxygen demand due to intense
respiration of microbes and other decomposers. Moreover, elements (such as Fe2+)
accumulate in reduced form when released into the sediments, and these elements react
with oxygen leading to high oxygen consumption in the sediments. Even during the
spring and autumn circulation periods in the lake, well-oxygenated water penetrates
only a few centimetres into the sediment due to slow diffusion rates in sediments
(Andersson 2010, section 4.6.2).
Sediments in anaerobic environments are often laminated, reflecting the seasonal
sediment accumulation that results in different layers due to the input of different
sedimentary material during the year. In these environments, bioturbation does not
occur and the lamination persists, whereas in aerobic environments bioturbation mixes
the upper sediment and no seasonal dynamics in the surface sediments can be detected.
(Kotilainen et al. 2007, p. 53-56).
Hydrology and water chemistry
For a lake to survive as a lake, the precipitation and inputs from surface influents or
groundwater must equal losses by evaporation and evapotranspiration, outflow and
seepage through the bottom (Wetzel 2001, p. 48). The lakes are divided into drainage
(inlet-outlet), headwater (outlet) and closed (endoheic) lake types (Wetzel 2001, p. 4648). Oxic, suboxic and anoxic conditions prevails depending on water depth, ice cover
and sediment conditions (Kotilainen et al. 2007, p. 53-56).
The geomorphology of a lake is intimately reflected in physical, chemical and
biological past and present events within its basin, and it plays a major role in the
control of the metabolism in a lake. It controls the nature of its drainage, the inputs of
nutrients to the lake sediment and water, and the volume of influx in relation to
flushing-renewal time. The vegetation and soil composition in the catchment area
influence the amount of runoff as well as the composition and quantity of solids and
suspended matter that enters streams and lakes. These patterns in turn govern the
distribution of dissolved gases, element concentrations, pH-redox -conditions and
organisms, so that the entire metabolism of a lacustrine system is influenced to a
varying degree by the geomorphology of the basin and how it has been developed
throughout its subsequent history (Wenzel 2001, p. 23).
Typical of the surface waters in Finland is low electrolyte concentration, i.e., soft water,
which is also seen in the reference lakes (Haapanen et al. 2009, table 6-3). The surface
waters may be relatively acid due to fact that soils and bedrock are mainly acid,
containing low concentrations of dissolved elements (Tikkanen 1990, p. 250-253;
Hanski 2000, p. 42). In summer, pH may rise due to intensive primary production. In all
84
the reference lakes, except Lutanjärvi, the water is more or less acid (Haapanen et al.
2009, table 6-3). Another typical feature is high humus content, which increases the
acidity and opacity of waters in peaty and organic matter-rich Finnish soils. In areas rich
in mires, the lakes are brownish in colour and dysoligotrophic (Haapanen 2010, section
7.1). High colour values have also been measured in many of the selected reference
lakes, as for example in the lake chain of Poosjärvi, Kivijärvi and Lampinjärvi
(Haapanen et al. 2009, table 6-3).
In several lakes in the Reference Area, nutrient levels have risen in recent decades
mainly due to anthropogenic factors (Koivunen 2006, section 6.1; Haapanen et al. 2010,
section 7.1). Increased availability of nutrients has, in turn, increased primary
production and lakes suffer from eutrophication, which can be seen as reduced water
clarity and increased growth of planktonic algae and aquatic plants. In the worst cases,
eutrophication may result in the increased occurrence of massive blue-green algal
blooms, in winter oxygen depletion, and also in major changes in fish stocks (Kettunen
et al. 2008, p. 26-28). Eutrophication is typical in clayish areas in southern and southwestern Finland, whereas esker, sand and moraine areas support oligotrophic lakes
(Haapanen et al. 2010 p. 13). The level of eutrophication in the reference lakes can be
classified by concentrations of phosphorus and chlorophyll-a (Eloranta 2005, section
2.1).
As the reference lakes are quite shallow (Table 2-4 in section 2.3), the water seldom
stratifies thermally. Due to shallowness, the lakes may suffer from lack of oxygen
during winters when water is covered by ice almost to the bottom. On average, in
southern Finland, lakes freeze in late autumn (November-December), and the ice cover
breaks up at the end of April (Korhonen 2005, figs. 4, 5).
Primary producers
All the selected reference lakes are mesotrophic or eutrophic and a major part of the
bottom areas is soft (Ojala 2011, section 4.2). Due to the suitable substrate and nutrient
conditions, the diversity and the biomass of macrophytes is high. Due to the
shallowness of the lakes, the densely vegetated reed beds are wide and aphotic bottoms
narrow in proportion to the lake sizes (Ojala 2011, appendix 1). Phytoplankton
production takes place in the euphotic zone (for the definition in the biosphere
assessment, see the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report, section 3.3.1).
Seasonal variation in the phytoplankton community is high and diatoms, cyanobacteria
and green algae dominate the community (Salmi 2006, table 8; Haapanen et al. 2009,
sections 6.4.2 and 6.5.2). Phytoplankton community structure and production is
practically identical in all the lake biotopes. During a normal winter, the thick ice sheet
nearly prevents the photosynthesis for several months (see above).
Macrophytes occur only on photic bottom areas and substrate type affects strongly to
the species composition. Isoëtids, submerged macrophytes (e.g. yellow water lily) and
water mosses dominate the flora of hard substrates (Pokorný & Květ 2004, p. 310;
Sydänoja et al. 2004, p. 30). In soft bottom areas, the diversity of flora is high, and the
submerged species fennel pondweed, bur-reed and yellow water lily are common with
emergent common reed (Kangasniemi et al. 2011, Table 3; Kangasniemi & Helin 2013,
85
Ch. 4). The dense helophyte zone is an interface between the aquatic and terrestrial
environments, shallow in water and rich in species. The soft and nutritious substrate
favours emergent macrophytes and especially common reed and common tule
(Kangasniemi et al. 2011, Table 3; Kangasniemi & Helin 2013, Ch. 4).
Fauna
In the reference lakes, wide reed beds and soft bottom areas provide diverse habitats and
shelter for the fauna (Haapanen et al. 2009, sections 6.2-6.5). Common macrozoobenthos species are insect larvae (mainly chironomids) and oligochaetes. The fish
community is dominated by perch and roach, and other common species are ruffe and
pike (Sydänoja et al. 2004, p. 23; Salmi 2006, p. 83). The amount of fish predation and
the quantity of suitable prey species (phytoplankton) affect the composition of the
zooplankton community, which has a practically invariant structure and production in
all the lake biotopes.
The extensive vegetated areas of lakes provide shelter and nesting areas also for a
diverse and variable waterfowl community: the most common species are mallard,
goldeneye and common teal (Haapanen et al. 2009, sections 6.2.3, 6.3.3). Wading
species such as the common sandpiper are also abundant occupants of the sheltered
muddy areas of lakes. According to expert judgement and unpublished data, the other
fauna include beaver, moose, mink, common toad, common frog and moor frog.
An aphotic hard substrate and the lack of flora results in less habitats for different fauna;
the environment is homogenous and only a few ecological niches exist. The scarce
macro-zoobenthos community is dominated by aquatic sowbug, small bivalves
(Pisidium sp.) and insect larvae. On aphotic soft bottoms, the diversity and density of
burrowing macro-zoobenthos species is high due to the soft substrate. The high density
and diversity leads to a higher biomass compared with the hard bottoms. Common
species are oligochaetes (Tubificidae) and chironomid larvae (Salmi 2006, p. 78).
Hard photic bottoms offer various niches and habitats due the complex substrate and
diverse flora (Leppä 2007, p. 18). Aquatic sowbug, small bivalves (Pisidium sp.) and
numerous species of insect larvae dominate the macro-zoobethos community (Väisänen
2007, p. 41). Compared with the aphotic bottoms, the fish community is, in general,
more diverse in photic littoral areas (Särkkä 1996, p. 110; Reynolds 2004, p. 243).
A photic soft bottom areas offer complex faunal habitats with numerous niches due to
the dense vegetation and the soft substrate (cf. photic hard bottoms). Common species
of the diverse bottom fauna are similar to those of the aphotic soft bottoms, but insect
larvae (e.g. chironomids, mayfly and caddisfly) and gastropods are more common
(Särkkä 1996, figs. 43, 45).
In reed bed areas, macrophytes form dense stands, which offer habitats for numerous
aquatic and terrestrial organisms (Ekstam 2007, p. 54). The bottom fauna is rich and the
common species are water sowbug, gastropods and larvae of numerous insects (Ekstam
2007, p. 57; Below & Mikkola-Roos 2007, p. 42). The fish community is dominated by
cyprinids (Särkkä 1996, p. 110). The reed beds are also an important breeding area for
86
many fish species (Below & Mikkola-Roos 2007, p. 40) and a nesting and foraging site
for numerous waterfowl and other birds (Below & Mikkol-Roos 2007, p. 40-43).
Compared towith the other lake biotopes, the species diversity is very high. The most
common waterfowl species are mallard, goldeneye and mute swan (Haapanen et al.
2009, sections 6.2.3, 6.3.3).
2.4.4 Rivers
A river is a flowing and permanent freshwater environment with low water retention
time. Compared with lake morphology (bathymetric and horizontal), rivers are linear
and the flow direction is practically constant (Särkkä 1996, p. 114). A river is an open
system: water exchange and water level fluctuation is contiguous and the rate of water
flow, and nutrient and organic matter concentrations vary constantly (Särkkä 1996, p.
114). Typical characteristics of the river biotopes are summarised in Table 2-11 and
discussed further in the text below. Figures 2-27 and 2-28 present photographs
illustrating typical settings of the river biotopes in the Eurajoki River discharging next
to Olkiluoto Island. In particular, and Figure 2-28 shows a compilation of aerial
photographs along the Eurajoki River. Although in the aerial photographs most of the
river banks appear hosting trees, the degree of shading of the river depends on the
density of the canopies; in many places, the tree zone is only a single row of rather
separate trees (e.g. panels 5  9 and 24 in Figure 2-28).
Table 2-11. Typical characteristics of the river biotopes in the Reference Area.
Geology
Hydrology
and water
chemistry
Primary
producers
Shaded
 forested areas with mediumand fine-grained soils




Fauna

Human
activities





Well-lit
 croplands and other openings,
typically on silt or clay
 high nutrient and element
concentrations in sediments
low concentrations of nutrients and suspend solids in water
water may be brown and rich in humus depending on catchment
area
 diverse and variable
growth of macrophytes is
macrophyte community
restricted due to shading
 similar to photic communities
water mosses dominate
in lakes
 insect larvae dominate the
similar to well-lit biotope
dense and diverse macrozoobenthos community
 fish community consists of
common lake species and few
lotic species
 otter, mink, beaver
 common frog
water regulation, flood protection, hydropower
dredging
restoration
release of waste water effluents
fishing, recreation
Rapid
 bare rock, boulders, thin and
coarse-grained-soils
 rock types resistant to erosion
and weathering
 fast water exchange and
mixing of water
 growth of macrophytes is
restricted due to extreme flow
conditions (detachment)
 water mosses dominate
 flow-tolerant macrozoobenthos species
 fish community consists mainly
of flow-tolerant species and
common lake species
 white-throated dipper is the
common bird species
 otter
87
Photographs: A Helifoto Oy; B1, C1, D1, D2 Tero Forsman, Pyhäjärvi Institute; B2, B3, B4, C2, C3, D4 Henna Ryömä, Pyhäjärvi Institute;
C4 Anne Haapanen, Haapanen Forest Consulting; D3 Henri Vaarala, Pyhäjärvi Institute.
Figure 2-27. Typical representatives of the river biotopes.
88
Figure 2-28. Compilation of aerial photographs in 2009 along the Eurajoki River
showing typical riparian environments; layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
89
Figure 2-28 (cont'd). Compilation of aerial photographs in 2009 along the Eurajoki
River showing typical riparian environment; layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
90
Geology
The physical and chemical properties of rivers depend mainly on the geology of the
catchment area, the climate and anthropogenic factors. Rock and soil types affect the
shape and slope of the river channels. In till soils, the river tributaries are usually long
and abundant and the meandering of the tributaries depends on the grain size
distribution of the bed material. In gravel soils, the rivers are typically straight and the
branches are short. In clay soils, rivers are straight, but the branches are longer and more
abundant than in gravel soils. In sand and silt soils, rivers are meandering and rich in
branches. In fine-grained soils and clays, the river channel is steeper than in coarsegrained soils and the river banks collapse more easily. (Vuori et al. 2006, ch. 2).
However, depending on the length and width and number of branches, the river
typically flows through different catchment areas with different soil and vegetation
types, channel slopes and human activities. Thus, the environmental conditions can
change rapidly and can be different even on the opposite sides of the channel.
Sedimentation is highest over the slow flow reaches of the rivers. Also at decrease of
the channel slope or increase of the channel width enhances sedimentation. Large
differences in altitude increase erosion and transportation in the slopes and in the river
channel. (Vuori et al. 2006, ch. 2).
Eurajoki and Lapijoki, the regionally large rivers discharging next to Olkiluoto Island,
flow through a flat terrain of intensively cultivated fields, consisting of thick clay and
fine-grained soils. Mires and peatland are more common in the catchment of Lapijoki
than in that of Eurajoki. The fields reach the river banks in many places and the
vegetation zone in the shores is narrow. (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 141).
Hydrology and water chemistry
The amount of water flow, the flow dynamics, and interactions with the surface and
groundwater depend on the size and land use of the catchment area, the depth, width
and slope of the river, the soil and rock type of the bottom and the structure and quality
of the banks, most of which could vary considerably along the river (Hanski 2000, ch.
2).
The river system can be seen as a continuum (a "river Continuum", see e.g. Wetzel
2001, p. 140), where its structure and function changes from the upstream to
downstream. In Finland, the river systems are quite complex and characterised e.g. by
numerous lake chains and branches. Some of the rivers and lakes are regulated for flood
control or hydropower. However, flooding is typical, especially in low-lying, flat areas
as in southwestern Finland.
The total area of the watershed of the River Eurajoki, which flows through the
municipalities of Eura and Eurajoki, is 1 336 km². The River Eurajoki flows into the sea
inlet referred to as Eurajoensalmi Bay, located between Olkiluoto Island and the
mainland. The watershed includes the largest lake in Southwestern Finland, Lake
Pyhäjärvi, where the 52-km long river starts. In terms of the EU Water Framework
Directive, the upper part of the Eurajoki River is a medium-sized clay-region river and
91
the lower part of the river is classified as a large clay-region river (Haapanen et al. 2009,
p. 159). The River Lapijoki, whose watershed is much smaller (462 km²), flows through
the municipalities of Eura and Rauma into the Bothnian Sea. There are numerous small
lakes in the Lapijoki watershed (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 168). The River Lapijoki is
classified as a medium-size river running through mineral soil lands. The human impact
is seen in the morphology of the both rivers, especially in the River Eurajoki, where
flood protection activities have been conducted.
The discharge of the River Eurajoki is regularly measured in the upper (Kauttuankoski)
and lower (Pappilankoski) course of the river, whereas the discharge of the River
Lapijoki is measured in the middle part of the river (Ylinenkoski). In the years 1991 –
2005, the average discharge at Pappilankoski and Ylinenkoski has been 8.3 m³/s and 3.3
m³/s, respectively (Korhonen 2007, p. 99-100). The level of Lake Pyhäjärvi is regulated
by a dam, which strongly affects the discharge of the River Eurajoki in its upper parts.
Due to intensive regulation the variation in discharge caused by, for example, rain is
smaller than for the River Lapijoki. During dry periods, the discharge of the River
Lapijoki falls to near zero, whereas in the River Eurajoki discharge seldom gets so low.
When the sea level is high, usually due to changes in atmospheric pressure and strong
winds, sea water may transgress into the lower parts of the River Lapijoki (Mykkänen et
al. 2013).
The water quality of the Rivers Eurajoki and Lapijoki is monitored in obligatory
monitoring studies and also by environmental authorities (Koivunen 2011a, 2011b). The
water quality of the upper course of the River Eurajoki is rather constant, as it is
determined by the waters flowing from Lake Pyhäjärvi (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 161,
fig. 6-8). In the lower course of the River Eurajoki, concentrations of nutrients and
suspended solids as well as turbidity and conductivity are higher than in the upper parts
due to diffuse and point-source wastewater loading. The lower parts of the River
Eurajoki have occasionally suffered from low pH as aluminium from the sulphate soils
has washed into the water. The water of the River Lapijoki is brown and rich in humus,
and contains high levels of iron and organic matter (Haapanen et al. 2009, fig. 6-13).
Also in the River Lapijoki, pH may be low as a consequence of acid sulphate soils and
peatlands in the watershed. Compared with the River Eurajoki, the water is more humic
and contains less nutrients (Haapanen et al. 2009, table 6-4). The differences in the
water quality of these rivers are indications of different soil types and land uses in the
watersheds. In addition, the River Lapijoki is not subjected to point-source loading from
waste waters.
In rivers, the annual, seasonal and daily variation of many chemical and physical
parameters is large. The main fluctuation in water quality of rivers is usually explained
by the varying weather conditions, especially the amount of precipitation, as the rain
washes away nutrients and suspended solids from the catchment area and into the rivers
(Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 150).
92
Primary production
Phytoplankton production in the Rivers Eurajoki and Lapijoki is significant and it is
comparable with eutrophicated lakes (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 170). A part of the river
phytoplankton biomass comes from the catchment area lakes with the outflow water
(Särkkä 1996, p. 114). The phytoplankton community structure and production is
practically the same in all the river biotopes. Water flow, light and nutrient conditions
and substrate type affect the composition and growth of flora (Särkkä 1996, p. 114-116;
Paavola 2003, p. 19; Janauer & Dokulil 2006, p. 90).
In shaded areas, the macrophyte community is scarce due to relatively poor light
conditions. In the River Eurajoki, emergent and submerged macrophytes are absent in
the most shaded parts of the river (Kirkkala & Ryömä 2011, p. 13). In well-lit areas,
good light conditions offer a suitable habitat for numerous macrophyte species and the
composition of the flora is similar to the photic soft bottom and reed bed lake biotopes
(section 2.2.3). In the River Eurajoki, the emergent macrophytes common reed and
common cattail dominate the shallow river banks, and yellow water lily and floatingleaf pondweed are the most common submerged macrophytes (Kirkkala & Ryömä
2011, p. 4, 24). Flow and water level fluctuations affect the composition of flora in the
area of rapids; flow-tolerant water mosses dominate in those harsh conditions (Särkkä
1996, p. 116).
Fauna
The presence of running water in the river channel also affects the composition of fauna
that are present. In the Rivers Eurajoki and Lapijoki, the macro-zoobenthos and fish
communities are diverse (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 167). There is a similarity in the
macro-zoobenthos between the river and the photic lake biotopes (section 2.2.4), but
species specific to the rivers also exist (Särkkä 1996, p. 96, 116; Haapanen et al. 2009.
p. 167). Stream size, water quality and catchment characteristics affect the composition
of the macro-zoobenthos community (Paavola 2003, p. 19; Aroviita 2009, p. 24). The
fish community consists of common lake species and a few lotic species (Haapanen et
al. 2009, p. 168), and its structure depends on, e.g., the stream depth, water quality and
substratum (Paavola 2003, p. 20). Moreover, the river fauna includes waterfowl
(typically white-throated dipper), common frog (Haapanen 1982, p. 77), otter
(Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 170) and beaver (Ermala & Below 2000, p. 31).
The density and biomass of macro-zoobenthos in rivers is high in both well-lit and
shaded areas and the dominating groups are insect larvae (especially Chironomidae),
bivalves (Pisidium sp.) and ologichaetes (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 167). The fish
community is dominated by perch, roach and the lotic species stone loach and bullhead
(Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 168). There is a similarity in the fauna between rapids and
other river biotopes. Biotope-specific species are the flow-tolerant macro-zoobenthos
species (Särkkä 1996, p. 116), especially insect larvae (Tricoptera, Plecoptera and
Coleoptera), and salmonid fish species (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 168).
93
2.4.5 Small water bodies
Small water bodies are an interface between the terrestrial and aquatic environments and
these unique conditions provide habitats for an unusually large number of endangered
and biotope specific species (Muotka & Virtanen 2008, p. 13). Allochthonous material
can play an important role in these biotopes (Särkkä 1996, p. 98). The small water
bodies are a group of varied and distinct environments (Table 2-12) with biotype
specific flora and fauna, although ponds resemble the lake biotopes (section 2.4.3) and
the streams and to an extent also trickles resemble the river biotopes (section 2.4.4). The
main characteristics of small water bodies are summarised in (Table 2-12) and discussed
further below. A more extensive description of the small water bodies is presented in
(Haapanen et al. 2009, section 6.8). Figure 2-29 presents photographs illustrating typical
settings of small water bodies in the Reference Area. Photographs of springs close to the
Olkiluoto site are presented also in Figure 3-6 in section 3.3.3.
Photographs: A, C Ari Ikonen, Posiva Oy; B Anne Haapanen, Haapanen Forest Consulting; D Helifoto Oy; E Ville
Kangasniemi, Pyhäjärvi Institute; F Tero Forsman, Pyhäjärvi Institute; G, H Anna Hakala, Pyhäjärvi Institute.
Figure 2-29. Typical representatives of small water bodies in the Reference Area.
94
Table 2-12. Typical characteristics of small water bodies in the Reference Area.
Springs
16
Defining
description
 location where
aquifer surface meets
ground surface.
 distinct and stable
environment
Size
 width < 3 m
Geology
 mainly sandy and
gravelly soils (good
hydraulic
conductivity)
 also in mires,
fractures of bedrock,
and bottom of larger
water bodies
 chemistry differs
considerably in
coastal area (clay
soils, closeness of
sea) from inland
springs
 minor phytoplankton
production
 rare and biotopespecific macrophytes
Hydrology
and water
chemistry
Primary
producers
Fauna
 biotope-specific
bottom fauna
community due to
distinct and stable
environment
 rare species
Human
activities
 drinking water
extraction
Trickles and streams
 stream: water body
with a water current
 trickle: small water
channel, water flow
may be zero during
dry seasons
 similarities with river
biotopes
 headwaters that may
start from springs,
small ponds or mires
 size of catchment
17
area : streams <100
km², trickles <10 km²
Ponds
Flads
 body of standing
water
 natural or man-made,
 smaller than a lake
 similarities with the
lake biotopes
 a water-filled basin
separated from the
sea due to land uplift
 connected to the sea
 mixture of lake and
coastal biotopes
 unstable environment
due to proceeding
land uplift and
paludification
 area normally <1 ha,
can be up to 10 ha
 area 0.1  1000 ha
 typically soft bottoms
with the continuous
sedimentation
 outlet threshold can
be rock, sand or
gravel
 annual fluctuation in
discharge is large
 clear difference in
water quality between
clay-rich coastal
areas and inland
 minor phytoplankton
and macrophyte
production
 water mosses
dominate
 diverse macrozoobenthos
community
 migratory fish species
and crayfish
 otters, beavers
 thermally driven
micro-currents and
moderate wind-driven
currents
 connected to the sea
 shallow water,
typically about 0.5 m
 significant
phytoplankton
production
 diverse macrophyte
community
 diverse fish and
macro-zoobenthos
communities
 optimal reproduction
habitat for waterfowl
and common frog
 high primary
production
 dense vegetation,
dominated by
common reed
 diverse bottom fauna
and waterfowl
communities
 important spawning
areas for coastal fish
species
 high density of
juvenile fish
 recreation
Springs
Springs usually arise in large, ill-defined areas that contain, in addition to the clearly
open spring pools and discharge areas, spring-type brooks and ooze zones. Most of the
springs are likely related to near surface groundwater circulation, but deeper
groundwater flow can also reach the surface through a spring (Haapanen et al. 2009, p.
174). Typically in southwestern Finland, the aquifers are usually overlain by poorly
permeable clays. The closeness of the sea is reflected in higher sulphate, chloride and
sodium concentrations in spring waters than inlands. (Lahermo et al. 2002, p. 38-41).
16
17
Trickles, ditches and springs are not considered legislative water systems in the Finnish legislation (Water Act 27.5.2011/587).
According to the Finnish water act (Water Act 27.5.2011/587), a flowing water formation with a catchment area smaller than 100
km² is defined as a stream. A trickle is a water formation with a catchment area smaller than 10 km²; in this case the water may
not be continuously flowing and the movement of fish is not possible to a significant extent.
95
The electric conductivity (EC) of the spring waters in clay soil areas is typically high in
the coastal areas with abundant amounts of chloride. Sulphide follows the pattern of EC.
In the sandy and gravelly soils, the pH of the spring waters is mainly near-neutral
(>6.5). The rapakivi granite bathols are characterised by high K concentrations and low
concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na and Fe. The F concentrations (even as high as 0.23%) in
the rapakivi areas are much higher than in other bedrock types, and this is reflected in
the chemistry of the groundwater in these areas (Tenhola et al. 2002, p. 17; Koljonen
1992, p. 154, 170).
The Geological Survey of Finland has undertooka nationwide campaign to collect
spring waters in 1999 (Lahermo et al. 2002). The locations of the springs in the
Reference Area are presented in fig. A-8 of (Haapanen et al. 2009). The lowest pH (3.4)
in spring water was been found in the Kontolanrahka mire (Haapanen et al. 2009,
section 4.2.1).
Posiva has sampled three springs near Olkiluoto Island, and the results of that sampling
are compiled in (Haapanen et al. 2009, table 6-9) and Haapanen (2011, app. I). With the
exception of the springs closest to the coastline with higher Cl and SO4 concentrations,
the concentrations in all three springs have been similar as compared with monitoring
results on shallow groundwater at Olkiluoto. The results do not suggest any influence
from deep saline or brackish groundwater (Haapanen et al. 2009, section 6.8.1;
Penttinen et al. 2013).
Due to the low nutrient levels the phytoplankton production in springs is low (Haapanen
2009, p. 175). The stable and distinct environment provides habitats for rare and
biotope-specific macro-zoobenthos, macrophyte, bryophyte and faunal species
(Hirvenoja 2002, figs. 4, 5, 7, p. 21; Auvinen 2006, p. 67; Muotka & Virtanen 2008, p.
13).
Streams and trickles
Stream and trickle sediments (or stream mud) are mainly composed of organic material,
such as animal and plant detritus, humus, decayed plant fragments and living plants and
roots, all mixed in various proportions with mineral material (Lahermo et al. 1996, p.
135). The abundant organic components are C, H and N (Lahermo et al. 1996, table 4,
fig. 103). Because these elements have virtually the same areal distribution patterns, the
chemical composition of organic stream and trickle sediments does not, despite its
heterogeneity, differ much from one place to another (Lahermo et al. 1996, figs. 104,
105 and 106). However, the C, H and N concentrations are generally higher in northern
and eastern Finland than on the coastal areas, which are characterised by clay-dominant
stream sediments and where stream waters are more mineralised (Lahermo et al. 1996,
p. 135).
The amplitude of annual fluctuations in discharge is large in small headwater streams
and trickles, particularly between late winter and spring thaw (Lahermo et al. 1996, p.
129). Compared with the river biotopes, trickles and streams are in closer connection
with the terrestrial environment and shading is a more important factor (Muotka &
Virtanen 2008, p. 12).
96
Streams and trickles are harsh and demanding environments for biota (Muotka &
Virtanen 2008, p. 13); the nutrition levels are low and phytoplankton production is
scarce (Särkkä 1996, p. 117). The role of allochthonous organic material from the
surrounding terrestrial environment is significant. Unstable and shaded conditions affect
the composition of the macrophyte and bryophyte community (Haapanen et al. 2009, p.
176). Water mosses dominate the flora, and several of the species are rare and
endangered (Auvinen 2006, p. 67).
Factors such as size of the stream, flow conditions, water quality, temperature and
substrate type of both catchment area and stream affect the composition of the fauna in
streams and trickles (Särkkä 1996, p. 117; Sutela & Yrjänä 2008, p. 18). There is a
similarity with the fauna present in rivers (section 2.4.4). Small streams and trickles are
suitable habitats for various macro-zoobenthos species (Haapanen et al. 2009, p.177).
Good water quality and a rocky substrate offer a habitat also for crayfish (Degerman et
al. 2009, p. 26). Streams and trickles are spawning, foraging and migratory areas for
fish species such as trout, European bullhead, stone loach and river lamprey (Sutela &
Yrjänä 2008, p. 18). Perch, roach and pike are also common in slow stream areas.
Ponds
Any depression in the ground which collects and retains a sufficient amount of
precipitation can be considered a pond, and such depressions can be formed by a variety
of geological, ecological and anthropogenic events. The characteristics of ponds and
small lakes depend on the location and soil and bedrock properties (forest ponds, esker
ponds, bog ponds, cliff ponds). The soil properties affect the water quality of the ponds
and small lakes; brown-coloured and low pH water in bog ponds, nutrient-rich and
turbid water in ponds situated in clay soils and clear water in eskers and other sand and
gravel formations (Ahponen 2008, p. 13; Räike 1994, ch. 2).
There are small ponds in the outer tip of the western headland of Olkiluoto Island.
These are small enough not to be included in the standard base map or visible in aerial
photographs. The ponds are located near the sea-shore (horizontal distance 50-100 m)
and are surrounded by trees (Haapanen et al. 2009, p.178-179, fig. 6-18).
There are similarities between ponds and the lake biotopes (section 2.4.3) in the level of
primary production and the composition of flora and fauna. Phytoplankton production
depends strongly on light, temperature and nutrient levels (Wetzel 2001, p. 331). The
macrophyte community is diverse and species composition is affected by numerous
factors such as water quality, shading and water level fluctuations (Haapanen et al.
2009, p. 178).
If the conditions of the pond are favourable, the fish and bottom fauna communities are
diverse (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 178), In the case of low pH and oxygen depletion, the
fish species are absent and only few tolerant bottom fauna species exists (Kuusisto et al.
1998, p. 83). Ponds are also an optimal reproduction habitat for waterfowl and common
frog (Haapanen 1982, p. 77; Kuusisto et al. 1998, p. 89-90).
97
Flads
A flad is a shallow bay, which is about to be isolated from the sea due to land uplift
and/or sediment accumulation and paludification (see section 2.1.4). Flads and glos
(already isolated from the sea but still having occasional seawater input) are found
throughout the island-rich coastal areas of Finland. The flads in the Bothnian Bay are
formed in the shallow depressions within de Geer and Rogen moraines, whereas those
in the Gulf of Finland, Archipelago Sea and Sea of Åland are deeper basins surrounded
by bedrock outcrops. The latter seems to also apply to most cases in the Bothnian Sea,
including the surroundings of Olkiluoto Island (Sydänoja 2008, p. 7).
The old flads and glos typically have soft bottoms due to continuous sedimentation and
the presence of decomposing organic matter. The threshold between the sea and the flad
can be formed from rock or sand and gravel shaped due to ice and wave forces.
(Sydänoja 2008, p. 7).
In general, flads are shallow and sheltered habitats and the level of primary production
is significant. Vegetation is dense and species richness is high (Sydänoja 2008, p. 8;
Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 222; Ilmarinen et al. 2009, p. 17). The dominating floral
species is common reed, and other common species are stonewort and fennel pondweed.
The dense vegetation, shallow and sheltered conditions and variable bottom offers
complex habitats for numerous faunal species (Sydänoja 2008, p. 8; Haapanen et al.
2009, p. 222). The macro-zoobethos community is dominated by gastropods and insect
larvae. Common waterfowl species include mallard and goldeneye (Haapanen et al.
2009, p. 222). Flads are also important spawning sites for coastal fish species, and in
summertime the density of juvenile fish is high (Sydänoja 2008, p. 8).
2.4.6 Mires
Typical properties of mires at the Olkiluoto site and in the Reference Area are presented
in Table 2-13 and discussed further below. Earlier, in section 2.3, Table 2-6 has
presented the key properties of the so-called reference mires selected for further studies
within Posiva's programme. Figure 2-30 presents photographs illustrating the variability
within the mire biotope; in the biosphere assessment only a single mire biotope is
applied due to the small-scale variability and limitations on the modelling (see section
2.2 and the description of the typical conditions presented below). Locations of mire
biotopes in the Reference Area are presented in Figure 2-34 below in the following
section and locations of the reference mires are shown in Figure 1-10.
98
Figure 2-30. Photographs of the variability of mire types within the single mire biotope
used in the biosphere assessment: a forested oligo-/ombrotrophic raised bog with a
rand in the background (top left), a mesotropic mire (top right), a drained, forested tallsedge fen (middle left), an open tall-sedge fen in natural condition (middle right),
continuum of mire types from an open ombrotrophic bog to a forested mire (bottom
left), and a flark (a depression in the surface) consisting of mud and vegetation mud in
an ombrotrophic ridge-hollow pine bog (bottom right). Photographs by Reija
Haapanen, Haapanen Forest Consulting.
99
Table 2-13. Typical characteristics of the mire biotope.
Geology
Hydrology
Vegetation
Fauna
Human activities
Mires
 maximum thickness of peat layers varies from 1.5-8 m (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 117-172)
 decomposition stage varies according to age and peat type, approximately from 3 to 7 in the
von Post scale (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 117-172)
 peat accumulation rate varies over 0.3 and 1.5 mm/y (Mäkilä & Grundström 2008, p. 13-17)
 morphology and geochemistry varies according to soil type, origin and age  groundwater table is close to the surface, but the hydrology varies due to natural and
anthropogenic factors, e.g. climate, peat thickness, topography, tree stocking and ditching  from treeless to densely stocked with a variety of possible tree species; Scots pine, Norway
spruce, birches, alders, aspen and willows are the most common (Hökkä et al. 2002, p. 292)
 mean annual timber increment over the rotation period 0  10 m³/ha/y
 field layer vegetation typically dominated by dwarf shrubs, sedges or cotton grass, the most
fertile sites can also be herb-dominated
 bottom layer is dominated by white mosses (Sphagnum sp.) or lichens, most fertile sites also
by brown mosses  occurrence of fauna varies according to the tree species mixture and canopy closure
 common Finnish mammals  some types of treeless mires are favoured by birds as watery pools support large amounts of
insects  draining
 tree harvesting, fertilisation
 peat harvesting
 conversion to agricultural fields
 berry and mushroom picking, hunting, recreation Geology, morphology and hydrology
Concerning well-developed, mature mires, morphological characteristics distinguish the
raised peat bogs in the south and aapa mires in the north of Finland. The Reference Area
belongs to the raised bog zone. Raised bogs are further distinguished into plateau bogs,
concentric bogs and eccentric bogs based on the cross-sectional profile. All of these
sub-types are found in the Reference Area, the concentric bogs being dominant. The
central part of a raised bog is called the central plateau, surrounded by the rand (steepest
part of the bog). The outmost part, at the boundary between the raised bog massif and
the mineral soil, is a narrow ring of flat and minerotrophic mire, called lagg. (Seppä
1996, p. 27-28). Within a mire, peat thickness varies accordingly, from the lagg to the
centre, and in well-developed mature concentric bogs this variation may be several
metres.
Variation in peat thickness between mires is caused by different development stages
(young vs. old) and topography. In the 33 mires for which literature data were compiled
from the Reference Area, the maximum depth of the peat layers varied between 1.5 and
8 m and the average depth between 1.4 and 4.6 m, when known (Haapanen et al. 2009,
p. 117-172). In these mires, the peat decomposition stage varied according to age and
peat type, and was between 3 and 7 on the von Post scale (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 117172). On the young mires of present-day Olkiluoto, the peat layers are still shallow
(Tamminen et al. 2007, p. 21). In the Reference Area, the long-term peat accumulation
rate varies between 0.3 and 1.5 mm/y (Mäkilä & Grundström 2008, p. 13-17). Data on
peat geochemistry are sparse, which has prompted the still ongoing further studies in the
reference mires (Haapanen et al. 2012).
100
Variation in hydrology largely determines the variation in other mire properties, as the
main gradients can be condensed to relate to the following factors (Rydin & Jeglum
2006, p. 4-5):
1. Wetness and aeration
2. pH, base richness and nutrient availability
These, in turn, depend on the water supply: mires can be supplied by telluric waters
(minerotrophic) or rain water only (ombrotrophic). Ombrotrophy is necessary for the
mire to become a raised bog. Ombrotrophic conditions develop when the peatland
surface grows beyond the influence of telluric water inputs. The most common telluric
water source is groundwater, but can also be springtime melt water, and, depending on
location, surface waters may play a role. Minerotrophic mires can be divided into
oligotrophic (pH ca. 4.5), mesotrophic (pH ca. 5.5) and eutrophic (pH 5.5-7.5) types.
Ombrotrophic bogs are characterized by a low pH (usually < 4), a low electrolyte
content and a low nutrient content. (Laine & Vasander 1996, p. 10; Seppä 1996, p. 28).
Vegetation
Vegetation on mires varies from densely stocked, lush forests through poorly growing
pine stands to treeless areas, typically dominated by white mosses (Sphagnum sp.) or
sedges. A variety of tree species are possible, Scots pine, Norway spruce, birches,
alders, aspen and willows being the most common (Hökkä et al. 2002, p. 292; Saramäki
& Korhonen 2005, p. 52). In forested mires, field layer vegetation is typically
dominated by dwarf shrubs, sedges or cottongrass, the most fertile sites can also be
herb-dominated. The bottom layer is dominated by white mosses, lichens, or, on the
fertile sites, by brown mosses. In addition to the large-scale structures (peat landforms),
boreal mires have small-scale surface structures (Figure 2-31): micro-topographic
structures with size of ca. 0.25  100 m² (e.g. hummock, lawn) and site types with sizes
of ca. 100 m²  few km². (Rydin & Jeglum 2006, p. 195-196). Vegetation is arranged
according to these small-scale structures (Eurola & Huttunen 2006, p. 128):
 hummock level (free water at depth of 20 cm or more, low pH, low nutrient
status) supports dwarf shrubs, bushes and trees;
 intermediate water level (lawn; water surface at depth of 5  20 cm) supports
many Sphagnum species and short sedges;
 flark level (carpet and mud-bottom level) species demand or tolerate conditions
where free water is almost on the site surface or above it.
The mean water level, determining the wetness and aeration, has a mirror-like
correspondence to the volume of trees growing on a mire (Laine et al. 2002, p. 41). The
forests of mires with natural origin are uneven-aged, thus the term rotation period
cannot usually be used. The long-term mean annual increment of tree stands varies from
0  10 m³/ha/y, being low in mires in a natural condition and large in drained, thinpeated Norway spruce mires. The total plant biomass in mires is, in turn, strongly
correlated with the presence and abundance of trees, but this is not necessarily the case
with the productivity, because in trees a large part of the biomass is structural (stem,
branches), as opposed to functional (photosynthetic parts). (Rydin & Jeglum 2006, p.
240).
101
Figure 2-31. Illustration of the different structural scales in mires. Left: an aerial
photograph of Lastensuo a concentric raised bog, showing hummocks forming a rim
surrounding the central plateau (photograph by Hannu Vallas, Lentokuva Vallas Oy).
