the study of speech acts in the “avatar the last air

Comments

Transcription

the study of speech acts in the “avatar the last air
THE STUDY OF SPEECH ACTS IN THE “AVATAR
THE LAST AIR-BENDER” MOVIE
A GRADUATING PAPER
Submitted to the Board of Examiners as a Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan Islam (S.Pd.I)
in the English and Education Department
By:
MINARSIH
NIM. 113 09 003
ENGLISH AND EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT
STATE ISLAMIC STUDIES INSTITUTE (STAIN) SALATIGA
2014
ii
iii
iv
MOTTO
Good communication comes from people to people, but
great communication comes from people to Allah (Reza M
Syarief, Motivator Muslim)
We will be a champion when we are able to beat our self
(The Writer)
v
DEDICATION
I would like to dedicate this research to My God and My Prophet, also my
parents, my sister and my brother. I dedicated it also to my best counselor, Mr.
Hanung. It is one of proud for me can finish my graduating paper. Thank you so
much who I so respect :)
vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Assalamu’alaikum Wr.Wb.
Alhamdulillahirobbil ‘alamin, all praise due to Allah, the Most Gracious
and the Most Merciful who always keeps me when I was in down and up. Bless
and mercy is upon great Prophet Muhammad SAW for his guidance that leads me
to the truth.
However, this paper will not be finished without supports, advices, help
and encouragement from some people and institution and let she says thanks to:
1. Mr. Dr. Rahmat Hariyadi, M.Pd. as the Rector of STAIN Salatiga, thanks for
the time I spend studying in STAIN Salatiga.
2. Rr. Dewi Wahyu Mustikasari,S.S.M.Pd. as the Chief of Educational Faculty,
thanks for the Islamic education that you gave me.
3. Mr.
Dr. H. Sa’adi, M.Ag as academic guide thanks so much for your
guidance.
4. Mr. Hanung Triyoko, S.S,M.Hum.,M.Ed. My energetic teacher and also my
thesis counselor. I learn a lot from you.
5. All of my lectures in STAIN Salatiga that increase my knowledge all about
English and how to be good English teacher.
6. All of my teachers in SDN Bundar III, SDN Malungai, MIN Muara Teweh,
MTsN Muara Teweh, MAN Muara Teweh, MAN 1 Salatiga.
7. My dearest siblings “Mbak ku Chanji and Mamas Lisku”
8. All of official staffs STAIN Salatiga.
9. My beloved parent, “Ma’e” and “Pa’e”, thanks for your love that makes me
like you see now. I love you every time.
10. My beloved sister and brother, “Ounnyku” and “Mamas ku Lis”
11. My big family, thanks for your support.
12. All of TBI A students, I love you buddy.
13. To Miss Sari Rahmawati, thanks so much.
14. My best friend thanks for everything, I can’t forget you all.
vii
15. My best inspiration “Ounnyku” who always supports me in full moment, cares
me, and teaches me to get the sweet future.
16. My big family, “Lek Mus, Lek Met, Mbak Win, Mas Rohman, Om Bambang,
Om Nonok, Tante Ayu, Tante Illah, Tante Sukari, Bude Tumini, Pakde Saru,
Mas Solik, Mas Wah, Mas Muji, Mas Heri Mas Gun, Mas Naryo, Lukman,
Sofa, Ndug Tri, Aziz, Iis, Tsalis, Aswan, and Tahta.
17. My best family of Stain Sport Club.
18. My best friend and my special one, thanks for all.
Finally, the writer realizes that this graduating paper is far of being perfect
and needs several enhancements. The writer gladly accepts the constructive
critiques and evaluations in other for this paper becomes the useful
information to the readers afterwards.
Wassalamu’alaikum Wr.Wb.
Salatiga, September 30th 2013
The Writer,
Minarsih
NIM: 113 09 003
viii
ABSTRACT
Minarsih, 2014, “THE STUDY OF SPEECH ACTS IN AVATAR THE LAST
AIR-BENDER MOVIE” A Graduating Paper, STAIN Salatiga, Hanung Triyoko,
S.S.M.Hum.M.Ed.
Key Words: Speech Act.
The objectives of the research are the speech act in the Avatar the Last Air Bender
in episodes “The Awakening” and “The Headband” on the movie script. The
problems of this research are types of the general function of speech act and
Austin’s categories of illocutionary act. There are caused by different factors of
culture as the setting of the film, such as, Fire Nation, Air Nomads, Water Tribes,
and Earth Kingdom. Their utterances influenced by the environment where they
come from. They have different style of language and also different attitude that
influence them to give any response in the conversation. The data were taken by
movie script. The researcher gets the main data from the “Avatar the Last Air
Bender” movie script. The collected data are analyzed by documentation method.
From the researches are got some finding types of speech acts like directness,
literalness, and interaction between directness and literalness in the Avatar the
Last Air Bender’s movie. Besides, the findings are Austin’s categories of
illocutionary acts such as, verdictives, expositives, behabitives, commissives, and
exercitives. The researcher also adds more about contributes the finding of this
study in English Language Teaching. In the last problem statement in this
research, the researcher find that to explain Linguistics such as Pragmatics in
Speech Acts types, more examples of conversations so effective in learning
language process.
ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE ............................................................................................................
i
DECLARATION ..........................................................................................
ii
ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR NOTES ..........................................................
iii
PAGE OF CERTIFICATION .......................................................................
iv
MOTTO .......................................................................................................
v
DEDICATION ..............................................................................................
vi
ACKNOWLEDGMENT ...............................................................................
viii
ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................
x
TABLE OF CONTENTS ..............................................................................
xi
APPENDIX
..............................................................................................
xiii
CHAPTER I
INRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study ...............................................
1
B. Statement of the Problem ...............................................
4
C. Objectives of the Study ..................................................
4
D. Limitation of the Study ..................................................
5
E. Clarification of Key Terms ...........................................
5
F. Review of Previous Researches .....................................
6
G. Thesis Paper Organization .............................................
7
CHAPTER II THEORICAL REVIEW OF SPEECH ACTS
A. Pragmatics .....................................................................
8
B. Movie and Script ............................................................
11
C. Culture, Meaning, and Context ......................................
12
D. Speech Acts ....................................................................
14
1.Speech Acts Philosophers ...........................................
15
2.Classification of Speech Acts .....................................
17
3. A Brief History of Speech Acts .................................
17
4. Definition of Speech Acts ..........................................
19
5. Types of Speech Acts.................................................
22
6. Austin’s Categories of Illocutionary Acts..................
27
x
E. Contributes of Finding Speech Acts ...............................
CHAPTER III RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
AND
29
DATA
PRESENTATION
A. Research Approach .....................................................................
32
B. Data Sources................................................................................
33
C. Object of the Research ...............................................................
33
D. Methods of the Research .............................................................
33
E. Procedures of the Research .........................................................
33
F. Data Presentation ........................................................................
34
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS
A. Research Finding ...........................................................
49
1. Types of Speech Acts ........................................................
49
a. Directness ..................................................................
49
1) Direct Speech Acts ..............................................
50
2) Indirect Speech Acts ...........................................
52
b. Literalness ..................................................................
55
1) Literal Speech Acts .............................................
55
2) Non-Literal Speech Acts .....................................
58
c. Literalness and Indirectness .......................................
60
1) Literal and Direct Speech Acts............................
61
2) Non Literal and Direct Speech Acts ....................
65
3) Literal and Indirect Speech Acts .........................
66
4) Non Literal and Indirect Speech Acts .................
68
2. Austin’s Categories of Illocutionary Acts .........................
70
a. Verdictives .................................................................
70
xi
b. Exercitives .................................................................
80
c. Commissives ..............................................................
87
d. Behabitives ................................................................
94
e. Expositives.................................................................
104
CHAPTER V CLOSURE
A. Conclusion ....................................................................
111
B. Suggestion ......................................................................
113
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX
xii
APPENDIX
xiii
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
This chapter submits the preliminary elements of the research. It describes the
important of use speech acts and how to understand the sense of language in a
communication. This research focus on the speech acts in the script Avatar the
Last Air-bender movie.
A. Background of the Study
Language is obtained from real life. The societies share the ideas, chats,
opinions, suggestions, informs, and many expressions in the conversation by
a language. Language is applying human life to make nice relations with
others. Besides, human have smooth feeling that influence in what they say
and what they receive a word.
Language shows about a situation that is thought by the speaker. But
sometimes, it is misleading to treat sentence meaning in isolation from its
surrounding context. Pragmatics is referred to as the study of ‘meaning in
use’ or ‘meaning in interaction’, whereas semantics is concerned with the
more abstract study of general, conventional meaning within language
structure (Louise Mullany and Peter Stockwell, 2010:10).
According to Leech, pragmatics is a part of linguistics is as the study of
meaning in relation to speech situation (1991:6). In a formal situation is not a
conversation between a participant and other participant. It is different with
an informal situation that the speakers free to share anything to hearer.
1
In pragmatics, the speakers apply languages with the properly means.
Many times, the society send different message in an utterance. This is
intended to give sociable impression. Language is a tool for communication.
To make communicative people should understand the speech event. The
speaker sends a message with the simple utterance also politeness. For
example, a household woman says that the rice is used up to her husband. It is
just not to inform if the rice used up but she needs some money to buy rice or
the wife wants her husband to buy the rice.
By Parker’definition about pragmatics, more emphasize indeed how
language is used than how the structural language is applied. Pragmatics is
the study of how language is used to communicate. The study of those aspects
of the relationship between language and context those are relevant to the
writing of grammars. It concentrates on those aspects of meaning that cannot
be predicted by linguistic knowledge alone (Levinson, 1985:9).
In linguistics and non-linguistics Parker’s book, mention the Searle’s
statement that extended Austin’s ideas by assuming that all utterances, not
just those containing per-formative verbs, constitute acts. Also adds about this
theory that every utterance of speech constitutes some sort of act, we have
inherited the term speech acts.
Additionally, Austin notion that, in uttering sentences, one is also doing
things, is to be clear, we must first clarify in what ways in uttering a sentence
one might be said to be performing actions. Austin also isolated three basic
2
senses in which in saying something one is doing something and hence three
kinds of acts that are simultaneously performed (Levinson, 1980: 236).
In Levinson’s book titled Pragmatics, Austin also added the three kinds
of acts, they are:
1.
Locutionary act: the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense
and reference.
2.
Illocutionary act: the making of a statement, offer, promise, etc.
3.
Perlocutionary act: the bringing about of effects on the audience by
means of
uttering the sentence, such effects being special to the
circumstances of
utterance.
In his book with titled How to do Things with Words, Austin
distinguishes five very general classes of the illocutionary acts which research
in the Avatar the Last Air-bender movie script. First, verdictive, are typified
by the giving of a verdict, as the name implies, by a jury, arbitrator, or umpire
e.g. an estimate, reckoning, or appraisal. The second, exercitives, are the
exercising of powers, rights, or influence, e.g. appointing, voting, ordering,
urging, advising, warning, etc. The third, commissives, are typified by
promising or otherwise undertaking, for example is siding with. They have
obvious connection with verdictives and exercitives. The fourth, behabitives,
are a very miscellaneous group, and have to do with attitudes and social
behavior, e.g. apologizing, congratulating, commending, condoling, cursing,
and challenging. The fifth, expositives, are difficult to define. They make
plain how our utterances fit into the course of an argument or conversation,
3
how we are using words, or, in general, are expository, e.g. ‘I reply’, ‘I
argue’, ‘I concede’, ‘I illustrate’, ‘I assume’, ‘I postulate’.
