Integrating ICT-Based Content in Teaching and Learning ENGLISH

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Integrating ICT-Based Content in Teaching and Learning ENGLISH
Integrating ICT-Based Content
in Teaching and Learning
ENGLISH
2006 © MDeC
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2
Introduction
3
Activity 1
Getting to Know You (Ice Breaking)
6
Activity 2
Current Practice on Courseware Integration
7
Activity 3
Exploring Available Courseware (CW)
8
Activity 4
Integration and CALL (Lecture)
11
Activity 5
Integrating Courseware in the Classroom (Hands-On)
21
Activity 6
Ingegrating Courseware in the Computer Laboratory
22
Activity 7
Presentation of Lesson Plan Integrating Courseware
23
Closure
Follow-up Activities for Sustainability
25
Appendix 1
Lesson Plan 1
26
Appendix 2
Guidelines in Integrating Courseware
30
Appendix 3
Lesson Plan 2
34
Appendix 4
CALL Evaluation Form
41
Appendix 5
Questionnaire for Lesson Plan 2
42
Appendix 6
Lesson Plan Evaluation Form
44
INTRODUCTION
In 1996, Malaysia identified information and communication technology (ICT) as
the precursor for the country’s transformation from a production-based economy to
a knowledge-based economy (Malaysian Smart School Roadmap 2005-2020). To
realize this goal, the Smart School Flagship under the Multimedia Super Corridor
initiative was created between the Ministry of Education (MoE) and the Multimedia
Development Corporation (MDeC). One of the major functions of the MDeC is to
ensure that the Smart School project is able to produce students who are ready for
a dynamic information age through an education system fueled by an innovative ICTbased curriculum.
As part of this initiative, the MoE has taken various efforts to ensure that all schools,
other than the Smart schools, are geared towards making ICT as part of the culture of
learning. For instance. various MoE divisions such as the Curriculum Development
Centre (CDC), Bahagian Pendidikan Guru (BPG), Bahagian Teknologi Pendidikan
(BTP) and so forth, have been actively involved in encouraging schools to adopt
an ICT-based education delivery approach. One such effort of these divisions is the
production of a variety of courseware (CW) for almost all subjects taught in schools.
This CW is for both teaching and learning purposes and is distributed directly to
teachers in school.
The government’s plan for integration of ICT in education was first initiated under
the Eighth Malaysia Plan and is currently being reinforced under the recent Ninth
Malaysia Plan 2006-2010. The concept of e-education requires that teachers in
schools are equipped with knowledge and technical know-how of using ICT in their
T&L in schools.
However, research and school observation reports show that teachers in schools are
not fully “embracing” this ICT-based T&L initiative due to various reasons. One reason
often quoted by many teachers is the current exam focus and exam-oriented system of
T&L in schools. Teachers are pressured to produce students who are high-performers
in the standardized examinations. Constraints of time and even infrastructure are
impediments towards the integration of ICT in schools. In addition, many teachers
may not be knowledgeable about approaches to the integration of ICT in T&L in
school contexts.
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Teachers need to realize that no technology is a success in and of itself. Computers do
not necessarily ensure successful learning. It is the methodology or how the learning
environment is managed or structured in creating an environment conducive for
T&L that determines the success of lessons. There are still a number of teachers who
remain skeptical and are resistant to the integration of ICT-based materials in their
T&L. A paradigm shift needs to occur among teachers that can transform them from
having a rigid view of technology as time-consuming and as “bolt-ons” to a more
open view in that anything that could improve T&L is worth attempting. As language
teachers, we have used various new media that have come our way from the use of
gramophones to reel-to-reel tape recorders to language laboratories (Davies, 2006;
Towndrow & Vallance, 2002). Teachers need to initially understand the potential
and characteristics of ICT-based materials so that these materials can be effectively
integrated into teachers’ teaching. In addition, an understanding of the nature of
language learning and teaching is essential so that materials can be exploited to
enhance T&L.
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This module comprises guidelines on how ICT (specifically English Language
courseware) can be integrated into the teaching and learning (T&L) of English in the
classroom and in the computer laboratory.
The main objectives of the workshop are as follows:
1. To help teachers understand the role of Computer-Assisted Language Learning
(CALL) in English language pedagogy.
2. To expose teachers to the application of ICT in T&L of English based on established
theories of language learning and teaching.
3. To raise teachers’ awareness of various approaches to the integration of ICT in
T&L of English in the classroom and in the computer laboratory.
4. To assist teachers in the evaluation of suitable and effective CW for use in the
English language classroom and computer laboratory.
5. To encourage the spirit of sharing best practices of ICT integration among Bestari
or SMART school teachers.
6. To help teachers develop simple English language lesson plans that incorporate
the use of ICT, in particular, in the use of MoE CW.
Expected Learning Outcomes
By the end of the workshop, participants will be able to:
1. Understand the role of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in the
classroom and computer laboratory;
2. Understand the general underlying learning theories of methods of T&L English;
3. Understand methodology in integrating CW in English language teaching for the
classroom and the computer laboratory;
4. Develop simple lesson plans for the integration of available CW in English
lessons;
5. Identify contexts within an English lesson for the inclusion of CW materials;
6. Evaluate CW integration methods of T&L English; and
7. Evaluate available CALL CW using a CALL software evaluation form.
Learning Strategy
In the workshop, participants are expected to:
1. Actively listen to a brief lecture on CALL and its role in the English language
classroom and on learning theories in CW integration;
2. Actively participate in discussions and in “hands-on” sessions;
3. Evaluate available CW for its strengths and limitations;
4. Identify and categorize available English language CW provided by the MoE;
5. Critique and discuss sample lesson plans for merits and limitations;
6. Share ideas and best practices with workshop participants;
7. Develop lesson plans for the integration of ICT (specifically CW) in English
lessons; and
8. Reflect on the potential and limitations of the workshop content and activities and
its applicability to the context of the language classroom and computer laboratory
in school.