Right: small scale of hummocks, lawn and flarks in the central, treeless part of
Lastensuo.
% of botanical mire area
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Eutrophic
Herb‐rich
Vaccinium Vaccinium Cottongrass Sphagnum myrtillus & vitis‐idaea & dwarf‐
fuscum
tall‐sedge & low sedge
shrub
Figure 2-32. Vegetation community classes, % of area, of botanical mires
approximately within the Reference Area (Korhonen et al. 2000, p. 375).
The hummock vegetation in the concentric bog zone is characterised by common
heather pine mire. In the southern parts of the zone, the hummocks closest to the centre
are almost treeless, in the northern part there are more and larger trees. When the
hollows are relatively dry, they are dominated by tussock cottongrass, Sphagnum
balticum and S. magellanicum. In wetter hollows there are Scheuzeria palustris, white
beak-sedge, S. cuspidatum and S. tenellum. The upper end of the rand is characterised
by dense common heather  S. fuscum pine bog, and the lower end by Rhododendron
tomentosum (Ledum palustre) dominated dwarf-shrub pine mire. (Ruuhijärvi 1980, p.
160).
102
The present-day Olkiluoto contains a wide range of mire types, and there are both
forested and treeless mires, as well as seashore swamps (Saramäki & Korhonen 2005, p.
38, Miettinen & Haapanen 2002, p. 25). In the biosphere assessment it is assumed that
mires developing on the future land areas around Olkiluoto Island contain similar mire
site types to the Reference Area mires (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 117-172). The
distribution of mire site types over coarse vegetation community classes within the
Reference Area is presented in Figure 2-32. In practical forestry, ca. 30 mire site types
are used and a phytosociological classification could describe as many as 80 types
(Paavilainen & Päivänen 1995, p. 68). In the biosphere assessment, however, all mire
site types are included within one biotope class (section 2.2) due to the uncertainty and
variability of conditions at the site at the small scales relevant to mire development..
Figures 2-30 and 2-31 illustrate the variability within the mire biotope in the
assessment.
Fauna
The typical bird fauna of mires includes the meadow pipit, Eurasian skylark, northern
lapwing and duck species such as mallard, common teal and tufted duck. In the more
forested mires the birds present are largely those consistent with forest areas and may
include predatory species such as osprey, eagle owl and tawny owl. (Häyrinen 1980, p.
94-99). Other vertebrate species that may be present in mire areas include shrews (the
most abundant mammals present), moose, brown bear, adder, frogs and common toads.
Grass snakes may also be present in coastal mire areas. (Skáren 1980, p. 99-104).
Invertebrate populations consist of butterflies, mosquitoes and other flying insects.
Ground-dwelling invertebrates, such as ants and earthworms, are also present. (Mikkola
1980, p. 105-112, Koponen 1980 p. 112-116). Fauna common to mires in southwestern
Finland are described in more detail in Haapanen et al. (2010, p. 29, 214).
Human activities
Forested mires are generally under silvicultural management regimes in Finland,
whereas nowadays the treeless mires are mainly left in their natural state, peat
production areas being an exception. First-time draining for forestry is nowadays
uncommon, but ditch clearing may occur. On Olkiluoto, drainage has been as common
as on the mainland. On many mires, the hydrological conditions are still changing
(Saramäki & Korhonen 2005, p. 40, 41). Fertilisation is at present carried out mainly on
drained sites where nutrient deficiencies limit forest growth. Of the remaining mires, i.e.
of those not taken into cultivation or those that have completely lost peat layers due to
forest drainage, 24% were in a natural condition within the area of the Southwestern
Finland Forest Centre (Korhonen et al. 2000, p. 378).
2.4.7 Forests
Typical properties of upland forests at the Olkiluoto site and in the Reference Area are
presented in Table 2-14 and discussed further below in terms of the three biotopes
identified for the biosphere assessment (section 2.2). Figure 2-33 presents photographs
illustrating the variability within the biotope. The distribution of forest biotopes in the
Reference Area and on Olkiluoto Island are presented in Figure 2-34.
103
Table 2-14. Typical characteristics of the biotopes of upland forests.
Geology
Rocky forests
 bedrock, boulders, stones,
stony and thin gravelly,
sandy and till soils,
R1
(thickness < 30 cm) R2
 Leptosols
 concentrations of nutrients
and trace elements is
generally low, but varies with
rock and soil properties
 usually thin humus layer
Hydrology
 surface runoff greater than in
the other biotopes
 the fracturing of the bedrock
dominates the groundwater
amount and movement Vegetation
 largely dependent on
precipitation water
 tree cover non-existent or
pine-dominated
Fauna
Human
activities
Heath forests
 medium- and fine-grained
mineral soils  Podzols, Gleysols,
R2
Cambisols
 element and nutrient
concentrations vary
considerably with rock
R3
and soil properties
 humus typically mor,
R5
thickness 1  6 cm
 great variation in water
retention and groundwater
table due to soil properties
and compactness,
morphology, vegetation and
local climate  a variety of tree species
possible, Scots pine, Norway
spruce, birches, aspen,
willows and rowan being the
most common
 dominant tree height 12  21
R7, R8
m
 yield of growing stock 0  3
R8
m³/ha/y during rotation
 understorey lichens, mosses,
dwarf-shrubs; also
vegetation-free surfaces
 lack of shelter reduces the
amount of species and
number of individuals
 dominant tree height 12  29
R7, R8
m
 yield of growing stock 3  10
R8
m³/ha/y during a rotation
 great variation in understorey
plant composition according
to tree shadow and fertility
 common forest mammals
 bird species vary according
to forest type and succession
stage
 quarrying





tree harvesting
fertilisation
hunting
berry and mushroom picking
recreation
Groves
 clay soil (also silt soils can
support groves, an overlapping soil type in the
biotope classification)  Podzols, Gleysols,
R2
Cambisols
 high mineralisation level, high
nutrient content (the fine
fraction of soils is the most
R4
reactive )
 humus granular mull under a
litter layer (relatively thick
especially in autumn)
 water retention much lower
than in the other biotopes
 high element concentrations
in soil solution, especially Cl,
SO4, Fe and Mn
 all native tree species
possible; in managed areas
usually Norway spruce or
silver birch, in natural
conditions great variation
R6
(about 15 typical species)
 dominant tree height 27  34
R7, R8
m
 yield of growing stock ca. 12
R8
m³/ha/y during a rotation
 ground vegetation also in
mature stands rich in herbs,
R9
no lichens
 the amount of species and
individuals is greater than in
the other biotopes, except for
birds, due to good conditions
(food, shelter)
 tree harvesting
 hunting
 berry picking
 recreation
R1 Mainly, by the definition of the biotope class thin soils, or Leptosols, i.e. thinner than 30 cm (FAO 2006; Lilja et al. 2006, p.68), in
smaller pockets between boulders or in smaller bedrock depressions the soil could be thicker.
R2 Rock forests Lilja et al. 2006, p. 37; heath forests Lilja et al. 2006, p. 12; groves .
R3 Typically pH is between 3.8-4.5, organic matter content 66-76 % in dry, N 8.5-13.8 mg/g in dry, and the C/N ratio 26.9-46.6 in the
humus layer (Hotanen et al. 2008, p. 21).
R4 Typically pH is about 5, organic matter content about 60 % in dry, N about 15 mg/g in dry, and the C/N ratio about 24 in the humus
layer (Hotanen et al. 2008, p. 21).
R5 Hotanen et al. 2008, p. 99, 115, 151, 159.
R6 Hotanen et al 2008, p. 67.
R7 In full grown forests.
R8 Rocky forests Hotanen et al. 2008, p. 151, 159; heath forests Hotanen et al. 2008, p. 99, 115, 151, 159; groves Hotanen et al. 2008,
p. 67.
R9 Hotanen et al. 2008, p. 65.
104
Figure 2-33. Photographs of typical rocky forests (topmost row), heath forests (middle)
and groves (bottom); on top left by Lasse Aro, Finnish Forest Research Institute, others
by Reija Haapanen, Haapanen Forest Consulting.
105
Figure 2-34. Forest and mire biotopes in the Reference Area based on reclassification
of the soil map of the Geological Survey and on Olkiluoto Island based on the
compartment inventory of Rautio et al. (2004). Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
Geology
The climatic conditions allow trees to grow almost everywhere in Finland. Geological
conditions preclude tree growth in areas where the available growing media for roots
becomes too limited because of close-to-surface bedrock or stoniness. The growing
media does not need to be mineral soil, as the organic matter accumulated on top of it
(and, on mires, peat; see section 2.4.6) plays an important role as well.
In southwestern Finland, dominant soil types are clays, bedrock and tills, when all land
cover types are considered (Lilja et al. 2006, p. 34). Lands in forestry use, however, are
dominated by medium-grained tills (Korhonen et al. 2000, p. 376). The present forest
soils of Olkiluoto are dominated by fine-grained tills (Haapanen et al. 2009, fig. 4-3),
the median particle size class being very fine sand (Tamminen et al. 2007, p. 21).
However, there is quite a considerable amount of stones, boulders, exposed bedrock and
thin-covered soil (Tamminen et al. 2007, p. 21). The finer the texture of the soil is, the
more fertile it generally is. However, till soils, with varying grain-size distribution,
cover a variety of fertility conditions. (Tamminen & Mälkönen 2003, p. 142-144).
The soil-forming processes started in the Reference Area when the land emerged from
the water during the development of the Baltic Sea (section 2.1.1). The most common
soil profile under Finnish conditions, Podzol, develops best in porous, permeable soils
and is typically composed of horizons with a total thickness of less than half a metre.
The formation of Podzol may take centuries (Starr 1991, p. 102; Tamminen &
106
Mälkönen 2003, p. 138), which means that the process is still ongoing in large areas of
Olkiluoto. Indeed, according to the survey by Tamminen et al. (2007, p. 33), the most
common soil types on Olkiluoto are weakly developed (often at the beginning of
podzolisation) coarse to medium-coarse Arenosols or fine-textured Regosols, shallow
Leptosols and Gleysols characterised by a groundwater table close to the surface.
Organic matter in forest soils (humus) originate from plant detritus (litter). The majority
of tree fine-roots grow in this layer. On more fertile soils, the layer is mull, moder or
peat, and in heath forests it consists of mor. On dry sites, the humus layer is thin due to
low litter production (Tamminen & Mälkönen 2003, p. 144-145). On Olkiluoto, the
humus on mineral soil sites was classified in most cases as mor, peat or mull-like peat
(Tamminen et al. 2007, p. 21).
Hydrology
Hydrology determines part of the fertility of forest soils. It is also one of the factors
preventing the occurrence of forests in areas where there is oxygen-free groundwater in
excess amounts (Tamminen & Mälkönen 2003, p. 144). In heath forests, there is great
variation in water retention and the position of the groundwater table due to the soil
properties and compactness, morphology, vegetation, and local climate. Groves exhibit
moister conditions. In the rock forests, surface runoff is greater than in the other
biotopes, and the fracturing of the bedrock dominates the groundwater movement and
the amount available to plants; the situation may vary within a short distance from
relatively long-lived pools to dry rock surface drying nearly instantly after rain.
Vegetation
Temperature is the major factor defining the vegetation around the globe. Finland
mainly belongs to the boreal coniferous forest zone, defined as having no more than
three months over 10 °C. These forests are dominated by spruces, firs, pines and larches
(Sands 2005, p. 57)  in Finland due to the plant colonization history (section 2.1),
spruces and pines. At a particular point in time, the forest vegetation cover depends also
on the successional stage. After the phases that are affected by the coastal forces
(section 2.1.3) and properties of young and low lying soil (nutrients, hydrology), the
forests are subject to normal terrestrial succession (Figure 2-35):
 After disturbance (fire), broadleaved species take over the large openings on
fresh and herb-rich soils; on nutrient-poorer/drier sites Scots pine is a
competitor.
 Shade-tolerant Norway spruce regenerates easily under those pioneer species.
 Broadleaved trees are short-lived compared with conifers (which may reach 400
years of age), meaning that they start decaying, fall and make small openings.
 The understorey Norway spruce (on poorer sites Scots pine) takes over the freed
space and eventually dominates the area on the fertile sites.
107
Figure 2-35. Simplified rotation of boreal forest in natural conditions, with a major
disturbance (above) and with no disturbances (below). Silviculture greatly changes the
picture, as the rotation shortens, becomes regular, and the tree species composition is
more or less fixed up to the regeneration cutting. Drawing by Teea Penttinen, Pöyry
Finland Oy.
After climate has set the conditions for length of growing season and humidity, the
growing potential of a site, the fertility, is determined by soil properties. Topography
and human actions do matter as well (Tamminen & Mälkönen 2003, p. 141). In Finland,
the so-called Cajanderian (Cajander 1909) forest site type classification is used. It is
based on a definition of plant communities typical of certain climatic and edaphic site
conditions, not the tree composition and structure (Tonteri et al. 1990, p. 85). For the
biosphere assessment, the site types occurring in southern Finland have been condensed
into three classes of rocky forests, heath forests and groves (section 2.2), based on
limitations of our ability to predict future forest characteristics due to a lack of sitespecific data and variations in sea sediment properties that will influence future soil
properties. Typical stem volume production values (yield of growing stock) for these
types during a whole rotation are presented in Table 2-14. Total biomass production is
tedious to measure at a point of time, let alone for the whole rotation. However, the
correlation between stem volume production and total biomass production is strong, as
stem volume is generally the largest biomass compartment in forests (Kellomäki 2005,
p. 269).
During the succession of a forest stand, the production varies as follows: first, the gross
production of trees rapidly increases, accumulating organic matter to the ecosystem.
Gradually, the maintenance of this matter demands more and more of the gross
production, meaning that in late phases of the succession the net production slows
down. The accumulation of organic matter ends when gross production and respiration
are in equilibrium. (Kellomäki 2005, p. 229). The understorey vegetation biomass
typically decreases along with tree growth. There are changes also in the tree
biomass/stem volume relation. (Kellomäki 2005, p. 269).
108
Olkiluoto-specific data exist at different scales (from four intensively monitored stands
to ca. 500 field plots with growing stock measurements; e.g. Saramäki & Korhonen
2005; Tamminen et al. 2007; Aro et al. 2010, 2011; Haapanen 2005-2011). However, as
Olkiluoto does not cover all site types comprehensively and the intensive management
and current young age cause biases relative to long-term development, forests
developed under general south-Finnish conditions are used to provide complementary
data.
Fauna
Wildlife on Olkiluoto Island is similar to that in the surrounding regions both in terms
of community composition and species richness (Haapanen 2009, p. 101; Haapanen
2010, p. 71; Haapanen 2011, p. 75).
The most recent bird survey conducted on Olkiluoto was in 2008 (Yrjölä 2009). Results
indicated that chaffinch and willow warbler were the most abundant terrestrial bird
species. Hooded crow and Eurasian black grouse have also been recorded in the various
surveys that have been conducted since 2004, although indications are that populations
are declining (Haapanen et al. 2009, table 4-4). Additional game birds that have been
recorded on Olkiluoto include Hazel grouse and Eurasian woodcock.
A number of surveys have been conducted on mammalian species present on the island,
including small mammals (Nieminen et al. 2009; Nieminen & Saarikivi 2008) and game
animals (Nieminen 2010). Reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates have also been
surveyed (Nieminen et al. 2009; Santaharju et al. 2009; Nieminen & Saarikivi 2008).
The results of the game animal survey (Nieminen 2010) indicate that the following
mammalian species are present on the island: moose, white-tailed deer, roe deer, red
fox, raccoon dog, European badger, American mink, pine marten, mountain hare, brown
hare and red squirrel.
Small mammals that have been recorded in forest areas (Nieminen et al. 2009;
Nieminen & Saarikivi 2008) include bank voles (the most abundant species observed),
yellow-necked mice, common shrew, water voles and field voles. The common lizard
was the most common reptile species observed although sightings of adders were also
made. The lizards were considered to be widespread and abundant in forest areas and
both adults and juveniles were observed to bask at forest edges and in clearings.
(Nieminen & Saarikivi 2008).
Invertebrates sampled included various ant, snail, ground beetle and earthworm species
(Santaharju et al. 2009).
Human actions
As most of the present-day forest stands in are subjected to intensive management, they
represent young successional stages (Tonteri et al. 1990, p. 85). Regeneration is mainly
artificial, the rotation shortens, becomes regular, and the tree species composition is
more or less fixed up to the regeneration cutting. This holds true also on Olkiluoto at
109
present (see e.g. Haapanen 2010, app. C for silvicultural actions carried out during a
year).
2.4.8 Croplands
In Finland, the use of cropland is decided according to the soil type and consumption of
crop products. In certain areas, there has been a trend towards increased animal
production, whereas in other agricultural areas crop production is dominant. For the
biosphere assessment, croplands have been divided in seven categories ('biotopes',
section 2.2) for which their key characteristics are listed in Table 2-15. The active
management of croplands is discussed, as related to exposure pathways, in section 3.1.1
and animal husbandry in section 3.1.2.
Croplands are at the moment scarce in the Olkiluoto area and thus the statistical
agricultural information is collected from the municipality of Eurajoki and the four
neighbouring municipalities (Rauma, Eura, Säkylä and Köyliö; see Figure 1-10). The
agricultural production in southern Finland is closely comparable to production in
southern Satakunta as the soil types (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 42-43; Kähäri et al. 1987,
p. 9, 64) as well as the climate (Rantanen & Solantie 1987, p. 23; Kangas et al. 2012, p.
16) are rather similar in southern Finland.
Table 2-15. Typical characteristics of the cropland biotopes.
Suitable soil
types
Cereals
 clay
 sand
 peat
Hydrology
Fauna
Other human
activities
Suitable soil
types
Hydrology
Fauna
Other human
activities
 irrigation beneficial
in early June if
drought
 few pests
 visiting fauna from
forests
 annual soil
management or
direct tillage,
sowing, fertilisation,
harvest
Sugar beet
 clay
 sand
Potato
 sand
Peas
 clay
 sand
 drainage needed on most fields
 irrigation beneficial
 irrigation beneficial
in June-July if
in June-August if
drought
drought
 insects can eat
small plants
 irrigation beneficial
in early June if
drought
 insects can eat
small plants and
seeds
 few visiting fauna from forests
 annual soil
management,
sowing, fertilisation,
harvest
 annual soil
management,
planting,
fertilisation, harvest
Field vegetables
Berries & fruits
Pasture
 clay
 clay
 clay
 sand
 sand
 sand
 peat (depending on
 peat
plant species)
 drainage needed on most fields
 irrigation beneficial in June-August if drought
 insects can eat
 insects and visiting
 few pests
small plants and
fauna can eat yield
yield
 few visiting fauna from forests
 visiting fauna from
forests
 soil management
 soil management
 annual soil
and sowing
and planting
management,
sowing or planting,
(between 3  5
(between 3  40
fertilisation, harvest
years), fertilisation,
years), fertilisation,
grazing harvest
harvest
 annual soil
management,
sowing, fertilisation,
harvest
110
Southern Satakunta
Eurajoki
Cereals
Sugar beet
Potato
Peas
Field vegetables
Berries & fruits
Pasture
Others
Figure 2-36. The proportion of agricultural biotopes in Eurajoki and the Southern
Satakunta municipalities in 2009-2010 (www.matilda.fi).
Figure 2-37. Spatial distribution of overall cropland in the Southern Satakunta
municipalities with the Eurajoki municipality delineated separately. For the full
Reference Area, see Figure 2-19 (section 2.1.6). Data from the Topographic Database
of National Land Survey; map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy.
In Eurajoki and southern Satakunta, cereals are the main agricultural production line. A
high proportion of sandy soils (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 225; Kähäri et al. 1987, p. 9) in
the region have encouraged the cultivation of field vegetables, peas, potato and sugar
beet. Thus grassland and pastures used in milk production form only 10% of the
cultivated area (Figure 2-36). Other crops consist mainly of oilseed, a biotope
resembling cereals and usually a part of the crop rotation on cereal farms.
The 2009 survey of small mammals, ants, snails and earthworms on Olkiluoto Island
(Nieminen et al. 2009) identified both field voles and bank voles from field sampling
sites. Voles were also evident in agricultural sampling sites during the 2008 small
mammal survey (Nieminen & Saarikivi 2008). Bird species reported for the forest areas
111
(section 2.4.7; Haapanen et al. 2009) are also likely to be occasional visitors to
agricultural areas.
Snails and earthworms were also recorded in agricultural fields in 2009 (Nieminen et al.
2009). Ants were absent in the 2009 survey, which may be due to a lack of suitable
nesting sites combined with a tough surface soil (Nieminen et al. 2009). Ant species
were however recorded in fields in a separate survey, as were a number of ground
beetles (Santaharju et al. 2009).
During the 2008 reptile, amphibian and small mammal survey (Nieminen & Saarikivi
2008) common lizards were observed in meadow areas. The common frog and smooth
newt were also observed in agricultural areas, specifically at field edges (Nieminen &
Saarikivi 2008).
Large mammals that are likely to be occasional visitors to agricultural areas include
deer and moose that will consume green leaves. Birds are also likely to visit such areas
to take advantage of available foods such as grain. (Haapanen et al. 2009).
113
3 LAND USE AND OTHER USE OF RESOURCES BY HUMANS
In this Chapter, the knowledge basis on the land use and exposure pathways of people
to the hypothetical releases of radionuclides from a deep underground nuclear waste
repository at Olkiluoto is summarised. The development and present properties of the
biosphere have been described in Chapter 2 above. The present Chapter feeds into the
dose assessment models presented in the Biosphere Radionuclide Transport and Dose
Assessment report with input data specifications in the Data Basis for the Biosphere
Assessment report. Similarly, the exposure pathways for representative species of plant
and animal, in terms of biotopes and habitats occupied and, where appropriate, their
food resources are presented in Chapter 4 below  using the same framework of the
overall setting of the semi-natural environment outlined in Chapter 2.
Here, the focus is on the present behaviour of people, reflecting the regulatory guidance
on assuming human habits to "remain unchanged" from those existing at present. Some
information on past behaviour is given, though, in section 2.1.7, in the context of the
development that has led to the present land use.
3.1 Farming practises
Farming is an important part of food production; of the diet of 23  64 year-old Finnish
men, 92% is derived from agriculture, although usually after industrial food processing,
6% is berries and fruits of which part is farmed and part from the forests and mires, and
3% is from fish dishes. In the case of women, the share of berries and fruits is 9% and
of fish dishes 3%; the difference from men explained by a lesser share of the
agricultural products. (Paturi et al. 2008, p. 36-37, 42-43).
3.1.1 Cultivation
Most agricultural soils need drainage to improve crop production; field drainage
systems control the water table in order to keep soil dry enough for soil management
and harvest traffic (Puustinen et al. 1994, p. 12). Sandy soils with higher hydraulic
conductivity can sometimes be managed without drainage systems and drainage water
can seep down directly to the groundwater, but these are rare in the Olkiluoto area.
Open ditches still exist on some fields that are not in intensive farming. In the Satakunta
province around the Olkiluoto site, subsurface drainage is the most common drainage
system with 70% coverage of the field area (TIKE 2010, p 51). Pipes from the
subsurface drainage lead the water to main ditches and further to the surface water
bodies. The water table can be adjusted in controlled subsurface drainage systems to
store water for plant transpiration at the beginning of the growing season.
Soil management by tillage depends on crop rotation. In Finland, approximately 50% of
the field area is annually not tilled; grasslands, green fallows, buffer strips and other
perennial plants are tilled only every 3  5 years. For the types of agricultural
production most common in the southern Satakunta region, like cereal and special
crops, tillage is annually performed for more than 80% of the field area (TIKE 2011a, p.
4). The seasonal management cycle is presented in Table 3-1.
114
Table 3-1. Seasonal management cycle of croplands.
Annual plants
(e.g. cereals
and sugar beet)
Winter cereals,
perennial
plants,
grassland,
berries etc.
Spring
 soil management for
seedbed
preparation
 sowing
 fertiliser placement
 fertilisation as top
dressing
Summer
 plant protection
(herbicides,
pesticides and
fungicides)
 irrigation for certain
crops
st
 1 harvest for
grassland, harvest
for certain berries
 additional fertiliser
applications
Autumn
 harvesting
 soil management for
mixing crop
residues by
ploughing, or
stubble cultivation
nd
 2 harvest for
grassland, harvest
for berries, harvest
of other crops
Winter
 snow cover and
frozen soil
 snow cover and
frozen soil
 overwintering crops
In autumn after harvesting annual crops, crop residues are usually mixed into the top
soil to increase decomposition and to help seedbed preparation in spring. Ploughing,
where a 22  25 cm top layer is turned over, is still the most popular tillage method in
Finland done and is carried out on approximately 60% of the tilled fields. Spring
ploughing has a proportion of 20% of sown arable area in Satakunta
(http://www.maataloustilastot.fi/maatalouden-rakennetutkimus). It is mostly used on
sandy soils as they dry early for ploughing and ploughed soil becomes soon ready for
seedbed preparation. Nearly 30% of annually tilled fields are under reduced tillage that
usually consists of mixing the 10  12 cm top layer with a chisel plough or a field
cultivator. Direct drilling, where soil is not tilled and seedbed preparation is the only
soil agitation, is used for 10% of the annual crops (TIKE 2011a, p. 4). Examples of
typical farming machinery are presented in Figure 3-1.
In spring after ploughing or reduced tillage, a 5 – 10 cm layer of top soil is harrowed 2 –
3 times or rotary tilled once to even the soil surface and to form suitable seedbed
conditions. Sowing of cereals is done as combi-drilling, where seeds are placed at a
depth of 5 – 7 cm at a row interval of 12.5 cm. Granular fertilisers are placed a few
centimetres deeper than the seeds between every second seed row. In direct tilling, the
sowing machine prepares the seedbed and places the seeds and the fertilisers in one
drive. (Mikkola 2003, p. 43-46).
In summer, soil management is done sometimes for field vegetables such as carrot and
cabbage as row distances of more than 50 cm allow cautious tillage between rows to
control weeds.
Figure 3-1. Photographs of typical cultivation machinery: ploughing, direct tilling,
combine harvester, carrot harvester. Photographs on courtesy of MTT Agrifood
Research Finland, except the combine harvester from Posiva's photograph archive.
115
At the moment, most fertilisers used in Finland are granular compound fertilisers
containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) in various mixtures. Single N or
NK fertilisers are used in fields of with high soil P contents. For annual plants,
fertilisers are usually placed few centimetres below seeds at sowing and for winter
cereals and perennial plants they are applied as top-dressing on the soil surface.
Nutrients from animal manure are an essential part of the fertilisation strategy on farms
with animal production (section 3.1.2).
Irrigation is economically viable only for certain crops that produce a yield of market
value compensating the costs of irrigation. These crops at the moment are field
vegetables and berries. To a more limited extent, it may be beneficial to irrigate also
potato, sugar beet and grassland, depending on the growing season conditions. Irrigation
is usually provided by sprinklers or booms. Subsurface irrigation is also possible on
fields that have a suitable subsurface drainage system and ponds or other access to the
significant amount of water to be pumped into the system. The possibility for and
economy of irrigation are related to the distances from surface water and groundwater
sources. (Pajula & Triipponen 2003, p 34-39; Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 226-227).
3.1.2 Animal husbandry
Animal production in the southern Satakunta, i.e. around the Olkiluoto site, includes the
most common farm animals of Finland (Table 3-2). The average size of dairy cow herds
per farm is typical of the whole Satakunta Employment and Economic Development
Centre (EEDC) (Table 3-2, Figure 3-2). As dairy farms also have young cattle, the
number of cattle on one farm averages close to 60 animals (Table 3-2).
Table 3-2. Number of animals and animal farms (www.matilda.fi), calculated average
herd size, and production in the municipalities of southern Satakunta (Eura, Eurajoki,
Köyliö, Rauma and Säkylä) averaged for 2010 – 2011. If the number of farms in a
municipality is less than two, the data have been omitted from the statistics for privacy
reasons.
Species
Animal group
Cattle
Dairy cows
Suckler cows
Bulls
Heifers
Calves, < 1 year old
Cattle, total
Ewes
Other sheep
Sheep, total
Boars
Sows
Fattening pigs (> 50 kg)
Pigs (20  50 kg)
Piglets (< 20 kg)
Pigs, total
Laying hens
Broilers
Horses (adult)
Sheep
Pigs
Poultry
Horses
No. of
animals
1 537
465
1 010
752
2 207
6 360
383
462
845
54
2 687
8 172
6 124
6 343
23 380
111 005
1 073 392
604
No. of
farms
82
14
94
54
104
110
15
15
15
28
30
46
41
35
53
19
23
83
Average
herd size
19
34
11
14
21
58
26
31
56
2
90
180
151
184
441
5 842
47 706
7
Production
10 800 000 litres
2 247 animals, 704 000 kg
196 animals, 3 700 kg
40 815 animals, 3 700 000 kg
116
cumulative percentage of dairy cows
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1-9
10 - 14
15 - 19
20 - 29
30 - 39
40 - 49
50 - 74
75 - 99
100 -
number of dairy cows by herd size
cumulative percentage
of fattening pigs
Figure 3-2. Cumulative distribution of herd sizes of dairy cows within the Satakunta
Employment and Economic Development Centre (EEDC) in 2011 (TIKE 2011b).
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1-9
10-49
50-99 100-199 200-299 300-499 500-799 800-999 1000 1499
1500 -
number of fattening pigs per herd size
Figure 3-3. Cumulative distribution of herd sizes of fattening pigs within the Satakunta
Employment and Economic Development Centre (EEDC) in 2011 (TIKE 2011b).
Pig production in the southern Satakunta is less intensive than within the Satakunta
EEDC as a whole; whereas the average size of a fattening pig herd in southern
Satakunta is 180 pigs per farm, in the surrounding municipalities the average herd size
is 220 fattening pigs but 50% of the fattening pigs are raised in herds more than 500
individuals (Figure 3-3).
Poultry production is rather intensive within the Satakunta EEDC and more than half of
the laying hens and all broilers are produced in the southern Satakunta area
(www.matilda.fi). The intensive poultry farms are large, and although the average size
of a flock is 5000 hens, the median size of a flock is close to 10 000 hens
(www.matilda.fi).
117
Animal farms must produce or purchase a considerable amount of feed (Table 3-3). On
farm produced concentrates are cereal grains, whereas purchased concentrates consist of
protein supplements, commercial concentrate feeds, by-products and cereal grains from
other farms (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 230). In addition to drinking water demand,
animal farms also use a significant amount of water for cleaning and manure handling.
Grazing is common for dairy and sheep farms, and over 80% of these farms have
pastures (TIKE 2011b, p. 12). Sheep farms use 60% of their field area for grazing
(TIKE 2011b, p. 14). Dairy farms have most of their fields for silage and cereal
production, and thus the proportion of pastures is only 14% of the field area (TIKE
2011b, p. 14.). Young cattle and non-lactating cows are the most common groups that
graze on dairy farms.
Animal manure is returned to the fields as soil amendment and its nutrient value is
considered in fertilisation planning. Manure is applied annually on 40  60% of fields of
cattle and pig farms (TIKE 2011a, p. 9). Approximately 40% of manure is handled as
slurry with a dry matter concentration of 3  8%, this method being the most common
in pig production (TIKE 2011b, p. 7). Almost 30% of manure is incorporated into the
soil during application and 50% is incorporated after application usually by ploughing.
Only 20% of applied manure is left on the soil surface after application onto fields with
growing crops. (TIKE 2011a, p. 12-13).
As to special production, there are approximately 40 000 artificial beehives in Finland,
that are run by 2 000 beekeepers. Most beekeepers produce honey on a small scale,
typically having only about 10 beehives. (TIKE 2010, p. 140).
Figure 3-4. Photographs of typical livestock in the region around the Olkiluoto site, on
the courtesy of MTT Agrifood Research Finland.
118
Dairy cows
Suckler cows
Bulls
Heifers
Calves, < 1 year old
Ewes
Other sheep
Boars
Sows
Fattening pigs (> 50 kg)
Piglets (20  50 kg)
Piglets (< 20 kg)
Laying hens
Broilers
Horse, adult
Average
herd size
19
34
11
14
21
26
31
2
90
180
151
184
5 842
47 706
7
Feed intake, in dry kg/day per animal
Concentrate
Concentrate
Forage
produced
purchased
on farm
3.01
4.20
0.70
0.00
2.02
0.61
0.77
0.50
0.73
0.69
0.12
0.03
0.19
0.05
1.86
0.62
2.08
0.90
1.66
0.36
0.42
0.32
0.42
0.32
0.04
0.05
0.01
0.08
2.66
0.09
9.39
9.55
5.49
4.79
2.20
1.35
0.82
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
7.10
Drinking
water
demand l/d
per animal
110
40
30
30
23
12
8.5
8
20
9
5
2
0.2
0.2
25
176
329
59
67
47
34
25
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
52
Feed demand, in dry kg/d per herd
Concentrate
Concentrate
Forage
produced
purchased
on farm
56
79
24
0
22
7
11
7
15
15
3
1
6
2
4
1
186
81
298
65
64
48
77
59
234
310
530
3 898
19
1
Table 3-3. Feed and drinking water demand for average herds (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 229; Tertsunen et al. 2005, p. 28).
Cattle
Sheep
Pigs
Poultry
Horses
Drinking
water
demand l/d
per herd
2062
1378
322
418
488
306
261
16
1791
1616
756
368
1168
9541
182
119
3.1.3 Fish farms
Fish farming is a specific form of agriculture that refers to the raising of fish in
enclosures, ponds or tanks for food. In Finland, farming is usually carried out in
offshore fish cages. Fish are fed artificially with pellets that are made of fishmeal and
oil (Goldburg & Naylor 2005, p. 23). In the vicinity of Olkiluoto, the commercial fish
farming is focused on the coastal area of the Bothnian Sea. In 2010, the total number of
food fish farms in the southwestern fishery unit18 (including the Olkiluoto area) was 62
and the total production of farmed fish was 2 900 tonnes of ungutted fish (RKTL 2011a,
tables 9, 10). The main farmed fish species are rainbow trout and European whitefish
(RKTL 2011a, table 6).
3.2 Natural food resources
3.2.1 Fishing
In Finnish statistics, fishing is divided in to two major categories: commercial and
recreational fishing. In general, commercial fishing with seine nets is the only fishing
method in the open sea area and the major part of the catch is Baltic herring and sprat
(RKTL 2011b, table 6). In 2010, the total catch from the open sea area of the Bothnian
Sea, including the Olkiluoto area, was 46 700 tonnes. Fur production is a significant
industry sector in Finland, and thus the majority of the fish catch is used as feed for furproducing animals such as grey fox and mink (Silvenius & Grönroos 2004, p. 16;
Karhula et al. 2008, p. 9).
In 2008, there were about 1.8 million recreational fishermen in about one million
households in Finland; the proportion of recreational fishermen was 34% of the overall
population, and fishing was the most, or almost the most, important hobby for 82 000
fishermen (RKTL 2009, p. 11). Table 3-4 presents the fish catch by professional and
recreational fishermen in the smallest areas in the statistics including the Olkiluoto site.
In addition, from the respective inland waters, 101 000 signal crayfish individuals were
caught by professionals and 105 000 by recreational fishermen in 2008 (RKTL 2009,
table 26; RKTL 2010d, table 2). In addition, recreational fishermen caught also 4000
individuals of European crayfish from the inland waters in the same year (RKTL 2009,
table 26).
In the coastal area of Olkiluoto, both commercial and recreational fishing are practiced,
and the most important fishing gear is a net. In the 2000s, the total annual commercial
fish catch has ranged from 10 to 40 tonnes. (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 204). The most
economically important species are European whitefish, perch and pike. In 2009, the
total catch from recreational fishing in the Olkiluoto area was 4 tonnes and the most
important prey species were Baltic herring, perch and pike.
In the Reference area, the catch from freshwater fishing is lower than that from the sea
due to the smaller water area. Common species in the catch from lakes and rivers are
perch, roach and pike (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 168; RKTL 2009, Table 23).
18
The Fishery Unit of Varsinais-Suomi Employment and Economic Development Centre (EEDC), i.e. the provinces of VarsinaisSuomi and Satakunta
120
Table 3-4. Professional and recreational fish catches, 1000 kg, in the inland water and
sea areas including the Olkiluoto site in 2008 (professional from the sea in 2010; RKTL
2009, tables 24, 26; RKTL 2010d, table 2; RKTL 2011b, table 4).
Fish species
Baltic herring
Sprat
Perch
Pike
European whitefish
Roach
Smelt
Bream
Pikeperch
Ide
Rainbow trout
Trout
Vendace
Salmon
Burbot
Flounder
Grayling
Eel
Cod
Other fish
Total
*
Inland waters, SW Finland *
Professional Recreational
Total
38
1
2
24
4
2
0
0
59
<0.5
349
190
6
126
70
33
8
113
67
3
3
<0.5
2
<0.5
12
143
34
1 005
387
191
8
150
4
72
33
8
113
67
62
3
<1
2
<0.5
46
1 148
Sea area, Bothnian Sea
Professional Recreational
Total
68 745
72
68 817
3 342
0
3 342
435
934
1 369
102
356
458
241
219
460
107
201
308
345
345
136
92
228
91
19
110
15
119
134
3
25
28
23
44
67
5
0
5
43
10
53
21
5
26
2
7
9
<0.5
<0.5
0
<0.5
0
<0.5
50
27
77
73 706
2 128
75 834
The Fishery Unit of Varsinais-Suomi Employment and Economic Development Centre (EEDC), i.e. the provinces of Varsinais-Suomi
and Satakunta (RKTL 2009, fig. 2).
3.2.2 Hunting
In Finland, mammals and birds are hunted both for food and for population
management, and some also for trophies and hides (Table 3-5). The number of hunted
individuals is under governmental control, and a specific hunter's examination is
required for a hunting license. Despite this, there are 300 000 hunters in Finland, which
relative to the population (about 5%) is one of the highest in Europe. In the recent years
also the number of women that hunt for a hobby has increased.
The degree of hunting in relation to the population varies considerably depending on the
species group. Moose and deer populations are extensively exploited by man and
approximately the whole annual yield is harvested by hunters each year. It is estimated
that about 3050% of the mallard and teal populations are harvested annually by
hunters after the breeding season (Mooij 2005). In the case of small carnivores (racoon
dog and fox) the amount that is harvested after the breeding season is estimated to be
4050% (Kauhala 2007). Large carnivore populations are strictly controlled, and during
the recent years particularly the population of lynx has been increased markedly.