B. Statement of the Problem
The problems that are going to find in this research in “Avatar the Last
Air-bender” movie, they are:
1. What kinds of speech acts found in the “Avatar the Last Air-bender” the
movie seen from the types of general function in script movie in episodes
“The Awakening” and “The Headband”?
2. What are Austin’s Categories of Illocutionary Acts in the “Avatar the Last
Air-bender” the movie?
3. What is the implication of the finding for English Language Teaching?
C. Objectives of the Study
Dealing with the statements described above, the objectives of the
research are to comprehend:
1. To kinds of speech acts found in the “Avatar the Last Air-bender” the
movie seen from the types of general function in script movie in episode
“The Awakening” and “The Headband” the movie.
2. To find Austin’s Categories of Illocutionary in the “Avatar the Last Airbender” the movie.
3. To find the contributed of the study for English Language Teaching.
4
D. Limitation of the study
The study is limited to the speech acts that used in the manuscript
“Avatar the Last Air bender” movie, the writer focuses on analyzing types of
speech act on Avatar the Last Air-bender script movie in episode “The
Awakening and The Headband”. Addition, Austin’s Categories of
Illocutionary Acts in the “Avatar the Last Air-bender” the movie.
E. Clarification of Key Terms
a. Study
Study is process of learning, peace the research that examines a
subject in detail (Oxford University Press Dictionary, 2008:441).
b. Speech Acts
Oxford philosopher J.L. Austin is defined speech acts is “Saying is
part of doing” or “Words are connected to actions.” Austin formulated his
ideas on speech act theory in the 1930’s and lectured on both oxford and
Harvard university in the first half of the 1950’s. There are three kinds of
speech acts according to J.L. Austin; locutionary acts, illocutionary acts,
and perlocutionary acts. Addition, in uttering a sentence, a speaker
produces a locutionary acts or the saying; his act in producing the
utterance called illocutionary acts, in illocutionary acts Austin divides
fivecategories such as verdictives, exercitives, commissives, behabitives,
and expositives, and the effect of his saying towards the hearer called the
perlocutionary acts. These are the simple comprehending of the difference
of speech acts (Austin, 1962:110-111).
5
c. Movie
Movie is a sequence of photographs projected onto a screen with
sufficient rapidity as to create the illusion of motion and continuity (The
American Heritage Dictionary, 2000:1150).
F. Review of Previous Researches
Some research of speech acts have been conducted by the researchers in
various types. The variation is seen from the analysis of the types, the
functions, the directness, and literal and non literal aspects. Besides, we have
the differences of focus on the object research. The subjects of the research
also varied, such as manuscript analysis, daily conversation, interact between
both of people, influences culture in languages, etc.
The writer composes this graduating paper by reference from other
researcher. First, the reference is “The Study of Speech Acts the ‘Body of
Lies’ the movie (Jati Handayani, 2012). She focus on types of speech acts
found in the movie script ‘Body of Lies’ and clarify the Searle’s categories of
illocutionary acts found in the manuscript. In the Body of Lies’ movie, she
found so many conversations which consist of speech acts types such as, 21
data of speech act’s types that found. On the other hand, she also found as
much as 47 data of Searle’s categories of illocutionary acts. The result from
this research, she makes the data so clear with the more explanation in each
conversation and make the other researchers or the readers understand the
data with the simply methods.
6
The present study entitled “The Study of Speech Acts in the “Avatar the
Last Air-bender” movie”. This research focused on the general function of
types of speech acts and Austin’s categories of illocutionary acts. The special
of this research is the objective research that is speech acts script movie. The
conversation is used simple languages and emotional utterances.
G. Thesis Paper Organization
This thesis intends to make easier the reader to understand what the
researcher writes. In this section, the writer will discuss several parts of
graduating Paper’s organization that consist of five chapters, as follows: Chapter I
is introduction which discusses background of the study, statement of the study,
objectives of the study, limitation of the study, clarification of the key terms,
review of previous research, and thesis paper organization. Chapter II tells about
literally review. It consists of discuss film and movie, speech act, a brief history of
speech act, types of speech act, and categories of illocutionary act. Chapter III
presents about research methodology and data presentation on the “Avatar the
Last Air-bender” script movie. Chapter IV is analysis and research finding which
is concluded of literary elements of the “Avatar the Last Air-bender” movie, the
kinds of speech acts uttered that found in the movie seen from the types of speech
act in “Avatar the Last Air-bender” script movie, and Austin’s categories of
illocutionary act in “Avatar the Last Air-bender” script movie, and the implication
of the study in English Language Teaching. Chapter V fills a closure that contains
conclusion and suggestion. The last parts are bibliography and appendix.
7
CHAPTER II
THEORICAL REVIEW OF SPEECH ACTS
This chapter discusses about the theory used in the research. It respectively covers
the discussion about pragmatics, film and movie, meaning, culture, context, and
speech act itself as well as an involvement of finding speech acts in education.
A. Pragmatics
Chomsky said that meaning has been admitted to a central place in
language, it is notoriously difficult to exclude the way meaning varies from
context to context, and so semantic most clear to understand in pragmatics
(Chomsky in Geoffrey Leech’s book, 1983:2). Chomsky adds the generative
semanticists tried to apply the paradigm of generative grammar to problem
which most people would now regard as involving pragmatics.
In Geoffrey’s book entitled “Principles of Pragmatics” shows that
general pragmatics consists of two kinds, they are pragmalinguistic and
socio-pragmatic. Pragmalinguistic focuses on language specific whereas
socio-pragmatic focuses on culture specific. Language is used at the more
general level as a necessary stage of abstraction between the study of
language in total abstraction from situation, and the study of more socially.
So, Geoffrey Leech (1983:6) defines pragmatics as the study of meaning in
relation to speech situation. Leech distinguish general of pragmatics study
with focus on the general conditions of the communicative use of language,
and to exclude more specific ‘local’ condition on language use. In fact, there
8
are variables which cause how the way to communicate is loosely, such as; in
the aspect of the different cultures or language communities, and in the
different social situations, as well as among different social classes. The
aspects realize that pragmatic descriptions ultimately have to be relative to
specific social conditions.
Usually, the speaker shows something use
languages in the communication. Therefore, the speaker prioritizes of
understanding of the hearer at first. Based on pragmatics, the speaker can
reduce any mistake or misunderstanding their conversation each others.
Argyle and Dean (1965) in Leech’s book with title “Principles of
Pragmatics” (1983:12) suggest that the distinction between pragmatics and
register corresponds to one for non-verbal communication. This is between
dynamic and standing features of communication. There are some features
which tend to undergo continuing change and modification during discourse.
Such as illocutionary force in Austin’s sense (1962:100), he is stated that the
different types of function of language as the doctrine of ‘illocutionary force’.
But, there are other features, such as formality of style, which tend to remain
stable over fairly long stretches of time. Nevertheless, that is not always easy
to separate these two types of condition. Politeness indicates that is often a
function of both: standing features such as the social distance between
participants interact with dynamic features. This is included into illocutionary
demand the speaker is making on the hearer, such as; request, advice,
command, etc, to produce a degree of politeness appropriate to the situation.
9
According to Frank Parker (1986:11) said that pragmatics is the study
of how language is used to communicate. Levinson (1983) defines pragmatics
as aspects of meaning, language understanding in context, appropriateness
felicity conditions, and language phenomena, such as deixis, implicature,
presupposition, speech acts, and aspects of discourse structure. Pragmatics is
briefly the study of meaning. In fact, there is interaction between the speaker
and the hearer.
Goeffrey Leech (1983:13) divides pragmatics studies meaning which
has relation to speech situation. The criterions of the aspects are addreessers
or addressees, context, goal, speech acts, and verbal acts. The following is
aspects of the speech situation.
1.
Addressers or addressees
Leech refers to addressers and addressees, as a matter of
convenience as speaker and hearer. A receiver is a person who receives
and interprets the message and an addressee is a person who is an
intended receiver of the message
2.
Context
Context is assumed to be shared by speaker and hearer and which
contributes hearer’s interpretation of what speaker means by a given
utterance.
10
3. Goal
The utterance is useful to talk of a goal or function of an utterance,
in preference to talking about its intended meaning, or speaker’s intention
in uttering it.
4. Speech acts
Speech acts as an aspect of social interactive behavior. A speech
act is created when the speaker makes an utterance to hearer in context.
Speech acts must be interpreted as an aspect of social interaction.
5. Verbal acts
The utterance is used to pragmatics: it can refer to the product of a
verbal act, rather than to the verbal act itself.
The definitions of pragmatics above shows that the advantages of studying
language via pragmatics and makes nice utterance in communication. Pragmatics
tells about speaker and hearer’s intended meanings, all of their opinion, also their
goals of actions.
B. Movie and Script
Movie is a sequence of pictures objected on a screen from a developed
and prepared film, especially with an accompanying sound tract, a theater
where such pictures are shown regularly to the public the movies such
entertainment in general, this entertainment as a branch of industry, a
particular example of such entertainment (Webster’s Dictionary,2004:654).
11
According to George Yule (1996:86) defines that a script is a preexisting knowledge structure involving event sequences. Basically, we use
scripts to build interpretations of accounts of what happened. The scripts for
what normally happens in all kinds of events, such as going to a doctor’s
office, a movie theater, a restaurant, or a grocery store. The concept of a
script is simply a way of recognizing some expected sequence of actions in an
event.
C. Culture, Meaning, and Context
Culture, meaning, and context are the third major sources that influence
behavior. Correlation between the three elements is produced individual
behaviors. Basically, the culture from interacts between human meanings
with context meanings.
1. Culture
According to Schneider (1976), culture is a system having a
separated and independent existence from that of the individuals who
manifest it in their behavior. Actually, a culture is a reflection of the
identity of the society. The societies care with the goal of their speech
which has good influence to applier of a language. Thus, they adopt the
culture and apply it in their acts as well as selectively.
12
2. Meaning
Based on Leech in Concise Encyclopedia of Pragmatics, in
semantics studies various types of meanings are recognized, such as
conceptual, connotative, social and affective, reflected and co-locative,
associative, and thematic (Leech in Jacob L Mey Book’s, 1981:459).
Furthermore, all these meanings exist in an individual’s communicative
and used in social interaction.
3. Context
Context is the situation, events, or information that are related to
something and that help you to understand it (Longman Dictionary of
Contemporary English, 1978:395). It is a toll to achieve the true
communicates. What the speakers say will influence in the act of readers,
so the speakers should put their language in right situation.