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ACTIVITY 1
Getting to Know You (Ice Breaking)
Instructions to Participants
1. You need a piece of A4 paper.
2. Fold it three times.
3. Cut up the paper into eight little pieces.
4. Collect the following information from eight different people (people you do
not know):
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• Name
• Telephone Number
• Email address
• Short answers to the following questions:
(a) What is the worst situation you have experienced in your teaching
career?
(b) What is the best experience you went though in your teaching career?
5. The facilitator will inform you of what you need to do next for this activity.
ACTIVITY 2
Surveying Current Practice on Courseware Integration in
Teaching and Learning the English Language [30 minutes]
Introduction
The purpose of this session is to share teachers’ experience, knowledge, and
perspective in the integration of ICT, in general, and language CW in particular in the
teaching and learning of English in the classroom or in the computer laboratory. It is
important that SMART School teachers contribute ideas and best practices to teachers
in other schools in light of the fact that SMART School teachers act as role models in
the enculturation of ICT in pedagogy in Malaysian schools.
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this activity, teachers will be able to identify the current method/
practice of integrating CW in the T&L of English in the classroom or in the computer
laboratory.
Instructions to Participants
TOPIC:
How are they doing it now?
1. Working in groups, share your current methods of integrating CW in your English
lessons. Discuss what works for you and for your colleagues in school. You may
focus on the following questions to help you in your discussion:
(a) What is your understanding of “integration” in T&L in terms of using ICT?
(b) What level/s (standard or form) do you teach at your school?
(c) What are the available software/hardware?
(d) What are the available CWs?
(e) Do the teachers in your school “integrate” ICT into their teaching? CWs?
In the classroom? In the computer laboratory?
(f) How do they do it? How do you do it? Why?
(g) Are the efforts successful/problematic? [10 mins]
2. Choose a representative from your group to share ideas with everyone in the
session. This is a Q&A session. [15 mins]
3. Your facilitator will summarize the current methods/practices discussed. [5 mins]
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ACTIVITY 3
Exploring Available Courseware (CW) [60 minutes]
Introduction
The purpose of this session is to provide teachers with the opportunity to examine the
available CW provided by the various divisions of the MoE. Teachers will examine
the CW and evaluate the CW in terms of relevance, attractiveness, usefulness and so
forth.
Learning Outcomes
By the end of the activity, teachers will be able to:
1. identify elements in the CW that can be integrated in a lesson for a particular
level of students;
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2. explore the potential of the CW for T&L English in the classroom or in the computer
laboratory; and
3. identify technical features of the CW that help motivate students to learn
Instructions to Participants
In groups, explore the CW given to your group. Allow a group member to be the
navigator. The other group members can help identify the elements of the CW. Note
down some characteristics of the CW. Your findings will be shared with the other
teachers in the session. Use the following questions to help you with the activity:
[30 mins]
1. Explore the CDs provided to you.
2. Choose either primary or secondary school CW (depending upon what levels
you teach).
3. For what level is the CW intended? What proficiency level of English?
4. Study some of the elements in the CW that you think are relevant and useful for
your students.
5. What are some strengths/limitations?
6. Are there any technical problems in navigation?
7. What problems do you foresee if you were to use the CW?
8. Think about some possible ways you can use the CW to teach English for to
students.
9. How can you integrate the CW with other teaching materials?
10. Discuss with your group members. Write down the main points for the ideas
above and share with other groups.
11. Choose a representative to go to the front of the room and outline some main
findings. This is a Q&A part of the session. Be ready to help your representative
with some answers/clarifications. [25 mins]
12. Your facilitator will summarize some findings of the activity.
(Use the Discussion Form: Activity 3 provided.)
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Discussion Form: Activity 3
Group Name:
Group Members:
Name of Courseware:
Level:
Questions Raised
1.
2.
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3.
4.
5.
6.
Main Discussion Points
ACTIVITY 4(a)
Integration and Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)
Introduction
This session comprises a brief lecture on the following main topic:
The Meaning of Integration in Computer-Assisted Language Learning
The objective of this presentation is to provide teachers with some basic ideas/
assumptions of the theories and principles underlying the various methods of language
T&L within the discipline of Teaching English as a Second/Foreign Language (TESL/
TEFL). In addition, teachers are provided with current perspectives of the role of ICT
in English language T&L.
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this session, teachers will be able to:
1. Understand the underlying assumptions for various methods of language teaching
and to realize the relationship between theories of language T&L and the specific
technique or procedure used.
2. Understand the role of ICT in language T&L and how the characteristics of the
technology can be used to teach English.
3. Identify effective elements of CWs that can be integrated into teachers’ teaching
lesson.
4. Evaluate positive and negative elements of the available CW.
5. Decide on what, when, how, and why of CW integration in lessons.
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COMPUTER-ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING AND INTEGRATION
It is not what ICT can do, but what the teacher can do with ICT.
Davies (2006:16)
1. What is CALL?
CALL is a “short-form” or acronym for Computer-Assisted Language Learning.
It can be defined as any specifically-designed or generic software and any form
of ICT-supported medium used to promote language learning (Towndrow &
Vallance, 2002) The term originated in the USA and is commonly associated with
programmed instruction (Wikepedia, 2006). And hence, its original term ComputerAssisted Language Instruction or CALI, however, after the 1980s it became more
commonly known as CALL. Another alternative term began to be used in the
early 1990s, Technology Enhanced language Learning (TELL); however, it was
not popularly used and until today, CALL is the accepted, dominant terminology.