Products obtained
meat, hide, trophy
meat, hide, trophy
meat, hide, trophy
meat
meat
meat, hide
hide
hide
hide
hide, trophy
meat
meat
meat
meat
meat
meat
meat
meat

meat, hide, blubber
Species
Moose
White-tail deer
Roe deer
Arctic hare
European hare
Beaver
Racoon dog *
Red fox *
American mink *
Lynx
Mallard
Teal
Goldeneye
Common eider
Greylag goose
Hazel grouse
Black grouse
Wood pigeon
Hooded crow *
Grey seal
66 800
109 600
41 800
29 300
1 300
1 000
18 400
100
33 500
33 500
32 600
4 000
4 000
11 800
2 000
12 600
7 000
6 800
17 600
5 700
Population
estimate
4 500
3 900
62 000
40 200
80
3 000
7 200
10
48 100
14 100
3 000
4 000
4 000
11 800
200
20 500
12 400
1 700
12 400
4 200
Annual
catch
forests
forests and agricultural environments
small water bodies
forests and agricultural environments
forests and agricultural environments
forests agricultural, environments and
small water bodies
forests agricultural, environments
variable water bodies
variable water bodies
variable water bodies
small islands and skerries in outer and
middle coastal archipelago
small islands and skerries in outer and
middle coastal archipelago; feeds on
fields
forests
forests
forests agricultural, environments
forests agricultural, environments
archipelago, open sea
forests and agricultural environments
forests and agricultural environments
forests and agricultural environments
Habitat
berries, seeds, buds of deciduous trees
berries, seeds, insects, buds of birch
seeds, beans, young shoots
omnivore
fish (carnivore)
grasses, tubers, aquatic weeds
blue mussels, small crustacean
deer, hares (carnivore)
gastropods, invertebrates, plants.
gastropods, invertebrates, plants.
invertebrates, mussels
fish, birds, small rodents (carnivore)
Scots pine, deciduous trees, grasses
(herbivore)
grasses, shrubs, supplemental feeding by
man (herbivore)
grasses, shrubs, supplemental feeding by
man (herbivore)
grasses, shrubs, bark (herbivore)
grasses, shrubs, bark (herbivore)
bark, aquatic weeds (herbivore)
true omnivore
rodents, small birds, hares (omnivore)
Food source
Table 3-5. Common game species, their catch (annual hunting bags 2006-2010, Finnish Game and Fishery Institute) and a crude estimate
of their population in the Reference area; for details on the data, see the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report. Also products
obtained from the game, the main habitats and food sources of the species are presented based on expert judgement. The species marked
with an asterisk (*) are hunted also for population control.
121
122
3.2.3 Berries and mushrooms
In Finland, there are about 50 indigenous wild berry species, 37 of them being edible
ones (Salo 1995, p. 122). However, only 16 of these are commonly picked for human
consumption (Salo 1995, p. 122). Economically the most important species are
lingonberry, bilberry, cloudberry, cranberries, wild raspberry, Arctic bramble, rowan
berry and sea buckthorn19.
Lingonberry and bilberry grow commonly in heath forests and on forested mires, but
can be found in rocky forests as well. According to Turtiainen et al. (2011, p. 244, fig.
3), annual bilberry and lingonberry yields in Finland vary from 12 to 39 kg/ha and from
12 to 35 kg/ha, respectively, based on data collected mainly from heath forests during
1997-2008. Approximately 5  10% of the annual yield is collected by humans
(Turtiainen et al. 2011, p. 238). Cloudberry and cranberry are typical berries of mires.
Veijalainen (1979, p. 12) reported cloudberry yields of 0 – 79 kg/ha. For cranberry, the
range for average yield was 25 – 300 kg/ha in most mire types (Ruuhijärvi 1976, p. 97).
Wild raspberry and Arctic bramble both grow also in seashore groves, and sea
buckthorn on rocky seashores. Rowan can be found in all biotopes.
Finland has about 2 000 mushroom species (macrofungi), 200 of these edible (Salo
1995, p. 136). However, only some 30 species are accepted as commercial edible
mushrooms by the Finnish Food Safety Authority (Evira 2007). Most of the best edible
mushrooms are found in heath forests where they accompany Scots pine, Norway
spruce or birch because of mycorrhizal association. The most popular edible
mushrooms are ceps, milk caps, Russula species and chanterelle, and other species
phylogenetically close to them (Salo 1995, p. 137). Figure 3-5 presents the appearance
of some of the most popular edible mushrooms.
The distributions of mushrooms and their yields are strongly influenced by weather
conditions (precipitation and temperature), tree species, understorey vegetation and site
properties (e.g. top-soil moisture and temperature) (Salo 1995, p. 140); the variation in
annual mushroom yield can be high. For example, in the good crop year of 1981, Salo
(1995, p. 140) collected average annual mushroom yields of mycorrhizal and
saprophytic species of 53 – 129 kg/ha in heath forests. For comparison, Ohenoja and
Koistinen (1984, p. 360, table 2) reported yields of 28 – 87 kg/ha for edible mushrooms
growing in heath forests and groves during unfavourable weather conditions in northern
Finland.
More detailed data on the productivity of edible berries and mushroom for the dose
assessment are presented in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report.
19
The other commonly picked edible species are crowberries, bog bilberry, wild strawberry, juniper, stone bramble and black
bearberry.
123
Figure 3-5. Popular edible mushrooms in Finland: chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius),
yellowfoot (Craterellus tubaeformis), cep (Boletus edulis), a Leccinum species, black
trumpet (Craterellus cornucopioides), and day's catch of various mushrooms prepared
for drying. Photographs by Reija Haapanen, Haapanen Forest Consulting.
3.3 Water resources
3.3.1 Communal water distribution
Communal water acquisition aims to secure high-quality household water for drinking,
food preparation and washing. In addition, industry consumes clean water for several
purposes, including product manufacturing, cleaning and process cooling. According to
the Finnish waterworks statistics, the average daily per capita consumption is about 240
l/d, of which the households consume 60% (Lapinlampi & Raassina 2002a, p. 15).
Thus, in households the average amount of water used per person is 145 l/d. However,
only a small proportion of the water is used for drinking and food preparation as the rest
goes for washing, laundry, flushing of toilets etc.
In Finland, over 90% of households have access to a communal water distribution
system (Isomäki et al. 2007, p. 9). Water services include the supply, purification and
distribution of water. Water is extracted either from surface water, such as rivers or
lakes, or from groundwater reserves. The quality of groundwater is usually better than
that of surface waters. Therefore, the proportion of groundwater used as household
water is tending to increase. In addition, the use of artificial recharge to supplement
natural groundwater for producing high-quality drinking water is increasing in Finland.
This artificial groundwater is made by infiltrating water taken from surface water bodies
124
into suitable soil, typically eskers, by means of basin- or sprinkling-type infiltration
methods. (Salonen et al. 2002, p. 163; Lindroos et al. 2001, p. 89-90). In 2007, surface
water accounted for 40%, groundwater 48% and artificial groundwater 12% of the water
distributed by waterworks around the country (Isomäki et al. 2007, p. 11; Ahonen et al.
2008, p. 125).
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and
biological contaminants from raw water. Depending on the quality of raw water, several
water purification methods can be used. In general, the methods used include physical
processes such as filtration and sedimentation, biological processes such as slow sand
filters or activated sludge, chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination, the
use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light and ozonation. The purification
process aims to reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended
particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi; and a range of dissolved and
particulate material. (World Health Organization 2011, section 1.1). In general, the
quality of drinking water distributed by Finnish communal waterworks is excellent
(Zacheus 2010, p. 23).
In the municipality of Eurajoki, where Olkiluoto is situated, the communal water
distribution is based on groundwater taken from several groundwater areas. The area of
the service covers almost the whole Eurajoki, as around 98 % of the households receive
their household water through the communal distribution (Eurajoki municipality, oral
response to a query, 6 March 2012). There are only about 20 households depending on
the private wells. In years 2005-2009, the average annual amount of water distributed
by municipality of Eurajoki was 312 000 m3 of which households used 75%
(Environmental information and spatial data service - OIVA portal, March 1, 2012).
In the town of Rauma, the water distribution is based on surface water taken from
nearby rivers: The water of the River Lapijoki is used as the main source of raw water
by the town and the local forest industry, but during dry periods, water is drawn from
the River Eurajoki into the River Lapijoki, or straight to a raw water reservoir situated
in Rauma. Occasionally, water is also run from the River Kokemäenjoki through the
River Köyliönjoki into the River Eurajoki to ensure sufficient water volume flow rates
are available.
3.3.2 Wells
In Finland, about 10% of households live outside the range of communal water
distribution systems (Lahermo et al. 2002, p. 5; Salonen et al. 2002, p. 162). Therefore,
in sparsely populated areas and summer residences most people depend on groundwater
from wells, though spring water (section 3.3.3) is also used.
The quality of Finnish well waters is controlled by morphological, geological, marine,
biological, atmospheric and anthropogenic factors including the structure of the wells,
pumps, piping and related appliances. Around 50% of the shallow wells are to a depth
of at most 5 m deep, and around 20% are about 6  9 m deep. Most of the shallow wells
in Finland are in till soils and a half of the shallow wells are over 50 years old. (KorkkaNiemi 2001, section 3.6). The average depth of wells drilled into the bedrock is about
125
60  70 m, the deepest being over 100 m. In the archipelago, drilled wells are shallower
(typically less than 30 m) due to a risk of seawater intrusion (Lahermo et al. 2002, p. 6).
The presence and hydrogeological characteristics of fracture and shear zones have the
largest effect on the yield of drilled wells, which varies widely between 1  30 m³/d
(Lahermo & Backman 2000). In the rapakivi granite and Satakunta sandstones well
yields are higher than in other rock types (Hatva et al. 2008, section 5.6.2). The yield of
Quaternary aquifers is usually much higher, especially in sand and gravel formations,
than that of a bedrock aquifer, the average yield of wells drilled into bedrock being 3060 m³/d (Korkka-Niemi 2001, p. 51).
In general, the groundwater quality in Finnish wells is good or satisfactory; however
water quality can vary locally and regionally (Hatva et al. 2008); regional and local
groundwater quality surveys are reported in (Backman et al. 1999; Korkka-Niemi et al.
1999; Korkka-Niemi 2001; Lahermo et al. 2002; Loukola-Ruskeeniemi et al. 2007;
Salonen et al. 1998; Salonen 1995 and Voutilainen et al. 2000). Some elements such as
fluride, arsenic, nickel, radon and uranium, derived mainly from geological sources, are
considered to pose helath related problems while occurring in at high concentrations in
household waters (Lahermo et al. 2002, sections 5.1 and 5.2). In the coastal areas,
groundwater is enriched in Cl and SO4 (Lahermo et al. 2002, ch. 7 and 8).
The privately drilled wells at Olkiluoto that are in active use have been included in the
monitoring programme of Posiva; the results area presented in (Haapanen 2011, figs.
45-48, table L-4). Generally, the water quality of the monitored wells has been potable
but poor to drink. In an interview study in 2003 (Ikonen 2003), 11 drilled wells were
found in the Olkiluoto and Ilavainen Islands with depths of 16  73 m. Three of these
were used only for summer residences, and six households with a drilled well were also
been connected to the communal water distribution system (Ikonen 2003, table VI-2).
In principle, building wells near agricultural areas, especially cattle sheds, should be
avoided, but due to landownership, many farms do have low-quality wells. The shallow
wells near cattle yards contain more iron, manganese, nitrate, potassium and sodium
than the shallow wells in the fields and forests, but shallow wells near the fields have a
low water-quality as well: the water has clearly higher colour, opacity and KMnO4
values, mainly due to fertilizers and organic matter (Korkka-Niemi 2001, section 3.6.6;
Lahermo et al. 2002, section 7.1).
3.3.3 Other sources of drinking and irrigation water
Human consumption
Springs have been described for their geo-ecological properties in section 2.4.5 above.
Information on anthropogenic effects on springs is relatively scarce (Juutinen et al.
2010). The most important factors are settlement/infrastructure, agriculture and traffic.
Springs and spring areas are enshrined by an amendment to the Finnish Water Act
(January 1, 1997), so that their natural stage is to be preserved, as their special
characteristics support several rare plant and fauna species. The revised version of the
Water Act is from January 1, 2012 (Report of the Ministry of the Environment 2012).
126
The spring waters are seldom used for drinking water, mostly in hiking and to supply
some cottages.
The Geological Survey of Finland has undertaken a nationwide campaign to collect
spring waters in 1999 (Lahermo et al. 2002). In the Topographic database of the
National Land Survey (see also Lahermo et al. 2002, figure 2) there are only few
springs marked within the Reference area (with a land area of 25 000 km²). Some of
these cannot be found in the landscape, though; during a field search for potential
springs for the sampling programme of Posiva in 2008, two out of five springs marked
on general maps could not be localised (three springs in the area were selected for
sampling; for details see e.g. Haapanen 2011, app. I; Haapanen et al. 2009, table 6-9, p.
176). For locations of springs in the Reference area according to these data sources, see
Figure 2-14 in section 2.1.4.
Typical of the springs in current or recent use, the three springs in Posiva's sampling
programme have a concrete ring or a wooden collar and a lid to facilitate the drawing of
water (Figure 3-6). Nowadays it is not recommend constructing a cover, because this
will destroy the spring in a long run.
Drinking water for livestock, and water for irrigation and other agricultural use
Farm animals need high-quality drinking water and thus wells or springs are preferred.
With increasing farm size, reliability of the water source both in quality and amount
becomes essential. In addition, the need for cleaning water in intensive farming is
considerable. According to Hatva et al. (2008) the family with four persons consumes
water about 500  750 l/d. The dairy cattle consume per animal about 60  120 l/d and
calf, sheep and pig consumption is between 4  40 l/d.
Figure 3-6. Springs sampled in the vicinity of Olkiluoto have supporting structures,
typical of the springs in the region (photographs by Ari Ikonen, Posiva Oy).
127
Considering irrigation, water should also be of good quality as harmful substances such
as toxins of cyanobacteria can be adsorbed by plant leaves. Faecal pathogens are also a
potential risk, as they might survive in plants or in soil after irrigation. Irrigation using
water from springs or wells is not common as the water demand for irrigation events
(addressed in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report) is high compared to
the water supply from springs or wells; a typical irrigation event of 30 mm demands 300
m³ water per hectare. Thus, surface waters are mostly used as the irrigation water
source. Water from lakes, ponds and rivers is usually clean enough for irrigation
purposes, but not for drinking water. In addition, the amount of water is sufficient in
these sources, although in growing seasons with low rainfall, irrigation water from
small rivers and ponds can become scarce, and water quality could deteriorated.
3.3.4 Other use of water resources
Industry uses water distributed by communal waterworks, but it can also take water
straight from groundwater or surface water bodies. In Olkiluoto, the nuclear power plant
takes raw water from downstream of the River Eurajoki. The industry situated upstream
of the River Eurajoki takes water from the River Eurajoki or from Lake Pyhäjärvi.
Besides, water bodies being used for water supply by waterworks, industry and
households, they also function as places where wastewaters are discharged. About 80 %
of the population in Finland is connected to centralised sewage systems, and wastewater
is treated in wastewater treatment plants (Lapinlampi & Raassina 2002b, p. 8; Santala &
Etelämäki 2007, p. 5). In inland areas, treated wastewater is usually discharged to rivers
or lakes, whereas in coastal areas, treated wastewater can be discharged straight to the
sea. Nevertheless, some 20% of the population of Finland live in sparsely populated
areas where houses are not connected to communal sewage systems. In these areas,
wastewater must also be treated so that it does not contaminate the environment
(Hallanaro & Kujala-Räty 2011, p. 13). Wastewater treatment is controlled and
monitored by Finnish laws and authorities.
3.4 Dietary habits
The dietary habits and nutrient intake of the adult Finnish population have been studied
since 1982 in five-yearly surveys, with the latest in 2007 (Paturi et al. 2008). Finnish
adults have, on average, six eating occasions per day, and two thirds of the daily energy
is derived from main meals (Paturi et al. 2008, p. 25). According to Männistö et al.
(2003, p. 21-22) practically everyone in the population consumes bread and milk
products. Men tend to eat more energy-rich products such as meat, sausages, potato and
sugar and women meanwhile consume more vegetables, berries and fruits.
The daily intake of energy for adult men and women by food use class is shown in
Figure 3-7 and the daily intake by weight of the dominant components in Table 3-6.
About one-third of the daily food energy intake in a Finnish adult's diet originated from
cereal and bakery products, and another one-third from meat dishes and milk and dairy
products (Paturi et al. 2008, p. 105). The most consumed cereals are wheat and rye. In
terms of meat products there are no distinctive differences between the amount of
consumed beef, pork and poultry, but mutton and game are used less often (Paturi et al
128
2008, table 4.6). Potato is the most typical side dish, although rice and pasta are also
generally consumed (Paturi et al. 2008, p. 34; Männistö et al. 2003, p. 113).
Regional farm and fish products are traditionally bought from the local marketplaces
and, to an extent, local products are also available in stores along with industrially
processed foods. In the present-day society, foodstuff production is considerably
industrialised and raw material produced in an area is processed in facilities gathering
products from a wider district. Raw products are sometimes sent abroad, where working
expenses are lower, for processing and then shipped back for further processing or as
ready products. During the last decades the consumption of prepared foods has
increased. A recent trend is, however, favouring organic and locally produced food that
is considered more ecologically sustainable and is available directly from the farms
without any industrial processing.
The level of autarky is difficult to quantify at a local or regional scale, due to the lack of
comprehensive, accessible statistics for local or regional annual agricultural production,
import, export and consumption. Some rough indication of the level of a theoretical
autarky in the Satakunta province can be derived, though: The annual consumption of
different food products in Satakunta is estimated by multiplying the national averages of
food consumption (Table 3-6) with the total population of Satakunta (111 638 men and
115 393 women, data from Statistics Finland, www.stat.fi/index_en.html).
Daily intake of energy [kJ]
3000
2500
Men (25-64 years)
Women (25-64 years)
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Figure 3-7. Daily intake of energy for adult men and women by food use class based on
(Paturi et al. 2008, tables 7.1 and 7.2).
129
This consumption is then compared with the production in Satakunta; field crop and
livestock production for year 2010 are gathered from the Matilda Agricultural Statistics
Service (www.maataloustilastot.fi/en) and for vegetables the data are from the
Horticultural Enterprise Register 2010 (TIKE 2011c). The results are presented in
Figure 3-8: the production is larger than the consumption for the eight food products for
which data were found. This is just an indication that the Satakunta region could
theoretically be self-sufficient regarding the eight products in the figure, but it
unfortunately does not say anything regarding the export and import of produced food
from and to the region due to the lack of suitable statistics.
Table 3-6. Mean amount of components in the diet of Finnish adults (25-64 y) based on
the data of (Paturi et al. 2008, table 4.7).
Vegetables
Root vegetables
Leaf vegetables
Fruit vegetables
Other vegetables
Legumes, nuts
Potato
Fruit, berries
Citrus fruit
Malaceous fruit
Other fruit
Berries
Juices
Cereals
Wheat
Rye
Oat, barley
Rice
Pasta
Other cereals
Fats
Oils
Margarines
Butter
Other fats
Fish, shellfish
Eggs
Meat
Beef
Pork
Poultry
Sausages
Could cuts
Mutton, game, offal
Milk products
Milks
Sour milk products
Cheese
Other milk products
Sugar, confectionary, chocolate
Beverages
Alcoholic beverages
Other ingredients
Men
g/day
125
28
12
57
28
11
103
203
53
37
37
18
58
179
75
70
10
12
9
4
49
9
17
13
9
28
19
167
25
33
31
40
21
16
505
345
99
40
21
33
1706
224
19
Women
g/day
153
36
16
70
32
13
69
242
72
49
46
28
47
136
60
45
9
9
7
4
33
6
10
9
7
24
13
98
18
20
24
15
14
7
413
231
126
34
21
32
1744
58
14
130
Consumption [M kg/y]
Production [M kg/y]
100.0
10.0
1.0
0.1
Figure 3-8. Comparison of total consumption and production of a few key food
products in the Satakunta region year 2010.
Figure 3-9. Distribution of permanent and recreational buildings on and near Olkiluoto
Island (where the nuclear power production limits e.g. residential land uses) based on
data from the Topographic Database of the National Land Survey. Map layout by Jani
Helin, Posiva Oy.
131
3.5 Recreational land use and potential uses of ecosystems
Outdoor recreation is part of the Finnish way of life. Ninety-seven per cent of Finnish
people participate in outdoor activities and visit nature during the course of the year
(Pouta & Sievänen 2001, p. 49). Outdoor recreation is based on the traditional
“everyman’s rights” (”freedom to roam”), which give everyone a right to access and
enjoy nature: Everyone may walk, ski or cycle freely in the countryside where this does
not harm the natural environment or the landowner, except in gardens or in the
immediate vicinity of yards. It is also permitted for people to stay or set up camp
temporarily in the countryside, a reasonable distance from homes, pick mineral samples,
wild berries, mushrooms and flowers (as long as they are not protected species). One
may fish with a rod and line, row, sail or use a motorboat on waterways (with certain
restrictions), and swim or bathe in both inland waters and the sea. Walking, skiing and
ice fishing on frozen water bodies are also allowed.
The most popular outdoor activities are walking, swimming, dwelling at a holiday home
(Figure 3-9), bicycling, picking of berries and mushrooms, observing and/or enjoying
nature, boating, fishing, cross-country skiing, sun bathing and going to picnics (Pouta &
Sievänen 2001, p. 50).
A dense network of forest roads has brought the forests within everyone’s reach. As
mentioned already in section 3.2.3, there are 300 000 hunters in Finland, which, relative
to the population, is more than in any other European country (Suomen riistakeskus
2012, p. 2). About 38% of the Finns reported picking mushrooms annually (Pouta &
Sievänen 2001, p. 50). The catch of recreational fishing accounts for about a third of the
total catch of fish in Finland, and in inland waters its share of the catch is almost 90 per
cent (section 3.2.1). Recreational fishing is mainly concentrated in areas close to major
population centres and in the Lake District in central and eastern Finland, where most of
the holiday homes are located.
3.6 Raw material resources
In Finland, peat is harvested for energy and horticultural and environmental purposes
(Savolainen & Silpola 2008, p. 176-177). The annual amount of peat produced for
energy generation has varied from 6 to 40 million m³ during recent years depending on
climatic conditions; this corresponds to 5 – 35 TWh of energy (Savolainen & Silpola
2008, p. 176). In future, a possible use of peat could be for biofuel production. Poorly
decomposed peat types are suitable for use in gardening, agriculture and environmental
protection due to their physical, chemical and biological properties (Ilvonen 2008, ch. 4;
Reinikainen & Picken 2008, p. 190). Peat is also used for therapeutic purposes
(Korhonen 1996, p. 119-122; Korhonen 2008, p. 196). Nowadays mires are also used
for recreational and sporting activities, i.e. soccer, volleyball and floorball (Nikkilä &
Korhonen 2008, p. 255-256). Altogether, mire tourism is attracting more and more
people.
Finnish wood ends up in sawn timber, paper and paperboard, fuels, exported pulp,
plywood and panels, exported roundwood, other uses and waste. Nearly half of the total
volume of wood material is burned, but this is mainly due to combustion of the forest
132
industry’s wood wastes, such as bark and spent liquor. (Ylitalo 2010, p. 264). There are
also more exotic uses such as health and food products, or small-scale uses such as tar
and preparing smoked fish.
Wild plants have been used for the production of folk medicine and various other
natural products, e.g. cotton grass fibre, linen and nettle textiles, especially in the past,
but the use has increased again in recent times. The most common wild plants used as
medicine and other natural products are described e.g. in (Rautavaara 1979, 1980) and
(Raipala-Cormier 2000). Also the use of ashes, salts, clays, tar and spirits have been
common in folk medicine and in natural therapy.
Until the 1950s, the common reed was used as a cattle fodder (Häkkinen 2007, p. 68).
Nowadays, the common reed is used to some extent as a building material and
especially for thatching and also in handicraft and decoration (Häkkinen 2007, p. 6972). Common reed is grown in artificial wetland or wetland treatment systems where
the wastewater from settlements and farms is treated (Kask et al. 2007, p. 104).
There are also agricultural areas that are maintained as grassland, as an agrienvironmental protection measure. These biomasses of green fallows are not usually
utilised on farms. Harvest residues are mostly tilled into the soil and only seldom
collected as bedding for animals or for energy. Manure, harvest residues and other
agricultural biomasses contains more dry matter and nutrients than municipal organic
materials (Table 3-7). Food processing residues can be partially be used as animal feed,
but these, together mostly those residues, biowastes and sewage sludge, are used, after
proper treatment, as soil amendments.
Figure 3-10. Photographs on peat harvesting (Lasse Aro, Finnish Forest Research
Institute): from left to right harrowing, ridging and collection of milled peat.
133
Table 3-7. Estimated annual use of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon
(tons/year) in different organic materials in Satakunta (Kahiluoto et al. 2011, p. 1988).
t/y
Harvest residues
Manure
Green fallow biomass
Food processing residues
Buffer zone biomass
Sewage sludge
Municipal bio-waste
Farm animal carcasses
Dry matter
130 000
84 000
41 000
40 000
15 000
11 000
6 100
47
N
880
3 400
1 400
2 800
500
450
120
3.8
P
110
1 100
250
350
90
280
24
0.47
C
3 300
23 000
6 800
6 500
2 400
2 000
1 700
6.9
3.7 Other land use
Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings are a mixture of heavily altered industrial areas,
areas used for dwelling and agriculture, and also uninhabited, lightly or unutilised
natural areas. However, in Finland practically all areas have been affected by land use
change, at least to some extent in recent history both indirectly (for example by
atmospheric deposition) and also directly (e.g. by forestry), including the present nature
conservation areas.
Figure 3-11. Land use in the Reference area and around the Olkiluoto site (CORINE
Land Cover 2000 of Finnish Environment Institute). Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva
Oy.
134
Figure 3-12. A single-lane paved road, a gravel road and a railroad typical of the
region in a sunny day of June 2009 (from left to right), photographs by Ari Ikonen,
Posiva Oy.
The residential areas  villages and individual houses  are connected by the local road
network, electric lines and other infrastructure (Figure 3-11). Practically every house
has a connection to the road and electric networks, and the road network also extends
outside the inhabited areas as walking or driving tracks. The power line network is
dense in the whole Satakunta region due to its high degree of industrialisation, and
especially in and near Olkiluoto due to the nationally significant amount of power
production. The road network is comprehensive, but outside the dwelling and business
centres only the main connecting roads are paved (Figure 3-12). Many of the islands are
suitable places for recreational housing (Figure 3-9) and access to the electricity
network is quite often available for the occupants.
Permanent housing is typically single-unit and row houses, and apartment buildings are
found in the town and city centres. Outside the centres of Rauma and Eurajoki, the
infrastructure becomes sparser and the amount of paved areas decreases. Here and there
industrial areas are found, as well as the results of other human activities, such as
landfills and quarries. The western part of Olkiluoto Island is the most heavily
constructed area in the region along with the town of Rauma; large areas have been
excavated and paved, the infrastructure is extensive and a large number of people work
in the area. There are also small villages for accommodating for temporary workers in
Olkiluoto, but only a few permanent dwellings are more remote from the industrial area.
The eastern part of the island is under more typical land use like forests, fields and
(mostly) recreational housing, but the infrastructure needed for the nuclear industry and
the local harbour is also to be found along with research installations set up by Posiva.
135
4 REPRESENTATIVE FLORA AND FAUNA AND THEIR COMMUNITIES
By definition, representative plants and animals must either currently exist at the site or
be compatible with conditions characteristic of the site. As such, ecological monitoring
and surveys of the region (see section 1.4, Ch. 2 and Haapanen et al. 2009) have been a
key factor in the selection of representative biota. It is also important to ensure that key
components of the ecosystem have not been omitted by oversight; hence specific
consideration has been given to representative food webs and niche structures and the
routes of exposure, whilst acknowledging inherent limitations in the tools and methods
available to undertake assessments.
Plant and animal species may be considered ‘representative’ on the basis that they
represent common organism types, or endangered or rare species (often identified as
species of ‘public interest’20), sensitive species or on the basis of other selection criteria,
such as importance in the food web. Since this tends to favour comprehensive species
identification, it is also necessary to establish criteria to limit the number of organism
types under consideration. In many cases, underpinning information is not available to
allow distinction between radiological exposure and associated impacts for species that
are morphologically, physiologically, taxonomically or ecologically similar. Hence, by
considering the tools and methods available, and the implicit or explicit database
supporting assessment criteria, organisms can be selected that represent distinct types or
categories of specific organisms that are present. This has been discussed previously,
with indicative assessments, by Smith & Robinson (2006).
For dose assessment for plants and animals, representative species appropriate to the
Olkiluoto site have been selected as summarised below. The species and their habits are
described in the subsequent sections. The dosimetric methodology, models and
assessment are described in the Dose Assessment for the Plants and Animals report and
the quantitative input data to the assessment models in the Data Basis for the Biosphere
Assessment report, whereas the present chapter provides the scientific basis for the
approach. The regulatory requirements are summarised in section 1.3.3 and interpreted
in the Dose Assessment for the Plants and Animals report and in the Biosphere
Assessment report.
4.1 Representative species
As outlined above in section 1.3.3, a regulatory requirement for the assessment of
potential doses to non-human species is that it should be based on ‘present kinds of
living populations’ in the locality of the disposal site.
Posiva has undertaken a substantial site characterisation programme, inclusive of
ecological monitoring. As discussed in section 1.4, this programme has largely been
focussed on the island of Olkiluoto, with additional campaigns focussed on aspects of
the Finnish landscape outwith the island itself, in the so-called Reference Area (section
1.4.2). Data derived as a result of this extensive monitoring programme have provided
the basis for identification of the types of animal and plant currently present on
20
Species of public interest may include commercially important species (such as moose and pine trees) and symbolic species (such
as brown bear) as well as rare or protected species.
136
Olkiluoto Island, and those that could reasonably be predicted to occupy new land areas
as they develop (sections 2.3 and 2.4).
4.1.1 Community structure of ecosystem types
Initially in this section, generic food webs are presented, which indicate the general
trophic structure of terrestrial and aquatic communities for the Finnish environment.
General descriptions of the ecosystems at the present time, including the biota, are
presented in section 2.4 and in more detail in Haapanen et al. (2009). Here, the focus is
on presenting the food webs compiled on the basis of those descriptions. For each
trophic level within the primary ecosystem types, a range of potential representative
species is identified. Species are identified by their common name; the scientific and
Finnish names for each species are detailed in Appendix A. The species identified
through consideration of trophic levels within local food webs provided the basis for the
selection of representative species for the biota assessment. Justification for the
selection is provided in section 4.1.3.
For the description of the ecosystems and food webs below, five primary ecosystem
types are considered:
1. Terrestrial forests. This category is further sub-divided into rock forests, heath
forests and groves.
2. Terrestrial agricultural systems (considered here only with respect to the
‘natural’ species present, not the cultivated components).
3. Terrestrial mires.
4. Brackish waters. This category is further sub-divided into open sea and coastal
areas.
5. Freshwater lakes21.
Descriptions of each ecosystem are provided in section 2.4.
General food webs of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems
Food webs are used to represent feeding relationships between the organisms within an
ecosystem or community and, hence, the flow of energy and cycling of nutrients. They
also provide an indication of the niche a particular species has in a community where
niche represents the habitat and the resources (biotic and abiotic) that are used by the
species.
Food webs can be highly complex and organisms may occupy different niches
depending on their life cycle stage and season. Nonetheless, simplified generic food
webs for the terrestrial and aquatic environments are illustrated in Figures 4-1 and 4-2,
respectively.
21
During the assessment timeframe, rivers will also be formed in the Olkiluoto region. However, lakes are more likely to be
depositional environments, accumulating sediments and sediment-bound contaminants. This is particularly true compared with a
fast running river. In light of this, lakes have been selected as representative freshwater ecosystems for focus within the
assessment.
137
Figure 4-1. General food web of terrestrial systems. Animals with a herbivorous diet
are depicted in green and those with a primary role as decomposers of plant material
(e.g. microbes and soil and litter layer invertebrates) in brown. Animals with an
omnivorous diet (i.e. a mix of plant, insects and/or other animals) are shown in blue.
Primary and tertiary consumers (i.e. those predating other animals) are shown in red.
Coloured arrows depict the food items consumed by each category.
Figure 4-2. General food web of aquatic systems. For the colouring key, see the
caption of Figure 4-1.
138
In the generic terrestrial ecosystem food web, vegetation directly supports a range of
herbivorous mammals, birds and insects. No distinction has been made between
consumption of fruit, grain, foliage and other plant parts, although these are important
factors in defining ecological niches. Vegetation also supports indirectly the litterdetritivore pathways and the saprophytic and parasitic plant communities. Secondary
and tertiary consumers – omnivores, insectivores and carnivores – are also identified.
In the case of the generic aquatic food web, vegetation and phytoplankton directly
support a range of herbivorous and omnivorous fish, mammals, birds and invertebrates.
Very little distinction is made between consumption of phytoplankton, algae and the
higher angiosperms. For the latter, no distinction has been made between consumption
of plant parts although, as with the terrestrial system, this may be an important factor in
defining ecological niches. Recycling between organic and inorganic phases is
represented only at the broadest level.
The generic food webs presented identify only the main uptake pathways. For instance,
both soil and litter will be ingested incidentally by almost all terrestrial animals and
sediment by almost all aquatic animals. Likewise, the decomposer cycle is illustrated at
the broadest level only. The specific role of microbes has been omitted from both food
webs and the specific roles of carrion consumers and scavengers have been omitted
from the terrestrial and aquatic food webs, respectively.
(Upland) forests
Forests represent the dominant land use in the Olkiluoto region and, together with
wetlands, represented around 56% of land cover in 2007 (Haapanen et al. 2009, table 33). A typical food web for forest ecosystems in the region of Olkiluoto is presented in
Figure 4-3. The food web presented is generic and some differences in species present,
or relative occupancy, may occur between the different sub-types considered (rock
forest, heath forest and grove). This is considered further in section 4.1.3.
Agricultural areas
Agricultural systems considered are based on the human exposure assumptions and
scenarios and include grazed pasture, cultivated berries (e.g. strawberries and currants),
root vegetables (e.g. carrots and potatoes), cereals, peas and sugar beet. In 2007,
agricultural areas represented around 5% of land cover in the Olkiluoto region
(Haapanen et al. 2009, table 3-3). For the purposes of the other biota dose assessment,
agricultural areas are only considered in terms of visiting and soil fauna (i.e. cultivated
plants and livestock are excluded). A typical food web for agricultural areas is depicted
in Figure 4-4.
Mires
Mires represent transitional areas between the terrestrial and aquatic systems. At the
present time, the relative area of mires around Olkiluoto is less than the average for
Southwest Finland, and many inland mires have been drained (Saramäki & Korhonen
2005, p. 14, fig. 6). Although the proportion of mires is low in terms of land coverage,
139
there is a wide range of types, including both forested and unforested forms plus
seashore swamps (Miettinen & Haapanen 2002, p. 25). Mires develop successionally
with development being influenced by factors such as water regime, soil type and land
management practices: further mire areas are anticipated to form over the assessment
timeframe (section 2.3) and will result from both the formation of new land areas in
combination with a high groundwater table and from the silting, or draining, of lakes
(section 2.1.5). A typical food web for a mire ecosystem is presented in Figure 4-5.
Coastal sea areas
The sea area off Olkiluoto is a rather open and shallow water region, the greatest depths
of which are approximately 15 metres and the average depth less than 10 metres
(section 2.4.2). The offshore environment contains a number of sub-habitats that can be
described by the underlying sediment and light penetration (section 2.2): Photic soft
bottom, photic hard bottom, aphotic soft and aphotic hard matrices are all present and
each has distinct characteristics and assemblages. In photic regions, hard-bottom areas
are largely associated with algae-dominated communities whereas soft-bottom areas are
more characterised by vascular plant dominated communities. A typical food web for
the brackish coastal sea area is depicted in Figure 4-6.
Lakes
Lakes, not currently present on the island, are anticipated to form as new land areas that
develop from coastal bays by isolation driven by post-glacial land uplift over the
assessment timeframe (section 2.3). Studies have therefore been made of analogue lakes
that are representative of the type of lakes likely to form near Olkiluoto in the future.
The reference lakes, like coastal areas, are heterogeneous with both hard (till) and soft
(sandy) bottoms. Within sheltered bay areas and in the vicinity of inlets, soft shores are
evident in each reference lake. Lakes are shallow and, as such, the photic zone is
extensive which results in wide littoral zones in proportion to overall lake sizes
(Haapanen et al. 2009, chapter 6). The littoral zones are dominated by sedges or reeds.
Floating pond weed and water lilies are also present in the sub-littoral regions (see
section 2.4.3). A representative food web for the reference lakes is presented in Figure
4-7.
4.1.2 Other selection criteria
The key criterion for the selection of representative species was their presence in current
ecosystems as required by the regulatory requirement (section 1.3.3) to evaluate impacts
on ‘present kinds of living populations’. As previously noted, it is not feasible to
evaluate impacts on all species that are present (or reasonably expected to be present
over the assessment timeframe). Additional selection criteria are therefore required
upon which decisions can be made as to the most appropriate and representative species
to focus upon within the assessment.
140
Figure 4-4. Representative food web for croplands. For the colouring key, see the
caption of Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-5. Typical food web for a mire ecosystem. For the colouring key, see the
caption of Figure 4-1.
141
Figure 4-6. Typical food web for brackish coastal sea areas. For the colouring key, see
the caption of Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-7. Typical food web for reference lakes. For the colouring key, see the caption
of Figure 4-1.
142
Two recent studies (Smith et al. 2010, 2012) have been undertaken within the
BIOPROTA international collaborative framework, www.bioprota.org, to address issues
and concerns in the application of biota dose assessment methods to post-closure
assessments for geological disposal facilities. Based on these studies, together with
Sheppard (2002) and Torudd (2010), a number of criteria have been used as the primary
basis for the selection of representative species to include in the assessment of impacts
on wildlife. As further elaborated in the Dose Assessment for the Plants and Animals
report, these are:
 Species common to the environs around Olkiluoto (or that can reasonably be
anticipated to occur within the assessment timescale taking account of the
formation of new land areas and study of reference ecosystems outwith
Olkiluoto Island).
 Importance in the food web (taking account of community structure, ecological
niche/key functional roles, including potential as keystone species22).
 Likelihood of maximal exposure due to habits (food consumption pathways,
occupancy of soils (both plants and animals) and presence in the area throughout
the year.
 Species of public interest, such as being of socioeconomic importance.
 Species with particular ecological traits or habits requiring or deserving of
special focus. This category would include transitory species (i.e. those moving
between different ecosystem types), distinct life stages, particularly where these
involve different ecosystem occupancy, and species for which prolonged
occupancy of sub-soil may occur during hibernation.
 Species that have been well studied and for which site-specific data were
available or could be obtained from alternative sources of reasonable
provenance.
Whilst radiosensitivity could be regarded as a particularly relevant criterion for
selection, the degree to which this can be achieved is limited: only in a broad sense can
biota be regarded as more or less radiosensitive, with organisms being considered in
generic groupings such as taxa (see for example UNSCEAR 1996, figure 1, p. 73).