According to Sperber and Wilson in Mona Baker’s book entitled In other
Words (1992:238) said that the context does much more than filter out
inappropriate interpretation; it provides premises without which the
implicature cannot inferred at all (1986:37). Apart from the actual setting
and the participants involved in an exchange, the context also included the
co-text and the linguistic conventions of a community in general. Mona
Baker added that context is the language user’s sense of what is socially
and textually appropriate or normal. This does not have much to do with
what the reader thinks the world is like, but rather with what she or he is
prepared given situation.
13
In sociolinguistics studies contexts, the key of concept for
understanding is the nature of communication in general. Concerning the
linguistic context, analytic of sentences focus on sense in extends of
linguistics texts. Including naturally occur the dialogues in daily social
interaction.
D. Speech Act
In the words of Habermas in Jacob L. Mey entitled Concise
Encyclopedia of Pragmatics (1998:927) shows that speaker utters something
understandably. The speaker gives hearer something to understand. As well
as, makes the speaker itself thereby understandable and comes to
understanding with another person. Adds to Habermas, indicated that further
requirements on speaker. He states that speaker should believe the truth of
what is said, so that hearer can share speaker’s knowledge. In the other hand,
speaker should express his/her intentions in such a way that the linguistic
expression represents what is intended. It means the hearer can trust the
speaker utter.
According to Grice in Mey’s book in more his explanation about
maxims of quantity of manner shows that speaker should perform the speech
act in such a way that it conforms to recognized norms or to accepted self
images. So that, the hearer accord with speaker who share the value of
orientation. Additionally, speaker and hearer can reciprocally motivate one
another to recognize is determined by a specific reference to a thematically
stressed validity claim, whereby speaker in a cognitively testable way,
14
assumes with a truth claim, obligations to provide grounds with a rightness
claim, obligation to provide justification, and with a truth fullness claim,
obligation to prove trustworthy (Habermas in Concise Encyclopedia of
Pragmatics Mey’s book, 1998:927).
In attempting to express something, the society does not only produce
utterance contain with the grammatical structures and words but also they
perform action via those utterance. Actions that performed via utterances are
generally called speech acts. Speech acts apply to the speaker’s
communicative intention in producing an utterance. The speaker normally
anticipates that his or her communicative intention will be recognized and be
understood by the hearer. Both speaker and hearer are usually helped in the
process by the circumstances surrounding the utterance.
1. Speech Acts Philosophers
a. John Langshaw Austin
John Langshaw Austin or J.L.Austin was born 26 March 1911 was
British philosopher of language. He is an expert of the theory of speech acts.
Prior to Austin, the attention of
linguistic and analytic philosophers had
been directed almost exclusively to statements, assertions, and propositions.
This led to problems when analyzing certain types of statements, for example
in determining the truth conditions for such statements as "I promise to do soand-so."Austin pointed out that we use language to do things as well as
to assert things, and that the utterance of a statement like "I promise to do soand-so" is best understood as doing something — making a promise — rather
15
than making an assertion about anything. Hence the name of one of
his
best-known works:"How to do Things with Words".
(http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/754957/philosophy-oflanguage).
b. Jhon Searle
Jhon Searle was born July 31, 1932, Denver, Colo.,U.s.) American
philosopher best known for his work in the philosophy of languageespecially speech act theory-and the philosophy of mind. He also
made significant contributions to epistemology, ontology, the
philosophy of social institutions, and the study of practical reason. He
views his writings in these areas as forming a single picture of human
experience and of the social universe in which that experience takes
place. Searle’s father, G. W. Searle, was a business executive and his
mother, Hester Beck Searle, was a physician. After moving several
times the family finally settled in Wisconsin. John Searle begin his
college education at the University of Wiscondin-Madison, and
subsequently became a Rhodes Scolar at Oxford University, where he
obtainer a doctorate in philosophy. Searle’s early work, which did a
great deal to establish his reputation, was on speech acts. He
attempted to synthesize ideas from many colleagues including J.L.
Austin.
16
2. Classification of Speech Acts
There are three kinds of classification system of speech acts in order
to differentiate the utterances into their own characteristics. Those
classifications are based on the basis of the structure, from the literal or
non-literal meanings, from the general function (Yule, 1996:53-54), and
from the dimensions of the use of language (Austin, 1962: 109).
a.
Direct and Indirect Speech Acts
b.
Literal and Non-Literal Speech Acts
c.
Locutionary, Illocutionary, and Perlocutionary Acts
d.
Verdictives, Exercitives, Commissives, Behavities, Expositives
3. A Brief History of Speech Acts
According to J. L. Austin that speech act theory is saying
something we do something (Austin, 1962: 119). It means speech acts is
part of doing or words to connect in actions. Oxford philosopher J.L.
Austin is for most attributed to developing this theory. Austin formulated
his ideas on speech act theory in the 1930’s and lectured on them at both
oxford and Harvard in the first half of the 1950’s. After Austin is
posthumous, one of his former students, Jhon R. Searle, took many of
Austin’s ideas and concepts on speech act theory, and further elaborated
and refined them.
Austin is noticed that the concept of the performative utterance, of
doing something by saying something. He also adds that in saying
17
anything one is performing some kind of act. Austin clarifies three
component of speech act. It is consists of:
Locutionary acts: This is equivalent to utter a certain sentence
with a certain sense and reference; also equivalent to ‘meaning’ in the
traditional sense. It is actual words of the message.
Illocutionary acts: This is a kind of utterance with a certain force
such as informing, ordering, warning, and undertaking. Simply, illocution
is what speaker means to convey.
Perlocutionary acts: This is an act of bringing about or achieving
some effect by saying something, such as convincing, persuading,
deterring, surprising, and misleading. In short, perlucotion is hearer’s
reaction to speaker’s message.
The third components are different senses of the use a sentence or
the use of a language. All of them, these are kinds of action. Thus, Jhon
Searle agreed that theory of J.L. Austin that sentence meaning has to do
with sets rules requiring the speaker to perform the illocutionary acts or
indicated by the sentence. He adds such acts concern the utterance of a
sentence that; (a) indicates that one performs the act, (b) means what one
says, and (c) addresses an audience in the vicinity. As result, he set in his
book titles ‘SPEECH ACTS’ to combine all of these elements to give an
account of so-called ‘illocutionary acts’.
18
In addition, Austin classifies illocutionary acts into five types,
verdictives, exercitives, commissives, behabitives, and expositives.
Although it is often argued that Austin’s classification is not complete and
those coined categories are not mutually exclusive. Austin’s classification
is best seen as an attempt to give a general picture of illocutionary acts:
what types of illocutionary act one can generally perform in uttering a
sentence. One can exercise judgment (verdictive), exert influence or
exercise power (exercitive) assume obligation or declare intention
(commissive), adopt attitude, or express feeling (Behabitive), and clarify
reasons, argument, or communication (Expositive).
4.
Definition of Speech Acts
Some philosophers give the different arguments of regarding the
definition of speech acts:
a.
John Langshaw Austin
John Langshaw Austin is the philosopher who introduces the
first concept of languages as a form of action or further called speech
acts. According to Austin’s posthumous, define that a speech acts
should be analyzing as a locutionary acts, illocutionary acts, and
perlocutionary acts.
19
Added in his 1969 book SPEECH ACTS he sets out to combine all of these
elements to give an account of so-called 'illocutionary acts' (Austin, 1962:
109). There are:
1) Locutionary is the literal utterance
2) Illocutionary is the intended meaning
3) Perlocutionary is how an utterance is understood
Addition from Austin’s opinion (1978: 1) suggests that with
words, we do something not only says something. The words
indicate anything about the speaker want to say also how the speaker
makes the hearer do something. Words views an act is successful or
not with reference to the speaker’s intention. As well as, it is to
decide whether the statement is true or false. Then he explains that it
was the assumption of philosophers that the business of a ‘statement’
can only be to ‘describe’ some state of affairs, or to ‘state some fact’,
which it must do either truly of false .
b.
Jhon Searle
Searle defined speech acts as:
“The unit of linguistics communication is not, as has generally
been supposed, the symbol, the word or the sentence, or even the
token
(roughly: the occurrence) of the symbol, word or sentence,
but rather the production or issuance of the symbol, word or
sentence in the performance of the speech act (Searle, 1969:16)”.
20
In essence, Searle’s theory in the Parker’s book entitled
Linguistic for Non-Linguistic states that everything we say
constitutes some sort of speech act such as, promising, stating,
apologizing, threatening, and predicting, and so on. Parker added
each type of speech act is governed by a set of felicity conditions,
which be met if the speech act is to be valid. Thus, knowledge of
these different speech acts and their felicity conditions constitutes
part of our knowledge of the rules of language use.
A great deal can be said in the study of language without
studying speech acts, but any such purely formal theory is necessary
incomplete (Searle, 1977: 17)
Searle also adds that speech acts theory is of great interest to
study languages. In daily communication, the society so need some
speech in each their acts.
c.
Jacob L Mey
Mey (1994:111) clarifies the meaning of speech acts as
actions happening in the world, which they bring about change in the
existing state of affairs.
d.
Frank Parker
In addition, parker (1986: 14) defines speech acts as every
utterance of speech acts constitutes some sort of fact. Adds the
speech acts are extremely sensitive to the context of the utterance, in
particular to the relationship between the speaker and the hearer.
21
e.
Yule
Simply, Yule’s explanation of meaning about speech acts is
an action showed via utterances (1996:47).
Anything the definition of speech acts above speech act is an act
when we say a word and the result is the productions of the utterance in
the purpose of making thing occurred.
5. Types of Speech Acts
There are two dimensions of speech act found according to Parker
(1986: 17-20), such as, directness and literalness as bellow:
a.
Directness
As Searle’ sharp out the illocutionary act say that it is
performed indirectly by performing another, in “Indirect speech
Acts” books at 1975. Searle clears it in the example, “Bring me a
coat” ask him. This performing is direct illocutionary act as a
requesting. However, if he changes the utterance with, could you
bring me my coat, it is mean make a request but the speaker seems
doing something quite different. This performing is indirect
illocutionary act of making a request. These performing is a simply
way to make clear differentiating direct speech acts and indirect
speech acts.
22
1) Direct Speech Acts
Direct speech acts defines as the synthetic form of an utterance
reflects the direct illocutionary act. Direct speech acts is also called
direct illocutionary act (Parker,1991:17). Frank parker consisted of
direct speech acts as examples as the following:
Utterance
Syntactic Form Direct Illocutionary Act
1. The earth is round. Declarative
2. What time is it?
Interrogative
3. Get off my foot.
Imperative
Stating
Asking
ordering or requesting
The examples are the synthetic form of the utterance matched
the direct illocutionary act. First example is used to make a
statement. Second, an interrogative form is used to ask a question.
The last example is an imperative form is used to give an order or
make a request. Therefore, the direct speech act is the one that
matches the syntactic form of the utterance.
2) Indirect Speech Acts
Indirect speech act is the syntactic form of an utterance
does not reflect any indirect illocutionary act associated with it
(Parker, 1991. p.17)
Basically, indirect illocutionary act is giving a respond
with use direct illocutionary act to appropriate respond. When
the hearer gives inappropriate response, so the utterance is
23
probably used the indirect illocutionary perform. In the women’s
statement, “Can you pass the salt?” “Yes.” Answer the stranger
sitting in beside your counter, he rather than passing the salt and
back in his lunch. His response is inappropriate because his
response is direct illocutionary act as asking a question rather
than indirect illocutionary act (making a request).