Current CALL software is based on CD-Rom and DVD technology. The widely
used form is Web-based CALL which uses whole-class teaching with interactive
whiteboards, blogs and podcasts (Felix, 2001). Today, the Internet has become
synonymous with CALL whereby educators are beginning to base lessons on online learning modes using the Internet as a main teaching and learning resource.
Thus, CALL is an approach to language T&L that uses computer technology to
help in presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned. A
great amount of CALL material includes interactive elements (Wikepedia, 2006).
It must be mentioned that in the early days of CALL, educators focused more
on the technological elements rather than on pedagogical and methodological
issues. An earlier criticism of CALL was that learners work individually in an
isolated learning environment. However, various studies showed that computers
help promote team work and also use of the target language (Piper, 1986; Sperling,
1997; Warschauer & Healey, 1998).
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2. Development of CALL
Warschauer (1996), traced the development of CALL in three phases. He
categorized CALL into (a) behavioristic CALL, (b) communicative CALL, and
(c) integrative CALL. Behavioristic CALL began in the early 1950s and thus was
based on the then dominant behaviorist learning theories. A distinctive feature
is “drill and practice” or what Warschauer termed “drill and kill”. The underlying
theory of learning is that language learning is concerned with forming habits.
Thus, learners need drills and much practice of the target language as a way of
overcoming the formation of “bad habits” of the first or native language (Brown,
2001).
Evidently, courseware (CW) produced for language teaching and learning is based
on the model of the computer as a tutor (Taylor, 1980 cited in Warschauer, 1999).
Rationales for the importance of drill and practice include the idea that repeated
exposure to the target language (TL) is beneficial and computers are effective as
“drill masters” unlike human teachers who may get bored with repetitive practice.
In addition, computers are capable of providing immediate non-judgmental
feedback The second phase of CALL, based on a communicative approach to
teaching, was prominent in the 1970s and 1980s. The courseware developed was
based on the premise that language learning should be as authentic as possible
and that mirrors communication in real life situations (Brown, 2001). Some of the
characteristics of communicative CALL are the: (a) focus on using forms rather
than on the forms themselves, (b) teaches grammar implicitly and not explicitly,
(c) avoids telling students they are wrong, and (d) avoids doing things that a book
can do just as well (Warschauer, 2006:2). Language practice in CWs are in nondrill format . Some educators think that communicative CWs are extensions of the
behaviorist CWs.
The final phase of CALL development is integrative CALL. This third type is based
on multimedia computers and the Internet. A variety of media can be accessed
from a single computer such as text, graphics, sound, animation, and video
(Warschauer, 2006:3). Integrative CALL has many advantages such as providing
an authentic learning environment, skills are easily integrated (reading, writing,
listening), allows for self-paced learning, and able to focus not only on content,
but on other related content via links.
As we can observe from the development of CALL above, it is inevitable that
computer-based T&L is a crucial part of students’ education. Teachers need to
ensure that students are “computer literate” so that learners can make full use of
the available technology to improve language learning.
3. What is “integration”?
Most teachers find the attempt to integrate CALL into teaching as a challenging task
compared to integrating course books (Davies, 2006). A possible reason could be
that textbooks have been in existence much longer than computers and thus do
not pose many problems technically and psychologically. Using computer-based
technology to teach language is still considered a non-mainstream practice in
schools. Teachers often view computers as an “add-on” or complementary material,
and not as the core of learning. Computers are often seen as time-consuming and
irrelevant in content (mismatch with the school syllabus). Furthermore, because
language classes have limited time allocation and an exam-oriented curriculum,
using computers or other ICT technology seemed a burden to the teachers.
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Integration can be viewed from the perspective of methodology. As mentioned in
the previous chapter, a medium of teaching and its content is never an “intrinsically
a good resource”. It is how the medium is used as part of the T&L process that
determines the success of the lesson. It is the way the teacher structures the
learning environment, the resources that she/he provide and the ways in which
delivery occurs (McCarthy, 1999).
McCarthy (1999) emphasizes the significance of integration in CALL, in fact,
he views integration as the sine qua non of CALL. Integration of CALL can be
viewed from three levels; integration at the institutional level, departmental level,
and at the individual teacher level. The first level can refer to the school level
whereby there is a school policy about the use of ICT. If a school views ICT as a
crucial element of T&L, then efforts toward issues concerning hardware, technical
support and so forth will be addressed enthusiastically by the school authorities.
The second level could refer to groups of teachers within the school such as the
subject head teachers (e.g. guru panitia). If this group of teachers are convinced
that ICT can be part of T&L, then teachers will be given more support to practice
integration in their T&L. The final level of integration, and the most significant
level is that at the individual teacher level. Teachers who are committed to use
ICT in their T&L will often work hard towards ensuring that lessons integrated
with CALL materials such as CW will enhance learning. According to Davies
(2006:6), part of the effort to ensure a successful lesson in integrating CALL, a
teacher needs to consider the following factors:
(a) Ensure that students are adequately prepared linguistically and technically
to use the CW or ICT material.
(b) The necessary files or documents have been retrieved.
(c) The necessary hardware is available.
(d) There is follow-up or extension activities by recycling the language learned
in the CW or ICT material in new contexts in future lessons using the
appropriate resources.
(e) The kinds of software or CW available in the school.
(f)
(g) Other types of ICT materials that is beneficial to the school.
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The generic software available.