Overall, vertebrates (particularly mammals) are considered to be the most radiosensitive
biota. Mammals and other vertebrates are included, as a result of food web
considerations, within the representative species identified in section 4.1.3. However, it
is also worth noting that available assessment criteria give preference to the protection
of the more radiosensitive biota such that an element of conservatism is inherent with
regard to differences in radiosensitivity in the evaluation of impacts. This is discussed
further in the Dose Assessment for the Plants and Animals report.
The final list generated in light of the above considerations was compared against the
default ERICA reference organisms (Beresford et al. 2007, table 2.4), inclusive of ICRP
RAPs (ICRP, 2008, section 2.4), to ensure an appropriate level of consistency and to
avoid important omissions.
22
Keystone species are those that have a disproportionate effect on their environment relative to their abundance (or biomass). Such
species play a critical role in maintaining community structure, determining the type and number of other species in a community.
By removing keystone species, a large shift in community structure may occur (for example, a population explosion of a prey
species may occur where a predator is removed with commensurate effects on species that share the niche of, or provide a source
of nutrition to, the prey species).
143
4.1.3 The selected representative species
Representative species selected for assessment and the primary ecosystem occupancy
(terrestrial, mire, brackish and/or freshwater) are detailed in Table 4-1. Justification for
selection, in terms of the selection criteria outlined in section 4.1.2, is also indicated.
As discussed in the Dose Assessment for the Plants and Animals report, variations in
mass and geometry have only a minor contribution to the overall uncertainty in dose
rate calculations and, in light of this, similar organisms (in terms of biotope and habitat
occupancy) were grouped and, where appropriate a single representative species was
taken forward for assessment. Where it was recognised that assessment data would be
extremely limited, decisions to exclude certain species were also made; such decisions
were only taken when alternative species remained that occupied a similar niche role
within the relevant food web. Species excluded on this basis are indicated in Table 4-1
and specific arguments for exclusion are detailed in Table 4-2. Out of an initial 78
species, 19 were excluded, resulting in 20 species associated with terrestrial habitats
(forests and/or croplands), 28 representative species associated with freshwater habitats,
28 representative species associated with brackish waters (open sea and coastal areas)
and 19 representative species associated with mire occupancy. Descriptions of each of
the final species selected for assessment are presented in Table 4-3. Habits of each
representative species in relation to the different ecosystems and biotopes are provided
in section 4.2.
Table 4-1. Representative plants and animals, their principal occupancy and
justification for selection.
Baltic macoma
Bank vole
Beaver
Benthic isopod
Bilberry (E)
Bladder wrack
Blue-green algae
Bog bilberry (E)
Brown Bear
Bur-reed (E)
Calanoid copepod (E)
Canadian water-weed
Carex
Reptile
F
x
Benthic isopod
Pelagic fish
Benthic bivalve
mollusc
Herbivorous
mammal
Herbivorous
mammal
Benthic isopod
Dwarf shrub
Macroalgae
Phytoplankton
Dwarf shrub
Omnivorous
Mammal
Floating-leaved
macrophyte
Zooplankton
Submerged
macrophyte
Emergent
F
B
x
x
B
x
x
T, M
x
x
B
T
B
B, F
T, M
x
x
x
x
T, M
x
x
x
x
Tr, K
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
F
x
B, F
x
F
x
F
x
Exposure
potential
x
x
x
x
b
H
Benthic gastropod
T, F
Special focus
x
Data availability
(well-studied)
x
Food web
importance
T terrestrial
M mire
B brackish
F freshwater
T, M
Public interest
Adder
Aquatic pulmonate
gastropod
Aquatic sowbug
Baltic herring
Organism type
Selection criteria
Common
species
Representative
a
species
Principal
ecosystems
occupied
x
x
x
x
H
x
144
Exposure
potential
b
Special focus
Data availability
(well-studied)
Food web
importance
T terrestrial
M mire
B brackish
F freshwater
Public interest
Organism type
Selection criteria
Common
species
Representative
a
species
Principal
ecosystems
occupied
macrophyte
Chickweed
wintergreen
Herb
Common Eider
Benthic insect
larvae
Macroalgae
Submerged
macrophyte
Herb
Emergent
macrophyte
Pollinating insect
Emergent
macrophyte
Wading bird
Common frog
Amphibian
Common heather
Dwarf shrub
Emergent
macrophyte
Phytoplankton
Benthic bivalve
mollusc
Annelid
Benthic fish
Submerged
macrophyte
Benthic bivalve
mollusc
Benthic fish
Herbivorous
mammal
Benthic bivalve
mollusc
Phytoplankton
Carnivorous
mammal
Herbivorous bird
Omnivorous bird
Dwarf shrub
Dwarf shrub
Wading bird
Benthic
polychaete
Benthic isopod
Carnivorous
mammal
Herbivorous
mammal
Herbivorous
mammal
Omnivorous
mammal
Benthic gastropod
snail
Tree
Carnivorous
mammal
Chironomids
Cladophora (E)
Clasping-leaf
pondweed
Cloudberry (E)
Club rush
Common Carder bee
Common cattail
Common reed
Diatom (E)
Duck mussel
Earthworm
Eelpout (E)
Eurasian watermilfoil
European fingernail
clam
European flounder
Field vole (E)
Foolish mussel
Green algae
Grey seal
Hazel grouse
Hooded crow (E)
Labrador tea (E)
Lingonberry (E)
Mallard duck
Marenzelleria
Marine isopod
Mink
Moose
Mountain hare (E)
Muskrat (E)
New Zealand mudsnail
Norway spruce (E)
Otter
T, M
x
F
x
x
B
B, F
x
M
x
B, F
x
T, M
x
F
x
x
x
x
x
x
B
x
T, M, F
x
x
T, M
x
B, F
x
B, F
x
x
F
x
x
T, M
B
x
x
x
F
x
x
B
x
T, M
x
x
B
x
x
F
x
x
LS
LS, H,
Tr
x
x
x
x
B
x
x
x
x
B
T, M
T
M
T, M
F, B
x
x
B
x
x
x
X
x
x
c
x
x
B
M, B, F
x
T, M
x
x
T, M
x
x
T, M, F
x
x
x
Tr
x
Tr
x
x
Tr
x
x
Tr, K
x
B
T
M, F
x
x
x
145
Red fox
Red-stemmed feather
moss
Reindeer lichen
Roach
Ruffe
Scots pine
Signal crayfish
Sludge worms
Sphagnum moss
Stonewort
Tawny owl (E)
Water flea
Water vole
Wavy hair-grass
Whitetail deer (E)
White-tailed eagle
Willow moss (E)
Wood ants
Wood-sorrel (E)
Yellow water lily
a
b
c
x
x
x
x
x
x
T, M
x
x
Moss
T, M
x
x
Lichen
Pelagic fish
Benthic fish
Tree
Benthic
crustacean
Benthic
oligochaeta
Peat moss
Macroalgae
Carnivorous bird
Zooplankton
Herbivorous
mammal
Grass
Herbivorous
mammal
Carnivorous bird
Water moss
Invertebrate
Herb
Floating-leaved
macrophyte
T, M
B, F
B, F
T, M
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Exposure
potential
x
b
x
Special focus
x
Data availability
(well-studied)
Food web
importance
Pelagic fish
Gastropod mollusc
Pelagic fish
Phytoplankton
Omnivorous
Mammal
T terrestrial
M mire
B brackish
F freshwater
B, F
T
B, F
F
Public interest
Perch
Pfeiffer’s amber snail
Pike
Raphidophyte
Organism type
Selection criteria
Common
species
Representative
a
species
Principal
ecosystems
occupied
x
x
x
F
B, F
x
F
B
T, M
B, F
x
x
x
x
x
M, F
x
x
T, M
x
x
T, M
x
T, M, B, F
F
T, M
T
x
x
x
B, F
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Organisms excluded from assessment are indicated by (E). Where such organisms are italicised, exclusion is on the basis of
similarity in geometry, mass and habits with other species identified for the ecosystem type.
Special focus selection criteria include transient (Tr), hibernating (H) and keystone (K) species and those with distinct life stages
(LS).
Hazel grouse spends a large proportion of time on soil surface in comparison with other terrestrial bird species and may therefore be
receive a comparatively greater external exposure.
146
Table 4-2. Justification for exclusion of representative species.
Excluded species
Bilberry
Bog bilberry
Bur-reed
Calanoid copepod
Cladophora
Cloudberry
Diatom
Eelpout
Field vole
Hooded crow
Labrador tea
Lingonberry
Mountain hare
Muskrat
Norway spruce
Tawny owl
Whitetail deer
Willow moss
Wood sorrel
Justification
Represented by common heather as the median-sized small shrub. Bilberry (Vaccinium sp.),
ling (Calluna sp.) and heath (Erica sp.) are all members of the Ericacaea.
Represented by common heather as the median-sized small shrub. Bilberry (Vaccinium sp.),
ling (Calluna sp.) and heath (Erica sp.) are all members of the Ericacaea.
Insufficient geometry data upon which ellipsoid could be reliably estimated. Represented by
alternative floating-leaved macrophytes.
Represented by alternative zooplankton organism - water flea.
Represented by stonewort.
Represented by chickweed wintergreen as the median-sized herb.
Insufficient data to justify multiple phytoplankton representatives – blue-green algae
selected.
Represented by ruffe which has similar dimensions and habits.
Represented by bank vole.
Omnivorous animals represented by mammals which would be expected to have increased
external exposure due to on-/in-soil occupancy.
Represented by common heather as the median-sized small shrub. Labrador tea
(Rhodendron sp.) is related to the common heather or ling (Calluna sp.) and are all
members of the Ericacaea.
Represented by common heather as the median-sized small shrub. Lingonberry (Vaccinium
sp.) is related to the common heather or ling (Calluna sp.) and are all members of the
Ericacaea.
Insufficient data, role of on-soil dwelling herbivorous mammals covered by moose and bank
vole.
Represented by mink, which has similar dimensions (excluding tail) and habits.
Represented by Scots pine.
Role of terrestrial carnivores represented by mammals and reptiles which would be
expected to have increased external exposure due to on-/in-soil occupancy.
Represented by moose.
Insufficient data to enable radionuclide transfer from freshwater to be calculated.
Represented by Sphagnum moss.
Represented by chickweed wintergreen as the median-sized herb.
Table 4-3. A brief description of each representative species selected for assessment.
Amphibians
Common Frog
Common frog is the most common of the few species of amphibian
that live in Finland and inhabits a wide variety of habitats including
forests, glades, grasslands, mires, temporary and permanent
ponds, lakes and rivers. It has distinctive juvenile life stages,
emerging from spawn as a tadpole which metamorphoses into a
frog over 12 to 14 weeks. Adult frogs are carnivores, mainly feeding
on invertebrates (flies, snails and worms); tadpoles are mostly
herbivorous, feeding on algae, detritus and some plant material, but
can show cannibalistic behaviour during periods of food shortage.
Outside the breeding season, common frogs live a solitary life in
damp places near ponds or marshes or in long grass but during the
breeding season adults congregate in ponds. In Finland, common
frogs are active during the summer months and hibernate in the
coldest winter months.
Photograph: Karen Smith (RadEcol Consulting Ltd.)
Aquatic benthic invertebrates
Aquatic sowbug
Aquatic sowbug is a benthic isopod (crustacean) that is common in
freshwater lakes, but can also tolerate brackish water conditions
(salinity up to 12) (Leinikki et al 2004, p. 106). It is a benthic species
that is common on soft bottom areas of lakes and sheltered coastal
bays and is a common species in the reference lakes (Sydänoja et
al. 2004, p. 22). Aquatic sowbug is omnivorous and also provides
an important food source for other aquatic crustaceans and fish
(Olsen et al. 2000, p. 127).
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
147
Benthic isopod
(No publishable photograph found.)
The benthic marine isopod, Saduria entomon, is one of the largest
crustaceans in the Baltic Sea, occurring also in freshwater
environments (Bonsdorff & Sandberg 1990, p. 279). It is common
on soft bottom areas (Leinikki et al. 2004, p. 104) where it
consumes organic material within sediments (Ganish et al. 1995, p.
95). It is a major food item for bentic fish species.
Marine isopod
(No publishable photograph found.)
The marine isopod, Idotea balthica, is a herbivorous benthic
crustacean that occurs in hard bottom coastal areas of the Bothnian
Sea and is particularly common in the littoral zone (Leinikki et al.
2004, p. 104). It forms an important link in the littoral food web by
consuming algae and vascular plants and by being a prey item for
littoral fish.
Chironomids
Chironomids are benthic diptera larvae of non-biting midges and
are the most widely distributed and most abundant insects in the
freshwater environment (Cranston 1994, p. 1). They are particularly
common on soft-bottom areas in both rivers and lakes, but also
sheltered bays of the Bothnian Sea. Chironomids inhabit the upper
sediment layer and have diverse feeding habits, ranging from the
consumption of detritus and phytoplankton to zooplankton (Olsen et
al. 2000, p. 78; Leinikki et al. 2004, p. 109). They are an important
prey item for many aquatic species and are a common indicator
species (Särkkä 1996, p. 106). They are a common organism in the
reference lakes (Salmi 2006, p. 78)
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Marenzelleria
Marenzelleria is a small aquatic worm and is an invasive species
from North America (Zettler et al. 2002, p. 66) that is common in the
Olkiluoto soft-bottom coastal area (Leinikki et al, 2004, p. 88). It is a
deposit feeder that lives in the top sediment layer. Previously the
species was referred to as Marenzelleria viridis, but recently it has
been determined to Marenzelleria neglecta. It is a key organism in
aquatic food webs and is common throughout the Olkiluoto coastal
area (Kangasniemi 2010, table 3).
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Sludge worms
Sludge worms are small benthic aquatic worms that occur in the
soft bottom areas of the Bothnian Sea coast and Finnish inland
waters (Olsen et al. 2000, p. 167; Leinikki et al. 2004, p. 90).
Sludge worms live mainly inside the top sediment layer. They are
deposit feeder, utilising food particles within the sediment (Särkkä
1996, p. 98). In general, all sludge worms found in the coastal area
are brackish water tolerant freshwater species (Leinikki et al. 2004,
p. 90). They are a key species in aquatic food web and are
common in the Olkiluoto coastal area (Kangasniemi 2010, table 3)
and reference lakes (Sydänoja et al. 2004, p. 22; Salmi 2006, p.
78).
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Aquatic macrophytes
Bladder wrack
Bladder wrack is the only large perennial macroalgae in the Baltic
Sea (Russell et al. 1998, p. 381) and one of the most common
macroalgae in the coastal area of the Bothian Sea (Leinikki et al.
2004, p. 34) and in the Olkiluoto coastal region (Ilmarinen et al.
2008, table 1). It grows in dense “forests” from 0 to 5 metres and
requires hard photic bottom areas and salinities above 3 (Leinikki et
al. 2004, p. 34; Rosqvist 2010, p. 12). It has a short dispersal
distance and is sensitive to eutrophication and pollution. It provides
an important habitat for aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish
(Ganish et al. 1995, p. 95) and is a key organism in hard bottom
communities (Ruuskanen & Bäck 2000, p. 304). It is an edible
species.
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
148
Stonewort
(No publishable photograph found.)
Chara aspera is a perennial macroalgae species and is the most
common stonewort species in the Baltic Sea coastal area (Leinikki
et al. 2004, p. 48). It occurs on shallow (0-1.5 m) soft bottom littoral
zone areas (Berglund et al. 2003, p. 1170; Mäkinen et al. 2005,
table 1) and tolerates salinity up to 20 (Blindow et al. 2003, p. 231).
Canadian waterweed
(No publishable photograph found.)
Canadian waterweed is a submerged perennial macrophyte
(Bowmer et al. 1995, p. 13). It is an invasive species and has
become common in lakes and slow moving steams throughout
Southern Finland (Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998, p. 508). It is common in
the area of the reference lakes (Salmi 2006, p. 28).
Clasping-leaf pondweed
Clasping-leaf pondweed is a submerged perennial macrophyte that
occurs in both fresh and brackish water environments throughout
Finland (Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998, p. 515; Leinikki et al. 2004, p. 57).
It favours soft bottoms and still or slow moving water. It is common
in the Olkiluoto coastal area and is a key organism in sheltered
littoral areas (Ilmarinen et al. 2008, table 1). It is also a common
species in the reference lakes (Sydänoja et al. 2004, p. 30; Salmi
2006, p. 80).
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Eurasian watermilfoil
Eurasian watermilfoil is a common brackish coastal-water
submerged perennial primary producer. It favours soft-bottom areas
and still or slow moving waters where it can create dense mats
under optimal conditions. It is a key organism in sheltered littoral
areas in the Olkiluoto coastal area (Ilmarinen et al. 2008, table 1).
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Carex
Carex sp. are emergent macrophytes of medium size (Hämet-Ahti
et al. 1998, p. 558) and are one of the dominating sedge species in
Finland (Saarinen 1998, p. 203). They are particularly common
species in soft-bottom inland waters and are common in the
reference lakes (Sydänoja et al. 2004, fig. 15; Salmi 2006, p. 82).
Photograph: Ari Ikonen (Posiva Oy)
Club rush
Club rush is a large, emergent perennial primary producer that is
common in the low salinity areas of the Baltic sea coast and inland
waters of Finland (Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998, p.535; Leinikki et al.
2004, p. 62). It is a key organism in soft-bottom littoral areas and is
common in the reference lakes (Salmi 2006, p. 81).
Photograph: Jani Helin (Posiva Oy)
149
Common cattail
Common cattail is a large emergent perennial macrophyte that is
common on soft-bottom areas of the Baltic Sea coast and inland
waters throughout Finland (Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998, p.525) and is
common in the reference lakes (Sydänoja et al. 2004, p. 31; Salmi
2006, p. 63). It is an edible species (Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998, p.525).
Photograph: Reija Haapanen (Haapanen Forest Consulting)
Common reed
Common reed is a large perennial primary producer that lives both
in fresh and brackish waters and is particularly common soft bottom
areas of the Baltic Sea coast and inland waters of Finland (HämetAhti et al. 1998, p. 615; Leinikki et al. 2004, p. 62) including the
Olkiluoto coastal area (Ilmarinen et al. 2008, table 1) and reference
lakes (Sydänoja et al. 2004, p. 31; Salmi 2006, p. 78). Common
reed is highly competitive, forming dense stands (reed beds) on
wetlands and shorelines (Roosaluste 2007, p. 8). It is an edible
species that can also be used as a building material (e.g. thatching)
(Häkkinen 2007, p. 69). Common reed is a key organism in softbottom shores (Ekstam 2007, p. 55-58).
Photograph: Ari Ikonen (Posiva Oy)
Yellow water lily
Yellow water lily is a perennial floating-leaved macrophyte which
has roots fixed in sediment and annual leaves that float on the
water surface. It is a common species of soft-bottom littoral areas of
both the Bothnian Sea coastal area and inland waters in Finland
(Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998, p. 65) and is common in the reference
lakes (Sydänoja et al. 2004, p. 30; Salmi 2006, p. 81-83).
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Birds
Hazel grouse
(No publishable photograph found.)
Hazel grouse is the smallest game bird in Finland. Its preferred
habitat is dense mixed forest where it can seek protection against
its main predator, the goose hawk. It has a particular preference for
areas abundant in alder, which are often associated with glens of
streams and terrestrial margins of lakes and the coast. Hazel
grouse is primarily a herbivorous bird, feeding mostly on ground
level vegetation. However, diet may be supplemented by insects
during the breeding season. Fledglings are insectivorous. In Finland
Hazel grouse is a game bird, however the importance as a hunted
species remains fairly low. Hazel grouse can live to be up to 6
years old and can have an individual range of around 54 ha (Rhim
2006).
150
Common eider
Common eider is a migratory bird which is most abundant in the
intermediate and outer reaches of the archipelago: males migrate to
moulting grounds after the mating season. Nests are located at
ground level, often under stands of juniper, although more open
territory can be used. Common eider feeds primarily on molluscs,
crustaceans and annelids from the benthic region.
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Mallard
Mallard is a dabbling duck that is common in wetland areas, both
freshwater and brackish. However, shallow water bodies (water
depth of 1 m or less) are preferred. Mallard is an omnivorous bird,
feeding on aquatic molluscs, crustaceans, worms and plant
material. Plant material provides the majority of the diet. In the north
of its range mallard is naturally migratory; however, non-migratory
feral mallard have been introduced. Nests are usually located on
land in the vicinity of water bodies where there is plenty of ground
cover to protect from predators.
Photograph: Karen Smith (RadEcol Consulting Ltd.)
White-tailed eagle
White-tailed eagle are known to overwinter in the south-western
archipelago, with sparse nesting populations being found in the
archipelago and in certain inland locations. Nests are normally
located in trees, but can occasionally also be found on the ground
of rocky islets. White-tailed eagles primarily feed upon fish and
waterfowl, but may also consume reptiles and carrion.
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Crustaceans
Signal crayfish
Signal crayfish is a non-native omnivorous benthic crustacean that
originates from North America (Pursiainen et al. 2009, p. 35). It was
introduced to Finland in the late 1960’s and is now a common
species in the inland waters of Southern Finland (Ahvenharju 2007,
p. 10). Signal crayfish is an omnivore, consuming macrophytes,
aquatic invertebrates (including other crayfish), detritus, algae and
fish (Bondar et al. 2005, p. 2635; Rajala 2006, p. 9; Bjurström et al.
2010, p. 181). It is a prey item for predatory fish and aquatic
mammals and is harvested commercially (Ahvenharju 2007, p. 11).
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
151
Fish
Baltic herring
Baltic herring is a small shoaling pelagic fish that occurs throughout
the brackish water of the Baltic Sea (Axenrot 2005, p. 8) and is
common in the Olkiluoto coastal area. It is tolerant to varying
salinity levels. Baltic herring is a filter and particulate feeder which
primarily consumes zooplankton. It is a major prey item for fish,
birds and aquatic mammals and is an important commercial fish
species (Rajasilta et al. 2006, p. 1). It displays a seasonal migration
pattern between coast and open sea (Koli 2002, p. 50).
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
European flounder
European flounder is medium size omnivorous benthic fish that is
common in the coastal area of Olkiluoto. It occurs mainly on soft
bottom coastal areas down to 50 metres. European flounder
primarily consumes aquatic invertebrates, especially marine
bivalves. It is an important commercial fish (Koli 2001, p. 332).
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Perch
Perch is a medium sized omnivorous fish and is the most common
fish species in the Finnish coastal area and inland waters (Koli
2002, p. 276), occurring both on soft and hard bottom regions.
Being an omnivore it consumes small fish, aquatic invertebrates
and zooplankton (Böhling 1988, p 65; Lappalainen et al. 2001, p.
108) and also serves as a food item for predatory fish, birds and
aquatic mammals. Perch is an important commercial and
recreational fish species (Urho & Lehtonen 2008, p. 20). In the
Brackish Baltic Sea, perch undertakes seasonal migrations
between the inner and outer coastal zone (Koli 2002, p. 277). It is a
common fish in the reference lakes (Sydänoja et al. 2004, fig. 8).
Photograph: Jani Helin (Posiva Oy)
Roach
Roach is a medium sized omnivorous fish. It is a common fish
species in the coast of the Bothnian Sea and Finnish inland waters,
occurring on both soft and hard bottom areas (Koli 2002, p. 133). It
is common in the coastal area of Olkiluoto. Roach consumes
zooplankton, aquatic invertebrates, plant material and detritus
(Lappalainen et al. 2001, p. 108) and serves as a prey item for
predatory fish, birds and aquatic mammals. It has become more
common in recent years as a result of eutrophication in both
brackish and freshwater environments (Lappalainen et al. 2001, p.
115) and is common in the reference lakes (Sydänoja et al. 2004,
fig. 8). Roach is also of public interest as an edible fish species.
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Pike
Pike is a large predatory fish that is common in both the Bothian
Sea coastal area and Finnish inland waters (Koli 2002, p. 69).
Reproduction is possible in the salinity below 7. Pike inhabits both
soft and hard bottom areas and consumes other fish species
(Tammi & Kuikka 1994, p. 14). It is also a prey item for predatory
fish, birds and aquatic mammals. It is an important commercial and
recreational fishing species (Urho & Lehtonen 2008, p. 20). It is a
common fish in the reference lakes (Sydänoja et al. 2004, fig. 8)
and the Olkiluoto coastal area and is a key organism in the aquatic
food web.
Photograph: Jani Helin (Posiva Oy)
152
Ruffe
Ruffe is a small omnivorous benthic fish (Koli 2002, p. 285) that is
common in the Bothnian Sea coastal area and Finnish inland
waters. It is common in the Olkiluoto coastal area and in the
reference lakes (Sydänoja et al. 2004, fig. 8). It occurs on both soft
and hard bottom areas. Ruffe is a secondary consumer with key
prey items including zoobenthos and fish roe (Koli 2002, p. 287). It
is a key organism in the aquatic food web, being a prey item for
predatory fish, birds and aquatic mammals. It is also a species
consumed by people.
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Flying insects
Common Carder bee
(No publishable photograph found.)
The common carder bee is a species of bumblebee that inhabits a
variety of different biotopes, including meadows, field margins,
ditches and embankments, fields and forests. They are a colonial
species, constructing nests both above and below ground. In the
latter case, vanant small rodent burrows may be occupied. The
common carder bee is classed as a polylectic bee; it feeds on a
variety wild flowers.
Mammals
Bank Vole
(No publishable photograph found.)
Bank vole is one of the most common mammals in Finland and they
are very common in the Reference area. They live mainly in
forested and bush-dominated areas, but also in semi-open pastures
and field edges. The preference is for dense vegetation and
2
therefore younger forests. Home ranges vary between 500-7000 m
depending upon factors such as population density and habitat
type. Population density is typically 10-80 individuals/ha in habitats
that are suitable for breeding. Bank voles mainly eat leaves, seeds,
berries and mushrooms; sometimes also some insects. Bank voles
have population cycles that can be rather irregular in Southern
Finland with populations having the potential to grow rapidly due to
a highly efficient reproduction rate. They are the prey of many
carnivores and thus play a major part in the terrestrial food web.
Moose
Photograph: Reija Haapanen (Haapanen Forest Consulting)
Moose is the biggest forest dwelling animal in Finland, typically
inhabiting boreal coniferous and mixed deciduous forests,
preferring continuous forested areas and relatively young forests. It
is herbivorous, consuming a variety of vegetation including leaves,
needles, twigs and buds of trees such as birch, aspen, willow and
rowan and shrubs (blueberry, lingonberry and heather). Some
aquatic and terrestrial herbaceous plants are also consumed. It is
an economically important species in Finland, being hunted from
late September to the end of December. Moose is common in the
reference ecosystem and is important in the terrestrial food web.
Based on the estimation of the Finnish Game and Fisheries
Research Institute, there is about 3 – 3.9 moose per 1000 ha in the
Satakunta and Varsinais-Suomi reference area. Data from Sweden
(Cederlund & Sand 1994, p. 1) indicate that the individual home
range is 1370 – 2590 ha.
153
Red fox
Photograph: Shelly Mobbs (Eden Nuclear & Environment Ltd.)
Red fox is found throughout the whole Finland and is commonly
hunted. It is a generalist and can adapt to a wide variety of habitats,
but is mainly found in forests, copses and field thickets and
cultivated areas. Red foxes reproduce once a year in spring. The
average litter size consists of four to six kits. Outside the breeding
season, most red foxes live in open areas, though they may enter
burrows in bad weather. Their burrows are often dug on sandy soil
or in ravines, rock clefts and neglected human environments. Red
foxes are omnivores with a highly varied diet. They primarily feed
on small rodents such as voles and mice, but their diet includes
many bird species (and their eggs). They typically target mammals
up to about 3.5 kg in weight, and require 500 grams of food daily. A
red fox will also feed off carrion. During the autumn months the diet
also contains a high proportion of berries and mixed plant material.
In Finland the individual home range can vary between 500-1200
ha in good habitat and 1200 – 5000 ha in poor habitat (Haapanen
et al. 2009).
Brown bear
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Brown bear is the largest and the second most common
carnivorous mammal in Finland after lynx. It is estimated that there
are about 1700 brown bears living in Finland, most of them in the
eastern part of the country. Body length varies between 130 – 250
cm with adult females weighing 60 – 170 kg and males weighing
100 – 230 kg; dimensions fluctuate greatly according to sex, age,
geographical location and season. In the Reference area, Brown
bear is only a casual visitor. During the winter (October-March)
brown bear sleeps in a den. Brown bears are mostly solitary. Brown
bears are omnivores and derive up to 90% of their dietary food
energy from vegetable matter. Dietary items include a variety of
plant products, including berries, roots as well as meat products
such as fish, insects, and small mammals. The home range of an
adult bear can vary between 20 000 – 100 000 ha depending on
sex and the quality of the environment.
Water vole
(No publishable photograph found.)
Water voles are semi-aquatic rodents, living in burrows excavated
within the banks of rivers, ditches, ponds, and streams. Burrows are
normally located adjacent to slow moving, calm water which they
seem to prefer. They also live in reed beds where they will weave
ball-shaped nests above ground if no suitable banks exist in which
to burrow. Water voles mainly eat grass and plants near the water.
At times, they will also consume fruit, bulbs, twigs, buds, and roots.
They reach 140 – 220 mm in length plus a tail of 55 – 70 mm.
Adults weigh from 160 to 350 grams.
Mink
Photograph: Mikko Toivola (FM Meri & Erä Oy)
American mink is a semi-aquatic generalist predator which has the
ability to hunt both on land and in water (Arnold & Fritzell 1987). It is
commonly found in the reference ecosystem both living by rivers
and lakes (Pulliainen 1984) and coastal areas (Niemimaa & Pokki
1990). Home ranges are on average 8 – 20 ha for females and up
to 800 ha for males. Mink feed primarily on small mammals, birds
and eggs, amphibians, fish and aquatic invertebrates. Terrestrial
insects may also be consumed. On the southern coast of Finland,
mink diet varies strongly with fish being a major constituent in
winter, being replenished by birds and small mammals in summer
(Niemimaa & Pokki 1990). Crustaceans and insects are used as an
alternative prey (Laanetu & Nummelin unpubl. data). In the outer
archipelago area the individual range is on average 12.5 ha (Salo et
al. 2010), but can reach 800 ha in the mainland (Haapanen et al.
2009).
154
Beaver
Beaver is a primarily nocturnal, semi-aquatic rodent. They are the
second largest rodent in the world. Beavers are known for building
dams with colonies creating one or more dams to provide still, deep
water which protects against predators and to float food and
building materials for the construction of lodges within the water
body. They are herbivores, consuming wood of trees such as willow
and alder, but also consume sedges, pondweed and water lilies.
Beavers are considered to be a keystone species as a result of
their ability to create wetlands that are used by many other species.
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Otter
Otters are semi-aquatic mammals which feed primarily on fish
although their diet may be supplemented in the winter and in colder
climates by crayfish, insects, frogs, birds and small mammals,
including young beavers. The European Otter is the most widely
distributed otter species and may inhabit any unpolluted body of
freshwater, including lakes, streams, rivers, and ponds, so long as
food is plentiful. They may also live along the coast, but require
regular access to freshwater to clean their fur. Otters are strongly
territorial, living alone for the most part although territories are only
held against members of the same sex so those of males and
females may overlap. Territory size varies depending upon food
availability and width of water suitable for hunting. Hunting mainly
takes place at night, while the day is usually spent in a holt (a
burrow or a hollow tree on the riverbank).
Photograph: Karen Smith (RadEcol Consulting Ltd.)
Grey seal
Grey seals are marine mammals that feed on a wide variety of fish,
particularly benthic and demersal species such as flatfish and
herring. They are large seals with males reaching 2.5 – 3.3 m long
and weighing 170 – 310 kg; females are much smaller, typically 1.6
– 2.0 m long and 100 – 190 kg in weight. The population present in
the Baltic Sea is isolated from other populations and has formed a
distinct sub-species, Halichoerus grypus balticus.
Photograph: Mikko Toivola (FM Meri & Erä Oy)
Molluscs
Pfeiffer’s amber snail
(No publishable photograph found.)
Pfeiffer’s amber snail is a small terrestrial pulmonate gastropod
mollusc, which has a preference for moist habitats such as mires. In
the reference area it is common in shore meadow habitats
(Nieminen et al. 2009, table 5). The amber snail is herbivorous.
Aquatic pulmonate gastropod
(No publishable photograph found.)
Aquatic pulmonate gastropod is a small herbivorous freshwater
snail that is common in slow-moving or still waters (Olsen et al.
2000, p. 150). It is a common species in the reference lake area
and forms an important component of the aquatic food web.
New Zealand mudsnail
New Zealand mudsnail is a small invasive marine gastropod
(Leppäkoski et al. 2002, p. 256) that occurs on the shallow soft
bottom coastal areas of the Bothnian Sea (Leinikki et al. 2004, p.
76). It consumes aquatic plant species and is a key organism in the
aquatic food web. It is a common organism in the Olkiluoto coastal
area (Kangasniemi 2010, table 3).
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
155
Baltic macoma
Baltic macoma is a small marine mollusc that occurs on soft-bottom
areas of the Bothnian Sea coastal area (Leinikki et al. 2004, p. 84).
It inhabits the upper sediment layer and is the most common
benthic invertebrate in the Olkiluoto coastal area (Kangasniemi
2010, table 3). Baltic macoma is a deposit and filter feeder (Evans
1984, p.134) and is an important prey item for both fish and birds
(Ganish et al. 1995, p. 95).
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
European fingernail clam
European fingernail clam is a small ball-shaped benthic freshwater
bivalve mollusc that is common in Finnish inland waters. Its primary
habitat is vegetated littoral areas of both rivers and lakes (Olsen
2000, p. 140). The fingernail clam is a primary consumer and feeds
upon suspended algae, bacteria and other food particles (Olsen
2000, p. 139). It is a prey item for both crustaceans and fish.
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Duck mussel
(No publishable photograph found.)
Duck mussel is a large freshwater benthic bivalve mollusc that is
common in shallow soft-bottom areas in both rivers and lakes
throughout Finland (Olsen et al. 2000, p. 139; Englund & Heino
1994, p. 418; Dillon 2000, p. 22). It is a filter feeder (primary
consumer) and serves as a prey item for semi-aquatic mammals
such as muskrat (Olsen et al. 2000, p. 139; Zahner-Meike &
Hanson 2001, p. 164). It is also a biomonitor species (Englund &
Heino 1994, p. 418) and can be consumed by people. Duck mussel
plays a key role in the freshwater ecosystem (Vaughn &
Hakenkamp 2001, p. 1432).
Foolish mussel
(No publishable photograph found.)
Foolish mussel is a medium sized edible marine bivalve mollusc
that is relatively common in hard-bottom areas of the Olkiluoto
coastal region (Leinikki et al. 2004, p. 82; Kangasniemi 2010, table
3). It is a filter feeder, consuming planktonic food items and is an
important prey item for fish and birds. It was previously referred to
as Mytilus edulis.
Phytoplankton
Blue-green algae
Blue-green algae (e.g. Anabaena sp.) are a genus of planktonic
cyanobacteria and are common primary producers eutrophic inland
waters of Finland (Tikkanen 1986, p. 62; Heinonen 1980, p. 50) and
are the most common cyanobacteria in the Bothnian Sea (Tikkanen
1986, p. 60; Andersson et al. 1996, p. 794). They provide a key
food source for zooplankton (Särkkä 1996, p. 91; HELCOM 2006,
p.7).
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
156
Raphidophyte
(No publishable photograph found.)
Raphidophyte sp. is a group of primary producers that are a key
component of lake phytoplankton (Tikkanen 1986, p. 156; Salmi
2006, p. 75). Gonyostomum semenis the most common
raphidophyte species in Finland with blooms being formed under
optimal conditions. It is a major food source for zooplankton and is
a key organism in the aquatic food web (Särkkä 1996, p. 83, p. 91).
Green algae
(No publishable photograph found.)
Green algae (Crucigenia guadrata) are a planktonic primary
producer that is a common species in Finnish inland waters,
particularly in eutrophic waters (Heinonen 1980, p. 50; Tikkanen
1986, p. 207). They are also a major food source for zooplankton
(Särkkä 1996, p. 83). They are common species in the reference
lakes (Salmi 2006, p. 75).
Reptiles
Adder
Adder is the most common snake species in Finland and is
extremely widespread. It is also the only venomous snake species.
The species is found in different terrains including rocky hillsides,
meadows, forest edges and clearings, bushy slopes, coastal dunes
and stone quarries. It may also inhabit damp areas like swamps
and may be encountered on the banks of streams, lakes and
ponds. Habitat complexity is essential for different aspects of its
behaviour. Adder is mainly diurnal and requires access to sunny
habitats. The main prey consists of small mammals, birds, lizards
and amphibians. Juveniles also eat insects. The species is coldadapted and hibernates in the winter. In northern Sweden (and
likely also in Finland) hibernation lasts 8 – 9 months. Best estimate
on individual range is 0.24 – 1.5 ha (Brito 2003).
Photograph: Reija Haapanen (Haapanen Forest Consulting)
Soil invertebrates
Earthworm
Earthworms are found all over the world and make a large
contribution to the total biomass of soils. They play a vital role in
terrestrial ecosystems, breaking down dead plant and animal
material in soil and forest litter, which leads to improved soil fertility
and availability of nutrients and improve soil structure thus
improving both aeration and drainage (ICRP 2008). Earthworms are
decomposers that feed upon undecayed leaf and other plant
matter. They also form an important component of the terrestrial
food web, being preyed upon by many species of bird, snakes,
mammals and invertebrates. Some species of earthworm come to
the surface and graze on the higher concentrations of organic
matter present there, mixing it with the mineral soil.
Photograph: Shelly Mobbs (Eden Nuclear & Environment Ltd.)
Wood Ants
Wood ants are a boreal group of ants that are members of the
genus Formica. They are common throughout southern Finland and
are the most important predators, scavengers and soil movers in
Finnish forests. Nests of these ants are large, conspicuous, domeshaped edifices and can be found both coniferous and broad-leaf
broken woodland and parkland. A common diet for a wood ant is
invertebrates found around the nest, particularly aphids harvested
from the surrounding trees, although they are voracious
scavengers.
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
157
Terrestrial vegetation
Sphagnum moss
Sphagnum moss, a type of bryophyte, is common in peat bogs and
mires. It is also found on the shoreward areas of reference lakes
where it floats on the water surface.
Photograph: Karen Smith (RadEcol Consulting Ltd.)
Red-stemmed feather moss
st
Red-stemmed feather moss is 1 ranking in the list of 100 most
common forest and mire plant species in Finland in 1995
(Reinikainen et al. 2000) and is common in forested habitats and
mires (Mäkipää 2000). It has stems of orange to red and is
irregularly pinnately branched, forming light green to yellow-green
mats from 5-12 cm tall. It can often grow as part of a continuous
mat of mosses and lichens on the floor of mature coniferous
forests. Reproduction is primarily vegetative. It is present all year
round.