Yule (1996:55) adds that indirect sentence has relationship
between a structure and a function of the utterances; it is called
indirect speech act.
Analysis of an indirect speech act Searle’s approach:
a) Assume the existence of a dual illocutionary force: the
non-literal/indirect force is primary; the literal/indirect
force is secondary.
b) Whether an utterance operates as an indirect speech act
or not has to do with the relevant felicity conditions.
c) Some kind of inference is necessary when an addressee
understands an indirect speech act that a speaker
performs.
d) Apart from inference, there is a certain degree of
conventionality about speech acts.
e) If there is no direct relationship between a sentence type
and an-illocutionary force, the speech act is indirect. If
24
there is a direct match, it is a direct speech act. For
example, indirect speech acts are more polite than their
direct counterparts are. The more indirect a speech act
is, the more polite it is.
b.
Literalness
One more condition in our community, about theory of language
that speakers use have to account for is the fact that they sometimes
mean what they say literally and sometimes not.
According to Vandeverken (1997:327) mentions that non literal
speech acts consist of two important properties. First, contextually
cancellable: speakers could use the same sentences in other possible
contexts of utterance without having the intention of performing
these non literal speech acts. Second, non literal speech acts are also
in general not detachable: if the speaker uttered another sentence
expressing the same literal illocutionary act in the same context, he
would also have meant to perform them.
1)
Literal Speech Acts
The example of literal speech acts is I feel just awful.
The utterance indicates that someone who is eating eight
jelly donuts. In these phenomena, someone mean exactly
what he or she say. So, the utterance calls literal speech
acts.
25
2) Non-Literal Speech Acts
The example consists of non literal speech acts. It
shows in “I just eat ketoprak food, dad”. Said the child who
in the small traditional restaurant. In fact, the ketoprak is
used up in the time. This is not mean the child not eat rice
or the others food, but she/he so wants the food. This
utterance is called non-literal speech acts.
c. Interaction of Directness and Literalness
Parker (1987:19) said that speech acts have two dimensions:
directness and literalness. The fact, the dimensions make possible be
two values means also divided into four different types of speech
acts: literal and direct, non-literal and direct, literal and indirect,
and non-literal and indirect.
1) Direct and Literal Speech Acts
As an illustration: “Stick out your tongue.” Said the doctor
who estimate you if you have a trouble in health. This utterance
is said directly the original meaning. That means the utterance is
direct and literal speech acts. This is direct because an
imperative structure used to perform a direct illocutionary act,
namely making a request. It is literal because the doctor means
exactly what these words say to stick out your tongue.
26
2) Direct and Non-Literal Speech Acts
Supposed Damar and Wulan are in a story book. Damar
said, “I never read the pretty book.” He amazed. “You can buy
for me; I will read it for you.” Wulan’s response is as a joke.
This utterance is stated directly but it is not suitable with the
original meaning. This is non-literal direct speech act. It is nonliteral because Wulan not means exactly what his words say. It
is direct because she is using declarative structure to perform a
direct illocutionary act, namely making a statement.
3) Indirect and Literal Speech Acts
As an illustration, a man is in a store of flower. He said, “I
would like a rose to express an honesty of love” asked him. A
woman who an owner takes a white rose. “You see it?” said the
woman. This utterance shows indirectly from the buyer to the
owner but has original meaning. This is a literal and indirect
speech act. It called literal because a man means what his words
say, he would like a white rose. It called indirect because the
man is using a declarative structure to perform a direct illocution
of stating and an indirect illocution of requesting.
27
4) Indirect and Non Literal Speech Acts
Mr. Nurman said that “Why do not you yell a little
louder?” This utterance has different meaning from the
speaker’s say and the utterance said indirectly from the speaker
to the listener. This is a non-literal and indirect speech acts. It is
non-literal because Mr. Nurman does not mean what his words
say (he does not want the listener to yell louder). It is indirect
because Mr. Nurman is using an interrogative structure to
perform the indirect illocutionary acts of making a request (he
want the listener be quite).
6.
Austin’s Categories of Illocution Acts
In his book “How to do Things with Words”, Austin
differentiates five generals’ classes in speech acts. He classifies
conform to their illocutionary force, by the following more-or-less
rebarbative, names:
1) Verdictives
Verdictive is symbolized of the giving of a verdict, as the
name implies, by a jury, arbitrator, or umpire. However, they need
not be final, such as an estimating, grading, locating, reckoning,
characterizing, rule, describing, analyzing, interpret as, and
calculating. It is essentially giving a finding as to something-fact,
or value-which is for different reasons hard to be certain.
28
2) Exercitives
Exercitives is exercised of powers, rights, or influence. For
examples, appointing, voting, ordering, urging, advising, choosing,
and warning.
3) Commissives
Commissives types of promising or otherwise undertaking;
they commit you to doing something, but include also declarations
or announcements of intention, which are not promises, and also
rather vague thing, such as opposing, undertaking, agreeing,
purposing, planning, and adopting. They have obvious connections
with verdictives and exercitives.
4)
Behabitives
Behabitives is a very miscellaneous group, and have to do
with attitudes and social behavior such as, complimenting,
apologizing, congratulating, overlooking, criticizing, welcoming,
thanking, wishing, commending, felicity, and applauding.
5) Expositives
Expositives is how our utterances fit into the course of an
argument or conversation, how we use words, or in general, are
expository. Such as, denying, remarking, mentioning, answering,
believing, calling, asking, and reporting. For examples, ‘I reply’, ‘I
argue’, ‘I concede’, ‘I illustrate’, ‘I assume’, ‘I postulate’. We
29
should be clear from the start that there are still wide possibilities of
marginal or awkward cases, or of overlaps.
Concisely, Austin transfers the brief definition of five categories
illocutionary of speech acts. Namely, verdictives is an exercise of
judgment; exercitives is an assertion of influence or exercising of
power; the commissives is an assuming of an obligation or declaring of
an intention; the behabitives is the adopting of an attitude; and the
expositives
is
the
clarifying
of
reasons,
arguments,
and
communications.
E. Contributes of Finding Speech Acts
Formerly known by a few as a mark of education, languages are now
studied by people from all walks of life. More languages are studied than ever
before, and methods of learning them are changing radically. The goals of
this study have broadened to include spoken communication with and
understanding of the other speakers on the widest of human interests.
In communication the society use language in rightly and correctly
form. In fact the society as speaker demanded to make the other society as
hearer to do something with the utterance. It calls as speech acts that study
about how the society uses “words” as an “action”.
According to Robert Lado in his book entitled Language Teaching
(1964:153) shows that contextual area is careful selection of contextual areas
for the dialogue and reading material permits full use of the language in
30
limited areas early in the course. Pictures, slides, or a film may help
significantly to provide cultural content for observation by the students.
Observation alone, of course, may mislead. Explain or clarify the cultural
content of the material presented.
In researching to explain great movement about how to make the
reader or the students on next future will know more about speech acts shown
in “Avatar the Last Air-Bender” movie. This research explore about theory of
speech acts in details, classification of speech acts types, and more clear with
so many example of speech acts.
This research finding contributed for:
1. Theoretical Benefits
This research is carried out as the support of speech acts theory in the
development of linguistic theories. The writer hopes this study will be
beneficial for the other researchers in a research.
2. Practical Benefits
After implementing the research, the researcher expects that these
researches are contributed for:
a) The research
To show the strategies to interest the students in language learning
process by script movie analyze. Besides, this research chooses the
familiar cartoon movie that used simple language. It makes the
students learn easily.
31
b) The lecturer
This research made to recognize types of speech acts by movie
scripts. Moreover, they can deliver the theory to students clearly.
c) The Students
By film manuscript about speech act, the student will be easily to
deepen the material and apply in daily communication. The
researcher as well as introduce to the students that study language is
so fun.
d) Other researcher
This research is simple analysis as an increment the other researchers
or the readers.
32
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DATA PRESENTATION
This chapter contains method that the writer used in the research. It consists of
research methodology and data presentation. Research methodology divided into
research approach, data sources, object of the research, methods of collecting data,
and methods of analyzing data as well as procedures of the research. This research
analyzes the speech acts based on the data script movie. The purpose of this
research is to explain the methodology of the research and clarify the data
presentation in the script movie.
A. Research Approach
The researcher uses descriptive qualitative approach. The writer
describes the type of speech act and the illocutionary acts that finds in the
movie script. The writer uses the research procedures to obtain the empirical
data required to provide materials for analysis.
Qualitative research is a research to comprehend phenomena of what
is happen on the research subject holistically and by description in words and
language from, in a certain natural context and use several scientific methods
(Moleong, 2009:6). Qualitative research is established of abstraction based on
the components that collected and grouped. When the researcher composed
the theory, the data of research clear since the collecting of the data.
Moreover, the researcher not suggests the data that is important to more
understand all of the goals of research. In qualitative research the data
33
collection as words and pictures is not consist of numbers. It causes as
qualitative method. In this method, a process is an important than result of the
research.
The process of doing qualitative research presents a challenge because
procedures for organizing images are ill-defined and rely on processes of
inference, insight, logic, and luck, and eventually, with creativity and hard
work, the result emerge as a coherent whole (Morse, 1994:1).
B. Data Sources
The resource of data is the analysis script movie.
C. Object of the Research
The object of the study in Avatar the last Air bender script movie is
an analyzing the players’ utterances.
D. Methods of the Research
The researcher is used qualitative documentation of this research.
E. Procedures of the Research
The writer uses interpretative approach to analyze the data. There
are many sequences to analyze data in this graduating paper, namely:
1.
Identification step, the researcher identified the data which collected
from the dialogue in script.
2.
From the identified, the researcher categorized the data into types of
speech act from “Avatar the Last Air-bender” movie script.
34
3.
The researcher defined appropriate and omitted inappropriate
utterances from the data above.
4.
The researcher described and analyzed the utterances which kinds of
speech acts found in the “Avatar the Last Air-bender” the movie.
F. Data presentation
Data is information or fact: the research involves collecting data from
two random samples. Data on pesticide as experimental, historical, statistical,
etc data detailed research data. (Longman Dictionary of contemporary
English,2003:465.
The researcher has two categories to present data transcription based on
the movie. First, the researcher analyzes the kinds of speech acts from the
general function of speech acts and Austin’s categories of Illocutionary acts
in the “Avatar the Last Air-Bender” the movie in “The Awakening” episodes.
35
The data are:
Data of Speech Acts General Function’s Type
1.
No
1
Type of Speech
Acts
Directness
Part of the Type
The Data
Direct Speech
Acts
1) Aang: How long was I out?
Katara: A few weeks.
2) Aang: I’ll handle this. The
Avatar is back.
Katara: Aang, wait!
3) Aang: Take my hand.
Katara: Ok.
Indirect Speech
Acts
1) Azula: Zuko, could I have a
word with you?
Zuko: Can not you see we
are busy?
Azula: Oh May, Tylee need
your help untangling her
braid.
2) Azula: Oh May, Tylee need
your help untangling her
braid.