4. Modes of Teaching and Learning
Integration of CW or any ICT material can be conducted in various modes or
ways. Other than using CW for individual independent student work (tutorial or
for remedial work), common modes are the whole-class teaching mode and taskbased approach. In the whole-class teaching mode, CW can be used both in class
and at the computer laboratory. This is a common mode whereby the teacher uses
the computer to project onto a wide screen at the front of the class the contents of
the CW. In the lab, similarly, this approach can be used whereby the teacher and
the students share a single computer and CW. In task-based approach, the CW
can be used as a stimulus for small group discussions. For example, a teacher may
prefer to use the task-based mode during the practice and production phases of
language learning (Davies, 2006:12).
5. Planning a Systematic Approach to Integration
Integration of ICT materials such as CW into language lessons follows similar
criteria for successful integration regardless of the media used. The best way of
integrating CALL into teaching is to begin with the intended learning outcomes.
Teachers thus need to have the necessary understanding and information of the
range of media and resources available to the teacher in school. Davies (2006:15)
outlines a step-by-step approach to successful integration:
(a) Find out what it is your students need to know, understand and/or be able to
do upon completion of the lesson.
e.g. Understand and give directions to places in the city.
(b) Identify what they need to know understand and/or be able to do to make a
start on the needs identified above.
e.g. names of locations in the city.
(c) Define the learning outcomes such that it will allow you to assess the level
of achievement of the learning outcomes.
(d) Design the assessment task.
(e) Plan the learning task and identify the mode of learning and medium to
use for each stage of the lesson (e.g. full/class/pair work, OHT, audiotape,
CW).
(f)
(g) Evaluate the unit of work based on observations, informal feedback,
homework marks, etc.
Create or produce the plans to be used e.g. scan in plans for computer
use.
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References
1. Brown, H.D.( 2001). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language
Pedagogy. San Francisco: Longman.
2. Computer-assisted language learning. Wikepedia. Retrieved: 11/16/2006 at
http://www. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-assisted_language_learning.
3. Davies, G. (2006). CALL methodology: integrating CALL into study programmes.
ICT4LT website at http://www.ict4lt.org/en/en_mod2-1.htm
4. Felix, U. (2001). Beyond Babel: language learning online. Melbourne: Language
Australia.
5. Hackett, L. (1996). The Internet and e-mail: useful tools for foreign language
teaching and learning. On-Call, 10 (1), 15-20.
6. McCarthy, B. (1999). Integration: the sine qua non of CALL. CALL-EJ Online,
v.1, no. 2:1-12.
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7. Sperling, D. (1997). The Internet Guide for English Language Teachers. NJ:
Prentice-Hall-Regents.
8. Towndrow, P.A.& Vallance, M.(2002). Using Information Technology in the
Language Classroom. Singapore: Prentice-Hall.
9. Warschauer, M. (2006). Computer-assisted language learning: an introduction.
Retrieved 11/29/2006 at http://www.gse.uci.edu/faculty/markw/call.html.
ACTIVITY 4(b)
Introduction
The purpose of this session is to provide teachers with first hand experience (handson) in integrating CW into an English lesson. This session serves to prepare teachers
for the development of a sample lesson plan for the next activity (Activity 6).
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this activity, teachers will be able to:
1. understand the what, how, and when of integration of CW into a lesson;
2. share ideas on integrating CW into T&L; and
3. prepare a sample lesson plan for T&L English for the next session (Activity 6).
Instructions to Participants
1. Examine the CW and follow through the Sample Lesson Plan for a Primary School
level.
2. Note down any problems you face in trying to use the CW.
3. Examine the lesson plan. Think of other ways to integrate the CW for the lesson.
4. Be prepared to discuss with the whole group at the end of this session.
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ACTIVITY 4(c)
Introduction
This session provides teachers with the opportunity to share and discuss ideas and
best practices on integrating CW into English lessons. The discussion will be based on
teachers’ observation of the sample lesson plan and on their own ideas on how best
to integrate CW materials with teachers’ own available materials and activities.
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this session, teachers will be able to:
1. identify any strengths or limitations of integrating CW materials and teacher’s own
materials and activities based on the sample lesson plan;
2. share their ideas and some best practices in integrating CW content and teacher’s
own materials and activities; and
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3. suggest possible alternatives of integrating CW content and teacher’s own
materials.
Instructions to Participants
1. Listen and observe the demonstration and explanation on integrating CW content
and teacher’s materials/activities.
2. Working in groups of 6-8 persons, examine the sample lesson plan and identify
any strengths or limitations.
3. Suggest alternative ideas and methods of integration using the sample lesson
plan.
4. Share your group’s ideas with the rest of the participants.
5. Use the worksheet provided to note down your ideas.
Worksheet Activity 4(c)
Group Name:
Date:
1.
5.
2.
6.
3.
7.
4.
8.
Group Members:
Sample Lesson Plan No:
Strengths
Limitations
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No.
20
Suggestions/Alternative Methods or Activities
ACTIVITY 5
Integrating Courseware in the Classroom (Hands-On)
Introduction
The purpose of this session is to provide teachers with a first-hand experience (handson) in integrating CW into an English lesson. This session serves to prepare teachers
for the development of a sample lesson plan for the next activity (Activity 6).
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this activity, teachers will be able to:
1. understand the what, how, and when of integration of CW into a lesson;
2. share ideas on integrating CW into T&L; and
3. prepare a sample lesson plan for T&L English for the next session (Activity 6).
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Instructions to Participants
1. Examine the CW and follow the Sample Lesson Plan provided.
2. Note down any problems you face in trying to use the CW.
3. Examine the lesson plan. Think of other ways to integrate the CW for the lesson.
ACTIVITY 6
Integrating Courseware in the Computer Laboratory
Introduction
The purpose of this session is for teachers to demonstrate understanding of integrating
courseware materials into the teaching and learning of English for the classroom
or the computer laboratory. Teachers are given the opportunity to develop a simple
lesson plan using any of the courseware available to them.