Photograph: Lasse Aro (Finnish Forest Research Institute)
Reindeer lichen
Photograph: Lasse Aro (Finnish Forest Research Institute)
Reindeer lichen is a slow-growing, light-coloured, fruticose lichen
that grows in well-drained, open environments and often dominates
the ground in boreal pine forests and on exposed areas of rocks
and on heaths. It is an important food for reindeer and, as such has
economic importance. Reindeer lichen is common throughout
th
Finland (Stenroos et al. 2011) and is the 11 ranking in the list of
100 of the most common forest and mire plant species in Finland in
1995 (Reinikainen et al. 2000). Site data have been obtained from
Olkiluoto and reference mires.
Chickweed wintergreen
Photograph: Lasse Aro (Finnish Forest Research Institute)
Chickweed wintergreen is a plant in the Myrsinaceae family. It is a
small herbaceous perennial plant with one or more whorls of ovate
leaves that take on a copper hue in late summer. It occurs
throughout the boreal regions of Europe and Asia. Chickweed
wintergreen is a weak competitor that can form extensive clonal
populations interconnected by rhizomes during the growing season.
The rhizomes and above-ground parts are deciduous, the plant
forming overwintering tubers (cited from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Trientalis_europaea). It is common within terrestrial reference
th
biotopes and is the 17 ranking in the list of 100 of the most
common forest and mire plant species in Finland in 1995
(Reinikainen et al. 2000). Site data on geometry have been
collated.
Wavy hair-grass
Photograph: Lasse Aro (Finnish Forest Research Institute)
Wavy hair-grass has wiry leaves and delicate panicles of silvery or
purplish-brown flower heads on wavy, hair-like stalks. The leaves
are bunched in tight tufts with plants forming a very tussocky, low
sward 5 to 20 cm tall before flowering, to 30cm height after
flowering. It regenerates by seed or by vegetative reproduction.
Wavy hair grass is found naturally almost everywhere in Finland,
main sites being heath forests with acidic soil and is common within
th
the reference biotopes; it is the 5 ranking in the list of 100 of the
most common forest and mire plant species in Finland in 1995
(Reinikainen et al. 2000). Some insects are associated with the
plant and it is an important terrestrial food web species, being
particularly important food for reindeer, especially during winter
time.
158
Common heather
Common heather is a low-growing perennial shrub that grows in
open sunny areas and in moderate shade. It is the dominant plant
in heathland and moorland throughout Europe and in some bogvegetated and pine-dominated forests on acidic soils. Heather
efficiently cycles nutrients by decomposing its own litter as well as
obtaining nitrogen in organic form. It is common in terrestrial
reference biotopes, from rocky forests to mires and is present all
th
year round. It was the 19 ranking in the list of one hundred of the
most common forest and mire plant species in Finland in 1995
(Reinikainen et al. 2000)
Photograph: Karen Smith (RadEcol Consulting Ltd)
Scots pine
Scots pine is an evergreen coniferous tree that grows up to 15-30
m in height with a lifespan of 150-300 years. The lower trunk is
covered in thick, scaly dark grey-brown bark and upper trunk and
branches by thin, flaky bark. Leaves (needles) on mature trees are
2.5-5 cm long and 1-2 mm broad, but can be twice as long on
young vigorous trees. Leaf persistence varies from 2-4 years. Scots
pine is an important species in forest industry with wood being used
in construction. It is also a common species of Finnish forests
(Saramäki & Korhonen, 2005).
Photograph: Ville Kangasniemi (Pyhäjärvi Institute)
Zooplankton
Water flea
(No publishable photograph found.)
Water fleas are small planktonic crustaceans. They are common in
both the Bothnian Sea coastal area and Finnish inland waters
(Vuorinen & Rajasilta 1978, p. 22), and are inhabitants of both the
reference lakes (Salmi 2006, p. 76) and the Olkiluoto coastal area
(Saarikari 2010, p. 4-7). They are primary consumers feeding on
algae, bacteria and suspended particles of organic matter (Gliwicz
2004, p. 462). They are an important primary food source for
pelagic fish and other plankton feeders (Furman et al. 1998, p. 34)
and are hence classed as key organisms in the aquatic food web
(Leinikki et al. 2004, p.93).
4.2 Habits of the representative species
The habits of representative species are, for the purposes of dose assessment, considered
in terms of feeding preferences, the biotopes that are occupied and the position (or
habitat) within a biotope that the organism will inhabit. The feeding preferences of the
majority of the representative species have been presented previously in the food web
figures in section 4.1.2; habits relating to the occupancy of different biotopes and the
position within those biotopes are discussed below. The Data Basis for the Biosphere
Assessment report discusses this matter more in terms of exact compartments that are
represented in the biosphere assessment models and the quantitative occupancies of
each representative species in them.
4.2.1 Biotope occupancy
159
The generic ecosystem types that each representative species may inhabit were
identified in Table 4-1. However, within each of these generic ecosystem types, a
number of different biotopes (Table 2-3 in section 2.2) are present:
 Brackish sea (open sea and coastal areas);
 Lakes (as representative freshwater biotopes);
 Mires;
 Rocky forests;
 Heath forests;
 Groves; and
 Croplands.
In the biosphere assessment models, coastal brackish and lake areas are further
delineated into reed bed and ‘other’ biotopes (Table 2-3 and sections 2.4.1 to 2.4.4). For
each selected representative species, experts identified the biotopes within which
individuals would be expected to occur (Table 4-4). This information is further
quantified for the assessment models in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment
report.
Table 4-4. Biotope occupancy of representative species.
Aquatic
macrophytes
Birds
Crustaceans
Fish
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Lakes and
rivers - other
biotopes
Lakes and
rivers - reed
bed
x
Coast - reed
bed
x
Coast - other
biotopes
x
Open Sea
Croplands
Common frog
Aquatic sowbug
Benthic isopod
Marine isopod
Chironomids
Marenzelleria
Sludge worms
Bladder wrack
Stonewort
Canadian waterweed
Clasping-leaf
pondweed
Eurasian
watermilfoil
Carex
Club rush
Common cattail
Common reed
Yellow water lily
Hazel grouse
Common eider
Mallard
White-tailed eagle
Signal crayfish
Baltic herring
European flounder
Perch
Roach
Pike
Mire
Amphibian
Aquatic
benthic
invertebrates
Groves
Representative
species
Heath forest
Organism
category
Rock forest
Biotopes occupied
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
160
Flying insects
Mammals
Molluscs
Phytoplankton
Reptiles
Soil
invertebrates
Terrestrial
vegetation
Zooplankton
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Lakes and
rivers - other
biotopes
Lakes and
rivers - reed
bed
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Coast - reed
bed
Open Sea
Croplands
Mire
x
Coast - other
biotopes
Ruffe
Common Carder
bee
Bank vole
Moose
Red fox
Brown Bear
Water vole
Mink
Beaver
Otter
Grey seal
Pfeiffer’s amber
snail
Aquatic pulmonate
gastropod
New Zealand
mudsnail
Baltic macoma
European fingernail
clam
Duck mussel
Foolish mussel
Blue-green algae
Raphidophyte
Green algae
Adder
Earthworm
Wood ants
Sphagnum moss
Red-stemmed
feather moss
Reindeer lichen
Chickweed
wintergreen
Wavy hair-grass
Common heather
Scots pine
Water flea
Groves
Representative
species
Heath forest
Organism
category
Rock forest
Biotopes occupied
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
A number of the representative species can be considered transient with respect to the
biotopes they occupy; moving between the different forest, cropland and mire biotopes
or between different aquatic habitats and mires. Transitory behaviour may be local (i.e.
restricted to those biotopes occurring in a small geographical region) or may be
consistent with a large geographical range, which is particularly relevant to large
mammals such as moose. Where the range of an individual is small and knowledge of
habits (e.g. food preferences) are in support, an individual is assumed to remain within a
single biotope (although different individuals could inhabit alternative biotopes).
However, where an individual would be unlikely, by way of its individual range or
habits, to remain in a single biotope (for example, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter
require terrestrial and aquatic occupancy for feeding and nesting purposes), relative
biotope occupancies were derived in consultation with the biosphere experts. Transient
161
behaviour has been minimised where practicable to restrict individual behaviour within
the smallest number of biotopes in order to maximise the potential exposure of an
individual, whilst maintaining ecological relevance. Data on the biotopes that could be
occupied by individuals of a transient representative species and their home ranges are
detailed in Table 4-5. Values assigned to represent relative occupancy in the different
biotopes are detailed in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report.
4.2.2 Habitat occupancy
At a simplified level, generic terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems can be
compartmentalised into key habitat types or areas within the biotopes. These
components are presented as assessment model compartments in the Data Basis for the
Biosphere Assessment report and are referred to here in a more generic manner; the
quantitative occupancy fractions for each reference species are presented in the Data
Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report. Not all components are present in all cases.
For instance trees are not always present in mires with respect to terrestrial ecosystem
habitats and the ‘growing layer’ represented for the sediment in the generic aquatic
ecosystem habitat structure is applicable only where rooting plants are present.
Nonetheless, habitats and physical features which are typically present are identified.
Key habitat occupancy factors to be identified for representative species inhabiting
terrestrial ecosystems include time spent in air, on the soil surface and within the
soil/litter sub-surface matrix. For those inhabiting aquatic biotopes, the key habitat
occupancy factors include time spent in or on the water column, on the sediment surface
and within the sediment sub-surface matrix. Cross over in occupancy between terrestrial
and aquatic biotopes is possible and such cross over is indicated in section 4.2.1 (Table
4-5) for transient representative species; again, the fractional occupancies are detailed in
the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report. Positions occupied by
representative species in the terrestrial biotopes are indicated in Table 4-6 and in Table
4-7 for aquatic biotopes. As with fractional biotope occupancies, numerical values
assigned to habitat occupancies are detailed in the Data Basis for the Biosphere
Assessment report.
162
Table 4-5. Biotope occupancy and individual range of transient representative species.
Representative
species
Common frog
White-tailed eagle
Moose
Mink
Brown bear
Red fox
Grey seal
Common eider
Mallard
Water vole
Otter
Beaver
a
b
Biotope occupancy
a
Adult frogs like damp areas. However, individuals in the different
terrestrial biotopes are considered to have access to sufficient
pools and moist ditches to enable continual occupancy within a
single biotope. However, in the first year, juveniles (froglets) would
be expected to remain within 1 ha of a freshwater body (expert
judgement). Such individuals are therefore considered to occupy
the mire and lake reed bed biotopes in equal measures.
Frogspawn and tadpole life stages are restricted to the lake reed
bed biotope.
Nests constructed in trees in rock forest, heath forest, grove or
forested mire biotopes. Feeding occurs primarily in open sea
areas.
As large herbivorous mammals, moose will be transient species in
rock forest, heath forest, grove, mire and cropland biotopes.
An individual is likely to have a preference for feeding either in
lakes or coastal areas. Aquatic occupancy would comprise open
waters as opposed to reed bed areas. Terrestrial occupancy is
primarily associated with mires.
Inhabits any terrestrial biotope (including mires) and is assumed to
move freely between these.
Inhabits any terrestrial biotope (including mires) and is assumed to
move freely between these, within the limits of an individual’s
range.
Inhabits open sea and coastal (other) areas.
As a migratory bird only a proportion of the year is assumed to be
associated with the reference area. Nesting occurs in the outer
archipelago, which is outwith the assessment area.
The assessment assumes non-migratory individuals are present
such that individuals remain within the reference area at all times.
Nesting is assumed to occur on dense reed beds (lake or coastal)
with and feeding occurring in either lake (other) or coast (other)
biotopes.
Being semi-aquatic, water voles will inhabit both mire and lake
(reed bed) areas.
Being semi-aquatic, otters will spend a large proportion of time in
lake (other) areas, also entering lake (reed beds). Although coastal
feeding is possible, individuals require access to freshwater to
clean fur and thus it is assumed that otters are only inhabitants of
the freshwater ecosystem for the purposes of the assessment
(dilution in coastal areas would lead to a reduced dose). When on
land, otters would be expected to remain largely in mire areas.
Beavers will inhabit lakes (other biotope) and lake (reed bed),
venturing into forested mires to feed and harvest building
materials.
Based on expected behaviour over the period of 1 year.
Individual range obtained from species descriptions detailed in section 4.1.3 unless otherwise stated.
Individual range
b
1-2 ha (expert judgement)
1370 – 2590 ha
8 – 20 ha (based on
females)
20 000 – 100 000 ha
500 – 1200 ha
Assumed to be similar to
bank voles at 0.02 – 0.1
ha.
163
Table 4-6. Terrestrial biotope habitat occupancies for representative species.
x
in air
in deep soil
(> 1m)
x
x
x
x
x (roots)
x
x
x
in top mineral
soil (0-30 cm)
in humus
x
x
x
x
in intermediate
soil (30-100 cm)
Adder
Bank vole
Beaver
Brown Bear
Chickweed
wintergreen
Common Carder bee
Common frog
Common heather
Earthworm
Hazel grouse
Mink
Moose
Otter
Pfeiffer’s amber snail
Red fox
Red-stemmed
feather moss
Reindeer lichen
Scots pine
Water vole
Wavy hair-grass
White tailed eagle
Wood ants
in litter layer
Representative
species
on soil surface
Habitat compartments
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x (roots)
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x (trunk)
x
x
x
x (roots)
x
x (roots)
x (roots)
x (roots)
x (canopy)
x
x
x
Table 4-7. Habitat occupancies for representative species in aquatic biotopes.
Carex
Common cattail
x
x
x
x
x
x
X
(emergent)
x
x
x
X
(emergent)
X
(emergent)
x
x
x
x
in deep
sediment
(> 1m)
in intermediate
sediment
(30-100 cm)
x
in top sediment
(0-30 cm)
x
x
x
in fluffy sediment
x
x
x
Chironomids
Clasping-leaf
pondweed
Club rush
on sediment
Aquatic pulmonate
gastropod
Aquatic sowbug
Baltic herring
Baltic macoma
Beaver
Benthic isopod
Bladder wrack
Blue-green algae
Canadian waterweed
in water
Representative
species
on water
(floating)
Habitat compartments
164
Common eider
Common frog
(adult)
Common frog
(tadpole)
Common frog
(frogspawn)
Common reed
Duck mussel
Eurasian
watermilfoil
European fingernail
clam
European flounder
Foolish mussel
Green algae
Grey Seal
Mallard
Marenzelleria
Marine isopod
Mink
New Zealand
mudsnail
Otter
Perch
Pike
Raphidophyte
Roach
Ruffe
Signal crayfish
Sludge worms
Sphagnum moss
Stonewort
Water flea
Water vole
White tailed eagle
Yellow water lily
x
x
x
X
(emergent)
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
in deep
sediment
(> 1m)
in intermediate
sediment
(30-100 cm)
in top sediment
(0-30 cm)
x
in fluffy sediment
x
on sediment
in water
Representative
species
on water
(floating)
Habitat compartments
165
5
ELEMENT TRANSPORT AND FATE
In this Chapter, the knowledge basis on the present conditions at the Olkiluoto site and
in the Reference Area (section 1.4.2) is developed into conceptual models of long-term
element transport and fate in the surface environment. Quantified element budgets are
presented for the biotopes, outlined in section 2.2 and described in section 2.4, based on
the qualitative and semi-quantitative understanding of the overall system as presented at
the beginning of the sub-sections of section 5.1. This feeds, together with the biosphere
development lines discussed in section 2.1 and the exposure pathways information in
Chapters 3 and 4, into the identification of the main features and processes addressed in
the Features, Events and Processes report, summarised and applied to the specific
environments in section 5.3. Together, this contributes to the radionuclide transport and
dose assessment models presented in the Biosphere Radionuclide Transport and Dose
Assessment report and in the Dose Assessment for the Plants and Animals report, with
input data specifications detailed in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report.
5.1 Element pools and fluxes
This section presents conceptual element circulation models and element pool sizes and
flux budgets for the ecosystems addressed in the previous Chapters. Details on the
underlying data and on the calculations are presented in the Data Basis for the
Biosphere Assessment report; here only the outcome and summaries of the key data
sources, main assumptions and most prominent data gaps are presented.
As mentioned above, the element pools and fluxes in the various environments provide
further, quantified, support to the subsequent assessment modelling in addition to the
rather qualitative discussions earlier in this report. Derivation of such overall element
circulation models  including also the smaller pools and fluxes that may not be well
constrained and not directly relevant to the radiological impact assessment for humans
and other biota  is not only required by the regulations (see section 1.3.3, especially the
discussion on the requirement YVL-D5 §A106 in Table 1-2), but it is also important in
establishing where radionuclides are accumulated and stored in the environment,
particularly since the accumulated radionuclides can be released as a result of
environmental changes over the long term, which could result in an increased impact.
The pools and fluxes were estimated based on the data available, with the aim to
establish illustrations of the general turnover of the elements, but without striving to
impose mass balances on the results. Even though the underlying data may be derived,
in part, from relatively short-term studies, the established element circulations should be
considered as being long-term annual averages than specific to the cycling in a selected
year. These data are utilised in further developing the radionuclide transport models (the
Biosphere Radionuclide Transport and Dose Assessment report) and populating them
with required input data (the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report). Through
application of the transport models, more descriptive mass balances for the long-term
perspective of the biosphere assessment could be derived.
The presentation of these pools and fluxes of biomass and elements, introduced in detail
for the sea environment in section 5.1.1, is similar for all the ecosystems and biotopes.
166
In summary, an overall circulation model is initially presented (e.g. Figure 5-1) where
the pools and fluxes are identified. The overall model is then populated with the
biomass data (e.g. Figure 5-2), accompanied by a presentation of a typical water balance
(e.g. Figure 5-3). The biomass circulation is then used as the basis for the elementspecific calculations (e.g. Figures 5-4 to 5-5), i.e. the pools and fluxes of the elements
are obtained mainly by combining the biomass pools and fluxes to the respective
element concentration data. In the discussion, the main assumptions and the main
uncertainties associated with the results are presented with a more thorough account
being presented in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report. Little discussion
of the results is provided here due to remaining uncertainties, particularly regarding the
element-specific data, and due to their illustrative role in the biosphere assessment
process (see the discussion above). Improving the data basis has been identified as a
major topic for further improvement prior to the biosphere assessment supporting the
operational licence application (cf. section 6.2).
The screening approach mentioned in section 1.3.2 and documented in more detail in
the Biosphere Assessment report was applied already in the biosphere assessment BSA2009 (Hjerpe et al. 2010) to identify the sub-set of radionuclides included in the
outcome from the geosphere radionuclide transport modelling to which the overall
biosphere assessment results were not sensitive. The remaining set of radionuclides, the
key set of radionuclides, is presented in Table 1-1 and includes isotopes of the following
elements: C, Cl, I (identified as top priority elements) and Cs, Mo, Nb, Ni, Se, Sn, Sr,
Pd (identified as high priority elements). The work presented in the present biosphere
description report has been focusing on these eleven elements; however in the final dose
assessment (Biosphere Assessment) only C, Cl, I, Mo, Nb and Se were of concern, as
well as Ag, significance of which was not foreseen early enough in the preparation of
the present report.
To provide a focus for studies of the last ten thousand years of development and the
situation at the present day, with a view to making projections over the assessment
period, a Reference Area (section 1.4.2) has been delineated for geological,
geomorphological, climatic and vegetational characterisation (Haapanen et al. 2010;
Haapanen et al. 2011). This area has been used in the derivation of element budgets to
complement the data from the Olkiluoto site.
Regarding aquatic ecosystems, rivers are not considered as a specific ecosystem for
detailed analysis in means of the element pools and fluxes. As discussed in section
2.4.4, rivers resemble lakes while display a small water volume compared to the water
discharge through them and, more restrictively, there are major gaps in the data basis.
However, rivers have not been a major contributor to the doses to humans in the earlier
biosphere assessments23 as their productivity of food to humans is rather limited24 and
the rapid water exchange results in smaller radionuclide inventories (Hjerpe et al. 2009).
This does not hold for the drinking water pathway, though, as the rivers provide large
quantities of potential drinking water, but on the other hand, the contribution of this
23
For example, in the BSA-2009 assessment (Hjerpe et al. 2010) doses from all rivers were 0.02-0.07% of the total annual
landscape dose maxima to a representative person for the most exposed group in the reference case (Sh1).
24
0.007 gC/m²/y compared to respective values of 0.05 gC/m²/y for lakes, 0.7 gC/m²/y for forest and 20-200 gC/m²/y for croplands
(Haapanen et al. 2009, tables 11-17, 11-19, 11-21).
167
pathway to the overall dose has been low25. However, as some specific representative
species of plants and animals have potential to increase the importance of explicitly
considering the river ecosystem, overall characterisation of the river ecosystem has been
included in the future plans (section 6.3) to improve the data basis.
Unlike the aquatic environments for which all the biota are described as part of the
ecosystem, the system for terrestrial and avian fauna is presented separately in section
5.1.6. As the home range of most of the organisms is significantly larger than the
vegetation stand applied for the mass pools and fluxes of mires, upland forests and
agriculture (sections 5.1.3  5.1.4), it is very challenging to combine these in a
consistent manner. In addition, the mass pools and fluxes associated with a specific
trophic niche in the ecosystem consist of contributions from several species, but the data
available at the moment are for only a few representative species. The acquisition of
new data and improvement to the modelling methodology is a clearly a task for the next
iteration of the biosphere description process.
5.1.1 Sea
In aquatic environments, the whole system is dependent on the allochthonous inflow of
elements. The main source of the dissolved and particulate substances containing
elements such as C, P and N that impact on the health of sea and freshwater ecosystems
is the drainage area, i.e. the terrestrial environment which surrounds the aquatic
environment (Särkkä 1996, p. 63). Rivers are the main route by which these
allochthonous substances reach the Bothnian Sea (HELCOM 2002, ch. 4.1.2). The
mechanism controlling this flux of elements is erosion (Golterman & Kouwe 1980, p.
107; Stumm 2004, p. 79). Atmospheric deposition is another source of the
allochthonous substances (mainly of nitrogen) in the fresh and brackish water
environments (Särkkä 1996, p. 64; HELCOM 2002, ch. 4.2). The main autochthonous
source of elements is sediment, which can play a major role in the aquatic environment
(Grasshoff & Voipio 1981, p. 194-202; Särkkä 1996, ch. 6.5). As well as an inflow of
substances, there is also an outflow of the substances from the system which depends
mainly on the water exchange and sedimentation (Sandberg 2000, ch. 2.4; Stumm 2004,
fig. 4.1b).
Besides solar radiation (providing light and controlling temperature), there are fifteen to
twenty chemical elements that are essential for the growth of aquatic organisms
(Golterman & Kouwe 1980, p. 85). The rate of primary production is controlled by so
called minor constituents, of which phosphorus, nitrogen and silicate are the most
important (Golterman & Kouwe 1980, p. 87). In general, phosphorus is a limiting factor
in primary production in the freshwater environment and either phosphorus or nitrogen
in the brackish water of the Bothnian Sea (Särkkä 1996, 64; Andersson et al. 1996, p.
797; HELCOM 2002, p. 59). In contrast to the terrestrial environment, the concentration
of CO2, which is the main source of carbon for photosynthesis, is rather high in the
aquatic environment due to its high solubility in the water (Särkkä 1996, p. 51).
25
The water ingestion pathway – regardless of if it is lake or river water – contributed 0.3-6.2% of the total annual landscape dose
maxima to a representative person for the most exposed group in the BSA-2009 assessment (Hjerpe et al. 2010). Furthermore, the
respective contribution of all food produced in rivers is only less than 0.2% (only this part could be affected by additional
characterisation of the biotic component of river ecosystems, the dose assessment for plants and animals excepted).
168
The current presentation of pools and flows is a first attempt to calculate and represent
the aquatic ecosystem functioning in the site and Reference Area. The basic idea in
representing the pools and fluxes is that energy and different substances flow through
the primary producers to the consumers and decomposers (Haapanen et al. 2009, p.
271). Primary producers convert inorganic material into organic matter, which is
utilised by consumers, and decomposers utilise the remains (dead material, faeces and
extracellular release26) from the whole system. In our approach, the decomposers
consist of the microbial loop27 and the benthic decomposers (mainly bacteria), which
both return organic and inorganic matter back to the system (Saunders et al. 1980, ch. 7;
Schiewer 2008, p. 16-18). This chain of events forms food webs with numerous
interactions (Hällfors et al. 1980, fig. 5.18; Reynolds 2004, fig 9.2), which are presented
in Figure 5-1 on a general level. All the pools of this generic food web are presented in
more detail in the section 2.4.
Figure 5-1. Generic conceptual element circulation model for aquatic systems.
Drawing by Teea Penttinen, Pöyry Finland Oy.
26
27
Direct cellular release of dissolved organic matter by plants and animals: may occur via passive leakage across cell membranes or
through active excretion (Bertilsson & Jones 2003, p. 7).
The microbial loop, which consists of a micro-size free water producers and consumers, is a smaller scale food web inside the
classic aquatic food web. The loop is connected to the main food web in different ways: micro-organisms (mainly bacteria,
flagellates and protists) converts a part of the dissolved organic matter into inorganic form which is utilized by primary producers
and the micro-organisms are utilized by first level consumers (Weisse 2004, p. 417-420).
169
Coastal sea areas
The main biomass pools and fluxes of the coastal sea areas are presented in Figure 5-2.
On the soft and hard photic bottoms, along with the phytoplankton, the primary
production is dominated by macrophytes and macroalgae, respectively (see Table 2-9).
On the aphotic bottoms, all of the primary production is due to phytoplankton based and
it is restricted to the euphotic zone. Common properties of the coastal sea areas and the
dominant species of the different coastal biotopes are presented in more detail in the
section 2.4.2.
The diversity of the aquatic environment and the connections within and between the
biotic and abiotic environment are impossible to represent perfectly. The rational
overview of the aquatic systems required generalisation and simplification, which leads
to the following basic assumptions of the calculations of the pools and fluxes:
1. The system is stable: the substances inflow to the system and outflow from the
system is deemed to be equal (Helcom 2002, p. 59; Stumm 2004, ch. 4.4.2.1).
The main inflow and outflow fluxes of the system are presented in Figure 5-3.
2. All available flows are fully utilized and transported forward. Substances flow
through the pools and back to the top sediment and water via the pool of the
decomposers and the microbial loop.
3. The sum of inflow fluxes to the pool is equal to the consumption (i.e.
production, respiration and excretion) of the pool.
4. Sustainability of the system requires that the sum of utilisation
(grazing/predation) i.e. outflow flux(es) of each pool is smaller than the net
production of that pool.
5. The net production of the pool is the sum of outflow fluxes of the pool and flux
to the decomposers and microbial loop i.e. the flux to the decomposers and
microbial loop is the difference between the net production and the outflow
flux(es) of the pool.
6. The flow rate from the top sediment to the decomposers and microbial loop is
depended on the flow from other compartments (mainly macrophytes) to the
pool of decomposers and microbial loop. More matter is needed from the top
sediment to the decomposers and microbial loop in aphotic bottoms, where the
flow from macrophytes (in lakes) and macrophytes and –algae (in coastal areas)
is zero.
7. The average water depths of the coastal waters, open sea and lakes (see below)
are 5.7, 22.7 and 1.2 metres, respectively (Kangasniemi 2012, section 2.1).
8. As the data on the sediment layers lacks the information on bulk density,
necessary to calculate storages and fluxes per unit area for the different sediment
layers (top to sediment 30 cm depth, intermediate sediment to 70 cm depth, deep
sediment to 100 cm depth), default values were applied. These data have been
derived from Finnish literature and handbooks mainly for soils (presented in
detail in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report), and their use also
omits any compression or other effects increasing the density of the deeper
sediment layers.
170
Main uncertainties of the assumptions (see corresponding assumption above):
1. According the studies, the stable conditions of the coast and open sea areas of
the Bothnian sea are uncertain (Sandberg et al. 2000, p. 259; Sandberg 2007, fig.
4)
2. Substances can flow away from the system via certain pool (e.g. migratory fish
species)
3. In nature, all available resources are not always utilized. Also suitable for the
assumption number 5.
4. Grazing or predation caused by another pool can exceed the net production of
the certain pool
The current presentation of the pools and fluxes is a compilation of accurate site data
and the best available literature data. Due to the heterogeneity of the data, the results are
partly indicative and they must be viewed with caution.
Data sources, calculations of the fluxes, results and the assumptions made are presented
in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report. The main data sources for the
coastal areas were:
 Site data for the dissolved and particulate substances, fish, macrophytes,
macrobenthos (Kangasniemi & Helin 2013), phytoplankton (Haapanen 2011,
table H-6), zooplankton (Turkki 2011, p. 43, annex 5) and sediments
(Lahdenperä & Keskinen 2011, app. 4, 5, 10, 17);
 Literature for macroalgae (Borgiel 2004, table 5-1) and decomposers and
organic matter (HELCOM 2002, fig. 5.34).
Figure 5-3 presents the main water fluxes in the bottom sediment compartments for the
coastal biosphere objects in the reference case of the BSA-2012 assessment (the Surface
and Near-Surface Hydrological Modelling report). The surface water exchange has
been omitted from the figure as it is highly dependent on the basin geometry and
connections to other basins, but compared to the fluxes in the sediment it is many orders
of magnitude larger. At the interface between the sediment and the open water column,
the average fluxes downwards are zero but mixing does occur; the hydraulic gradient
causing the long-term flux is always upwards.
171
Figure 5-2. Quantified pools and fluxes of biomass in dry weight (g/m², g/m²/y; in dry)
in coastal area biotopes. Losses by faeces and death to the decomposers pool are
marked by symbols and losses by respiration are marked in parenthesis within each
pool. For the macrophytes and -algae the pool and for the total input to the
decomposers the flux are given separately for the aphotic hard, photic hard, aphotic
soft and photic soft bottom and reed bed biotopes, respectively. All symbols are
presented in Figure 5-1. Drawn by Teea Penttinen, Pöyry Finland Oy, with the
background photograph by Ville Kangasniemi, Pyhäjärvi Institute.
172
Figure 5-3. Main water fluxes (10-3 m³/m²/y) in the bottom sediment compartments of
the reference case coastal objects of the BSA-2012 biosphere assessment (the Surface
and Near-Surface Hydrological Modelling report): arithmetic mean (min.  max.) of all
coastal objects. The three white lines are actually arrows pointing upwards but due to
the scaling barely visible, cf. the corresponding numeric values. The surface water
exchange has been omitted from the figure as it is highly dependent on the basin
geometry and connections to other basins, but compared to the fluxes in the sediment it
is many orders of magnitude larger. Figure drawn by Ari Ikonen, Posiva Oy.
Figures 5-4 and 5-5 present element pools and fluxes for silver, chlorine, iodine,
molybdenum, niobium and selenium in the coastal sea areas. The pools and fluxes of
elements are based on the standing biomass of the pools and fluxes of the dry mass in
the system (fig. 5-2). The data sources, calculations and results have been detailed in the
Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report and were applied in the order of
1. Site data from coastal areas: dissolved and particulate substances, macrophytes,
fish and macrobenthos (Kangasniemi et al. 2011, tables 2 and 3; Kangasniemi &
Helin 2013) and sediments (Lahdenperä & Keskinen 2011.)
2. Literature data in the following sequence: 1. Bothnian Sea, 2. Baltic Sea, 3.
Other sea areas in the Northern hemisphere
3. Generic sea data, primarily (Hosseini et al. 2008, app. 1B).
For the coastal sea areas, the data on the dissolved and particulate matter total
concentrations in the water and mass of macrophytes, fish and macrobenthos are judged
to be reasonably reliable. Also reasonably good data are available on the concentrations
of Cl, I and Se, whereas the concentration data are inadequate for Mo and Nb.
Furthermore, the basis of site-specific data is still rather weak but is rapidly improving
(e.g. Kangasniemi et al. 2011; Kangasniemi & Helin 2013). There is a lack of biomass
and element data for the atmospheric deposition, decomposers and the microbial loop,
173
bioturbation and net sedimentation: the site data has not been collected and
corresponding literature data was not found. For this reason, the fluxes between e.g. the
pool of decomposers and microbial loop and the pools of dissolved and particulate
substances and the sediment are not sufficiently well established. In general, due to the
heterogeneity of the data the results are partly indicative and they must be viewed with
caution.
Figure 5-4. Quantified pools and fluxes of silver and chlorine (top row) and iodine and
molybdenum (bottom row) (g/m², g/m²/y; in dry) in a coastal sea area. Losses by faeces
and death to the decomposers pool are marked by symbols within each component. If
available, pools and fluxes are given separately for the aphotic hard, photic hard,
aphotic soft and photic soft bottom and reed bed biotopes, respectively. All symbols are
presented in Figure 5-1. Abbreviations: AD, atmospheric deposition; DPS, dissolved
and particulate substances; d&m, decomposers and microbial loop; LTS, loose and top
sediment; IS, intermediate sediment; DS, deep sediment. Drawn by Teea Penttinen,
Pöyry Finland Oy.
174
Figure 5-5. Quantified pools and fluxes of niobium and selenium (g/m², g/m²/y; in dry)
in a coastal sea area. Losses by faeces and death to the decomposers pool are marked
by symbols within each component. If available, pools and fluxes are given separately
for the aphotic hard, photic hard, aphotic soft and photic soft bottom and reed bed
biotopes, respectively. All symbols are presented in Figure 5-1. Abbreviations: AD,
atmospheric deposition; DPS, dissolved and particulate substances; d&m, decomposers
and microbial loop; LTS, loose and top sediment; IS, intermediate sediment; DS, deep
sediment. Drawn by Teea Penttinen, Pöyry Finland Oy.
Open sea area
Compared with the coastal sea areas presented above, the open sea ecosystem is simpler
(Figure 5-6). In general, fewer species are present and the “waterfowl” and
“macrophytes and macroalgae” pools are absent. The open sea primary production is
completely based on phytoplankton production in the euphotic zone, which is defined in
the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report (section 3.3.1). Common properties
of the open sea areas and the dominant species of the different coastal biotopes are
presented in more detail in the section 2.4.1. Due to the large volume and openness of
the open sea, the water exchange is even more rapid than in the coastal areas. Thus, no
water balance has been derived for the open sea sediments.
For the calculations, the basic assumptions and uncertainties are the same as for the
coastal sea areas above. The main data sources (detailed in the Data Basis for the
Biosphere Assessment report with calculations and results) were:
 Site data for dissolved and particulate substances, fish, macrobenthos
(Kangasniemi & Helin 2013), and sediments (Lahdenperä & Keskinen 2011,
app. 5);
 Literature data (mainly from Bothnian Sea) for phytoplankton (Sandberg et al.
2004, p. 18), zooplankton and macrobenthos (HELCOM 2002, table 5.8) and
fish and decomposers and microbial loop (HELCOM 2002, fig. 5.34).
The data hierarchy in the element pool and flux calculations presented in Figures 5-7
and 5-8 was the same as for the coastal areas (see above). The pools and fluxes for
certain element are based on the standing biomass of the pools and fluxes of the dry
mass in the system (fig. 5-6). Site data was applied for dissolved and particulate
175
substances (Kangasniemi et al. 2011, table 2; Kangasniemi & Helin 2013), fish and
macrobenthos (Kangasniemi & Helin 2013) and sediments (Lahdenperä & Keskinen
2011, Apps.), as detailed in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report. The
preferred source of generic data where needed to fill data gaps was (Hosseini et al.
2008, app. 1B).
Good literature data was available for the calculations from the open sea areas of the
Bothnian Sea. On the other hand, all data from the Olkiluoto site are from coastal sea
areas. The element data was judged reasonably reliable for concentrations of I and Se.
Again, few data were available for the mammals. With the atmospheric deposition,
decomposers and microbial loop, bioturbation and sedimentation, the same challenges
prevailed as in the case of the coastal sea areas (see above). In general, due to the
heterogeneity of the data the results are partly indicative and they must be viewed with
caution.
Figure 5-6. Quantified pools and fluxes of biomass in dry weight (g/m², g/m²/y; in dry)
in open sea area. Losses by faeces and death to the decomposers pool are marked by
symbols and losses by respiration are marked in parenthesis within each pool. All
symbols are presented in Figure 5-1. Drawn by Teea Penttinen, Pöyry Finland Oy, with
the background photograph by Tero Forsman, Pyhäjärvi Institute.
176
Figure 5-7. Quantified pools and fluxes of silver and chlorine (g/m², g/m²/y; in dry) in
an open sea area. Losses by faeces and death to the decomposers pool are marked by
symbols within each pool. All symbols are presented in Figure 5-1. Abbreviations: AD,
atmospheric deposition; DPS, dissolved and particulate substances; d&m, decomposers
and microbial loop; LTS, loose and top sediment; IS, intermediate sediment; DS, deep
sediment. Drawn by Teea Penttinen, Pöyry Finland Oy.
Figure 5-8. Quantified pools and fluxes of iodine and molybdenum (top row), and
niobium and selenium (bottom row) (g/m², g/m²/y; in dry) in an open sea area. Losses
by faeces and death to the decomposers pool are marked by symbols within each pool.
All symbols are presented in Figure 5-1. Abbreviations: AD, atmospheric deposition;
DPS, dissolved and particulate substances; d&m, decomposers and microbial loop;
LTS, loose and top sediment; IS, intermediate sediment; DS, deep sediment. Drawn by
Teea Penttinen, Pöyry Finland Oy.
177
5.1.2 Lakes
Apart from the lack of macroalgae, the generic circulation model (Figure 5-1) and the
general idea of the pools and fluxes is the same for lakes as for coastal sea waters (see
section 5.1.1); the result regarding the biomass pools and fluxes for lakes is presented in
Figure 5-9. Common properties of the lakes and the dominant species of the different
freshwater biotopes are presented in more detail in the section 2.4.3.
For the calculations, the basic assumptions and uncertainties are the same as for the
coastal sea areas (section 5.1.1) with the exception of the main inflow and outflow
fluxes of the lake environment, which are presented in the fig. 5-10. The main data
sources for the lakes (detailed in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report)
were:
 Site data (from the reference lakes, see section 2.3) for dissolved and particulate
substances, macrophytes and macrobenthos (Kangasniemi & Helin 2013);
 Literature from areas other than the reference lakes was applied to
phytoplankton (Särkkä 1996, table 11), zooplankton (Vuorinen & Nevalainen
1981, p. 105), fish (Rask & Arvola 1985, table 2), decomposers and microbial
loop (Andersson et al. 2006, p. 15), and sediments (Salonen & Itkonen 1992,
apps. 3, 4; Forsell 2005, ch. 3-4).
Figure 5-10 presents the main water fluxes in the bottom sediment compartments for the
lake biosphere objects in the reference case of the BSA-2012 assessment (the Surface
and Near-Surface Hydrological Modelling report). The surface water exchange has
been omitted from the figure as it is highly dependent on the basin geometry and
connections to other basins, but compared to the fluxes in the sediment it is much larger.
At the interface between the sediment and the open water column, the average fluxes
downwards are zero but mixing does occur; the hydraulic gradient causing the longterm flux is always upwards.