May: Sounds pretty serious.
3) Taff: Twinkle-Toes that is
got to be you?
Aang: (Keep silence)
4) Azula: So, I hear you have
been to visit your uncle fatso
in the prison tower.
Zuko: That guard told you?
Literalness
Literal Speech
Acts
1) Taff: Hyaa!!
Katara: I’m gonna give us
some cover.
2) May: I do not hate you.
Zuko: I do not hate you too.
3) Student: Now what do we
do?
36
Aang: This is when you
start dancing.
4) Zuko: I brought you some
komodo-chicken.
I know you do not care for
it, but I figure it beats prison
food.
Non-Literal
Speech Acts
1) Katara: Aang, everyone’s
watching.
Aang: Do not worry about
them. It is just you and me
right now.
2) Student: Who are you
looking for?
Do you need something?
Custodian: (search Aang)
3) Aang: It was nice meeting
you.
Student: I don’t believe it. .
Directness and
Literalness
Direct and Literal
Speech Acts
1) Sokka: And the best part is,
the eclipse is not even our
biggest advantage. We have
a secret.
You!
Aang: Me??
Sokka: Yup. The whole
world thinks you are dead. Is
not that great?
2) Custodian: It is over, we
caught you.
Aang: Who? Me?
Custodian: It could not be
more obvious that you don’t
belong here. next time you
play hooky.
3) Zuko: Uncle. It’is me.
4) Teacher: Good morning
class. Recite the fire nation
37
oath!
Students: My life, I give to
my country. With my hands,
I fight for fire lord. With my
mind, I seek way to better
my country and with my
feet…
5) Hakoda: I am Hakoda,
Direct and NonLiteral Speech Act
Katara and Sokka’s father.
1) Katara: Is there anything
you need?
Aang: I need to redeem
myself. I need my honor
back. .
2) May: Aren’t you cold?
Zuko: I’ve got a lot on my
mind. It’s been so long.
Over three years since I was
home. I wonder what’s
changed. I wonder how I’ve
changed.
Indirect and
Literal Speech
Acts
1) Custodian I: Sir, admiral
Chan has been on leave for
two months at Ember
Island.
Captain: What?
Why does not anyone ever
tell me anything?
Something’s not right.
2) Zuko: Why did you tell
father that I was the one
who killed the Avatar?
Azula: Can’t this wait until
tomorrow?
Zuko: It can’t.
Azula: Fine
38
Indirect and NonLiteral Speech
Acts
1) Captain: I mean, how hard
is it to write a quick note
and send a hawk our way?
Chef Hakoda: Next time,
we’ll send two hawksto be
sure you get the message.
2) Azula: You seem so
downcast. Has May gotten
to you already? Though
actually, May has been in a
strangely good mood lately.
Zuko: I haven’t seen dad
yet. I haven’t seen him in
three years, since I was
Banished.
3) Teacher: Kuza?
Kuza: I know is ugly.
39
2. Data of Austin’s categories of speech acts
No
1.
Speech Acts
Austin’s type
Verdictives
Part of the Type
1. Estimating
Data
1) Aang: Are you mad at
your dad or
something?
Katara: What?
Not at all!
Why would you say
that?
Aang: Mmm-Mmm.
2. Locating
1) Aang: Taraaa….!
Normal kid.
Taff: Hmm…I should
probably wear shoes
but then I won’t be
able to see as well.
Sorry shoes…
Finally, a stylish shoe
for the blind earth
bender
3. Grading
1) Katara: Aang, that’s
not truth.
Aang: It is true.
I was in Ba Sing Sei. I
was there, but I lost.
And now the earth
kingdom has fallen
for nothing.
Katara: Is not for
good. Remember,
there’s still a plan.
The invasion.
40
Aang: And I hate the
invasion too. I don’t
want you or anyone
else risking your lives
to fix my mistakes.
I’ve always known
that I would have to
face the fire lord.But
now, I know I need to
do it alone.
4. Characterizing
5. Reckoning
41
1) Lo and Li: Your
princes Azula, clever
and
beautiful.
Disguised herself as
the
enemy
and
entered the earth
kingdom’s capital. In
Ba Sing Sei, she found
her brother Zuko and
together they faced
the Avatar.
1) Katara: Is not for
good. Remember,
there’s still a plan.
The invasion.
Aang: And I hate the
invasion too. I don’t
want you or anyone
else risking your lives
to fix my mistakes.
I’ve always known
that I would have to
face the fire lord. But
now, I know I need to
do it alone.
6. Ruling
7. Describing
1) Hakoda:
Everyone,
just stay calm. Bato
and I will take care of
this.
1) Taff: Why do you
need to go to school
for?
Aang: Every minute I
am in that classroom,
I’m learning new
things about the fire
Nation.I already have
a picture of Fire
Lord, Ozai and here’s
one that I made out of
noodles.
And
this
noodles
8. Interpret as
make
1) Katara: I just used the
spirit water from the
North Pole. I don’t
know what I did,
exactly..
Aang: You saved me
Katara: you need to
rest.
9. Analizing
1) Sokka: And the best
part is, the eclipse is
not even our biggest
advantage. We have a
secret. You!
Aang: Me?
Sokka: Yup. The
whole world thinks
you’re dead. Is not
that great?
Aang: The world
thinks that I am dead
42
person. How is that
good news? That’s
terrible.
Sokka: No. It’s great.
It means the Fire
Nation
won’t
be
hunting us anymore.
And even better, they
won’t be expecting
you on the day of
black sun.
10. Calculate
1) Headmaster: That’s
what any mother
would say, Ma’am.
Nonetheless, you’re
forewarned. If he acts
up one more time, I’ll
have him sent to
reform school by
which I mean the coal
mines. Are we clear?
2) Sokka: Aang, I’m
trying to be mature
and not immediately
shoot down your idea.
But it sounds really
terrible.
Aang: Yeah, we got
our outfits.
3) Headmaster: That’s
what any mother
would say, ma’am.
Nonetheless, you’re
forewarned If he acts
up one more time I’ll
have him sent to
reform school by
which I mean the coal
mines. Are we clear?
Sokka: Don’t you
43
worry,
mr. headmaster
2.
Exercitives
1. Appointing
1) Hakoda: Everything
ok?
Katara: We’re fine,
dad.
Hakoda: I am
Hakoda, Katara and
Sokka’s father.
Katara: He knows
who you are. I called
you dad, right?
2) Sokka: And The Best
Part Is, The Eclipse Is
Not Even Our Biggest
Advantage. We Have
A Secret. You!
Aang: Me?
Sokka: Yup. The
whole world thinks
you’re died. Is not
that great?
2. Voting
1) Taff: Plus, they have
real food out there.
Does anyone wanna
sit in the dirt and eat
cave-hoppers?
(Taff blend the earth
and put out cavehoppers.
Momo eat it but
cough up outright.)
Sokka: Looks like we
got outvoted, sport.
Let’s get some new
44
clothes.
3. Ordering
1) Sokka: What could
you possibly do for a
country of depraved
little fire monsters?
Aang: I am gonna
throw them a secret
dance party.
Sokka: Go to your
room!
4. Urging
1) Aang: I hate not being
able to do anything.
Taff: Hopefully, you
won’t need to.
5. Advising
1) May: Aren’t you
cold?
Zuko: I’ve got a lot
on my mind. It’s been
so long. Over three
years since I was
home.
May: (yawning) Huh,
I just asked if you
were cold. I didn’t as
for your whole life
story. Stop worrying.
2) Aang: And why am I
the only one who’s
completely out of it?
Katara: You need to
take it easy, ok? You
got hurt pretty bad.
45
6. Warning
1) Teacher: Is this a new
mind ready for
molding?
Aang: That’s right.
Let the molding
begin.
Teacher: Wait a
minute!
You are not from the
fire nation
2) Aang: We made it
through the day,
momo…
And it was pretty fun.
Angie: Don’t let the
headmaster catch you
with that monkey
7. Chosing
1) Aang: I don’t know
about this, these
clothes belong to
somebody.
Katara: I call the silk
robe.
Aang: But
if it’s essential to our
survival.
3.
Commissive
1.
Opposing
1) Sokka: Here, tie this
arround your head.
It’ll cover your arrow.
Aang: I’m not going
out if I can’t wear my
arrow proudly..
Sokka: Aang, come
on! Be practical.
46
2.
Undertaking
1) Aang: You have for
generations. It just so
happens that I know
several classic Fire
Nation dances. A
hundred years ago
this was known as
“the Phoenix fight”.
Students:
Ooh…wow..
Aang: And this was
the “cam elephant
strut”.
3.
Agreeing
1) Taff: Hey Aang!
We’re going into
town to find some
dinner.
Aang: Well. I am
pretty hungry. Maybe
dinner’s a good idea.
4.
Purposing
1) Aang: I can’t just
stand by and do
nothing.
Sokka: Aang! No!
You’re still hurt, and
you have to stay
secret just let us
handle this.
5. Planning
47
1) Aang: What about the
invasion?
Sokka: We’ll join up
with my dad and the
invasion force on the
day of the eclipse.
2) Taff: Hey, what’s…
Oh, it’s your glider.
Aang: That’s ok. If
someone saw it, it
would give away my
identity.
It’s better for now
that no one
knows I’m alive.
3) Aang: If we get Fire
Nation disguises we’ll
just as safe as we
would be hiding in a
cave….
4) Azula: I need you
zuko. I’ve plotted
every move of this
day, and the only way
we win is together.
48
6. Adopting
4.
Behabitives
1. Complimenting
1) Aang: I used to visit
my friend Kuzon here
100 years ago. So
everyone just follow
my lead and stay cool.
Or as they say in the
Fire Nation. “Stay’s
flaming” greetings,
my good hotman.
1) Katara: I like your
hair.
Aang: I have hair?
How long was I out?
Katara: A few weeks
2. Wishing
Aang: I’m not ready
to leave. I’m having
fun for once just being
a normal kid. You
don’t know what it’s
like, Sokka. You get
to be normal all the
time.
3. Felicity
1) Angie: Oh, Hi Kuzon.
I really liked that
crazy dance you were
doing.
AKuzon:
Thanks,
Angie. I could show it
to you again if you’d
like..
4. Apologizing
1) Teacher: Your
etiquette is terrible. In
the homeland, we
bow to our elders.
Like so sorry ma’am.
Aang: Sorry mom.
49
5. Congratulating
1) Azula: We’ve done it,
Zuko. The Fire Nation
has conquered Ba
Sing Se. When you
return home, father
will welcome you as a
war her.
Zuko: But I don’t
have the Avatar.
6. Overlooking
1) Zuko: Please uncle,
I’m so confused. I
need your help.
Forget it! I’ll solve
this myself. Waste
away in here for all I
care. (door creaks
shut)
7. Criticizing
1) Katara: Now you
guys have finally
meet, so would you
mind giving us a little
privacy?
Hakoda: Of course.
8. Welcoming
1) Aang: Nice to
officially meet you,
chief Hakoda.
Hakoda: Is an honor
to know you.
2) Sokka: Aang, good to
see you back with the
living, buddy
3) Ozai: You have been
away for a long time.