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this session, teachers will be able to:
1. develop a simple lesson plan integrating a particular chosen CW for the T&L of
English for either a primary school or secondary school English lesson; and
2. share ideas and methods on integrating a particular CW for the T&L of English.
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Instructions to Participants
1. Working in your groups, develop a 35-40 minute lesson plan for a primary or
secondary school English using the CW available to you, any materials or texts
you have, and the Internet. You may use the sample lesson plan format shown to
you earlier. You may add in any details you think is relevant to the lesson.
2. Use your laptop to write the lesson plan.
3. The lesson plan should reflect the current available materials and ICT infrastructure
in most SMART schools.
4. Choose a representative from your group to give a brief presentation to the other
participants in the next activity (Activity 7).
ACTIVITY 7
Presentation of Lesson Plan Integrating Courseware
On the power of sharing:
None of us is as smart as all of us.
– Ken Blanchard
No one can whistle a symphony. It takes an orchestra to play it.
– L.H.E.
Introduction
The purpose of this activity is for teachers to demonstrate understanding and expertise
of integrating CW materials in T&L English either at the primary or secondary school
level. Teachers are expected to share ideas and best practices of SMART school
methods of T&L English using ICT, specifically in using the courseware provided to
all SMART schools. These teachers are the role models for school teachers in other
schools in Malaysia.
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this session, teachers will be able to:
1. provide a brief presentation of a lesson plan for the T&L of English at either the
primary or secondary school level using available materials;
2. share with other participants relevant ideas and best practices of integrating CW
content with other teacher developed materials or resources in the T&L of the
English language;
3. evaluate each group’s lesson plan for strengths or limitations;
4. provide relevant and useful suggestions for the integration of CW materials and
other ICT materials in the T&L of the English language for in- class or computer
laboratory situations;
5. suggest ways and “road-maps” on how the knowledge/experience gained in this
workshop can be disseminated and the integration and use of ICT can be shared
and sustained among schools in participant’s district or school areas; and
6. reflect on the experience/knowledge gained in the workshop that could help
teachers integrate ICT into T&L of the English language in schools.
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Instructions to Participants
1. Be prepared to share your lesson plan with the other participants.
2. Randomly selected groups will present the group’s lesson plan (each group will
choose a representative). Other participants will evaluate each group’s presentation
of the lesson plan. In the presentation, the representative will show sample CW
segments that have been integrated in the lesson.
3. Each group will be given between 10-15 minutes and 5 minutes for comments.
4. Use the evaluation form provided.
5. The last task for this session is for all participants to write a reactionarie
(approximately 2 pages in length) about the workshop experience. This provides
participants with an opportunity to reflect on the workshop – knowledge/
experience gained that could assist teachers in integrating ICT into their T&L in
school.
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CLOSURE
Future Directions on ICT Integration (Courseware)
for Malaysian Schools
Introduction
Any initiative in the integration of ICT at the school level cannot be successful if the
teachers are not convinced that it will enhance T&L of English. Commitment will
occur once teachers fully understand what ICT-based materials can do for T&L. In the
effort to encourage the culture of e-learning at the school level, teachers need to be
informed in their practice. SMART school teachers are at the forefront of e-learning
knowledge and expertise. Therefore, teacher-participants of this workshop need to
assist the government in fostering e-education among teachers in schools. It is now
the participants’ responsibility to ensure that the experience and knowledge gained
throughout the workshop via the sharing, discussions, and demonstrations will be
further extended and shared with other teachers in the schools.
Therefore, as a follow-up to this workshop, the following are some suggestions that
can serve as a roadmap that will help you journey through the “ICT-integration effort”
winding roads.
1. You are to conduct similar workshops at your school level. You should work
together with your principle in the school and other administrators.
2. A series of mini workshops can be arranged at the school-level for English teachers
to share methods of integrating ICT for the classroom or computer lab. Teachers
fro other schools can be invited to join the workshops.
3. Develop a Courseware Review Database for your school for all available titles for
English language teaching and learning. This can be extended to the district level
so that the database will serve as reference for teachers teaching English. This
database should be made available online so that it can be easily accessible to all
teachers.
4. Lesson plans that integrate courseware can be shared online. Best practices of
such efforts should be shared among all English teachers, at least, in the district.
5. Develop a system at the school level whereby teachers are encouraged to attempt
to integrate CW in their T&L of English. Initiate some form of incentive at the
school level to foster this interest and commitment. You can collaborate with the
administrators and also ICT companies in the area.
25
Appendix 1
LESSON PLAN 1
Integration Beginning with the Courseware
Courseware : e-Bahan
Class
: Year 3 Cekal
Topic
: The Spell
Skills
: Grammar: Nouns – Countable Nouns; Number (singular and plural); regular
plurals (-s, -es)
26
Level
: Intermediate
Time
: 35-40 minutes
Learning Outcomes
4.2 Match words to linear and non-linear representations.
4.3 Complete texts with missing word, phrase or sentence.
Specifications
4.2.1 Match phrases to pictures.
4.3.2 Complete missing words in simple texts e.g. instructions, directions, descriptions, rhymes,
stories and other texts (guided by words or pictures).
Vocabulary
Chief, island, witch, spell, invite, celebration, crown, map, pity, mistake, guarded, cave, return
(basic vocabulary: monkey, bird, tapir, white, colour; numbers: one, two, three, four, five)
Preparation
Teacher reviews the CW to incorporate activities or tasks for the students based on the content
in the CW.