The pools and fluxes for the elements are based on the standing biomass of the pools
and fluxes of the dry mass in the system (fig. 5-6). The data sources and results of the
element pool and flux calculations presented in Figures 5-11 and 5-12 have been
detailed in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report and were applied in the
order of
1. Site data for dissolved and particulate substances and macrophytes
(Kangasniemi et al. 2011, tables 2, 3; Kangasniemi & Helin 2013), and fish and
macrobenthos (Kangasniemi & Helin 2013, coastal data);
2. Literature data in the following sequence: 1. Reference Area lakes (Satakunta
and Varsinais-Suomi region), 2. Finnish lakes, 3. Scandinavian lakes and 4.
other suitable lakes in Northern hemisphere;
3. Generic freshwater data, primarily (Hosseini et al. 2008, app. 1C);
4. Site data of the coastal sea areas (Olkiluoto)
5. Data from other coastal areas (see hierarchy in 5.1.1)
6. Generic sea data, primarily (Hosseini et al. 2008, app. B1)
178
Figure 5-9. Quantified pools and fluxes of biomass in dry weight (g/m², g/m²/y; in dry)
in lake biotopes. Losses by faeces and death to the decomposers pool are marked by
symbols and losses by respiration are marked in parenthesis within each pool. For the
macrophytes the pool and for the total input to the decomposers the flux are given
separately for the aphotic hard, photic hard, aphotic soft and photic soft bottom and
reed bed biotopes, respectively. All symbols are presented in Figure 5-1. Drawn by
Teea Penttinen, Pöyry Finland Oy, with the background photograph by Ville
Kangasniemi, Pyhäjärvi Institute.
In the element specific analysis for the lakes, the macrophyte data are of good quality
due to two years of intense field campaigns. As with the sea areas (section 5.1.1). There
are few data for birds and mammals and lack of decomposers and microbial loop data.
Also, for the moment there are no applicable data from the reference lakes. In general,
due to the heterogeneity of the data the results are partly indicative and they must be
viewed with caution.
179
Figure 5-10. Main water fluxes (10-3 m³/m²/y) in the bottom sediment compartments of
the reference case lake objects of the BSA-2012 biosphere assessment (the Surface and
Near-Surface Hydrological Modelling report); arithmetic mean (min.max.) of all lake
objects. The three white lines are actually arrows pointing upwards but due to the
scaling barely visible, cf. the corresponding numeric values. The surface water
exchange has been omitted from the figure as it is highly dependent on the basin
geometry and connections to other basins, but compared to the fluxes in the sediment it
is much larger. Figure drawn by Ari Ikonen, Posiva Oy.
Figure 5-11. Quantified pools and fluxes of silver and chlorine (g/m², g/m²/y; in dry) in
a lake. Losses by faeces and death to the decomposers pool are marked by symbols
within each component. If available, pools and fluxes are given separately for the
aphotic hard, photic hard, aphotic soft and photic soft bottom and reed bed biotopes,
respectively. Abbreviations: AD, atmospheric deposition; DPS, dissolved and
particulate substances; d&m, decomposers and microbial loop; LTS, loose and top
sediment; IS, intermediate sediment; DS, deep sediment. Drawn by Teea Penttinen,
Pöyry Finland Oy.
180
Figure 5-12. Quantified pools and fluxes of iodine and molybdenum (top row) niobium
and selenium (bottom row) (g/m², g/m²/y; in dry) in a lake. Losses by faeces and death
to the decomposers pool are marked by symbols within each component. If available,
pools and fluxes are given separately for the aphotic hard, photic hard, aphotic soft and
photic soft bottom and reed bed biotopes, respectively. All symbols are presented in
Figure 5-1. Abbreviations: AD, atmospheric deposition; DPS, dissolved and particulate
substances; d&m, decomposers and microbial loop; LTS, loose and top sediment; IS,
intermediate sediment; DS, deep sediment. Drawn by Teea Penttinen, Pöyry Finland
Oy.
181
Figure 5-13. Generic conceptual element circulation model for mires (developed from
Paavilainen & Päivänen 1995, p. 50; Laine & Vasander 1996, p. 17; Vasander &
Kettunen 2006, p. 170; Saarnio et al. 2008, p. 57; Haapanen et al. 2009, fig. 10-7).
Figure drawn by Teea Penttinen, Pöyry Finland Oy.
5.1.3 Mires
Element pools and fluxes, especially those of carbon, are presented for mires in Figure
5-13. Partially decomposed organic matter is accumulated as peat which comprises an
element pool. The peat layer, where aerobic decay takes place, is called the acrotelm.
The anaerobic layer below the acrotelm is the catotelm, in which the roots of vegetation
or trees seldom grow. Below these peat layers there is mineral subsoil, which may
supply the peat layers with mineral nutrients. Elements can also reach the mire system
from surrounding mineral upland soils as lateral transport, or via atmospheric
deposition.
The plants provide the primary production in the system. They consist of roots, stems
(in woody species further distinguished into bark and wood), foliage and fruits, seeds
and/or flowers. Translocation of matter between these sub-components might be of
importance in some applications, but applying the same level of detail to different
ecosystems, they are not discussed here. In trees, growth adds biomass as foliage,
branches, stem wood and bark, and roots. Highest biomass values in the field layer are
found in dwarf-shrub and tall-sedge communities (Laine & Vasander 1996, p. 16), of
which the dwarf-shrubs possess also perennial parts associated with a long-term
biomass pool. Growth is associated with CO2 assimilation, water and nutrient uptake.
182
By senescence and death, the plants form the litter layer, into which also freshly dead
plant material and pollen and seeds are included. As the remains of roots, litter is found
also within the peat layer. The litter is further processed by decomposers, i.e. microbes,
fungi and detrivorous fauna, further providing the soil with organic and inorganic
matter.
Figure 5-14 presents the main water fluxes in the mire objects in the reference case of
the BSA-2012 assessment (the Surface and Near-Surface Hydrological Modelling
report).
Despite the mire situation on Olkiluoto (young, thin-peated, intensively managed, small
areal coverage; see section 2.4.6), site-specific data from Olkiluoto have been used.
Hence, drained and forested mires are emphasised in the distribution and key fluxes of
organic matter of mires (Figure 5-15). Consequently, nutrient-poor treeless mires are
underrepresented, since it takes several millennia for a large ombrotrophic mire to
develop. Data collection has started on the reference mires, but not all analyses are yet
available. The tree species distribution corresponds also to Olkiluoto data, a situation
which is to be improved upon in later assessment rounds. So far, no coherent data on
chemical composition of bulk precipitation is available. Concerning both biomass and
the amounts of individual elements, the largest pool is in the peat.
Figure 5-14. Main water fluxes (10-3 m³/m²/y) in the reference case mire objects of the
BSA-2012 biosphere assessment (the Surface and Near-Surface Hydrological Modelling
report); arithmetic mean (min.  max.) of all mire objects. Figure drawn by Ari Ikonen,
Posiva Oy.
183
In the organic matter distribution and flux calculations for mires (Figure 5-15) and
upland forests (section 5.1.4), the tree data are based on measurements in Olkiluoto
(Saramäki & Korhonen 2005) and biomass expansion functions (Marklund 1988),
whereas the understorey data are directly based on the measurements in Olkiluoto
(Huhta & Korpela 2006). The data handling has been described in Haapanen et al.
(2007, p. 123) and in detail in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report.
Weighting between tree species within a mire or forest biotope is based on dry mass
distribution derived from the tree measurements (Saramäki & Korhonen 2005).
However, differences in the amount of stem wood and branches between tree species
have been ignored. For dead wood pool a generic value of 46 g/m² (volumetric data
from Saramäki & Korhonen 2005, p. 26; density data from Mäkinen et al. 2006, p.
1871, table 7) is used. The litter layer pool is from literature (Vasander 1982, p. 118,
fig. 12). Peat layers, humus, and mineral soil layer data is based on samples from
Olkiluoto and the Lastensuo mire (Tamminen et al. 2007; Ikonen 2002; Haapanen et al.
2012; Haapanen et al. 2012; Huhta 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010; Lintinen et al. 2003,
Lintinen & Kahelin 2003, Lahdenperä et al. 2005, Lahdenperä 2009). To calculate the
pools per unit area, the same approach as for the aquatic sediments was used (section
5.1.1): literature and handbook values for the bulk density of soil types were used if no
sample-specific data were available, ignoring any compression etc. effects, and fixed
layer thicknesses were assumed (acrotelm 30 cm, catotelm 70 cm28, top mineral soil 30
cm, intermediate mineral soil 70 cm, deep soil 100 cm) except for humus which was
accounted for based on the measured thicknesses. Most of the catotelm data (element
and organic matter concentrations) are from a single deep peat core from the Lastensuo
mire (Haapanen et al. 2012) in the Reference Area (Haapanen et al. 2012)29, in the case
of Mo, Cs, Ni and Sr supported by data from a few samples from the Olkiluodonjärvi
wetland area (Ikonen 2002). In the case of the acrotelm, the data are based on the
peatland forest sampling plots in Olkiluoto (Tamminen et al. 2007) and on the study of
the Olkiluodonjärvi area (Ikonen 2002), but for Cl, I, Se and Nb the acrotelm pool has
been calculated from the catotelm data assuming the same average concentrations and
bulk density. Those element pools presented in parentheses in the element pool and flux
figures are based on few samples, or in the case of the top mineral soil layer inventory
for Cl, I and Se, are assumed to be the same as the top mineral soil layer inventory for
the heath forest biotope (section 5.1.4). For the redox sensitive elements I and Se, the
values presented for the acrotelm must therefore be taken as very coarse estimates.
For the tree uptake fluxes, associated with the net primary production (NPP), tree
measurements at Olkiluoto (Saramäki & Korhonen 2005) are used with basic densities
from Hakkila (1979, p. 4), Kärkkäinen (1976, p. 12), Bhat (1982) and Björklund &
Ferm (1982, p. 22), bark proportion from Heiskanen & Rikkonen (1976, p. 36-37),
Saikku & Rikkonen (1976, p. 7), Kellomäki & Salmi (1979, p. 9-12), stem wood and
bark data based on mean annual increments (Kuusela 1977; Haapanen et al. 2009, p.
294-295), and data on branches and below-ground parts from (Mälkönen 1974, p. 37).
NPP of the foliage is based on the mean annual increment approach and the tree
measurements at Olkiluoto (Mälkönen 1974, p. 37; Helmisaari 1990, part V, apps. 1-3;
28
The catotelm thickness was selected as 70 cm to produce values comparable to the other organic and mineral soil layers, and on
the other hand, it corresponds better the average peat thickness in the Reference area than the data from the single deep (6.5 m)
peat core analysed so far; this was from a rather old mire.
29
A multi-year characterisation campaign of the reference mires (section 1.4.2) is on-going but so far only the first deep peat core
(6.5 m) has been analysed for the chemical properties.
184
Saramäki & Korhonen 2005). NPP of the understorey in mires has been adopted from
Reinikainen et al. (1984, p. 7). The litter production is based on the turnover rates from
Lehtonen (2005a, p. 24, table 4). The litter production and the NPP of the tree wood
include all other tree components except foliage, i.e. branches, stem bark and wood, and
roots. The litter production and the NPP of the understorey vegetation include both
above-ground and below-ground parts of plants.
The fluxes assume the net lateral transport to be zero, i.e. input is compensated by equal
output and vice versa. Tree harvesting has not been included, either. Thus the
production may exceed the losses. Also e.g. plant consumption by animals and plant
and soil respiration have been neglected here.
Data on bulk deposition and stand throughfall has not been available for mires in the
Reference Area (for upland forests, the corresponding information is based on data from
Olkiluoto). Interception of precipitation by the tree canopies is the difference between
the bulk deposition and the stand throughfall.
For the element-specific calculations (results presented in Figures 5-16 to 5-19 for I,
Mo, Se and Ni), the bulk of the data are from the Olkiluoto site. There has been little
interest in the key elements (Table 1-1) in the forest and mire research, so possibilities
to fill data gaps in the element concentrations with literature data are limited.
In the pool and flux calculations, data for the pools are readily available, except for dead
wood, root system and deep mineral soil layers. More site-specific data on mires in
Olkiluoto and on the selected reference mires would be needed, and generally the net
primary production and litterfall fluxes are not sufficiently well quantified in many
cases. Only the element pools and fluxes of I, Mo, Se and Ni could be considered to be
adequately covered; clearly more data on the different components and fluxes of mire
and forest ecosystems is needed for the whole set of key elements (Table 1-1).
185
Figure 5-15. Pools (g/m²) and key fluxes (g/m²/y) of organic dry matter in a forested
mire. NPP denotes the net primary productivity. Drawn by Ari Ikonen, Posiva Oy, with
the background photograph by Lasse Aro, Finnish Forest Research Institute, and a
generic picture to represent the soil layers.
Figure 5-16. Iodine pools and fluxes (mg/m² or mg/m²/y, respectively) in forested
mires.
186
Figure 5-17. Molybdenum pools and fluxes (mg/m² or mg/m²/y, respectively) in
forested mires.
Figure 5-18. Selenium pools and fluxes (mg/m² or mg/m²/y, respectively) in forested
mires.
187
Figure 5-19. Nickel pools and fluxes (mg/m² or mg/m²/y, respectively) in forested
mires.
5.1.4 Upland forests
Three biotopes are presented for upland forests, as described in sections 2.2 and 2.4.6:
rocky forest, heath forest and grove. In practise, the carbon cycle, described in Figure 520, does not differ between the upland forest biotopes in terms of processes and main
pools. However, there are differences in the size of the different pools and in the
efficiency of element cycling between the biotopes. The carbon cycle corresponds to the
distribution and fluxes of organic matter, and accordingly, is generally suitable to
demonstrate pools and fluxes of the key elements.
According to Pumpanen (2003), the two most important processes affecting the carbon
balance of a forest ecosystem are photosynthesis and respiration: CO2 is assimilated in
photosynthesis by trees and ground vegetation and translocated to soil through several
pathways (Figure 5-20). Significant amounts of carbon are allocated to the root systems
for root growth and maintenance. When roots die, the carbon is added to the forest floor
and mineral soil as dead organic matter. Carbon is added to the forest floor and humus
from above-ground biomass through litterfall and leaching of dissolved organic matter
from the canopy (Edwards & Harris 1977; Kalbitz et al. 2000) and from roots (Högberg
et al. 2001). Litterfall is one of the key processes in the biogeochemical cycle linking
the vegetation to the water and soil. Litter decomposition is a major pathway
determining nutrient fluxes. It also determines the organic matter input to forest soils,
and hence has a strong influence on forest productivity and biogeochemical processes in
soils (UN/ECE 2004).
188
Carbon is released from the soil to the atmosphere through the decomposition of dead
organic matter and through respiration by roots, root mycorrhizal fungi and other soil
micro-organisms (Gaudinski et al. 2000; Chapin III & Ruess 2001). Some carbon is also
leached out of the ecosystem dissolved in groundwater especially in peatlands (Urban et
al. 1989; Sallantaus 1992). However, in podzolised mineral soil the amount of dissolved
organic carbon leached to groundwater is very small (Easthouse et al. 1992; Lundström
1993).
The fine roots of trees and understorey vegetation that are active in nutrient uptake
contain considerable stores of carbon and nutrients, and their turnover rate is faster than
for the above-ground components. Therefore, they play an important role in the carbon
and nutrient dynamics of forest ecosystems.
Figure 5-21 presents the main water fluxes in the forest objects in the reference case of
the BSA-2012 assessment (the Surface and Near-Surface Hydrological Modelling
report). The water flux at the bedrock contact is in most cases upwards (discharge from
bedrock) and only some objects are located on recharge areas (downward flux, indicated
as a negative value).
Figure 5-20. Generic conceptual element circulation model for upland forests
(developed from Schultze 2000, fig. 1.1; drawn by Teea Penttinen, Pöyry Finland Oy).
189
Figure 5-21. Main water fluxes (10-3 m³/m²/y) in the reference case upland forest
objects of the BSA-2012 biosphere assessment (the Surface and Near-Surface
Hydrological Modelling report); arithmetic mean (min.  max.) of all upland forest
objects. Figure drawn by Ari Ikonen, Posiva Oy.
Distribution and key fluxes of organic dry matter are presented for upland forest
biotopes in Figures 5-22, 5-23 and 5-24. The data are mostly based on studies at
Olkiluoto (e.g. Huhta 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010; Rautio et al. 2004; Saramäki &
Korhonen 2005; Huhta & Korpela 2006; Tamminen et al. 2007; Haapanen et al. 2009;
Aro et al. 2011). The remaining data gaps are filled with literature data where available.
Further details are presented in the Data Basis for Biosphere Assessment report.
The input data and their handling were similar to those for the mires (section 5.1.3),
with the exceptions that
 the litter layer data for heath forests are from Hilli et al. (2008b, p. 110, table 1)
and for groves from Ilvesniemi et al. (2009, fig. 4);
 the net primary production of understorey in heath forest is based on Olkiluotospecific data (Salemaa & Korpela 2009), in rocky forest it is assumed to be the
same as in the heath forest, and in grove it is assumed that the net primary
production of the understorey is equal to the understorey pool (i.e. annual plants
are assumed).
In the case of humus and the mineral soil layers (similarly to the treatment of the mire
environment), the element pools are presented as the total element inventories as there
are even less data on the fractionation of the elements between the organic and the
inorganic substances.
190
Similarly to the treatment of the mire environment (section 5.1.3), the fluxes assume the
net lateral transport to be zero, i.e. input is compensated by equal output and vice versa.
Tree harvesting has not been included, either. Thus the production may exceed the
losses. Also e.g. plant consumption by animals and plant and soil respiration have been
neglected here.
For the element-specific calculations (results presented in Figures 5-25 to 5-28 for I,
Mo, Se and Ni), the bulk of the data are from the Olkiluoto site. As with the mire, there
are few possibilities to fill data gaps in the element concentrations with literature data.
Those element pools presented in parentheses in the element pool and flux figures are
based on few samples.
In the pool and flux calculations, data for the pools are rather well established,
especially for heath forests. However, the Olkiluoto-specific data have a rather short
temporal span and do not cover sufficiently the forest (and mire) biotopes. Otherwise,
the caveats listed for mires above in section 5.1.3 apply also to the upland forest pool
and flux calculations.
Figure 5-22. Pools (g/m²) and key fluxes (g/m²/y) of organic dry matter in a rocky
forest. Interception of precipitation by the tree canopies is the difference between bulk
deposition and stand throughfall. NPP denotes the net primary productivity. Drawn by
Ari Ikonen, Posiva Oy, with the background photograph by Ari Ryynänen, Finnish
Forest Research Institute, and a generic picture to represent the soil layers.
191
Figure 5-23. Pools (g/m²) and key fluxes (g/m²/y) of organic dry matter in a heath
forest. Interception of precipitation by the tree canopies is the difference between bulk
deposition and stand throughfall. NPP denotes the net primary productivity. Drawn by
Ari Ikonen, Posiva Oy, with the background photograph by Lasse Aro, Finnish Forest
Research Institute, and a generic picture to represent the soil layers.
Figure 5-24. Pools (g/m²) and key fluxes (g/m²/y) of organic dry matter in a grove
forest. Interception of precipitation by the tree canopies is the difference between bulk
deposition and stand throughfall. NPP denotes the net primary productivity. Drawn by
Ari Ikonen, Posiva Oy, with the background photograph by Lasse Aro, Finnish Forest
Research Institute, and a generic picture to represent the soil layers.
192
Figure 5-25. Iodine pools and fluxes (mg/m² or mg/m²/y, respectively) in upland forests.
The successive values represent the rock forests, the heath forests and the groves,
respectively.
Figure 5-26. Molybdenum pools and fluxes (mg/m² or mg/m²/y, respectively) in upland
forests. The successive values represent the rock forests, the heath forests and the
groves, respectively. <LOQ denotes that the concentrations have been below the limit of
quantification.
193
Figure 5-27. Selenium pools and fluxes (mg/m² or mg/m²/y, respectively) in upland
forests. The successive values represent the rock forests, the heath forests and the
groves, respectively.
Figure 5-28. Nickel pools and fluxes (mg/m² or mg/m²/y, respectively) in upland forests.
The successive values represent the rock forests, the heath forests and the groves,
respectively.
194
5.1.5 Agriculture
Agricultural production from croplands can either be used directly for human food or
for feeding farm animals (Figures 5-29 and 5-30). The distribution between human
consumption and feed production depends on the farm production system and the crops
that are cultivated. Nitrogen and phosphorus stocks and flows in the Finnish agricultural
sector have been estimated by Antikainen et al. (2005). They considered the main flows
between the atmosphere, the water supply, the fertiliser industry, the food and fodder
processing industry and domestic consumption.
Typical water balance at Olkiluoto
Figure 5-31 presents the main water fluxes in cropland objects in the reference case of
the BSA-2012 assessment (the Surface and Near-Surface Hydrological Modelling
report).
Annual water balances are rather seldom studied on Finnish agricultural soils.
Precipitation and annual runoff in rivers are well monitored but the distribution between
intercepted and evaporated precipitation, plant transpiration and soil evaporation is
based on modelling. In addition, there are few leaching fields on agricultural soils that
can provide measurements of the distribution between surface and drainage runoff.
Bärlund et al. (2009) simulated annual plant transpiration of 160 – 230 mm and soil
evaporation of 110 – 140 mm using spring barley with 15 years of weather data.
Furthermore they modelled 70 – 200 mm annual surface runoff and 150 – 300 mm
annual drainage runoff (root zone percolation) with different soil physical
characteristics.
Salo & Turtola (2006) reported on average 300 mm total runoff on clay soil in southern
Finland, with the distribution between drainage and surface runoff being very much
dependent on the quality of the subsurface drainage system. On sandy soil in the
province of Pohjanmaa, north of Olkiluoto and the Reference Area, they reported 200 –
240 mm annual total runoff, of which drainage runoff was 25 – 50 %. The field in
which leaching was studied was mostly grassland and this most likely explains the high
proportion of surface runoff.
Biomass pools and fluxes for croplands
The biomass distribution and flows are shown as carbon and thus the proportions of
respiratory losses through humans, animals and microbes are important. Crop carbon
demand is determined by average crop yields and by estimating the total production
with harvest indexes. The harvested carbon yield of cereals is divided between humans
and farm animals according to the ratios presented by Antikainen et al. (2005). The
yield of field vegetables is used only for human consumption and grassland yields only
for farm animals. Flows to wild animals are estimated to be 0.01 % of plant production
as harvest damage by moose and other deer in Satakunta is only compensated for in
respect of less than 0.01% (TIKE 2011a) of the cultivated agricultural area. However,
minor damage by game or insects is not reported or compensated, so this could increase
195
flows to wild animals to some degree. Soil pools are estimated using average elemental
concentrations in Satakunta agricultural soils.
Figure 5-29. Estimation of average annual stocks and flows of nitrogen in Finnish
agriculture based on data of (Antikainen et al. 2005), drawn by Teea Penttinen, Pöyry
Finland Oy.
Figure 5-30. Estimation of average annual stocks and flows of phosphorus in Finnish
agriculture based on data of (Antikainen et al. 2005), drawn by Teea Penttinen, Pöyry
Finland Oy.
196
Figure 5-31. Main water fluxes (10-3 m³/m²/y) in the reference case cropland objects of
the BSA-2012 biosphere assessment (the Surface and Near-Surface Hydrological
Modelling report); arithmetic mean (min.max.) of all cropland objects. Figure drawn
by Ari Ikonen, Posiva Oy.
Carbon flows follow an annual pattern and pools in humans, farm and wild animals can
be assumed to be constant. Carbon fluxes based on field area can however either
decrease or increase soil carbon pools. Carbon pools and fluxes are shown in Figures 532a, 5-32b and 5-33 for cereals, field vegetables and pasture, respectively. In this
scheme cereals also represent other crops, such as peas and sugar beet that are both used
directly for humans and for feeding of farm animals. Field vegetables are also
representative of berries and potato that are used only for human consumption. Pasture
and grassland are used only for animal forage. Human utilisation is not divided between
respiration and sewage sludge as only a very small proportion of sewage sludge is at the
moment returned to agricultural lands. The proportion of litter carbon lost by respiration
was set to the default efficiency value of 0.5 used in the CoupModel (Jansson &
Karlberg 2011). Litter carbon that is not decomposed is transferred to topsoil and its
decomposition rate was set to 0.007 y1 using the value in the CoupModel for
estimation.
197
Atmosphere
44
Farm animals
18
58
41
180
40
6
88
26
32
6
60
Top soil
6550
Humans
10
4
Litter
110
Soil 30-60 cm
1300
1
22
Plant
0 → 180 → 0
Wild animals
Soil 60-80 cm
650
Figure 5-32a. Pools (g/m²) and key fluxes (g/m²/y) of organic carbon in cereal
production. Carbon pools in humans, and in farm and wild animals are not directly
related to the area of croplands and thus only fluxes are shown. The numbers for the
plant component refer to the seasonal change in the biomass.
Atmosphere
41
38
25
5
1
62
Top soil
6550
Soil 30-60 cm
1300
108
180
108
Plant
0 → 180 → 0
6
Humans
10
Litter
83
4
Wild animals
Soil 60-80 cm
650
Figure 5-32b. Pools (g/m²) and key fluxes (g/m²/y) of organic carbon in field vegetable
production. Carbon pools in humans and wild animals are not directly related to the
area of croplands and thus only fluxes are shown. The numbers for the plant component
refer to the seasonal change in the biomass.
198
Atmosphere
160
Farm animals
64
102
48
400
40
13
320
96
61
7
Soil 30-60 cm
1300
1
60
Top soil
6550
Plant
0 → 400 → 0
Humans
20
Litter
204
7
Wild animals
Soil 60-80 cm
650
Figure 5-33. Pools (g/m²) and key fluxes (g/m²/y) of organic carbon in pastures and
grassland production. Carbon pools in humans, and in farm and wild animals are not
directly related to the area of croplands and thus only fluxes are shown. The numbers
for the plant component refer to the seasonal change in the biomass.
Pools and fluxes of key elements for croplands
Considering the key elements Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Nb, Ni and Se, the stocks and flows were
integrated for croplands and animal production (Figures 5-34 to 5-40). The field area of
cropland biotopes and the numbers of farm animals in five municipalities of southern
Satakunta (Eura, Eurajoki, Köyliö, Rauma and Säkylä), central part of the Reference
Area, were used for calculations of the key element fluxes. On croplands, element flows
from fertilisers and top soil to plants are driven by the plant demand, which was
calculated from average feed concentrations (MTT 2012) or plant samples near
Olkiluoto (Helin et al. 2011) and compared with soil-to-plant transfer factors (IAEA
2010) to find out obvious discrepancies. Average feed concentrations were available for
Mo, Se Cl and I. Plant concentrations of Cs, Nb and Ni were from Helin et al. (2011).
Soil Mo (Yläranta & Sillanpää 1984), Se and Ni (Mäkelä-Kurtto et al. 2007a)
concentrations were from Finnish sources and soil Cs, Cl, I, and Nb concentrations were
taken from Helin et al. (2011). Fertiliser input was calculated according to the average
fertiliser application rates and concentrations of Mo, Ni and Se in the fertilisers.
Fertilisers containing Mo are used for field vegetables, and Se is added in Finland to all
fertilisers due to low natural soil Se concentration. Ni is not added to fertilisers but it is
part of the raw minerals, thus leading to small concentrations in the fertilisers (MäkeläKurtto et al. 2007b). Leaching was considered for Cl, and deposition for Cl and Ni;
there was a lack of data for losses through leaching and erosion and input from
deposition for the other elements.
Elements taken up by the plants were divided into litter and harvested portions. The
amount of an element in harvested vegetation was transferred to farm animals in case of
grassland production and to humans from field vegetable production. In cereal
production, the harvested amount of an element was divided between human food and
199
animal fodder according to the partitioning adopted in the Finnish phosphorus cycle
(Figure 5-30; Antikainen et al. 2005), 20% for humans and 80% to fodder.
Animal uptake of key elements was calculated from daily feed demand of different
animal types (Table 3-3) multiplied by feed element concentrations. Concentrations
were taken either from feed tables (MTT 2012), plant samples near Olkiluoto (Helin et
al. 2011) or from IAEA (2010). In the case of purchased concentrates, element
concentrations were averaged over cereals, oilseeds and soybean, because these are the
most common sources of feed concentrates. Daily intakes were scaled to annual intakes
and multiplied by the number of animals (Table 3-2) in the municipalities of southern
Satakunta.
The production of milk, meat and eggs in the five municipalities was taken from
agricultural statistics (Table 3-2). The Ni and I concentrations were taken from the
Finnish dietary database (www.fineli.fi), whereas the concentrations of other elements
were calculated using the transfer coefficients of IAEA (2010). Element intake that was
not transferred to meat, milk or eggs was retained in excreta that include both animal
manure and animal carcasses.
Fertiliser
302
90.5
211
198
Plants
247
35.6
F
forage
PC purchased concentrates
FC farm-made concentrates
F
49.2
7.5
F
Top soil
1440
Pasture (3016 ha)
F
excess 6.1
Feed
industry
19.3
352
821
Plants
861
8.0
PC
FC
PC
132
1.5
1.1
19.5
Cattle
(6360 ind.)
0.7
114
819
13.8
FC
PC
Litter
3.9
1.2
Pigs
Meat
(23 380 ind.)
5.1
839
Human
consumption
of crops
Cereals (26 062 ha)
9.5
22.2
144
Plants
167
122
13.2
Top soil
1.96
Meat
FC
1220
Fertiliser
31.7
Milk
0.05
39.1
65.2
Top soil
6950
Losses, other farm
animals etc.
189
252
Fertiliser
1170
62.0
Litter
Litter
122
0.27
45.0
0.6
FC
PC
F
FC
PC
2.6
11.7
Poultry
(1 184 397 ind.)
13.2
3.6
0.02
<0.01
Eggs
0.4
Meat
<0.03
Sheep
(845 ind.)
Meat
3.6
Vegetables (5291 ha)
Figure 5-34. Key element pools and fluxes (103 kg or 103 kg/y in total, respectively) for
chlorine in the agricultural system of the five municipalities around the Olkiluoto site
(Figure 2-37). Atmospheric deposition and soil leaching fluxes are shown on italics.
Note that the units are a thousand fold compared to the other similar figures. The loss
from the livestock is returned to the litter (short arrows from the right).
200
Plants
3.3
3.3
2.7
F
forage
PC purchased concentrates
FC farm-made concentrates
F
0.7
F
Top soil
22 600
0.8
Litter
Losses, other farm
animals etc.
2.5
Pasture (3016 ha)
F
import 0.8
Feed
industry
15
Plants
55
3.7
27
9.1
PC
FC
PC
1.8
0.7
1.2
1.8
Milk
Cattle
(6360 ind.)
1.8
<0.01
Meat
FC
0.07
55
Top soil
195 000
PC
Litter
1.8
1.3
Human
consumption
of crops
Plants
4.8
4.8
3.1
Litter
3.1
1.7
Pigs
Meat
(23 380 ind.)
3.0
40
Cereals (26 062 ha)
Top soil
39 600
FC
0.8
FC
PC
F
FC
PC
1.2
12.8
Poultry
(1 184 397 ind.)
13.1
0.05
0.01
<0.01
Eggs
0.1
Meat
<0.01
Sheep
(845 ind.)
Meat
0.06
Vegetables (5291 ha)
Figure 5-35. Key element pools and fluxes (kg or kg/y in total, respectively) for iodine
in the agricultural system of the five municipalities around the Olkiluoto site (Figure 237). The loss from the livestock is returned to the litter (short arrows from the right).
201
Plants
22
22
18
F
forage
PC purchased concentrates
FC farm-made concentrates
F
4.5
F
Top soil
12 400
5.5
Litter
Losses, other farm
animals etc.
15
Pasture (3016 ha)
F
import 61
Feed
industry
10.9
Plants
59
4.5
36
7.6
PC
FC
PC
12.0
0.8
5.7
Milk
0.21
Cattle
(6360 ind.)
18.6
<0.01
Meat
FC
<0.01
59
Top soil
112 000
95
Top soil
27 800
PC
Litter
2.2
6.0
Human
consumption
of crops
11
16
Plants
26
21
Litter
21
5.3
Pigs
Meat
(23 380 ind.)
8.2
48
Cereals (26 062 ha)
Fertiliser
106
FC
Eggs
0.13
FC
PC
F
FC
PC
1.5
59.9
Poultry
(1 184 397 ind.)
61.3
0.04
0.3
0.01
0.02
Meat
~0
Sheep
(845 ind.)
Meat
0.3
Vegetables (5291 ha)
Figure 5-36. Key element pools and fluxes (kg or kg/y in total, respectively) for
molybdenum in the agricultural system of the five municipalities around the Olkiluoto
site (Figure 2-37). The loss from the livestock is returned to the litter (short arrows
from the right).
202
Fertiliser
45.2
41.8
3.4
Plants
7.0
3.6
5.6
F
forage
PC purchased concentrates
FC farm-made concentrates
F
1.4
F
Top soil
3630
Litter
Losses, other farm
animals etc.
1.4
Pasture (3016 ha)
F
import 0.8
Feed
industry
4.1
Fertiliser
176
1.7
13.3
Plants
14.6
1.7
PC
FC
PC
3.7
0.3
0.4
2.2
Milk
Cattle
(6360 ind.)
0.4
1.8
Meat
FC
0.6
163
Top soil
21 400
1.3
5.7
51.6
Top soil
5190
FC
PC
Litter
0.8
0.4
1.3
0.1
Human
consumption
of crops
Plants
1.4
0.6
Litter
0.6
0.8
Pigs
Meat
(23 380 ind.)
0.6
8.6
Cereals (26 062 ha)
Fertiliser
52.9
3.1
1.7
FC
PC
F
FC
PC
0.5
4.0
Poultry
(1 184 397 ind.)
2.7
0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Eggs
0.2
Meat
<0.1
Sheep
(845 ind.)
Meat
0.1
Vegetables (5291 ha)
Figure 5-37. Key element pools and fluxes (kg or kg/y in total, respectively) for
selenium in the agricultural system of the five municipalities around the Olkiluoto site
(Figure 2-37). In some cases, however, also the loss from the soil and the plants to the
atmosphere might be of significance. The loss from the livestock is returned to the litter
(short arrows from the right).
203
0.04
Plants
0.05
0.05
F
forage
PC purchased concentrates
FC farm-made concentrates
F
0.01
F
Top soil
21 700
0.01
Litter
Losses, other farm
animals etc.
0.03
Pasture (3016 ha)
F
import 0.00
Feed
industry
0.06
0.03
Plants
0.29
PC
FC
PC
0.02
<0.01
<0.01
Milk
~0
Cattle
(6360 ind.)
~0
0.03
Meat
FC
~0
0.29
Top soil
192 000
0.15
FC
PC
Litter
0.01
<0.01
Human
consumption
of crops
Plants
0.10
0.10
0.06
Litter
0.06
0.03
Pigs
Meat
(23 380 ind.)
0.02
0.21
Cereals (26 062 ha)
Top soil
38 100
0.05
~0
FC
PC
F
FC
PC
0.01
0.05
Poultry
(1 184 397 ind.)
0.06
0.001
~0
~0
Eggs
~0
Meat
~0
Sheep
(845 ind.)
Meat
0.001
Vegetables (5291 ha)
Figure 5-38. Key element pools and fluxes (kg or kg/y in total, respectively) for
niobium in the agricultural system of the five municipalities around the Olkiluoto site
(Figure 2-37). The loss from the livestock is returned to the litter (short arrows from the
right).
204
0.05
Plants
0.07
0.07
F
forage
PC purchased concentrates
FC farm-made concentrates
F
0.01
F
Top soil
16 300
0.02
Litter
Losses, other farm
animals etc.
0.05
Pasture (3016 ha)
F
import ~0
Feed
industry
0.14
0.05
Plants
0.50
PC
FC
PC
0.04
<0.01
<0.01
Milk
<0.01
Cattle
(6360 ind.)
~0
0.05
Meat
FC
<0.01
0.50
Top soil
141 000
0.23
FC
PC
Litter
0.02
0.01
Human
consumption
of crops
Plants
0.52
0.52
0.34
Litter
0.34
0.19
Pigs
Meat
(23 380 ind.)
0.03
0.34
Cereals (26 062 ha)
Top soil
28 600
0.08
~0
FC
PC
F
FC
PC
0.02
0.09
Poultry
(1 184 397 ind.)
0.10
<0.01
0.001
~0
~0
Eggs
Meat
~0
Sheep
(845 ind.)
Meat
0.001
Vegetables (5291 ha)
Figure 5-39. Key element pools and fluxes (kg or kg/y in total, respectively) for
caesium in the agricultural system of the five municipalities around the Olkiluoto site
(Figure 2-37). The loss from the livestock is returned to the litter (short arrows from the
right).
205
Fertiliser
6.0
4.8
1.2
Plants
7.9
6.7
6.3
F
forage
PC purchased concentrates
FC farm-made concentrates
F
1.6
3.9
F
Top soil
67 400
Litter
F
excess 0.1
Feed
industry
2.1
18.8
4.7
Plants
12.4
2.0
6.2
8.5
2.1
PC
0.23
0.22
0.03
Milk
Cattle
(6360 ind.)
0.10
4.51
Meat
FC
FC
PC
Litter
Human
consumption
of crops
2.1
188
Plants
190
123
6.9
Top soil
115 000
FC
0.61
0.23
Litter
123
67.8
Pigs
Meat
(23 380 ind.)
0.31
9.1
Cereals (26 062 ha)
Fertiliser
10.6
PC
4.20
0.53
7.7
33.9
Top soil
581 000
Losses, other farm
animals etc.
6.0
Pasture (3016 ha)
Fertiliser
23.5
2.0
0.12
FC
PC
F
FC
PC
1.2
12.8
Poultry
(1 184 397 ind.)
2.39
0.22
0.11
<0.01
<0.01
Eggs
Meat
0.001
Sheep
(845 ind.)
Meat
0.12
Vegetables (5291 ha)
Figure 5-40. Key element pools and fluxes (kg or kg/y in total, respectively) for nickel
in the agricultural system of the five municipalities around the Olkiluoto site (Figure 237). The atmospheric deposition flux is shown on italics. The loss from the livestock is
returned to the litter (short arrows from the right).
206
5.1.6 Terrestrial and avian fauna
As indicated in the beginning of section 5.1, the system for terrestrial and avian fauna is
presented separately, in contrast to the case for aquatic biotopes. As the home range of
most of the organisms is significantly larger than the vegetation stand applied for
calculation of the mass pools and fluxes of mires, upland forests and agriculture
(sections 5.1.3  5.1.4), it is very challenging to combine these in a consistent manner.
In addition, due to lack of data on the key elements (Table 1-1), only the carbon cycle
has been considered for the terrestrial and avian fauna. However, more extensive data
are about to become available, as soon as the animal samples collected from the
Reference Area during the last few years have been analysed and the data properly
scrutinised. Furthermore, the carbon budgets have been calculated only for
representative species, not for each complete trophic component, again due to lack of
sufficiently comprehensive data in most cases. However, Table 5-1 summarises the
available hunting data at the trophic component level.