I see the weight of
your
travels
has
changed you. You
have
redeemed
yourself, my son.
Welcome home.
50
9. Thanking
1) Taff: Things couldn’t
get much worse.
Sokka: The universe
just loves proving me
wrong, doesn’t it?
Taff: You make it too
easy.
Sokka: Thank you, the
universe
2) Headmaster: Thank
you for coming, Mr
and Mrs…
Sokka: Fire, Wang
Fire. This is my wife
Sapphire.
3) Angie: Oh, hi Kuzon.
I really liked that
crazy dance you were
doing.
Kuzon:
Thanks,
Angie..
10. Applauding
51
1) Ozai: I am proud of
you, prince Zuko.
I am proud because
you and your sister
conquered Ba Sing
Sei. I am proud
because when your
loyalty was tested for
by your treacherous
uncle. You did the
right thing and
captured the traitor.
And I am proudest of
all of your most
legendary
accomplishment. You
splayed the Avatar.
Zuko: What did you
hear?
2) The twin old woman:
And after three long
years, your princes
has returned. Zu..ko..
(cheering and
applause).
5.
Expositives
1) Denying
1) Aang: Are you mad at
your dad or
something?
Katara: Not at all.
Why would you say
that?
Aang: (Confused)
2) Hakoda: We’ve been
on working a
modified version of
the invasion plan.
Katara: It’s Sokka’s
invasion plan.
Hakoda: Yes, Sokka’s
plan.
3) Taff: Sokka, we don’t
need to become cave
people what we need
is some new clothes.
Katara:
Yeah,
blending in is better
than hiding out.
52
2) Remarking
1) Katara: I brought
some food. Oh no!
(Aang disappear)
3) Mentioning
1) Zuko: I brought some
komodo-chicken.
I
know you do not care
for it, but I figure it
beats prison food. I
admit it. I have
everything. I always
wanted, but it’s not at
all how I thought it
would be. The truth is
I need your advice. I
think the avatar is still
alive. I know he’s out
there. I’m losin my
mind. Please, uncle.
I’m so confused. I
need your help.
1) Student 1: Now what
do we do??
Aang: this is when
you start dancing
4) Answering
5) Believing
6) Calling
53
1) Aang: The world
thinks I’m dead. How
is that good news?
That is terrible.
Sokka: No, it’s great.
It means the Fire
Nation won’t
be
hunting us anymore.
And even better they
won’t be expecting
you on the day of
black sun
1) Aang: Ladies and
gentlemen! The
flamey-os!
Yeah, this ought to
get
every
body
moving
7) Reporting
1) Headmaster: Mr. and
Mrs.Fire.your son has
been enrolled here for
two days. And he’s
already causing
problems.
He‘s argued with his
history teacher,
disrupted music class,
and roughed up my
star pupil.
Mrs.
Fire:
My
goodness. That does
not sound like our
Kuzon.
8) Asking
1) Aang: No. No. No.
Do not you have idea?
You have no idea.
This is so messed up.
(Forghorn blaring)
Aan: I’ll handle this.
The avatar is
back.(Grunting)
Katara: Aang! Wait!
Remember, they do
not know we are not
Fire Nation.
54
CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH FINDING
This chapter presents the research finding. It is the study of script movie on
“Avatar the Last Air-bender” in episodes “The Awakening”. The movie plays
during 23.39 minutes in the first episode and 23.41 minutes in the second episode.
The script movie is based on Parker’s theory and Austin’s theory which contain
for the study of speech acts. Especially, the general function of speech acts in
Parker’s theory and categorizing of illocutionary speech acts in Austin’s
categorize. To answer the problems, the data are classified based on the finding
speech acts in the script of movie.
A. Research Finding
There are some data obtained from the script movie uttered in the
conversations “Avatar the Last Air-bender” that can be classified into the
general speech acts and the category of speech acts based on Austin’s theory.
1.
Types of Speech Acts
Types of speech acts based on Parker’s theory contain directness
and literalness. Parker also adds interaction between directness with
literalness. They are:
a.
Directness
Directness is including, direct speech acts, and indirect speech
acts. The directness is included into dialogue on movie research.
55
1) Direct Speech Acts
According to Parker’s theory direct speech acts as the
synthetic form of an utterance reflects the direct illocutionary
act. Direct speech acts are also called direct illocutionary act
(Parker,1991:17).
a) The dialogue between Aang and Katara (00:03:56.ep1)
Aang: “How long was I out?”
Katara: “A few weeks”.
(The conversation happened on upper deck of the Fire
Nation cruiser. He was so confused to what happened. He
was in a Fire Nation area but he was greeter by his friends
who all worn the nation uniforms. Aang was the only one
who was out in the warfare between Fire Nation and Ba
Sing Sei which was the Earth Kingdom. He was out for
some weeks after the war).
This utterance shows that Aang asked how long he
was out. Actually, he did not know anything. He could not
remember the incident. This is direct speech acts because
the sentence is an interrogative form that is used to ask a
question. Here, Aang got appropriate response.
56
b) Dialogue between Aang and Katara (00:08:39. Part 1)
(Foghorn blaring)
Aang:” I’ll handle this. The Avatar is back.
(Grunting)
Katara: “Aang, wait”.
(This conversation happened on the deck of Fire Nation
cruiser which was stolen by Aang’s team. A worse signal
made Aang pushed away their mission to fool fire’s
soldiers. That was under covered Aang’s life. But, Aang
forced to handle fire’s invasion and showed if he was
awake to save Ba Sing Sei. Even though, Katara prevented
him immediately. She wanted not the fire’s soldiers to
know about the existence of Aang)
The italic utterance is direct speech acts. It is because
the sentences use imperative syntactic form. Aang and
Katara’s utterance shows the statements are imperative
form. Aang’s words refered to an urging statement. The
Katara’s utterance is used imperative structure. It makes
statement to send an order. She meant Aang still hide.
57
c) Dialogue between Aang and Katara (00:19:53. Part 2)
Aang: “Take my hand”.
Katara: “Emm,, ok”.
(The conversation happened when Aang arranged dance
party to fire’s students in Aang’s team hideaway. That a
cave. In the party, the students gradually started to
freestyle dance. Although Aang’s best friends, such as,
Toph and Sokka as well as Katara did not join in the
dance. Later, Aang asked Katara to dance with him. Aang
stretched his hand. After hesitating, she took his hand and
they performed a moment of what looked like mutual
attraction)
Aang’s utterance include in direct of speech act. It is
direct because he makes a request to take his hand and start
to dance. Katara response is suitable as Aang’s wants.
58
2) Indirect Speech Acts
According to Yule (1996:55) indirect sentence has
relationship between a structure and a function of the utterances;
it is called indirect speech act.
a) Dialogue between Azula and Zuko (00:14:58. Part 2)
Azula: “Zuko, could I have a word with you?”
Zuko: “Can not you see we are busy?”
Azula: “Oh, May, Tylee need you help untangling her
braid”.
(Azula stated the utterance when she has something to
discuss with Zuko. The conversation happened since
Azula heared that was someone visited the prison. She
guessed that Zuko was the visitor. So, she just ascertained
about it. However, Zuko wanted not pay attention with
Azula’s statement because he was chating with May)
The italic utterance is indirect speech acts. It is
indirect because the sentence is a question that is not only
need yes or no response but also more action. Zuko’s
utterance has meaning that he annoyed by his sister. The
syntactic form of Zuko’s utterance is interrogative to make
an affirming.
59
b) Dialogue between Azula and May (00:15:05. Part 2)
Azula: “Oh May, Tylee need you untangling her braid”.
May: “Sounds pretty serious”.
(The conversation happened when Zuko and Azula has
bad discussed. It caused Zuko was not recking of Azula’s
utterance. Then, Azula batted out that Tylee who their
buddy needed May’s helping to make May kept away from
Zuko. So, she could free talked something that privacy
with him)
Azula’s utterance is indirect speech acts. It is indirect
because the meaning of sentence is to inform May to help
Tylee. In fact, the utterance has other mean that Azula
wanted May leaft her with her brother, Zuko.
c) Dialogue between Taff and Aang (00:02:35. Part 1)
Taff: “Twinkle-Toes! That is got to be you”.
Aang: (So weak)
(The dialogue above showed that Aang was plodding in
the way of the deck of fire’s cruiser which stolen by
Aang’s team. He was just waked up for two weeks. Taff’s
utterance was glorious happy when Aang was back
60
strengthly. Aang walked so weak. Taff, Sokka, and Katara
hurried into Aang’s stand)
Taff’s utterance is included in to indirect illocutionary
acts. It is indirect because the sentence is one of
determined. The words are used declarative the syntactic
from.
d) The dialogue between Azula and Zuko (00:15:17. Part 2)
Azula: “So, I hear you have been visited your uncle Fatso
in the prison tower”.
Zuko: “That guard told you?”
Azula: “No, you did…just now”.
(The dialogue above showed that Azula believed that Zuko
was visiting for uncle Fatso in the prison. Basically, Fatso
was the one who near with him. In many cases, his uncle
saw a lot of to take cares him; given more the
understanding of politics, as well as uncle Fatso taught
him to master the fire bending. Although, uncle Fatso
sealed as the one who betray his Nation, the Fire Nation,
but Zuko still cared with him. In several times, Zuko sent
some foods for him in the visitations)
61
The italic words are indirect speech acts. The
utterance is indirect because the syntactic form that used is
declarative. The Azula’s expression does not mean to
inform Zuko about what she heard. Merely, Azula’s words
are a statement, but in fact she would ask to right rumors
which she was hearing.
b. Literalness
Another phenomenon that Parker’s theory of language use has
to accounted for is the fact that speakers sometimes mean what they
say literary and sometimes not or non-literal.
1) Literal Speech Acts
a) Dialogue between Taff and Katara (00:12:33. Part 1)
Taff: “Hyaaa!”
Katara: “I am gonna give us some cover”.
(The conversation happened when Aang and his team who
thieved a fire’s ship and used fire’s uniforms to cover their
identity. It was best effort that possible to safe themselves
since the defeated in Ba Sing’s war. The dialogue occured
at fire’s soldiers attacked the ship. They used chain arrow
to make the cruiser leaked. Taff was bending the iron
which in the deck to stop the soldiers. Besides, Katara
62
handled the leakage with water bending. She stiffen the
water to block it)
Katara’s utterance is literal speech acts. It is literal
because it informs Taff that she handled to repair their war
craft that charged by fire’s soldiers. The sentence has actual
meaning. Although, Taff was not response Katara’s
utterance, but she understanded what Katara’s mean. So, the
words are called literal speech acts.
b) The dialogue between May and Zuko (00:14:50. Part 2)
May: “I do not hate you”.
Zuko: “I do not hate you too”.
(The conversation presented that May was chatting with
Zuko. It showed that they liked each other. Actually, she
known Zuko isolated for three years and it made him lost
his honor as a prince in Fire Nation. To response May’s
utterance stated that he has same feeling)
May’s utterance is literal speech acts. The italic
sentence consists of literal because her words are exactly
what she means. In fact, the girl still loved Zuko although
he left her for three years. His response is appropriate as
wished.