Context
Classroom or Computer Laboratory
Specific Objectives
By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
1. Identify countable nouns; and
2. Use and spell plural forms of countable nouns correctly.
KEY: T – teacher; S – student; Ss – students
Teacher Activity
I. Pre-stage:
Step 1: Teacher introduces the topic of the day
– countable nouns.
e.g. Tells Ss directly that they will learn about
countable nouns or demonstrates on the blackboard
the idea of countable nouns/plurality – things that
can be counted. T uses deductive or inductive
approach to trigger Ss’ prior knowledge or to
introduce the basic idea.
CW Material/T’s Material
Chart with list of things and animals that can
be counted.
Pictures of countable things.
Step 2: T revises briefly the number 1-10.
While-stage:
Presentation 1
Step 1: T plays the CW (projected on the screen).
For each slide, T uses the Pause Button to repeat
words or to provide explanations or clarifications.
Example:
As pictures of the animals are shown in the slides,
T asks Ss:
What’s the name of this animal? Wolves? Birds?
Why are the animals white in colour? These are fruit.
Can you name this fruit? How many are there?
27
Teacher can simplify the narrated phrase.
E.g. We can count animals and things.
We can use “s” to show more than one.
Step 3: T pronounces the words and asks
Ss to repeat after her/him.
Shows flash cards on flannel board to revise
numbers 1-10.
Step 4: T further explains the rule in the slide.
Ss repeat after T the words.
Teacher presents (plays) the Introduction part
of the CW.
Step 5: T says out the words and Ss repeat after her/
him.
Teacher Activity
CW Material/T’s Material
Presentation 2
Step 1: T briefly reinforces the next point by briefly
explaining the new grammar point. E.g. We add
“s” to some words to show more than one. There
are also other words that can mean more than one,
but we add “es” to them NOT just “s”. e.g. box + es
= boxes
Step 2: T explains the grammar point of the words in
the table shown in the slide.
one monkey – two monkeys
one stone – two stones
Step 3: T asks Ss to provide examples using other
words.
28
Post-stage
Step 1: T goes to the Practice section of the slide.
T calls upon volunteers to do the matching exercise.
Individual Ss goes to the front of the class and
“clicks on” the correct answer.
Step 2: T asks Ss the question:
Look at the picture. How many are there?
The narrator presents the main grammar point:
“Some animals and things can be counted
…(next slide) using “s” for many things.”
Extension Activities:
Ss are assigned to do the Reinforcement section on
their own in the computer lab. Or T can print out
the exercise for Ss to do it manually e.g. to circle the
correct answer.
T can use the Enrichment section as further practice
to motivate Ss with the attractive presentation and
game-like activity
Slide shows the words “a tree” with matching
picture.
The Reinforcement section can also be used as a
stimulus for a writing activity.
“We add “s”.
tree + s = trees
Teacher Activity
For example, Ss write the ending of the adventure
story based on what they have listened to in the CW.
CW Material/T’s Material
other words:
monkey, birds, tapirs, stones, roses
“Using es for many things”
a mango
“a mango means one mango”
mango + es = mangoes
other words on slide:
foxes, branches, tomatoes
29
Ss practice “clicking on” the correct answer.
Reinforcement exercise: Ss fill in the blanks
with the correct plural form of the words.
“Help the men cross the river safely by
answering the questions.”
Appendix 2
GUIDELINES IN INTEGRATING COURSEWARE FOR TEACHING
AND LEARNING IN A CLASSROOM SETTING
In integrating courseware for independent learning in a laboratory setting during class time, the
teacher needs to go through the courseware and make certain decisions on which content matches
the learning outcomes that she planned to achieve. The courseware developed for school use
can be used independently by students or be used by teachers for teaching. For the purpose of
independent learning, the entire content is suitable. However, for the purpose of integrating the
courseware for teaching, only selected materials/segments should be used.
1. Select segments of the courseware that meet the learning outcomes students are to achieve.
Planning effective use of the courseware for independent learning calls for classification of
content as tutorial, drill and practice, test or enrichment. In the following example on the
topic ‘Lines and Planes in Three Dimensions’, the tutorial segment is provided by Module 1
and 2, drill and practice is given in the Practice segment, Activities and Outdoor Activities
segments are extension of class work or enrichment.
30
2. Decide whether students should use the courseware before, during or after the topic is
taught.
3. Prepare supplementary worksheets. The worksheet may be completed by individuals or in
groups. As an example, refer to the following worksheet to be used as supplementary material
for the CDs.
31
4. Practice using a constructivist teaching style. Create a learning environment that allows
students to explore and experiment and to build conjectures, and hence construct knowledge
for themselves. Provide opportunities for students to use language using technology.
5. Make provisions for group discussions and group work.
6. Schedule time for independent use of MyCD or other available learning courseware. Arrange
use of the laboratory during times when teacher is away attending seminars/courses/meetings
or during the students’ free time after the mid-year or final year examinations. For example,
the Text Book CD-ROM (MyCD) complements the text book. Detailed explanations of the
content in the text book are provided in the CD. Menus provided are e-glossary, e-journal,
e-link, e-test and calculator. Although MyCD addresses only certain content in the text book,
the explanations provided help enhance students’ understanding of the specific languagel
content.
7. For the purpose of revision, or when a teacher needs to be away to attend seminars/courses/
meetings or during the students’ free time after the mid-ear or final year examinations, arrange
use of the computer laboratory for sites such as eExam. E-exam is specially designed for
Year 4, 5 & 6 Malaysian students preparing for the UPSR. It’s a friendly, online, interactive
workbook, which covers four of the subjects in UPSR, i.e. Mathematics, Science, English and
Bahasa Malaysia. E-exam’s subscription rates are very reasonable. It’s RM55 for 6 months and
a special discounted rate of RM100 for 1 year. http://www.exam.com.my/siw4/default.asp
32
Instructions to Participants
1. Participate in the discussion on integrating courseware for teaching and learning in a class or
laboratory setting and the sample lesson plan for integrating courseware.