Figure 5-41 presents the food web used in the carbon budget calculations and Table 5-2
presents the respective pools and fluxes, as well as the types of food consumed by the
species for linking the information to the budgets for mires, upland forests and
croplands presented in sections 5.1.3  5.1.5. Details of the underlying data and on the
calculations are provided in the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report.
The budgets have been calculated for populations in the Reference Area. Where values
particular to a species or to the respective group have not been found for rates of
production or consumption, the estimates of Heal & McLean (1975; as cited in Jerling
et al. 2001) have been applied. These values were used in all cases for faeces.
Respiration has been calculated as the difference between consumption and the sum of
production and faeces. The carbon content per unit body mass is assumed constant for
all animals due to lack of data (0.229 kg carbon per kg fresh mass; Truvé & Cederlund
2005), which is used also for the food of carnivores. For the carbon content in the food
of herbivores, the value of 0.2305 kg carbon per kg fresh mass (Lindborg 2005) is
applied as a rule. Flux calculations in respect of migratory birds have been scaled in
proportion to the time spent at the site. The flux as prey is assumed to equal the
difference between production and possible hunting by man, i.e. it is assumed that the
ecosystem is in balance so that stocks do not grow or decline in terms of weight of
carbon. On the scale of the Reference Area, some populations are controlled by man
(e.g. moose) and some fluctuate due to environmental conditions and predator-prey
dynamics. As quantitative data are still rather sparse, these changes are not included
here; for long-term budgets, such a change would not be sustainable  on the other
hand, due to the predator-prey dynamics, a short-term steady state does not occur
anyway, and all estimates of fluxes are deemed at least somewhat biased in the very
long-term context of the biosphere assessment. The data used to supplement results
from the site studies are based on a limited literature review, and thus the results should
be considered tentative. This has led to invalid results in Table 5-2: when comparing the
hunting values and the faunal values, it is notable that the production is less than the
yield of several species through hunting (indicated in the table); this is due to
uncertainties in the population estimates and/or arises from the combination of the
207
transitory occurrence of the species within its large home range and the spatially uneven
harvest by hunting.
Lynx
carnivores
American mink
Tawny owl
Adder
Common frog
omnivores
herbivores
Red fox
Raccoon dog
Man
Moose
Roe deer
Hooded crow
White‐
tailed deer
Mountain hare
Bank vole
(Herbiv. bird)
Ants
Vegetation
Earthworms
decomposers
Soil
Figure 5-41. Food web used in the calculations of the carbon budget for terrestrial and
avian fauna in the Reference Area.
Table 5-1. Available data on the total annually hunted amount in carbon weight from
each trophic component and for a representative species used in the carbon budgets
presented in this section (the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report).
Hunted
Trophic
component
Large herbivorous
mammals (deer)
Omnivorous
mammals
Carnivorous
mammals
Herbivorous
mammals
Herbivorous birds
*
Species included
(representative species underlined)
Entire trophic
component,
gC/m²
Representative
species, gC/m²
Moose*, white-tailed deer*, roe deer
0.02707
0.01397
1.94
Red fox, raccoon dog
0.00238
0.00094
2.52
American mink, lynx*, grey seal*
0.00026
0.000002
Mountain hare, European hare, beaver*
0.00144
0.00060
2.39
Mallard, teal, goldeneye, common eider,
greylag goose, wood pigeon, hazel
grouse, black grouse
0.02231


Populations controlled and hunting limited by licences
Component /
representative
species ratio
136.90
208
Pool
gC/m²
1.87E-02
1.80E-02
1.86E-03
1.79E-04
2.15E-01
2.54E-01
8.86E-04
5.37E-04
1.97E-04
1.62E-03
5.11E-05
7.61E-05
5.65E-04
7.17E-05
1.64E-03
2.29E-03
5.29E-03
9.98E-03
2.74E-07
6.87E-02
Production
gC/m²/y
5,60E-03
5.40E-03
9.30E-04
5.37E-05
2.15E+00
2.16E+00
2.66E-04
1.61E-04
4.03E-03
4.45E-03
1.53E-05
2.28E-05
8.53E-05
3.11E-07
8.44E-05
6.02E-05
9.27E-07
2.69E-04
2.19E-11
1.65E-04
Consumption
gC/m²/y
3.75E-01
1.65E-01
6.33E-02
9.39E-03
5.43E+01
5.49E+01
2.54E-02
2.06E-02
8.30E-03
4.33E-02
5.11E-05
7.61E-05
4.26E-03
1.56E-03
5.74E-03
7.52E-04
3.86E-03
2.04E-02
2.74E-10
6.87E-04
Respiration
gC/m²/y
1.87E-01
8.27E-01
3.17E-02
4.23E-03
2.50E+01
2.53E+01
1.09E-02
8.15E-03
6.24E-03
2.53E-02
2.03E-03
1.286E-03
3.33E-03
1.23E-03
5.74E-05
5.42E-04
2.16E-03
1.06E-02
1.97E-10
2.82E-04
Faeces
gC/m²/y
1.87E-01
8.27E-02
3.17E-02
4.70E-03
2.72E+01
2.75E+01
5.09E-03
4.11E-03
1.66E-03
1.36E-02
5.11E-04
3.27E-04
8.530E-04
3.11E-04
2.87E-03
1.50E-04
7.72E-04
4.94E-03
8.58E-08
2.40E-04
none
none
2.42E-03
none
none
none
none
2.73E-02
1.44E-03
9.48E-04
2.705E-04
2.66E-03
5.06E-05
1.91E-06
2.09E-04
none
Hunted
gC/m²/y
1.40E-02
1.26E-02
4.60E-04
1.79E-04
Food sources
pine, deciduous trees, grasses
grasses, shrubs
grasses, shrubs
grasses, shrubs, bark
plants, fruits, mushrooms
true omnivore
rodents, small birds, hares
true omnivore
fish, birds, small rodents
deer, hares
fish
small rodents, birds, frogs etc.
insects, spiders
small mammals, reptiles
insects, maggots, worms, snails
carnivorous
mammal
carnivorous reptile
carniv. invertebrate
insects, snails, spiders
herbivorous/omnivorous
carnivorous bird
amphibian
omniv. invertebrate
omnivorous bird
omnivorous
mammal
herbivorous
mammal
large herbivorous
mammal (deer)
Trophic
component
Table 5-2. Average carbon pools and flows for animals in the Reference Area. Hunting data are based on Finnish Game and Fisheries
Research Institute statistics for the years 2006  2010; details on underlying data and calculations are presented in the Data Basis for the
Biosphere Assessment report.
Species
Moose **
White-tailed deer **
Roe deer
Mountain hare
Bank vole
Herbivores, total
Raccoon dog **
Red fox **
Hooded crow **
Omnivores, total
American mink **
Lynx
Grey seal **
Tawny owl
Willow warbler
Adder
Carabid beetles
Carnivores, total
Common frog *
Ants
none
detrivore
decaying organisms
Earthworms
1.48E+02
3.56E+03
4.45E+04
5.34E+03
3.56E+04
Calculated only for the Olkiluoto area.
The production is less than the loss through hunting; this is due to uncertainties in the population estimates and/or arises from the combination of the transitory presence of the species within its large home range
and a spatially uneven harvest by hunting.
*
**
209
5.2 Site-scale key element pools and fluxes
To estimate site-scale pools and fluxes for the key elements, the element-specific pool
and flux calculations reported in section 5.1 are combined in a spatial context relevant
to the site. However, as there are some significant data gaps as discussed above, it is not
meaningful to either calculate very detailed site-scale accounts or sum up the pools or
the fluxes. Table 5-3 presents the distribution of areas of the different types of biotopes
for which the element budgets are available in two catchment areas shown in Figure 542. These catchment areas cover the area usually assessed as making the largest
contribution to the doses from the spent fuel repository (e.g. Hjerpe et al. 2010). At
present, the coastal sea area dominates, but after the next 3500 years (about the time
when first releases from the repository may reach the biosphere) the terrestrial areas
become dominant in the landscape, and by the end of the biosphere assessment time
window of 10 000 years the sea becomes practically absent. As there is little difference
in the distribution of the area types between the northern and the southern catchment,
these were merged for the element pool and flux calculations  the results are presented
for iodine, molybdenum, selenium and nickel (the key elements for which the data are
most widely available) in Table 5-4 for the pools and in Table 5-5 for the fluxes. For
simplicity, the proportion of the biotopes within a coastal sea and within a lake was
assumed equal, i.e. the same amount of reed bed and aphotic/photic soft/hard bottom
within a basin. The remaining details of the calculations are presented in the Data Basis
for the Biosphere Assessment report.
Even though the calculated pools and fluxes are only indicative, certain observations
can be made that are in accord with expectations: Regarding the pools, the sediments
and the soils clearly dominate even if the calculation includes only the top layers. Also
the dissolved and particulate pool, especially in seawater, plays a major role. As
expected, the trees dominate the plant pools. The site-scale total fluxes are dominated
by aquatic decomposition, but unfortunately there are no adequate data on the terrestrial
decomposition rates. Second-largest fluxes are related to primary production in general.
Due to the smallish proportion of the land area with which it is associated, the
production of crops is of minor significance in comparison with trees, not to mention
plankton, but it constitutes an important exposure pathway. Similarly, production of fish
is not a very large flux in comparison with those already mentioned and the fluxes to
humans are even less, but from the point of view of dose assessment for humans and the
other biota both the fluxes are of high importance.
210
Table 5-3. Areas (km²) of different ecosystem types and biotopes in the catchment areas
presented in Figure 5-42 based on the reference case (the Terrain and Ecosystems
Development Modelling report).
Catchment area:
Coastal sea
Lakes
Aquatic, total
Cereals, peas, sugar beet
Vegetables, potatoes, berries
Pastures and grassland
Agriculture, total
Rock forests
Heath forests
Groves
Mires
Forests and mires, total
Total area
*
At present *
Northern Southern
22.4
21.3
0.8
0.1
23.2
21.4
1.8
0.3
0.0
0.0
1.2
0.4
3.0
0.7
5.6
4.8
12.3
6.1
0.8
0.1
0.0
0.0
18.7
11.1
44.9
33.1
After 3 500 years
Northern Southern
2.7
0.0
1.0
5.8
3.7
5.8
7.1
2.0
0.7
0.3
2.2
0.6
10.0
3.0
12.3
10.9
15.7
11.0
2.6
1.8
0.3
0.6
30.9
24.3
44.6
33.1
After 10 000 years
Northern Southern
0.0
0.0
0.3
3.9
0.3
3.9
9.2
2.7
1.1
0.8
2.6
1.5
13.0
5.0
12.5
10.4
15.5
9.8
2.2
1.5
1.2
2.3
31.3
24.2
44.5
33.1
Taken from the simulation results for year 2020 (emplacement of first disposal canister).
(Intentionally left empty space to avoid figures and tables drifting farther from their context.)
211
Figure 5-42. End points of groundwater flow paths from the canister positions in the
repository to the bedrock surface (the Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios
report) at present and at the end of the biosphere assessment time window (10 000
years later; reference case, the Terrain and Ecosystems Development Modelling
report). The beginning and the end of each flow path are indicated with a colour
specific to a repository panel. The figure shows also the watershed delineation used in
the site-scale key element pool and flux calculations. Map layout by Ari Ikonen, Posiva
Oy.
Coastal sea
Dissolved & partic.
Macrophytes
Plankton
Macrobenthos
Fish
Top sediment
Lakes
Dissolved & partic.
Macrophytes
Plankton
Macrobenthos
Fish
Top sediment
Cereals etc.
Crops
Top soil
Vegetables etc.
Crops
Top soil
Pasture/grassland
Plants
Top soil
Rock forests
Trees
Understorey
Humus layer
Top mineral soil
Heath forests
Trees
Understorey
Humus layer
Top mineral soil
Groves
Trees
Understorey
Humus layer
Top mineral soil
Mires
Trees
Understorey
Peat layer
Top mineral soil
237
2.23
0.03
0.72
0.01
19 526
89.74
5.83
0.53
0.14
0.01
9 186
0.81
2 874
0.09
761
0.31
2 153
11.12
1.46
1 880
32 732
28.36
1.28
4 319
75 177
7.72
0.45
185
13 674
0.83
0.06
1 294
2 456
12.24
0.80
0.07
0.02
0.00
1 253
0.19
668
0
0
0.17
1 138
4.99
0.66
845
14 702
19.66
0.89
2 994
52 116
1.58
0.09
38
2 804
0.000
0.000
0.5
0.9
3.33
0.24
5 213
9 892
6.56
0.39
157
11 619
26.92
1.21
4 099
71 360
10.98
1.44
1 857
32 322
0.46
3 121
0.18
1 459
1.05
3 727
55.60
3.61
0.33
0.09
0.01
5 691
0
0
0
0
0
0
Iodine, kg total
3 500 y
10 000 y
3 860
36.28
0.44
11.74
0.13
317 426
Present
0.000
no data
0.0
0.0
0.59
no data
6
81
2.38
no data
407
11 902
0.82
no data
115
3 358
1.11
624
0
0
0.20
383
0.28
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
110
387
3.67
0.01
0.44
0.02
27 930
0.20
no data
52
65
2.85
no data
28
397
3.44
no data
586
17 168
1.83
no data
255
7 475
2.10
1 181
0.50
534
0.87
1 650
2.04
0.42
0.00
0.02
0.00
808
24
0.23
0.00
0.03
0.00
1 718
0.80
no data
210
263
2.42
no data
24
337
3.26
no data
557
16 296
1.81
no data
252
7 381
3.04
1 712
0.96
1 024
1.13
2 141
1.26
0.26
0.00
0.01
0.00
501
0
0
0
0
0
0
Molybdenum, kg total
Present
3 500 y
10 000 y
0.000
0.000
0.0
0.0
0.25
0.00
3
56
2.46
0.09
139
1 442
0.74
0.06
39
407
0.35
183
0
0
0.05
73
0.19
0.02
0.00
0.00
0.00
19
22
1.95
0.06
0.13
0.09
4 846
0.09
0.00
25
68
1.22
0.02
17
273
3.55
0.13
200
2 079
1.65
0.14
87
905
0.67
346
0.03
100
0.22
315
1.36
0.12
0.02
0.00
0.01
143
1
0.12
0.00
0.01
0.01
298
0.36
0.01
100
274
1.04
0.02
14
232
3.37
0.13
190
1 974
1.63
0.14
86
894
0.97
501
0.05
191
0.28
409
0.84
0.08
0.01
0.00
0.01
89
0
0
0
0
0
0
Selenium, kg total
Present
3 500 y
10 000 y
0.003
0.000
0.3
0.1
11.02
0.52
140
3 256
175.22
10.57
2 181
88 154
49.51
6.23
417
24 869
0.40
3 393
0
0
0.04
1 989
2.04
0.84
0.04
0.01
0.00
2 004
568
33.18
0.45
0.87
0.02
5 238 780
Present
7.34
0.36
711
388
53.76
2.56
684
15 879
252.75
15.25
3 146
127 161
110.22
13.86
929
55 365
0.75
6 420
3.65
2 210
0.18
8 562
14.97
6.12
0.28
0.07
0.01
14 697
35
2.04
0.03
0.05
0.00
322 249
29.54
1.45
2 862
1 561
45.68
2.17
581
13 493
239.92
14.47
2 986
120 704
108.84
13.69
917
54 672
1.09
9 307
7.00
4 238
0.24
11 104
9.27
3.79
0.17
0.04
0.01
9 106
0
0
0
0
0
0
Nickel, kg total
3 500 y
10 000 y
Table 5-4. Key element total pools (kg) calculated for the whole area presented in Figure 5-42, at present and after 3500 and 10 000 y.
212
Coastal se
to Macrophytes
to Plankton
to Macrobenthos
to Fish
to Decomposers
to Humans
Lakes
to Macrophytes
to Plankton
to Macrobenthos
to Fish
to Decomposers
to Humans
Cereals etc.
to Crops
to Livestock
to Humans (direct)
Vegetables etc.
to Crops
to Humans (direct)
Pasture/grassland
to Crops
to Livestock
Rock forests
to Trees
to Understorey
from Understorey
Heath forests
to Trees
to Understorey
from Understorey
Groves
to Trees
to Understorey
from Understorey
Mires
to Trees
to Understorey
from Understorey
2.23
4.70
0.21
0.18
6.98
0.0006
5.83
958.06
3.77
0.09
261.16
0.0018
0.81
0.28
0.13
0.09
0.03
0.31
0.26
2.62
0.35
0.09
6.66
0.35
0.14
8.06
2.39
0.93
6.45
0.86
0.32
0.80
130.66
0.51
0.01
35.62
0.0002
0.19
0.06
0.03
0
0
0.17
0.14
1.18
0.16
0.04
2.99
0.16
0.06
3.62
1.07
0.42
2.90
0.39
0.15
6.37
0.85
0.32
7.95
2.36
0.92
6.58
0.34
0.14
2.59
0.34
0.09
0.46
0.37
0.18
0.06
1.05
0.36
0.17
3.61
593.58
2.33
0.05
161.81
0.0011
0
0
0
0
0
0
Iodine, kg/y total
3 500 y
10 000 y
36.28
76.40
3.47
2.88
113.51
0.0095
Present
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
1.11
0.91
0
0
0.20
0.05
0.03
0.06
2.78
0.19
0.00
2.08
0.0000
3.67
8.73
0.19
0.04
11.35
0.0001
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
2.10
1.71
0.50
0.10
0.87
0.23
0.11
0.42
20.41
1.39
0.01
15.24
0.0000
0.23
0.54
0.01
0.00
0.70
0.0000
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
3.04
2.49
0.96
0.20
1.13
0.29
0.15
0.26
12.65
0.86
0.00
9.44
0.0000
0
0
0
0
0
0
Molybdenum, kg/y total
Present
3 500 y
10 000 y
0.21
0.02
0.01
0.25
0.05
0.02
0.21
0.01
0.01
0.08
0.01
0.01
0.35
0.28
0
0
0.05
0.02
0.01
0.02
2.41
0.02
0.00
0.89
0.0002
1.95
0.39
1.32
0.16
3.75
0.0044
0.46
0.05
0.02
0.56
0.12
0.05
0.46
0.02
0.02
0.19
0.02
0.01
0.67
0.53
0.03
0.02
0.22
0.09
0.05
0.12
17.69
0.14
0.02
6.53
0.0014
0.12
0.02
0.08
0.01
0.23
0.0003
0.46
0.05
0.02
0.55
0.11
0.05
0.46
0.02
0.02
0.18
0.02
0.01
0.97
0.77
0.05
0.03
0.28
0.11
0.06
0.08
10.96
0.09
0.01
4.05
0.0008
0
0
0
0
0
0
Selenium, kg/y total
Present
3 500 y
10 000 y
16.68
2.36
0.91
21.44
6.05
2.35
16.15
1.46
0.70
6.30
1.46
0.39
0.40
0.32
0
0
0.04
0.01
0.01
0.84
22.27
0.07
0.01
36.38
0.0003
33.18
8.73
0.88
0.31
126.60
0.0009
Present
37.14
5.25
2.02
47.73
13.46
5.22
35.96
3.25
1.56
14.02
3.25
0.86
0.75
0.60
3.65
1.30
0.18
0.06
0.03
6.12
163.31
0.53
0.06
266.73
0.0020
2.04
0.54
0.05
0.02
7.79
0.0001
36.68
5.18
1.99
47.13
13.30
5.16
35.51
3.21
1.54
13.85
3.21
0.85
1.09
0.87
7.00
2.50
0.24
0.08
0.04
3.79
101.18
0.33
0.04
165.26
0.0013
0
0
0
0
0
0
Nickel, kg/y total
3 500 y
10 000 y
Table 5-5. Key element total fluxes (kg/y) calculated for the whole area presented in Figure 5-42, at present and after 3500 and 10 000 y.
The label 'to Humans (direct)' refers to the direct consumption of the crops, i.e. not including the contribution via the livestock.
213
214
5.3 Main features, events and processes
This section discusses the main features, events and processes (FEPs) underlying the
mass pools and fluxes presented in sections 5.1 and 5.2 and the description of the lines
of development of the biosphere in section 2.1. It is important to account for these FEPs
in the safety assessment models (radionuclide transport and dose models) since they
affect the manner in which the migration and accumulation of potentially released
repository derived radionuclides are evaluated. The FEPs are systematically addressed
and described in the Feature, Events and Processes report, which is the key link
between the site understanding presented in this report and the assessment models,
presented in detail in the Biosphere Radionuclide Transport and Dose Assessment and
in the Dose Assessment for the Plants and Animals reports. The main FEPs for aquatic
systems, mires, forests and agricultural areas are discussed below using interaction
matrices (see section 5.3.1) based on the matrices presented in the Feature, Events and
Processes report.
5.3.1 General representation
Interaction matrices (Hudson 1992) are a compact way to systematically describe
features and the interactions or other relationships between them. The general principles
of the matrix are that the system, e.g., an ecosystem, is divided into features shown
along the lead diagonal of the matrix and that processes that relate the diagonal
elements, interactions, are placed in the off-diagonal elements. In the matrices in our
context, the features shown in the leading diagonal elements of the matrix correspond to
the main components (pools of matter) and the off-diagonal elements are potentially
significant processes, or events, related to the transport of matter, specifically of key
elements, between the main components in the long-term (i.e., on time scales longer
than seasonal variations).
Figure 5-43 shows the overall interaction matrix for the surface environment, showing
the terrestrial and aquatic sub-systems, and their relationship with the other repository
components addressed in this report. The matrix includes only processes and events
potentially significant for the long-term evolution of the surface environment, and the
exposure of humans and the environment to repository-derived radionuclides. All
system components and FEPs in the matrix are discussed in detail in the Feature, Events
and Processes report. The interaction matrix should be read in a clockwise sense, so
that for example Runoff in Figure 5-43 is a process by which the feature Terrestrial
system affects the Aquatic system, and Construction of a well is an event by which the
feature Terrestrial system (since humans are part of the terrestrial system) affects the
Geosphere.
Figures 5-44 and 5-45 show the more detailed interaction matrices for the terrestrial and
aquatic sub-systems. These are then applied to more specific environments in the
following sub-sections (Figures 5-46 to 5-49).
215
Figure 5-43. The overall interaction matrix for the surface environment, showing the
terrestrial and aquatic sub-systems, and their relationship with the other repository
components. "GW flow" denotes Groundwater flow and advective transport, and "GW
discharge & recharge" Groundwater discharge and recharge. The sub-systems of
canister, buffer, backfill and auxiliary components are not shown since they do not have
direct relationships with the surface environment, and the names in italics refer to the
organisation of chapters in the original report; this is essentially fig. 9-1 in the Feature,
Events and Processes report.
216
Figure 5-44. The interaction matrix for the Terrestrial sub-system in the Surface environment, including interactions with the Aquatic subsystem (fig. 9-2 in the Feature, Events and Processes report). "Agri- & aquaculture" refer to Agriculture and aquaculture, "External
radiation" to External radiation from ground, and "Forest & peatland mgmt" to Forest and peatland management.
Figure 5-45. The interaction matrix for the Aquatic sub-system in the Surface environment, including interactions with the Terrestrial subsystem (cf. fig. 9-10 in the Feature, Events and Processes report). "Agri- & aquaculture" refers to Agriculture and aquaculture, "Gas
origin" to Gas origin and implications, and "Sedimentation & resusp." to Sedimentation and resuspension.
217
218
5.3.2 Aquatic systems
For the aquatic environment, the interaction matrix for typical lake environment is
presented in Figure 4-46. Livestock here means fish farms within the aquatic system 
drawing water for use of land-based farms is addressed at a higher level as a link
between the aquatic and the terrestrial system (see Figure 5-43). The key components in
the lake environment are water column, primary producers, other organisms, fish and
sediment. For the biosphere assessment, the most important processes are uptake to
primary producers from atmosphere, water column and sediment, litterfall and
degradation of primary producers to water column and sediment, sedimentation, water
exchange and gas transport between water column and sediment, bioturbation and food
production for human by fish. Considering the animals in the lake system, the most
important processes are ingestion of drinking water, inhalation of air (from the water
column) and ingestion of food from plants and sediment.
5.3.3 Mire and upland forest
An interaction matrix developed for a typical mire and forest environment is presented
in Figure 5-47. The key components are atmosphere, plants, litter and soil, and the most
important processes in respect of the biosphere assessment for the spent fuel repository
are uptake to plants from soil and atmosphere, atmospheric deposition to plants and soil,
litterfall and degradation of litter to soil, bioturbation and food production for humans
and animals by plants (especially berries and mushrooms). Considering the animals in
the system, the most important processes are ingestion of drinking water, ingestion of
food from plants and inhalation of air.
5.3.4 Agriculture
Interaction matrices developed for typical crop production and animal farming are
shown in Figures 5-48 and 5-49, respectively. The key components in crop production
are atmosphere, plants, litter and soil, and the most important processes in respect of the
biosphere assessment are uptake to plants from soil and atmosphere, atmospheric
deposition to plants and soil, litterfall and degradation of litter to soil, bioturbation and
food production for humans and farm animals of the crop plants. Considering the
animal farming, the most important processes are ingestion of drinking water, ingestion
of food from plants, inhalation of air, production of food for humans, and transport of
manure back to soil.
Figure 5-46. The interaction matrix for the Aquatic system (Figure 5-45) applied to a typical lake environment. The most significant
components and processes have been circled.
219
220
220
Figure 5-47. The interaction matrix for the Terrestrial system (Figure 5-44) applied to a typical mire or upland forest environment. The
most important components and processes have been circled.
Figure 5-48. The interaction matrix for the Terrestrial system (Figure 5-44) applied to a typical cropland environment. The most important
components and processes are presented have been circled.
221
222
Figure 5-49. The interaction matrix for the Terrestrial system (Figure 5-44) applied to a typical livestock system. The most important
components and processes are presented have been circled. For the further role of production of the plants, see the matrix in Figure 5-48.
223
6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
In this chapter, the main characteristics of the ecosystems at Olkiluoto and in the
Reference Area are presented. Thereafter, the main tasks for future studies are presented
before concluding remarks are made.
6.1 Main characteristics of Olkiluoto and analogous areas
The properties of future ecosystems that may develop in the vicinity of the present day
Olkiluoto Island and its surrounding areas can be projected based on understanding
obtained from the development during the last 10 000 years in areas with similar
geological, geomorphological, climatic and vegetational conditions. Currently, there are
no lakes and only a few mires on the island, and also agriculture is rather insignificant.
Thus, especially for these ecosystems, the area studied comprised a larger geographical
area, the Reference Area, to identify analogues of those types of ecosystems that are
expected to form at the Olkiluoto site in the future.
Ecosystem types (or “biosphere object types”) have been divided into biotopes which
refer to uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific
assemblage of plants and animals. The assessment models and input data sets are
defined according to this biotope classification, with a level of detail that balances the
need for representing natural variability and the limits on possibilities of reasonably
predicting the future conditions within the limits of the assessment context. Following
the well-established idea of forest site classifications based on the fertility of the growth
site (e.g. Cajander 1909), the soil and sediment types are taken as the basis for the
biotope classification; the properties of the substrate determine to a great degree the
type and growth of the vegetation, which, in turn, defines the available habitats for the
fauna. In the case of aquatic ecosystems, the lighting conditions in the water column
have a role, too; combinations of hard and soft bottom types and photic (well-lit) and
aphotic (dark) bottoms are outlined for the aquatic biotopes. In addition, dense emergent
vegetation areas (typically reed beds) are a clearly separate biotope that is rather
homogeneous regarding the bottom type on those sheltered littoral areas where it
occurs. In the rivers, predictability limits the habitats to shaded and non-shaded reaches,
and rapids. For outer sea areas, a single biotope "open sea" is used. As croplands are
intensively managed for each growing cycle, the soil type is not as decisive as for
forests, and thus cropland biotopes are based on the type of crop decided (or projected,
based on various suitability factors) to be grown on the plot.
Climate and post-glacial crustal rebound
Currently Olkiluoto has a continental climate, with some local marine influence due to
its location on the eastern shore of the Bothnian Sea. In the spring, the sea has a
somewhat lowering effect on temperatures compared with those inland, and
correspondingly in the autumn it provides warmth, so that night frosts are less frequent.
The average annual temperature is 6.0ºC, the coldest month average is –4.2ºC
(February) and the warmest month average is 17.1ºC (July). The snow cover is usually
<20 cm (40 mm of water content) and the amount of snow varies during winter, with
temperatures fluctuating around 0°C (Haapanen et al. 2009, ch. 3.2). Since December
224
2001, ground frost has been at most 70 cm deep, with the depth depending on the
openness of the terrain and the soil type. The period with ground frost has been from
December/January to April/early May (Haapanen 2011, p. 13).
The current surface conditions in the Olkiluoto region have been considerably affected
by processes related to climatic cycles, particularly to the previous glacial period, the
Weichselian. The weight of the past ice sheets substantially depressed the bedrock, and
it is still recovering from the depression induced by the last glaciation. The removal of
the past glacial load on the bedrock of Fennoscandia has resulted in post-glacial crustal
rebound ("land uplift", or shore level displacement). Due to this rebound − with a
current rate of 6 mm/y at Olkiluoto (Eronen et al. 1995, p.17) − sea bottom sediments
are continuously emerging from the sea and starting a rapid primary succession along
the shores. The development of the shoreline induces changes in local conditions, such
as ecosystem succession, sediment redistribution and groundwater flow (Haapanen et al.
2009, p. 38).
Overburden
The ice sheet also rearranged the overburden and produced by erosion and
sedimentation some new geomorphological features. The present distribution and nature
of soils and sediments reflect the bedrock, usually rather locally (Koljonen 1992, ch. 4).
At Olkiluoto, the bedrock surface is variable in height, but the ground surface gradients
are subdued, even where the bedrock surface changes abruptly. The depressions in the
bedrock surface are filled with thicker layers of deposits with varying stratigraphy and,
as a result of the last glaciation, the highest elevations in the bedrock (at present up to
18 m a.s.l.) emerge through modest soil layers. The thickness of the overburden is
usually 2 − 5 m (Lahdenperä et al. 2005, p. 11).
The soils are mainly sandy till with some clay, silt, sandy and gravel layers. In some
isolated depressions, fine-grained glacio-lacustrine sediments are also observed. The till
is weakly laminated and rich in fines and the clay content is generally 0−18% (Lintinen
et al. 2003, ch. 7, app.3; Lintinen & Kahelin 2003, ch. 6, app. 2; Lahdenperä et al. 2005,
p. 19, 62-63; Lahdenperä 2009, ch. 2.1, 3.4, p. 77-88). Slightly chemically-altered,
disintegrated rock layers (the so-called “palarapakallio”) are found at the contact of the
overburden with the bedrock in most of the investigation trenches, with the thickness of
such layers varying from some centimetres to 2 − 3 m (Huhta 2005, 2007 ch. 3, app.6;
Huhta 2008, ch. 3.4, app. 4; Huhta 2009, ch. 3, app. 4-38; Huhta 2010, ch. 3, app. 4-41).
Littoral processes and forest primary succession
When the post-glacial crustal rebound causes the sea to retreat, terrestrial or freshwater
ecosystems start developing according to a certain pattern, described in the following.
The terrestrial succession proceeds through different vegetation compositions,
depending, for example, on the soil type, degree of exposure, topography, salinity and
climate (Svensson & Jeglum 2000, p. 16). Reaching the climax stage may take two to
three centuries of succession (Svensson & Jeglum 2003, p. 280; Aikio et al. 2000, p.
1092). The general patterns of succession most typical of Southwestern Finland are:
225



Stony or rocky shores that can support some scattered meadow-species
depending on the amount of gaps filled by finer fractions. Otherwise, lichens are
the dominant group (Toivonen & Leivo 1994, p. 51). Later, also mosses and
dwarf-shrubs occupy the surfaces, whereas the gaps are occupied by bushes and
trees. Scots pine is the climax tree species of these rock forests, but the stand
stocking depends on the amount of loose soil (Kontula et al. 2005, p. 93).
On till shores, the littoral stages are dominated by graminoids and low-growing
shrubs. The primary forested stage is dominated by broadleaves, followed by a
secondary forested stage, usually dominated by Norway spruce (Svensson &
Jeglum 2000, p. 4). These heath forests include several fertility classes. Fewer
successional stages are met on sand, because the lower limit of vegetation is
located higher up on the shore (Vartiainen 1980, p. 75). Scots pine heath forests
will eventually dominate on these less fertile, dry soils (Aikio et al. 2000, p.
1092).
Fine sediment surfaces are typically dominated by common reed and other
vascular plants. After the shore phases, black alder or other deciduous species
dominate first and spruce invades gradually. The resulting forest type is a grove
or grove-like heath forest (Haapanen 2007). These soils may undergo primary
mire formation, as well.
Surface hydrology and hydrogeochemistry
At present, Olkiluoto Island forms a hydrological unit of its own − the surface waters
flow directly into the Bothnian Sea. On the basis of topography and flow directions in
ditches, the island is divided into several minor drainage basins. The main water divide
splits the island into northern and southern parts. In the northern part, ditches and small
streams form obvious routes for surface runoff, but, in the southern part, the routes are
more diffuse and less obvious, especially near the shoreline, due to the subdued relief
(Karvonen 2008).
Recharge computations carried out with the surface hydrology model show that the
Olkiluoto bedrock groundwater system is transport-limited and the overburden supplylimited (Karvonen 2008, p. 23). The supply-limited overburden groundwater system
implies that higher amount of precipitation would result in greater runoff and
evapotranspiration as there is more supply from the overburden to the bedrock than the
bedrock system can transmit. In general, the groundwater table follows the topography
with few exceptions. The majority of the island has less than 2 m of overburden above
the average groundwater surface (Karvonen 2011b, p. 68; Penttinen et al. 2010, section
3.7, fig. 3-22, 3-23).
The shallow groundwaters are fresh (total dissolved solids (TDS) < 1000 mg/l) but
occasionally slightly brackish (TDS 1000−10 000 mg/l). The pH of the samples varied
from 4.9 to 8.0. In some cases, the lowest groundwater pH values (<5.5) were found in
very shallow tubes, near the overburden surface, where surface waters could mix with
the groundwater (Penttinen et al. 2013).
In the coastal areas, such as Olkiluoto, the chloride concentrations are typically higher
than inland. The chloride concentrations vary from 1.2 m/l to 149 mg/l (Penttinen et al.
226
2013). The measurements of microbial activity obtained so far from Olkiluoto
(Pedersen et al. 2008) support the hypothesis of a varying shallow depth zone, down to
a depth of 24.5 m, that differs significantly from conditions at greater depths in several
respects. This near-surface zone lies between the oxygenic, photosynthetic surface
biosphere and the anaerobic, reduced deep biosphere. Rain water transports oxygen and
organic and inorganic material from the surface downwards and reduced gases, such as
methane and hydrogen, from deep geological and biological processes, ventilate to the
atmosphere upwards through this zone. Microbial populations can be hypothesised to be
more numerous, diverse and active in shallow groundwater, where oxygen, organic
carbon and methane mix, compared with the underlying, deeper, anaerobic
groundwater. The microbial reduction of oxygen during the degradation of organic
material and methane is hypothesised to be continuous in shallow groundwater.
Chemical reduction of oxygen also takes place, but is limited by the availability of
ferrous minerals. These processes contribute to anaerobic and reducing conditions
deeper in the bedrock, including those at repository depth, and are also likely to
continue to contribute in the future. (Haapanen et al. 2009).
The overburden plays an important role in the water-rock interaction process and thus
has an effect on the groundwater composition. Water-rock interactions are discussed
further in the Site Description report.
Open sea area
The open sea is characterised by a nearly unlimited water exchange and no direct
influence of littoral areas. It is a relatively deep open water area with a water depth of at
least 10 m. In addition, other distinguishing features are a large volume of water and
entirely aphotic (dark) bottom.
The hard bottoms consist typically of Precambrian and sedimentary rocks, till, and
stony and gravelly sediments. In the soft bottoms, the sediments may be washed and
very fine and fine tills and sands, glacial silts, clays and gyttja clays, mixed
glacioaquatic sediments, gaseous sediments or recent clays/gyttja/mud.
Primary production takes place during the well-lit open water season, i.e. during the icefree period (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 28). Due to the absence of photic bottoms, the free
water phytoplankton species are the only primary producers in the open sea. Regarding
the fauna, both marine and freshwater species meet their physiological limit in the
brackish water environment and the diversity of the open sea fauna is low (HELCOM
2009, p. 12); the homogenous environment and the aphotic bottom offer few habitats for
species. Zooplankton forms an important link between the primary producers and the
fish (HELCOM 2009, p. 43). In general, two fish species are common in the open sea
area: Baltic herring and sprat, both of which are small and pelagic species (HELCOM
2009, p. 55). Information on the open sea avian species is scarce. Common eider, the
most numerous waterfowl in the area, occupies the outermost islets of the Bothnian Sea
and migratory bird species do rest in the open sea areas. Grey seal is the most common
aquatic mammal.
227
Coastal sea areas
The coastal area can be characteristic as a relatively shallow and rather open area
between the open sea and the coastline with a water depth usually less than 10 m.
Another distinguishing feature is that the salinity of the water is higher than in
freshwater and often less than in the open sea. Generally, in the coastal area of the
offshore areas at Olkiluoto, the hard bottoms consist of areas dominated by exposed
bedrock or sedimentary rock, about 15-20% of the whole sea floor, and till with a
respective share of 40-50% (Haapanen et al. 2009; Rantataro & Kaskela 2009, p. 18).
The soft sediment bottoms, with mud, clay, gyttja-clay and gaseous sediments, cover
some 15-20% of the sea bottom offshore at Olkiluoto and the percentage of soft bottoms
increases towards the inner archipelago (Rantataro & Kaskela 2009, p. 18).
The general condition of the Bothnian Sea coastal waters and loading from the mainland
by the Eurajoki and Lapijoki rivers, as well as local waste-water loading, affect the
water quality and biological production of the Olkiluoto coastal area. Compared with
the open sea, the level of primary production is higher in the coastal areas due to higher
nutrient levels and the presence of macroalgae and macrophytes.
Coastal aquatic faunal communities are a compilation of freshwater, brackish and
marine species and the diversity is higher than in the open sea (Bonsdorff 1996, p. 387;
HELCOM 2009, section 3.3, p.55; Ojaveer et al. 2010, fig. 5, p. 12). Zooplankton
communities are practically uniform in all coast biotopes. The coastal bottom fauna at
Olkiluoto are dominated by bivalve molluscs, gastropod snails, amphipods and
polychaete worms (Ilmarinen et al. 2009, p. 17; Kangasniemi 2010). Around 50
different fish species have been recorded with Baltic herring, roach, perch and pike
being the most ecologically and commercially important species present (Lehtonen
2005b, p. 102).