63
c) The dialogue between the Fire’s student and Aang
(00:17:14. Part 2)
Student: “Now what do we do?”
Aang: “This is when you start dancing”.
(The dialogue happened when Aang arranged a dance
party especially for fire’s students. It realized in Aang’s
hideaway with his team that was a cave. At beginning,
they did not know what the party about. So, one of them
asked Aang what they should do. Basically, as a fire
citizen, the students did not dance because it was not fire’s
tradition. It meant that they just enjoy the music without
performed anything, just played music and heared it.)
The student’s utterance is included in literal speech
acts. It is literal because the sentence is exactly what the
student means. He asks what they should do in a cave with
full music. So, the statement has not a hidden meaning.
d) The dialogue between Zuko and uncle Fatso (00:18:09. Part
2)
Zuko: “I brought you some Komodo-chicken. I know you
do not care for it, but I figure it beats prison food”.
(The dialogue happened when Zuko was visiting his uncle
in a prison. He brough some his uncle’s favorite of food.
64
However, his uncle still disappointed with Zuko who
betrayed him in Ba Sing’s war. Uncle Fatso wanted not
merge in Azula’s team like Zuko, so he hatched and
jailed)
The italic utterance concerns of literal speech acts
because Zuko’s utterance is exactly with his words. He
brings some food to his uncle. It is because there is a
mistake which forced him imprisoned in his country itself.
2) Non-Literal Speech Acts
a) Dialogue between Katara and Aang (00:20:17. Part 2)
Katara: “Aang, everyone’s watching”.
Aang: “Do not worry about them. It is just you and me right
now”.
(The conversation showed that Katara embarrassed since
Aang requested hers to dance in the central dancing area.
All of the fire’s students watched their performing. They
combined
Bagua
and
Northern
Shaolin
in
synchronization which indeed appeared to be an acrobatic
dance based on their bending techniques. It made the
students were all awed. At the end of the dance, Katara
and Aang shared a moment of what looked like mutual
attraction)
65
Katara’s utterance included in non literal speech acts.
It is non literal because it has hidden meaning. She did not
just inform that the students highlighted them but also felt
cheap to continue their dance. Then, Aang stated that there
were she and him just now.
b) The dialogue between student and custodian (00:22:08. Part
2)
Student: “Who are you looking for?”
“Do you need something?”
Custodian: “Grrrr!!”
(The dialogue happened when the Headmaster and several
soldiers of fire nation appeared scene where they were
having dance party secretly. They tried to catch Aang but
he hiden within the crowd of kids. That because the
soldiers identitied to Aang with his headband, they threw
off when they discovered several other students were
wearing the same headband. Therefore, the soldier
catched Aang’s false. The student who weared the
headband stated any help which he could do)
66
The student’s utterance includes non literal speech
acts. It is non literal because the sentence meanings are not
exactly and not match the uttered. He did not ask the soldier
need. In fact the words like a joke.
c) The dialogue between Aang and Student (00:07:43. Part 2)
Aang:”It was nice to meeting you”.
Student:”I don’t believe it”.
(The conversation happened when Aang used fire’s
uniform of a local school and he caught by a group of
fire’s soldier who escorted him into a classroom. After
dismissaled the partial school successed he met a friendly
girl named Angie. There was Hidde who Angie’s
boyfriend which much aggressive and has a brief
confrontation with Aang. Basically Hidde thrusted a blow
of his right to Aang but Aang as air bender could clear the
blow easily. Hidde was angry and leaft him. Then, Aang
stated that it was a nice meeting)
The italic utterance includes in non literal speech act.
It is non literal because Aang’s utterance is not what he
means exactly.
67
c.
Literalness and Indirectness
Speech acts consist of two dimensions that are directness and
literalness. In fact, the dimensions have two values means that we
should be able to identify four different types of speech acts: literal
and direct, non-literal and direct, literal and indirect, and non-literal
and indirect.
1) Literal and Direct Speech Acts
a) Dialogue between Sokka and Aang (00:08:07. Part 2)
Sokka: “And the best part is, the eclipse is not even our
biggest advantage. We have a secret. You!”
Aang: “Me??”
Sokka: “Yup. The whole world thinks you are died. Is not
that great?”
(The dialogue happened when Aang’s team gather in a
deck to discuss the next invasion. Sokka who was a
tactician in the team gave an idea to cheat their enemy. In
the planning, they should be under covering themselves
especially not to public that Aang stiil alive. Aang was
surprise. In fact, the idea was the best plan that Sokka
repeated again the words in other utterance)
68
The italic utterance is literal and direct speech act. It
is literal because Sokka’s utterance is Sokka’s want to say.
He said they have a secret. The secret was the privacy of
Aang which hidden. It is direct because the sentence is a
declarative structure which is being used to perform a direct
illocutionary, namely stating.
b) Dialogue between Custodian and Aang (00:05:30. Part 2)
Soldier: “It is over, we caught you”.
Aang: “Who? Me?”
Custodian: “Of course you! You are none residing in
here”.
(The conversation happened in a town of Fire Nation
century. Aang and his friends were worn fire’s uniform
completely. Along a way, Aang called everyone who saw
on the street such “hotman”. The greeting was specific
characteristics of Fire Nation. When his friends went to
buy a meat, Aang abstained due to vegetarianism. Then,
he went off on his own for a bit. However, he was quickly
caught by a group of fire’s soldiers who escorted him into
a classroom. In fact, his clothe was the uniform of a local
school and the soldiers assumed that he was a students
playing hooky)
69
Soldier’s utterance is literal and direct speech acts.
This is consisted of literal because the soldier means
exactly what these words say. He would catch Aang whom
truant student. It is called direct because the words are an
imperative structure is being used to perform a direct
illocutionary act, namely obligating.
c) Dialogue between Zuko and his uncle, Iroh (00:08:54. Part
2)
Zuko: “Uncle, it is me”.
Uncle Iroh: (…..)
(The conversation happened when Zuko was visiting the
prison. He visited his uncle. His uncle was the only one
who cared with him when he was dissociating by his
father, King Oza. However, they were in bad relations.
There was a misunderstanding. They taught that they
were betraying each other. Zuko came in the prison then
greeted him. In fact, his uncle was angry and did not
response anything)
The utterance uses literal and direct speech acts. That
is called literal because Zuko’s utterance has really
intending with the words. The statement is about affirming.
He affirmed who was coming in the prison was him. It is
70
included in direct because Zuko used a declarative structure
to perform direct illocutionary acts that is making
statement.
d) Dialogue between Teacher and Students (00:10:42. Part 2)
Teacher:” Good morning class. Recite the fire nation
oath!”
Students: “My life, I give to my country. With my hands, I
fight for fire lord. With my mind, I seek way to better my
country and with my feet…”.
(The conversation happened in a classroom of Fire
Nation School. The teacher greeted the students as well as
asked them to declare the oath fire state. Then, all of them
declared it. However, Aang as a new student rattled it but
he was not doing well)
The italic utterance is literal and direct speech acts. It
is literal because the statement has truly meaning with the
italic utterance. Without yes or no response, the students
immediately stated the oath. It is direct because the
utterance an imperative syntactic form is being used to
perform a direct illocutionary act, namely making a request
in her utterance. The statement supported by the declaration
of the students about the fire’s stated oath.
71
e) Dialogue between Hakoda and Aang (00:04:00. Part 2)
Hakoda: I am Hakoda, Katara and Sokka’s father.
(The utterance showed that Hakoda was introducing him
self. It was the first meeting with Aang whom the one who
helped Katara and Sokka to save the Water Tribe, their
Nation. Actually, the nation charged by Fire State)
The statement includes into literal and direct speech
acts. It calls literal because the Hakoda’s utterance is his
really intending. He clarified himself clearly because it was
a great honor to meet Aang directly. It calls direct because
the utterance is being used declarative structure to make a
stating.
2) Non Literal and Direct Speech Acts
a) Dialogue between Katara and Aang (00:14:55. Part 1)
Aang: “Please, please, Katara. Just go”.
Katara: “Is there anything you need?”
Aang: “I need to redeem myself. I need to my honor back”.
(The conversation happened since the battle in Ba Sing Se
was finished. Aang felt he was failed as the Avatar. He
could not keep the Ba Sing from fire’s attack. Then, Fire
Nation mastered Ba Sing Se. Katara tried to pacify him
72
then not blamed him for the fail of Ba Sing’s war. There
was a plan to invasion. But, Aang would leave alone)
The italic is concerned in non literal direct speech act.
The utterance is non literal because it has hidden meaning.
Katara not only wanted Aang to mention of something that
he needed but also she worried when she was ought to leave
him alone. It is direct because Katara used an interrogative
structure to perform direct illocutionary act, namely making
a requesting.
b) Dialogue between May and Zuko (00:03:07. Part 1)
May: Aren’t you cold?
Zuko: “I’ve got a lot on my mind. It’s been so long. Over
three years since I was home. I wonder what’s changed. I
wonder how I’ve changed”.
(The conversation happened in a deck. They were Fire
State whom they were enemy of Aang’s team. In the scene,
Zuko was watching the moon until he approached by May
in the midnight. May stated that was not so cold to him.
Then, Zuko revealed his conflicted feelings about his
internal changes and his imminent returned to the Fire
Nation. Thus, she told him not to worry)
73
May’s question includes non literal and direct speech
act. Her statement is non literal because it has hidden
meaning. The utterance was not only need yes or no
response but also there was a reason that made him stand in
the midnight. It is called direct speech acts because she is
using an interrogative syntactic form to perform direct
illocutionary act, namely asking a question.
3) Literal and Indirect Speech Acts
a) Dialogue between the custodian (00:09:54. Part 1)
The Custodian: “Sir, admiral Chan has been on leave for
two months at Ember Island”.
A Captain: “What? Why does not anyone ever tell me
anything? Something’s not right”.
(The dialogue above showed that there was a war craft
that acrossed contrary in the exactly route. The captain of
Fire Nation absolved the ship since Aang’s guard said that
they reined by admiral Chan. In Fact, fire’s guard
informed the Captain that admiral Chan was in Ember
Island since two months. That meant the cruiser that
acrossed just right now was not controlled by fire’s
soldiers)
74
The italic utterance is literal and indirect speech acts.
It calls literal because the custodian intends what his words
say. He informed the existence of admiral Chan. It calls
indirect because the custodian has other meaning which is
used a declarative structure to perform a direct illocutionary
act. The speaker given information that include in an
indirect illocutionary act of correcting.
b) Dialogue between Zuko and Azula (00:19:30. Part 1)
Zuko: “Why did you tell father that I was the one who killed
the Avatar?”
Azula: “Can’t this wait until tomorrow?”
Zuko:” It can’t”.
Azula: “Fine”.
(The conversation happened when Azula stated to King
Ozai, her and Zuko’s father that Avatar killed by her
brother. This made their father so proud. In fact, Avatar
was still alive. Azula told for untruth because there was a
motive which made him loose his honor back. In
midnight, Zuko went to her bedroom and asked for it)
75
Azula’s utterance is called non literal direct speech
acts. It includes non literal because she did not mean
exactly what her question. The princess of the Fire Nation
did not want Zuko repeated his question tomorrow. Truly,
Azula did not want her brother annoyed her birthing space.