2. Examine the courseware demonstrated by the facilitator. Identify its suitability as a tool to
facilitate learning in a class or laboratory setting. Write your discussions in the space provided
below.
Segments suitable for teaching in laboratory setting.
Segments suitable for learning in laboratory setting.
33
3. Study the lesson plan given. In groups of four, discuss on (i) ways to improve the lesson
plan for a more integrated use of the courseware in English teaching and (ii) the methods of
integrating courseware for teaching and learning in a class or laboratory setting.
Appendix 3
LESSON PLAN 2
Integration Beginning with Teacher’s Material
34
Subject
: English
Form
: Three
Date
: 19th December 2006
Time
: 7.30 am – 8.45 am (45 mins)
Topic
: Bullies Beware! (Social Issues – Youth and Life)
Skills
: Grammar: Negative Verbs; Listening; Speaking; Reading
Level
: Intermediate
Learning Outcomes (Syllabus Specifications)
1.1b Make friends and maintain friendships by talking about self, feelings, and understanding
when others talk about themselves
(i) talking about one’s experiences
1.1c Make friends and maintain friendships by exchanging ideas and giving opinions on topics
of interest
(vii) Participating in teacher-guided class discussions by:
a) agreeing with one another.
b) disagreeing politely with another and giving one’s opinion defending one’s point
of view.
1.1d Make friends and maintain friendships by taking part in conversations and discussions
(viii) asking questions, seeking clarification, and responding to questions appropriately.
1.2b Take part in social interactions by participating in conversations and discussions
(iv) expressing support for others.
3.2a Express themselves creatively and imaginatively by dramatizing text and role-playing
characters
(i) acting out sections of a text.
Vocabulary
apologise, encourage, enemy, fright, frighten, grumpy.
Sound System
t /t/ table, water, cat
d /d/ door, leader, head
Moral Values
1. Identify and define bullying behavior.
2. Understand why bullying occurs.
3. Develop coping skills to deal with bullying.
Critical and Creative Thinking Skills (CCTS)
Analyzing ideas, making comparisons, identifying relationships, reasoning out ideas, making
generalizations, creating alternative ideas, decision-making, solving problems.
Preparation
1. Teacher reviews the CW to identify activities or tasks to be incorporated into the lesson.
2. Teacher prepares worksheets and materials for the lesson.
Context
Teaching and Learning in a Classroom or Computer Laboratory.
Specific Objectives
By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
1. participate in conversations in identify bullying behaviors.
2. express opinions (agreeing and disagreeing) on bullying behaviors.
3. convert positive statements into negative statements using negative verbs.
4. discriminate the difference between the consonant sounds /t/ and /d/ in words.
5. read and understand text on bullying behavior.
KEY: T – teacher; S – student; Ss – students
35
Teacher Activity
CW Material/T’s Material
I. Pre-stage:
Induction (5 mins)
Step 1: T activates Ss’ schemata on the topic by
conducting a brain-storming activity using semantic/
idea mapping. T writes on the board the word “bully”
and invites response from Ss:
T uses the blackboard or power- point to
demonstrate the semantic mapping exercise.
Person who
harms someone
weaker/
vulnerable
T can also use pictures depicting scenes of
“bullying” to activate Ss’ schemata on the
topic.
Bully
to bully
(verb)
36
To help Ss, T asks the following questions as prompts:
1.What words/ideas come to your mind when you
see the word “bully”?
2.Have you ever been bullied?
3.Who are affected? The person who bullies or the
person being bullied?
4.What are the consequences/effects?
5.How do you stop bullying behaviors?
Other possible activities:
• T shows pictures about “bullying” situations and
conducts a short discussion on the topic.
While-stage:
Step 1: T distributes a survey questionnaire about
bullying (The purpose is to expose Ss to further ideas
on “bullying” and to raise their awareness about
some possible coping strategies). T asks Ss to do
the questionnaire. T tells Ss that the questionnaire
responses will be discussed later in the lesson.
A survey questionnaire about “bullying”
(See Appendix)
Teacher Activity
Step 2: T shows the Content section of the
courseware. T projects the image onto the wide
screen at the front of the class. In a laboratory
Content situation, T asks Ss to click to the section
of the installed CW.
CW Material/T’s Material
If in a classroom setting, T projects the image
onto the wide screen at the front of the class.
In a computer lab, Ss sit in groups of three or
in pairs and clicks to the particular slide in the
CW on their computer terminal.
Step 3: T asks Ss to watch the video clips on
“bullying”(Video Clip 1-3 or VC 1-3). T asks Ss to
listen to the conversation in the video clips.
37
Step 4: For VC 1, the T uses the Pause button and
repeats the narrated question “What do you think
is going to happen next?” Ss are encouraged to
respond. T clicks on the icons of Levels 1 or 2 of the
answers to show Ss sample answers.
Step 5: For VC 2, T can use the Pause button to
review the questions posed. VC2 has two levels of
answers to the question.
Teacher helps discussion on the narration by
asking enabling questions such as:
1.What is bullying?
2.How is it harmful for the victims and the
perpetrator/abuser?
3.Why do you think people bully others?
Teacher Activity
CW Material/T’s Material
VC3 is the final scene of the “bullying” scene.
Step 6: T goes to the Content section of the CW. Ss
listen to the narration in Activity 1 about “bullying”.
Ss respond to the questions posed.
38
Step 7: Teacher clicks on to Activity 3. This section
is on grammar – negative verbs. Ss listen to the
narration about negative verbs. T can pause the
slide and provide further clarifications. Examples of
sentences can be written on the class black/white
board.