Lakes
Lakes can be defined as relatively uniform, permanent freshwater basins, typically
larger than one hectare. In Finland the lakes are mostly developed on bedrock fault lines
or in rift valleys. In Southwestern Finland, the lake basins were isolated from the
various stages of the Baltic Sea, mainly from the Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea phase,
as a result of post-glacial crustal rebound. At present, freshwater ecosystems are few in
the Olkiluoto area and there are no natural lakes on the island. Therefore, lakes of
various successional stages were selected from the Reference Area as analogues of
those expected to form at the Olkiluoto site (section 2.3). The reference lakes, like
coastal areas, are heterogeneous with both hard and soft bottoms.
All the selected reference lakes are mesotrophic or eutrophic and the major part of the
bottom areas is soft (Haapanen et al. 2009, ch. 6). Due to the suitable substrate and
nutrient conditions, the diversity and biomass of macrophytes is high. The wide reed
beds and soft bottom areas provide diverse habitats and shelter for the fauna (Haapanen
et al. 2009, ch. 6). Common macro-zoobenthos species are insect larvae (mainly
chironomids) and oligochaetes. The fish community is dominated by perch and roach,
228
and other common species are ruffe and pike (Sydänoja et al. 2004, p. 23; Salmi 2006,
p. 83).
Rivers
A river is a flowing and permanent freshwater environment with short water retention
time. Compared with lake morphology, rivers are linear and the flow direction is
practically constant (Särkkä 1996, p. 114). The physical and chemical properties of
rivers depend mainly on the geology of the catchment area, the climate and
anthropogenic factors. Eurajoki and Lapijoki, the regionally large rivers discharging
adjacent to Olkiluoto Island, flow through a flat terrain of intensively cultivated fields,
consisting of thick clay and fine-fractured soils.
Phytoplankton production in the Rivers Eurajoki and Lapijoki is significant and it is
comparable with that in eutrophicated lakes (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 170). In shaded
areas, the macrophyte community is scarce due to relatively poor light conditions
(Kirkkala & Ryömä 2011, p. 13). In the Rivers Eurajoki and Lapijoki, the macrozoobenthos and fish communities are diverse (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 167). The fish
community consists of common lake species and a few lotic species (Haapanen et al.
2009, p. 168), and its structure depends on, e.g., the stream depth, water quality and
substratum (Paavola 2003, p. 20). Moreover, the river fauna includes waterfowl
(typically white-throated dipper), otter (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 170) and beaver
(Ermala & Below 2000, p. 31).
Small water bodies
Small water bodies are an interface between the terrestrial and aquatic environments and
these unique conditions provide habitats for an unusually large number of endangered
and biotope-specific species (Muotka & Virtanen 2008, p. 13). Allochthonous material
can play an important role in these biotopes (Särkkä 1996, p. 98). The small water
bodies are a group of varied and distinct environments with biotype-specific flora and
fauna, although ponds resemble the lake biotopes and the streams and to an extent also
rivulets resemble the river biotopes.
Most of the springs are likely related only to surficial expression of near-surface
groundwater circulation, but deeper groundwater flow can also reach the ground surface
through a spring (Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 174). Due to low nutrient levels the
phytoplankton production in springs is low (Haapanen 2009, p. 175). The stable and
distinct environment provides habitats for rare and biotope-specific macro-zoobenthos,
macrophyte, bryophyte and faunal species (Hirvenoja 2002, figs. 4, 5, 7, p. 21; Auvinen
2006, p. 67; Muotka & Virtanen 2008, p. 13).
Mires
Mires are ecosystems maintained by a moist local climate and characterised by high
groundwater levels, where only partially decomposing organic matter accumulates as
peat. The Reference Area belongs to the raised bog zone. Raised bogs are further
229
distinguished into plateau bogs, concentric bogs and eccentric bogs based on the crosssectional profile.
Primary mire formation is a process in which the fresh soil surface is occupied directly
by mire vegetation after emergence from water. Paludification refers to the conversion
of a forest to a mire ecosystem, occurring mainly in places where the topography directs
enough runoff to create waterlogged conditions (Huikari 1956, p. 11, 13).
Terrestrialisation means a hydroseral succession from open water basin to mire; it is
regulated by biological or time-related sedimentation processes (Haapanen et al. 2010,
p. 21). The peat accumulation rate is affected by the composition of mire vegetation and
species-specific decomposition properties (Johnson & Damman 1991). Peat bogs in
Southwestern Finland have been increasing their thickness by about 0.3 − 1.5 mm/y,
with the highest rates found in young, coastal areas (Mäkilä & Grundström 2008, ch. 4).
Vegetation on mires varies from densely stocked, lush forests through poorly growing
pine stands to treeless areas, typically dominated by white mosses (Sphagnum sp.) or
sedges. A variety of tree species are possible, Scots pine, Norway spruce, birches,
alders, aspen and willows being the most common (Hökkä et al. 2002, p. 292). Fauna
common to mires in southwestern Finland are described in more detail in Haapanen et
al. (2009, p. 104-105).
The relative area of mires at Olkiluoto is less than in Southwestern Finland on average
(Saramäki & Korhonen 2005, p. 14). Since the area has been under active management,
the proportion of undrained mires is also lower (Saramäki & Korhonen 2005, Figure 6).
The peat layers are thin (Tamminen et al. 2007, Table 5) and the mires are small, which
makes the estimation of mire coverage difficult. Despite the small amount of mires, the
range of mire types is wide, and there are both forested and treeless mires, as well as
seashore swamps (Miettinen & Haapanen 2002, section 4.3). Eutrophic treeless reedrush or sedge-herb swamps are common on the island. Close to the seashore, these
swamps, which are usually small in area, were originally coves cut off from the sea by
land uplift. The mires are the least species-rich habitats at Olkiluoto (Haapanen et al.
2009, p. 87).
Forests
The present forest soils of Olkiluoto are dominated by fine-grained tills (Haapanen et al.
2009, fig. 4-3). The soil-forming processes started in the Reference Area when the land
emerged from the water during the evolution of the Baltic Sea. The formation of podzol,
the most common soil profile under Finnish conditions, may take centuries (Starr 1991,
p. 102; Mälkönen & Tamminen 2003, p. 138), which means that the process is still
ongoing in large areas of Olkiluoto. Indeed, according to the survey by Tamminen et al.
(2007, p. 33), the most common soil types on Olkiluoto are weakly developed (often at
the beginning of podzolisation) coarse to medium-coarse Arenosols or fine-textured
Regosols, shallow Leptosols and Gleysols characterised by a groundwater table close to
the surface.
Wildlife in the forested parts of the Olkiluoto Island is similar to that in the surrounding
regions both in terms of community composition and species richness (Haapanen et al.
230
2009). The most recent bird survey (Yrjölä 2009) indicated that chaffinch and willow
warbler were the most abundant terrestrial bird species. The results of the game animal
survey (Nieminen 2010) indicate that the following mammalian species are present on
the island: moose, white-tailed deer, roe deer, red fox, raccoon dog, European badger,
American mink, pine marten, mountain hare, brown hare and red squirrel.
Agriculture
In Finland, the use of cropland is decided according to the soil type and requirements
for crop products. In certain areas, there has been a trend towards increased animal
production, whereas in other agricultural areas crop production for human consumption
is dominant. For the biosphere assessment, croplands have been divided in seven
categories (cereals, sugar beet, potato, peas, field vegetables, berries and fruit, pasture).
Croplands are at the moment scarce in the Olkiluoto area, and thus the statistical
agricultural information used in the biosphere assessment is collected from the
municipality of Eurajoki and the four neighbouring municipalities (Rauma, Eura,
Säkylä and Köyliö) where cereals are the main agricultural product. A high proportion
of sandy soils (Haapanen et al. 2009; Kähäri et al. 1987) in the region has encouraged
the cultivation of field vegetables, peas, potato and sugar beet. Thus grassland and
pastures used in milk production form only 10% of the cultivated area. Other crops
consist mainly of oilseed crops, a biotope resembling cereals and usually a part of the
crop rotation on cereal farms.
Most agricultural soils need drainage to improve crop production. Soil management by
tillage depends on crop rotation. In the southern Satakunta region, tillage is annually
carried out over 80% of the field area (TIKE 2011a). At the moment, most fertilisers
used in Finland are granular compound fertilisers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium (NPK) in various mixtures.
Animal production in southern Satakunta includes the most common farm animals of
Finland. The average size of dairy cow herds per farm (60 animals) is typical of the
whole of Satakunta. Pig production in southern Satakunta is less intensive than within
the province as a whole. Poultry production is rather intensive within Satakunta and
more than half of the laying hens and all broilers are produced in the southern part of
the area.
Animal farms must produce or purchase a considerable amount of feed. In-farm
produced concentrates are cereal grains, whereas purchased concentrates consist of
protein supplements, commercial concentrate feeds, by-products and cereal grains from
other farms. In addition to drinking water demand, animal farms also use a significant
amount of water for cleaning and manure handling.
Fish farming in Finland is usually carried out in offshore fish cages. Fish are fed
artificially with pellets that are made of fishmeal and oil (Goldburg & Naylor 2005, p.
23). In the vicinity of Olkiluoto, the commercial fish farming is focused on the coastal
area. The main farmed fish species are rainbow trout and European whitefish (RKTL
2011a, table 6).
231
Natural food resources
In Finnish statistics, fishing is divided into two major categories: commercial and
recreational fishing. In general, commercial fishing with seine nets is the only fishing
method in the open sea area and the major part of the catch is Baltic herring and sprat
(RKTL 2011b, table 6).
In the coastal area of Olkiluoto, both commercial and recreational fishing are practiced,
and the most important fishing gear is a net. The most economically important species
are European whitefish, perch and pike. In recreational fishing in the Olkiluoto area, the
most important prey species are Baltic herring, perch and pike.
Mammals and birds are hunted in Finland both for food and for population
management, and some also for trophies and hides. Moose and deer populations are
extensively exploited by man and approximately the whole annual population growth is
harvested by hunters each year. It is estimated that about 30 − 50% of the mallard and
teal populations are harvested annually by hunters after the breeding season (Mooij
2005). In the case of small carnivores, such as racoon dog and fox, the amount that is
harvested after the breeding season is estimated to be 40 − 50% (Kauhala 2007).
In Finland, there are about 50 indigenous wild berry species, 37 of them being edible
ones (Salo 1995, p. 122). However, only 16 of these are commonly picked for human
consumption (Salo 1995). Economically the most important species are lingonberry,
bilberry, cloudberry, cranberry, wild raspberry, Arctic bramble, rowan berry and sea
buckthorn. Of the about 2000 mushroom species met in Finland, around 10% are edible
(Salo 1995, p. 136). However, only some 30 species are accepted as commercial edible
mushrooms by the Finnish Food Safety Authority (Evira 2007).
Water resources
In Finland, over 90% of households have access to a communal water distribution
system (Isomäki et al. 2007, p. 9). Water services include the supply, purification and
distribution of water. Water is extracted either from surface water, such as rivers or
lakes, or from groundwater reserves. The quality of groundwater is usually better than
that of surface waters. In the municipality of Eurajoki, where Olkiluoto is situated, the
communal water distribution is based on groundwater taken from several groundwater
areas. In Eurajoki nearly all households receive their household water through the
communal distribution.
The privately drilled wells at Olkiluoto that are in active use have been included in the
monitoring programme of Posiva (Haapanen 2011, figs. 45-48, table L-4). Generally,
the water of the monitored wells is not potable. In an interview study in 2003 (Ikonen
2003), 11 drilled wells with depths of 16-73 m were found in the Olkiluoto and
Ilavainen Islands.
Spring water is sometimes used for drinking, mostly in hiking and to supply some
cottages. Posiva is monitoring three springs in the vicinity of Olkiluoto (Haapanen
232
2011, app. I; Haapanen et al. 2009, p. 176). Typical of the springs in current or recent
use, these three springs have a built support for drawing water, a concrete ring or a
wooden collar and a lid to facilitate the drawing of water.
Farm animals need high-quality drinking water and thus wells or springs are preferred.
Irrigation using water from springs or wells is not common as the water demand for
irrigation events is high compared with the water supply from springs or wells; a typical
irrigation event of 30 mm demands 300 m³ water per hectare. Water from lakes, ponds
and rivers is usually clean enough for irrigation purposes, but not for drinking water,
and is most commonly used as irrigation water.
Dietary habits
The dietary habits and nutrient intake of the adult Finnish population was studied most
recently in 2007 (Paturi et al. 2008). Finnish adults have, on average, six eating
occasions per day, and two thirds of the daily energy intake is derived from main meals
(Paturi et al. 2008, p. 25). According to Männistö et al. (2003, p. 21-22), practically
everyone in the population consumes bread and milk products. Men tend to eat more
energy-rich products such as meat, sausages, potato and sugar and women meanwhile
consume more vegetables, berries and fruit. About one-third of the daily food energy
intake in a Finnish adult’s diet originates from cereal and bakery products, and another
one-third from meat dishes and milk and dairy products (Paturi et al. 2008, p. 105). In
terms of meat products there are no distinctive differences between the amount of beef,
pork and poultry consumed, but mutton and game are consumed less often (Paturi et al.
2008, table 4.6). Potato is the most typical side dish, although rice and pasta are also
generally consumed (Paturi et al. 2008, p. 34; Männistö et al. 2003, p. 113).
Recreational use
Outdoor recreation is a part of the Finnish way of life. 97% of Finnish people
participate in outdoor activities and visit nature during the course of the year (Pouta &
Sievänen 2001). The most common outdoor activities are walking, swimming, dwelling
at a holiday home, bicycling, picking of berries and mushrooms, observing and enjoying
nature, boating, fishing, cross-country skiing, sun bathing and going to picnics
(Sievänen 2002, p. 299). In the vicinity of Olkiluoto, holiday cottages are concentrated
on the sea shore, a common pattern in the coastal areas and not unlike the common
cottage concentrations found at lakes and riversides in the inland.
6.2 Feedback to research and modelling activities
The need for an updated and expanded compilation of site data and regional studies
underlying the next edition of the Biosphere description is recognised. For the present
edition, an exhaustive compilation was not prepared, as the time span from the previous
edition (Haapanen et al. 2009) was short in terms of that needed for conducting,
analysing and undertaking quality assurance for field studies. Here, the 2009 Biosphere
description (Haapanen et al. 2009) is used directly as further updates would have been
minor.
233
The present work overlaps with the RTD programme for years 2013-2015 ("YJH2012"), including also less detailed plans for 2016-2018, submitted to the authorities in
September 2012. The RTD programme addresses also the main development needs of
the safety case and the biosphere assessment. The Olkiluoto monitoring programme has
been recently revised (Posiva 2012), taking into account the main data needs of the
biosphere assessment. The most significant data needs are identified in discussions in
the Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report, and only the most prominent topics
are listed below. To optimise the timely use of resources and to integrate with the other
programmes, a more detailed biosphere characterisation and assessment programme for
2013-2018 will be developed and revised once comments from authorities on the
present material supporting the construction licence application for the repository have
been received.
The most prominent needs for further study based on the current work include:
 Coverage of all biotopes and all major pools and fluxes with sufficient data (cf.
section 5.1);
 Studies on thinner peat areas than those so far undertaken in the reference mires
to better correspond to the average peat thickness in the Reference Area;
 Characterisation of rivers to provide element budgets and to improve the input
data to the assessment models;
 Conduct field and literature studies to establish reliable faunal production and
hunting estimates (cf. section 5.1.6).
6.3 Concluding remarks
This report is a part of the safety case, denoted TURVA-2012, supporting the
construction licence application. A safety case is a synthesis of evidence, analyses and
arguments that quantify and substantiate the long-term safety, and the level of expert
confidence in the safety, of a geological disposal facility for radioactive waste (IAEA
2006; NEA 2009). The biosphere assessment, a part of the safety case, should 
together with the support of the present report  adequately address the following
questions:
 How does the surface environment evolve after closure of the repository?
 How do hypothetical radionuclide releases from the geosphere migrate and
accumulate in the geological-hydrological-biological cycles of the surface
environment?
 How do humans utilise and change the surface environment and to what extent
might people be exposed to radionuclide releases from the repository ending up
in the surface environment?
 What kind of biotopes are there available for plants and animals and how and to
what extent might they get exposed to radionuclide releases from the repository
ending up in the surface environment?
Projections concerning the future evolution of the surface environment in the Olkiluoto
area are based on knowledge on the development of the area during the past 10 000
years. This period is equal to the biosphere assessment time window. The analysis of
past conditions and the evaluation of future conditions incorporate the discussion in
234
sections 2.1  2.3. The characteristics of these biosphere components as observed at
present, and representing analogues of the future conditions, are presented in section
2.4, which is also the basis for constructing the mass and element pool and flux budgets
presented in sections 5.1  5.2, followed by a summary of the most relevant features,
events and processes governing the radionuclide transport and the evolution of the
biosphere in section 5.3. The use of the environment and its resources by people is
described in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 identifies representative plants and animals and their
behaviour relevant to radiation exposure, again based on the characteristics of the
environment presented in section 2.4.
Compared with the earlier Biosphere Description reports (Haapanen et al. 2007, 2009),
more site-specific data and longer time-series are now available, better interdisciplinary
understanding has been established, and the information in sectors such as agriculture
and freshwater bodies has been improved. Knowledge of the ecosystem components
have thus increased and knowledge of Olkiluoto and its surroundings is better.
Respectively, the scope of the report has been refined and the contents made more
focused on the requirements of the biosphere assessment.
The ecosystems outside the industrial areas in Olkiluoto do not deviate from the
surrounding areas. Correspondingly, the chosen lakes, rivers and mires are analogous to
those expected to be formed at the site in the future, and they are not considered to be
exceptional compared to those expected. The present coastal areas at the site are in
transition toward terrestrial or limnic ecosystems; a development that will likely take
some millennia. In most cases the safety assessment indicates that the calculated
releases would reach the biosphere only after that period of transition. Thus, the focus of
the biosphere description work is, in addition to providing the necessary information for
modelling this transition, intended to describe the range of conditions in which the
releases would then be transported, assuming the current features and processes of the
relevant ecosystems. The typical properties of the ecosystems are detailed further in the
Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment report.
It has been acknowledged that the task for the biosphere description is very challenging
especially with respect to refining the site data and general understanding in the
ecosystem models, and to meet the needs of the biosphere assessment. As generally in
science, total exhaustiveness or completeness can never be achieved. However, there
can be, and has been, major improvement in the assessment, and the trend will be
maintained: maturity in the assessment is gained by gradual steps as an iterative
accumulation of understanding, and its sufficiency should be evaluated in the context of
the need at each stage in the overall repository programme.
235
REFERENCES
Safety case portfolio main reports (http://www.posiva.fi/)
Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System
Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto - Assessment of
Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System 2012. Eurajoki, Finland:
Posiva Oy. POSIVA 2012-09. ISBN 978-951-652-190-2.
Biosphere Assessment
Safety case for the spent nuclear fuel disposal at Olkiluoto - Biosphere Assessment
BSA-2012. Eurajoki, Finland: Posiva Oy. POSIVA 2012-10. ISBN 978-951-652-191-9.
Biosphere Radionuclide Transport and Dose Assessment Modelling
Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto - Radionuclide Transport
and Dose Assessment for Humans in the Biosphere Assessment BSA-2012. Eurajoki,
Finland: Posiva Oy. POSIVA 2012-31. ISBN 978-951-652-212-1.
Complementary Considerations
Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto - Complementary
Considerations 2012. Eurajoki, Finland: Posiva Oy. POSIVA 2012-11. ISBN 978-951652-192-6.
Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment
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Biosphere Assessment BSA-2012. Eurajoki, Finland: Posiva Oy. POSIVA 2012-28.
ISBN 978-951-652-209-1.
Description of the Disposal System
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Disposal System 2012. Eurajoki, Finland: Posiva Oy. POSIVA 2012-05. ISBN 978951-652-186-5.
Design Basis
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Eurajoki, Finland: Posiva Oy. POSIVA 2012-03. ISBN 978-951-652-184-1.
Dose Assessment for Plants and Animals
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plants and animals in the biosphere assessment BSA-2012. Eurajoki, Finland: Posiva
Oy. POSIVA 2012-32. ISBN 978-951-652-213-8.
Features, Events and Processes
Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto - Features, Events and
Processes 2012. Eurajoki, Finland: Posiva Oy. POSIVA 2012-07. ISBN 978-951-652188-9.
236
Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios
Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto - Formulation of
Radionuclide Release Scenarios 2012. Eurajoki, Finland: Posiva Oy. POSIVA 2012-08.
ISBN 978-951-652-189-6.
Models and Data for the Repository System
Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto - Models and Data for the
Repository System 2012. Eurajoki, Finland: Posiva Oy. POSIVA 2013-01.
Performance Assessment
Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto - Performance Assessment
2012. Eurajoki, Finland: Posiva Oy. POSIVA 2012-04. ISBN 978-951-652-185-8.
Site Description
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ISBN 978-951-652-179-7.
Surface and Near-surface Hydrological Modelling
Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto - Surface and NearSurface Hydrological Modelling in the Biosphere Assessment BSA-2012. Eurajoki,
Finland: Posiva Oy. POSIVA 2012-30. ISBN 978-951-652-211-4.
Terrain and Ecosystem Development Modelling
Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto - Terrain and Ecosystem
Development Modelling in the Biosphere Assessment BSA-2012. Eurajoki, Finland:
Posiva Oy. POSIVA 2012-29. ISBN 978-951-652-210-7.
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281
Appendix A
APPENDICES
App. A. Species names used in the report
This appendix (Table A-1) presents the English names used in the report for the species
of biota, together with their scientific and Finnish names.
Table A-1. Plant, fungi and animal species mentioned in the report by their common
English name and the corresponding scientific and Finnish names.
English name used in
the report
adder
alder
American milletgrass
Arctic hare
Asellus aquaticus
aspen
Baltic herring
Baltic macoma
Baltic sphagnum
bank vole
barley
bean goose
bilberry
birch
black alder
black spruce
blackcurrant
bladderwrack
blue-green-algae
Alternative English names
Scientific name
Finnish name
European adder, (European) viper
Vipera berus
Alnus spp.
Milium effusum
Lepus arcticus
Asellus aquaticus
Populus spp.
Clupea harengus
membras
Macoma balthica
Sphagnum balticum
Myodes glareolus
Hordeum vulgare
Anser fabalis
Vaccinium myrtillus
Betula sp.
Alnus glutinosa
Picea mariana
Ribes nigrum
Fucus vesiculosus
Anabaena spp.,
Aphanizomenon spp.
Vaccinium uliginosum
Andromeda polifolia,
A. glaucophylla
Kalmia polifolia
Brassica oleracea
Ursus arctos
Lepus europaeus
Cottus cobio
Lota lota
Sparganium
gramineum
Ranunculus acris
kyy
lepät
tesma
napajänis
vesisiira
haapa
silakka
Trichoptera
Brassica oleracea
Vaccinium myrtilloides
vesiperhoset
keräkaali
Elodea canadensis
Tetrao urogallus
vesirutto
metso
Carabidae
Carum carvi
Carex rostrata
Daucus carota
Brassica oleracea
Fringilla coelebs
Trientalis europaea
Chironomidae
Cladophora spp.
Potamogeton
perfoliatus
Rubus chamaemorus
maakiitäjäiset
kumina
pullosara
porkkana
kukkakaali
peippo
metsätähti
surviaissääsket
"blueberry"; cf. Canadian blueberry
bladder wrack
cyanobacteria
bog bilberry
bog rosemary
bog-laurel
broccoli
brown bear
brown hare
bullhead
burbot
bur-reed
buttercup
cabbage
caddisfly
Canadian blueberry
Canadian water-weed
capercaillie
carabid beetles
caraway
carex
carrot
cauliflower
chaffinch
chickweed wintergreen
Chironomids
Cladophora
clasping-leaf pondweed
cloudberry
swamp laurel
european hare
European bullhead
bubbot
meadow buttercup, tall buttercup,
giant buttercup
common blueberry, velvetleaf
huckleberry, velvetleaf blueberry,
sourtop blueberry
western capercaillie, wood grouse,
heather cock
ground beetles
meridian fennel, Persian cumin
green macrophyte algae
liejusimpukka
silmäkerahkasammal
metsämyyrä
ohra
metsähanhi
mustikka
koivut
tervaleppä
mustakuusi
mustaherukka
rakkolevä
sinilevät
juolukka
suokukka
varpukalmia
parsakaali
karhu
rusakko
kivisimppu
made
siimapalpakko
niittyleinikki
ahvenvita
suomuurain, hilla, lakka
282
English name used in
the report
club rush
Alternative English names
common cattail
common cottongrass
common eider
common frog
common heather
common lizard
common reed
common sandpiper
common shrew
common teal
common toad
eider duck
European common (brown) frog
ling, heather
common tule
tule, hardstem tule, tule rush,
hardstem bulrush, viscid bulrush
wood pigeon
common wood pigeon
Copepoda
coral stonewort
cormorant
creeping thistle
cucumber
Daphnia sp.
deergrass
European toad
great cormorant
Canadian thistle, corn thistle,
California thistle
English cucumber, field cucumber
diatoms
downy birch
duck mussel
dwarf birch
eagle owl
earthworm
eelpout
elm
Eurasian beaver
Eurasian black grouse
Eurasian skylark
Eurasian wigeon
Eurasian woodcock
European badger
European crayfish
European fingernail clam
European flounder
European whitefish
feathery boss-moss
Eurasian eagle-owl
nightcrawler
European beaver
black grouse, blackgame
wigeon, widgeon
noble crayfish, broad-fingered
crayfish
common whitefish
fennel pondweed
sago pondweed, ribbon weed
field vole
fireweed
short-tailed vole
great willow-herb, Rosebay
willowherb
floating-leaf pondweed
broad-leaved pondweed, floating
pondweed
foolish mussel
goldeneye
Gonyostomum semen
goosander
grass snake
gray birch
common merganser
common grass snake
Appendix A
Scientific name
Finnish name
Schoenoplectus
lacustris
Typha latifolia
Eriophorum
angustifolium
Somateria mollissima
Rana temporaria
Calluna vulgaris
Zootoca vivipara
Phragmites australis
Actitis hypoleucos
Sorex araneus
Anas crecca
Bufo bufo
järvikaisla
Schoenoplectus
lacustris
Columba palumbus
Copepoda (Acartia
sp., Mesocyclops sp.)
Chara tomentosa
Phalacrocorax sp.
Cirsium arvense
Cucumis sativus
Daphnia sp.
Trichophorum
cespitosum
Tabellaria fenestrate,
Chaetoceros wighamii
Betula pubescens
Anodonta anatina
Betula nana
Bubo bubo
Zoarces viviparus
Ulmus spp.
Castor fiber
Lyrurus tetrix
Alauda arvensis
Anas
penelope,Mareca
penelope
Scolopax rusticola
Meles meles
Astacus astacus
Sphaerium corneum
Platichthys flesus
Coregonus lavaretus
Sphagnum
cuspidatum
Potamogeton
pectinatus
Microtus agrestis
Chamerion
angustifolium
(Epilobium
angustifolium)
Potamogeton natans
Mytilus trossulus
Bucephala clangula
Gonyostomum semen
Mergus merganser
Natrix natrix
Betula populifolia
leveäosmankäämi
luhtavilla
haahka
sammakko
kanerva
sisilisko
järviruoko
rantasipi
metsäpäästäinen
tavi
rupikonna
(rupisammakko,
korpisammakko)
järvikaisla
sepelkyyhky
hankajalkaiset
punanäkinparta
merimetsot
pelto-ohdake
kurkku
tupasluikka
piilevät
hieskoivu
pikkujärvisimpukka
vaivaiskoivu
huuhkaja (hyypiä)
mato
kivinilkka
jalavat
euroopanmajava
teeri
kiuru, leivonen
haapana
lehtokurppa
mäyrä (metsäsika)
jokirapu
pallosimpukka
kampela
siika
kiljurahkasammal
hapsivita
peltomyyrä
maitohorsma
uistinvita
sinisimpukka
telkkä
limalevä
isokoskelo
rantakäärme
poppelikoivu
283
English name used in
the report
great pond-sedge
green algae
grey heron
grey seal
greylag goose
harbour porpoise
hare's-tail cottongrass
hazel
hazel grouse
hooded crow
horsetail
Labrador tea
lady fern
leatherleaf
leek
linden
lingonberry
lynx
Magellan's sphagnum
maize
mallard
Marenzellaria sp.
mayfly
meadow pipit
meadow sheet
mink
Monoporeia
moor frog
moose
mountain hare
muskrat
Alternative English names
Atlantic grey seal (US), horsehead
seal (US)
tussock cottongrass, sheathed
cottonsedge
swamp horsetail
common lady-fern
lime, basswood
mead worth
American mink
mute swan
narrow buckler-fern
New Zealand mud snail
northern lapwing
Norway spruce
oak
oat
oligochaetes
onion
osprey
ostrich fern
otter
pea
perch
pike
pine
pine marten
bulb onion, common onion
sea hawk, fish eagle, fish hawk
European/Eurasian (river) otter,
common/Old World otter
green pea
Northern pike
European pine marten (pineten,
baum marten, sweet marten)
Pisidium spp.
Polytrichum spp.
potato
raccoon dog
magnut, tanuki
Radix peregra
Rannoch-rush
pod grass, scheuzeria
Appendix A
Scientific name
Finnish name
Carex riparia
Crucigenia guadrata
Ardea cinerea
Halichoerus grypus
vankkasara
viherlevä
harmaahaikara
harmaahylje, halli
Anser anser
Phocoena phocoena
Eriophorum vaginatum
merihanhi
pyöriäinen
tupasvilla
Corylus spp.
Tetraste bonasia
Corvus cornix
Equisetum fluviatile
Rhododendrum
groenlandicum,
Ledum palustre.
Ledum latifolium
Athyrium filix-femina
Chamaedaphne
calyculata
Allium ampeloprasum
Tilia spp.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Lynx lynx
Sphagnum
magellanicum
Zea mays
Anas platyrhynchos
Marenzelleria sp.
Ephemeroptera
Anthus pratensis
Filipendula ulmaria
Mustela vison
Monoporeia affinis
Rana arvalis
Alces alces
Lepus timidus
Ondatra zibethicus (O.
americana)
Cygnus olor
Dryopteris carthusiana
Potamopyrgus
antipodarum
Vanellus vanellus
Picea abies
Quercuss spp.
Avena sativa
Oligochaetes
Allium cepa
Pandion haliaetus
Matteuccia
struthiopteris
Lutra lutra
Pähkinäpensas
pyy
varis
järvikorte
suopursu
Pisum sativum
Perca fluviatillis
Esox lucius
Pinus sp.
Martes martes
herne
ahven
hauki
mänty
näätä (mäntynäätä)
Pisidium spp.
Polytrichum spp.
Solanum tuberosum
Nyctereutes
procyonoides
Radix peregra
Scheuchzeria palustris
hernesimpukka
karhunsammalet
peruna
supikoira
hiirenporras
vaivero
purjo
lehmukset
puolukka
ilves
punarahkasammal
maissi
sinisorsa, heinäsorsa
amerikansukasmadot
päivänkorennot
niittykirvinen
mesiangervo
minkki
valkokatka
viitasammakko
hirvi
metsäjänis
piisami
kyhmyjoutsen
metsäalvejuuri
vaeltajasimpukka
töyhtöhyyppä
(metsä)kuusi
tammi
kaura
harvasukasmadot
sipuli
sääksi, kalasääski
kotkansiipi
saukko
muunnoslimakotilo
leväkkö
284
English name used in
the report
rape
rapeseed
raspberry
red fox
red squirrel
redcurrant
red-stemmed feather
moss
reed canarygrass
reindeer lichen
ringed seal
river lamprey
roach
roe deer
rough small-reed
Alternative English names
Scientific name
Finnish name
turnip rape
oilseed
Brassica rapa
Brassica napus
Rubus idaeus
Vulpes vulpes
Sciurus vulgaris
Ribes rubrum
Pleurozium schreberi
rypsi
rapsi
vadelma
kettu
orava
punaherukka
seinäsammal
Phalaris arundinacea
Cladonia rangiferina
Phoca hispida botnica
Lampetra fluviatilis
Rutilus rutilus
Capreolus capreolus
Calamagrostis
arundinacea
Sorbus
Gymnocephalus
cernuus
Secale cereale
Saduria entomon
Pinus sylvestris
Hippophae spp.
Kalmia angustifolia
Soricidae
Pacifastacus
leniusculus
Betula pendula
Tubificidae
Triturus vulgaris
Sphagnum tenellum
Juncus effusus
Sphagnum fuscum
Sphagnum sp.
Spinacia oleracea
Sprattus sprattus
Triticum spp.
Picea sp.
Urtica dioica
Barbatula barbatula
Plecoptera
e.g. Chara spp.,
Nitella spp.
Beta vulgaris
Brassica
napobrassica,
Brassica napus
Carex appressa
Larix lariciana
ruokohelpi
harmaaporonjäkälä
itämerennorppa
nahkiainen
särki
metsäkauris
metsäkastikka
Stric aluco
salmo trutta
Aythya fuligula
Deschampsia
cespitosa
Brassica rapa
Daphnia sp., Bosmina
longispina maritima,
Chydorus sp.
Myriophyllum
alterniflorum
Arvicola amphibius
Deschampsia flexuosa
Rhynchospora alba
Cinclus cinclus
Odocoileus virginianus
lehtopöllö
taimen
tukkasotka
nurmilauha
red currant
gardener's garters
lampern
European/western roe deer
rowan
ruffe
rye
Saduria entomon
Scots pine
sea-buckthorn
sheep laurel
shrew
signal crayfish
silver birch
sludge worms
smooth newt
soft boss-moss
soft rush
Sphagnum
Sphagnum moss
spinach
sprat
spring wheat
spruce
stinging nettle
stone loach
stonefly
stoneworts
sugar beet
swede
tall sedge
tamarack
tawny owl
trout
tufted duck
tufted hair-grass
turnip
water flea
common rush, bog rush, mat rush
European sprat
common nettle
pond weeds
beet, red beet, garden beet
rutabaga
Tamarack larch, Hackmatack,
American Larch
Brown trout
white turnip
water milfoil
water vole
wavy hair-grass
white beak-sedge
white throated dipper
white-tailed deer
Appendix A
European/Northern water vole
pihlajat
kiiski
ruis
kilkki
mänty (metsämänty)
tyrnit
kapealehtikalmia
päästäiset
täplärapu
rauduskoivu
harvasukasmadot
vesilisko
hentorahkasammal
röyhyvihvilä
ruskorahkasammal
rahkasammalet
pinaatti
kilohaili
kevät vehnä
kuusi
nokkonen
kivennuoliainen
koskikorennot
näkinpartaislevät
juurikas
lanttu
kanadanlehtikuusi
nauris
vesikirppu
ruskoärviä
vesimyyrä (ojamyyrä)
metsälauha
valkopiirtoheinä
koskikara
valkohäntäpeura
(valkohäntäkauris,
285
English name used in
the report
white-tailed eagle
willow
willow moss
willow warbler
winter wheat
wood ants
wood cranesbill
wood-sorrel
yellow water lily
yellow-necked mouse
Yorkshire Fog
zebra mussel
Appendix A
Alternative English names
Scientific name
Finnish name
sea eagle
Haliaeetus albicilla
Salix spp.
Fontinalis antipyretica
Phylloscopus trochilus
Triticum aestivum
Formica spp.
Geranium sylvaticum
Oxalis acetosella
Nuphar lutea
Apodemus flavicollis
Holcus lanatus
Dreissena polymorpha
laukonpeura)
merikotka
pajut
isonäkinsammal
pajulintu, uunilintu
talvivehnä
kekomuurahaiset
metsäkurjenpolvi
käenkaali, ketunleipä
ulpukka
metsähiiri
karvamesiheinä
vaeltajasimpukka
woodland Geranium
velvet grass
287
Appendix B
App. B. Overall maps on the study sites
In this appendix, general maps over the Reference Area and the region of the Olkiluoto
site are presented for a background and to locate place names mentioned in the report.
The maps are presented in the order of
 General map over the Reference Area (Figure B-1)  the names of the reference
mires and lakes in this map work also as an index to locate the extent of the
other maps;
 Surroundings of the Olkiluoto site and the catchments of the Eurajoki and
Lapijoki Rivers, including also the Lastensuo reference mire and the Lutanjärvi
reference lake (Figure B-2);
 Surroundings of the reference lakes Koskeljärvi and Suomenperänjärvi and the
reference mires Kontolanrahka and Pesänsuo in the southern part of the
Reference Area (Figure B-3);
 Surroundings of the reference lakes Lampinjärvi, Kivijärvi, Poosjärvi and
Valkjärvi in the northern part of the Reference Area (Figure B-4);
 General map of the Olkiluoto Island and its vicinity (Figure B-5).
The layout of the maps in this appendix is by Ari Ikonen, Posiva Oy, largely based on the
readymade background maps of the National Land Survey as referred to in more detail at the
bottom of each of the maps.
288
Appendix B
Figure B-1. General map over the Reference Area (outer black border) overlaid by
locations and names of the reference lakes and mires (larger blue and brown dots and
names) and the biosphere assessment modelling area (inner black border).
Figure B-2. Surroundings of the Olkiluoto site, including the catchment of Lapijoki River and most of the Eurajoki River (downstream of
the Lake Säkylän Pyhäjärvi in the lower right corner), the reference lakes and mires in the area, and border of the biosphere assessment
modelling area (thicker black line); for location, cf. Figure B-1.
Appendix B
289
290
Appendix B
Figure B-3. Surroundings of the reference lakes Koskeljärvi and Suomenperänjärvi (upper left) and the reference mires Kontolanrahka
and Pesänsuo (lower right); for the location, cf. Figure B-1.
Figure B-4. Surroundings of the reference lakes Lampinjärvi, Kivijärvi, Poosjärvi and Valkjärvi in the northern part of the Reference
Area. For the location, cf. Figure B-1.
Appendix B
291
292
Figure B-5. General map of the Olkiluoto Island and its vicinity; cf. to Figures B-1 and B-2.
Appendix B
LIST OF REPORTS
17.4.2013
POSIVA-REPORTS 2012
_______________________________________________________________________________________
POSIVA 2012-01
Monitoring at Olkiluoto – a Programme for the Period Before
Repository Operation
Posiva Oy
ISBN 978-951-652-182-7
POSIVA 2012-02
Microstructure, Porosity and Mineralogy Around Fractures in Olkiluoto
Bedrock
Jukka Kuva (ed.), Markko Myllys, Jussi Timonen,
University of Jyväskylä
Maarit Kelokaski, Marja Siitari-Kauppi, Jussi Ikonen,
University of Helsinki
Antero Lindberg, Geological Survey of Finland
Ismo Aaltonen, Posiva Oy
ISBN 978-951-652-183-4
POSIVA 2012-03 Safety Case for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel at Olkiluoto Design Basis 2012 ISBN 978-951-652-184-1
POSIVA 2012-04
Safety Case for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel at Olkiluoto Performance Assessment 2012
ISBN 978-951-652-185-8
POSIVA 2012-05
Safety Case for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel at Olkiluoto Description of the Disposal System 2012
ISBN 978-951-652-186-5
POSIVA 2012-06
Olkiluoto Biosphere Description 2012
ISBN 978-951-652-187-2

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