Step 8: T can “walk through” two or three exercises
with the Ss. The remaining exercises can be done
as individual work in the lab or T can provide
worksheets with similar exercises for Ss to take home
as homework.
There are 10 grammar exercises in this activity
(Activity 3).
Ss can work on the exercises in the lab or
do them on the work sheets provided by the
teacher.
There are 20 exercises for this pronunciation
section. T can ask Ss to do them in the lab.
In class, for the day’s lesson, T uses his/her
discretion to randomly choose a few out of
the 20 for Ss to practice as a class.
Teacher Activity
CW Material/T’s Material
Step 9: T goes to Activity 4. This section is on
pronunciation of the sounds /t/ and /d/. Ss practice
listening to the sounds and identify the correct
sounds as the narrator in the CW speaks them.
Post-stage:
Step 1: T asks Ss to look back at the questionnaire
they did in the earlier part of the lesson. Teacher
leads a brief discussion of the answers.
Conclusion: T helps Ss to summarize the main points
of the lesson:
1.What is “bullying”? A bully? To bully? Some
bullying behaviors? How to cope with “bullying”?
2.Positive statements can be changed to negative
statements using negative verbs such as “NOT”.
3.Differences between the sounds /t/ and /d/ in
words.
39
Ss examine their answers on the
questionnaire.
Teacher Activity
Extension Activities/Next Lesson:
Ss can be assigned a writing task (to write a draft”
on the topic of “Bullying in schools”. Ss can use the
information they gathered in the video clips they had
watched and the discussion on the questionnaire
about bullying. An extended lesson can be
conducted on another day for Ss to role-play on a
bullying situation. T can use Activity 2 in the CW for
the role-play (see the slide below). Upon completion
of the role-play, Ss can be asked to write a short essay
using the instructions in the Enhancement activity
in the CW. T should first deal with the Enhancement
activity in the next lesson (See below).
40
CW Material/T’s Material
Appendix 4
CALL EVALUATION FORM
Courseware:
Level:
Producer:
Criterion
Rating
1. Level of language the program offers clearly indicated
Yes/No
2. Easy to start program
Yes/No
3. User interface is easy to understand (e.g. screen layout clear and easy to interpret)
Yes/No
4. Easy to navigate through the program
Yes/No
5. Clear and intelligible icons used to help navigation (e.g. back to Menu, exit)
Yes/No
6. Always clear to learner which point she/he has reached in the program
Yes/No
7. Program includes scoring
Yes/No
8. Logical, sensible scoring system
Yes/No
9. Scoring system encourages learner to learn further
Yes/No
10. If learner gets something wrong, she/he is offered useful feedback.
Yes/No
11. If learner gets something right by chance, can she/he seek an explanation to find
out why the answer is right?
12. Learner can seek help e.g. on grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, cultural
content
Yes/No
Yes/No
13. Program branches to remedial routines
Yes/No
14. Easy for learner to quit something that is beyond his/her level
Yes/No
15. Accurate grammar and vocabulary
Yes/No
16. Program offers cultural insights
Yes/No
17. Pictures in the program are (a) relevant, (b) an aid to understanding
Yes/No
18. Adequate quality of sound recordings
Yes/No
19. Sound recordings are (a) relevant, (b) helps understanding
Yes/No
20. Good mix of male and female voices and regional variations
Yes/No
21. Learner can record his/her own voice and play it back
Yes/No
22. Program has Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR)
Yes/No
23. The ASR in the program is effective
Yes/No
24. Adequate quality of video sequences in the program
Yes/No
25. Video sequences in the program are (a) relevant, (b) are an aid to understanding.
Yes/No
26. Program is relevant to national/regional/school subjects
Yes/No
41
Appendix 5
EXPLORING THE NATURE AND PREVENTION OF BULLYING
42
Instructions
Complete the following quiz by selecting True or False for each statement.
1.
Bullying is just a part of growing up. The effects of bullying on victims are short-term and not
serious.
2.
False
True
False
Words are used in bullying and not physical actions.
5.
True
Most bullying happens in secondary school because older students are more confident and willing
to pick on others.
4.
False
Bullying is not a serious problem for the bullies; they grow out of the behavior one day.
3.
True
True
False
Bullies are usually loners with low confidence and self-esteem.
True
False
6.
Bullies usually do not pick on passive students, but they bully because the victims provoke them.
7.
True
False
A bully usually attacks when no one else is watching.
9.
False
Bullies are usually boys.
8.
True
True
False
If students would just fight back, then bullies would leave them alone.
True
False
10. If you stay in a group of students, you will increase the chance of being bullied because there are
many students for the bully to attack.
True
False
11. If you are being bullied, it is better to tell a teacher or an adult.
True
False
12. A bully is a person (or group) who repeatedly tries to hurt someone who is weaker or more
vulnerable.
True
False
Adapted from:
US Dept of Education website (Ed.gov) at http://www.ed.gov.html
Retrieved on: 12/9/2006
43
Appendix 6
LESSON PLAN EVALUATION FORM
Group Name:
Date:
Presenter:
Standard/Form:
Name of Courseware:
Rating Scale: 1 – Excellent; 2 – Good; 3 – Average; 4 – Limited/Weak
Criteria
1
2
3
4
a) Integration method
used
44
b) Systematic integration
c) Can motivate students
d) Interestingness
e) Simplicity of
integration (not
complicated)
f) Feasibility
g) Time allocation
(will not take too
much time)
h) Limited possibility of
technical problems
i) Overall integration
approach effort
* Please use additional paper to write your comments/suggestions.
*Comments/Suggestions