It is direct because the italic utterance is an interrogative
structure to perform a direct illocutionary acts, this is
making a question.
4) Non Literal and Indirect Speech Acts
a) Dialogue between Captain and Hakoda (00:09:44. Part 1)
Captain: “I mean, how hard is it to write a quick note and
send a hawk our way?”
Hakoda: “Next time, we’ll send two hawks to be sure you
get the message”.
(The conversation happened when Hakoda whom Aang’s
team was using fire’s cruiser without temporary license)
The captain’s utterance is included in indirect and non
literal speech act. The italic utterance is non literal because
the custodian exactly did not suggest Hakoda to send a
message used a hawk because this was getting into the
habit. Basically, Captain admonished him. It is indirect
76
because the captain used an interrogative syntactic form to
perform the indirect illocutionary act of making a request.
b) Dialogue between Azula and Zuko (00:10:45. Part 1)
Azula: “You seem so downcast. Has May gotten to you
already? Though actually, May has been in a strangely
good mood later”.
Zuko: “I haven’t seen dad yet. I haven’t seen him in three
years, since I was banished”.
(The scene happened at the palace, Zuko was feeding
turtle ducks like he once did with his mother, until Azula
steped in to ask him why he looked so depressed. Then,
Zuko told her that he did not want to see his father since
the Banish’s war because he not yet captured the Avatar.
Actually, his father gave his honor back if the Avatar
killed)
The dialogue above is concluded in non literal
indirect speech acts. It is called non literal because Azula
did not mean what her words say. She did not inform how
Zuko looked like and told May’s condition recently. It is
called indirect because Azula used a declarative structure to
perform the indirect illocutionary act of making statement.
She would know why he was unhappy after Basing’s war.
77
c) Dialogue between Teacher and Kuza (00:11:45. Part 2)
Teacher: “Kuza?”
Kuza: “I know is ugly”.
(The conversation happened when the art teacher was
seeing Kuza. In fact, Kuza was alias of Aang. He played a
tool of music and moved his feet to enjoy the music. The
teacher called him as a reminding to stop his dance)
The italic utterance is non literal and indirect speech
acts. The italic utterance is non literal because the teacher
did not mean what her words say. She did not want call
Kuza or wait for yes or no response. It is indirect because
the teacher was using an interrogative structure to perform
the indirect illocutionary act of making request. The teacher
forbad the dancing when music was playing because it was
not fire’s habit.
78
2.
Austin’s Categories of Illocutionary Acts
Austin distinguishes five general classes of illocutionary acts. The
names are: (Austin,1978:151-164).
a.
Verdictives
Verdictives is an exercise of judgment. It is consist in the
delivering of a finding, official or unofficial, upon evidence or
reasons as to value or fact, so far as these are distinguishable. In fact,
verdictives have obvious connection with truth and falsity, soundness
and unsoundness, and fairness and unfairness. Such as: estimating,
locating, reckoning, grading, characterizing, ruling, describing,
interpret as, analyzing, and calculate.
1) An Acts of Estimating in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Aang and Katara (00:04:24. Part 1)
Aang: “Are you mad at your dad or something?”
Katara: “What? Not at all! Why would you say that?”
Aang: “Mmm-Mmm”.
(The conversation happened in a deck of cruiser at the
night since Aang waked up from his out for two weeks. At
the time, he saw Katara and her father have short
conversation with different intonation)
79
The illocutionary act is used in the script movie in
Aang’s statement to ask a question. Aang valued that
Katara was different expression when was talking with her
father. But, she denied the statement to cover the truth.
Truly, Katara who was the Water Bending, was crestfallen
with her father since he left her for long time. The italic
utterance is illocutionary acts with Verdictives type in
estimating sample. It includes in estimating because that a
calculation of the value in the conversation.
2) An Acts of Grading in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Katara and Aang (00:14:26. Part 1)
Katara: “Aang, that’s not truth”.
Aang: “It is true. I was in Ba Sing Sei. I was there, but I
lost. And now the earth kingdom has fallen for nothing”.
Katara: “Is not for good. Remember, there’s still a plan, the
invasion”.
Aang: “And I hate the invasion too. I don’t want you or
anyone else risking your lives to fix my mistakes. I’ve
always known that I would have to face the fire lord. But
now, I know I need to do it alone”.
80
(The scene happened when Aang confessed to Katara that
he felt ashamed. He was worry when everyone was
toughting he was dead and failed to stop the infiltration at
Ba Sing Se)
Katara’s utterance is denying Aang’s statement
because Katara clarified the reason why he felt so benefited
in the war between Fire Nation and Ba Sing Sei. So,
Katara’s
utterance
is
included
“grading”
type
of
illocutionary acts. It is called grading because Katara’s
statement indicated the indirect illocutionary acts of making
contradict statement.
3) An Acts of Locating in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Aang and Taff (00:04:01. Part 2)
Aang: “Taraaa! Normal kid!”
Taff: “Hmm…I should probably wear shoes but then I
won’t be able to see as well. Sorry shoes…”
“Finally, a stylish shoe for the blind earth bender”.
(The conversation happened when Aang and the others
was traveling through the Fire Nation covertly. They
tooked a temporary shelter in a cave and seeked out new
clothes for cover their identity. They found unattend
clothes line and stole some outfits)
81
The illocutionary acts from Aang and Taff’s utterance
are “verdictive” types of illocutionary acts. First is Aang’s
statement that said “Taraa, normal kid”. It is called
verdictives because the statement is consistency as a normal
kid with his performance. It is included into locating
utterance. Second is Taff’s utterance that is modifying her
shoes by removing the soles. Finally, she lost her shoes and
stated that a stylish shoe for the blind earth bender. It means
she still uses the soles. Thus, they are included into locating
as a verdictives type of illocutionary acts.
4) An Acts of Reckoning in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Katara and Aang (00:14:39. Part 1)
Katara: “Is not for good. Remember, there’s still a plan, the
invasion”.
Aang: “And I hate the invasion too. I don’t want you or
anyone else risking your lives to fix my mistakes. I’ve
always known that I would have to face the fire lord. But
now, I know I need to do it alone”.
(The dialogue happened when Aang was hopeless to
Banish’s filed)
82
Aang’s utterance is an illocutionary acts verdictives’s
type. The italic utterance includes in reckoning utterance. It
marked by Aang’s statement showed that when Aang was
reckoning; that many people who involved in the dangerous
situation in Ba Sing Sei’s war caused his errors. So, he
would do it alone to clear the mistake.
5) An Acts of Characterizing in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Declarative Lo and Li (00:05:34. Part 1)
Lo and Li: “Your princess Azula! It is beautiful, ready,
and blue princess. It distinguishes like the enemy, and
entered to the capital one of the kingdom of the ground. In
Ba Sing Sei, she found her brother Zuko, and together killed
the Avatar. And the Avatar fell. And the Kingdom of the
Ground fell”.
(The conversation happened on the balcony of the Royal
Plaza in the Fire Nation. Lo and Li announced the
capture of Ba Sing Se, as well as the return of Prince
Zuko and the death of the Avatar to the assembled armies
below)
The italic utterance is the characteristics of fire’s
princess whose name is Princess Azula who is subjugating
Ba Sing Sei, the Earth Kingdom. It is included “verdictive”
83
type especially characterizing utterance of illocutionary
acts. It finds in the old twin women’s utteranced that was
describing the quality of the Princess.
6) An Acts of Rule in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Hakoda and Comrades (00:08:54. Part 1)
Hakoda: “Everyone, just stay calm. Bato and I will take
care of this”.
(The scene happened when Aang and others were hiding
into an actual Fire Nation ship since there was other fire’s
ship that passed through in water work area. Hakoda and
Bato tried to talk their way out)
The illocutionary acts from Hakoda’s utterance
instructs Aang and the comrades to stay in the hideaway.
An official instruction that said how it was must be done. It
is included in a ruling in “verdictive” type that performs a
stressing of statement in the sentence.
7) An Acts of Describing in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Taff and Aang (00:09:12. Part 2)
Taff: “Why do you need to go to school for?”
Aang: “Every minute I am in that classroom, I’m learning
new things about the fire Nation. I already have a picture
84
of Fire Lord, Ozai and here’s one that I made out of
noodles. And this make noodles”.
(The conversation happened when Aang was backing in
the cave after school in fire’s school. Taff stated him what
he found in the school. Basically, they were in critical
moments since Banish’s war. Aang went to school could
make him danger)
The utterance includes “verdictives” type especially
describing utterance of illocutionary acts. This type shows
in the Aang’s statement that told when he was in the
classroom in fire’s school. He described anything and
giving details about a photo of Oza who a king of Fire.
8) An Acts of Analyzing in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Sokka and Aang (00:08:11. Part 1)
Sokka: “And the best part is, the eclipse is not even our
biggest advantage. We have a secret. You!”
Aang: “Me?”
Sokka: “Yup. The whole world thinks you’re dead. Is not
that great?”
Aang: “The world thinks that I am dead person. How is that
good news? That’s terrible”.
85
Sokka: “No. It’s great. It means the Fire Nation won’t be
hunting us anymore. And even better, they won’t be
expecting you on the day of black sun”.
(The conversation showed that Sokka had the great idea to
arrange the next invasion of Fire Nation)
The illocutionary act from Sokka’s utterance is an
analyzing statement. He examined condition of war
carefully. In order to he tried to understand it. He asked
Aang in a secret that he was alive. So, the remark included
in “verdictives” type especially analyzing utterance. It
mentioned in the italic words that analyzed the great idea
manipulated the King’s fire.
9) An Acts of Interpret as in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Katara and Aang (00:05:21. Part 1)
Katara: “I just used the spirit water from the North Pole. I
don’t know what I did, exactly”.
Aang: “You saved me”.
Katara: “You need to rest”.
(The conversation happened when Aang was realizing that
he was more than merely hurt by Azula’s lightning attack
86
but that his spirit had actually been separated from his
body. Then, Katara had saved his life)
Katara tells what is done. She used the magic of water
from the North Pole which brough Aang’s life being back.
It is included a “verdictive” type of illocutionary acts
because the italic utterance contains an interpreting as
utterance.
10) An Acts of Calculating in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Headmaster and Sokka (00:14:14. Part 1)
Headmaster: “That’s what any mother would say, Ma’am.
Nonetheless, you’re forewarned. If he acts up one more
time, I’ll have him sent to reform school by which I mean
the coal mines. Are we clear?”
Sokka: “Do not worry, Mr. Headmaster. I will straighten
this boy out something fierce”.
(The conversation happened when Sokka and Katara were
disguising as Aang’s parent because he favored in
roughing up student of the Headmaster. In his office, they
were acting such as parent rightly)
The illocutionary acts from Headmaster’s utterance
indicates that he gives a warning to Aang to keep good
manners. It calculates the effect of carelessness the parent.
87
If they could not change the boy’s attitude, he would send
in the other school. The italic sentence is included
“verdictive” category because the utterance contains a
calculate utterance.
b) Dialogue between Sokka and Aang (00:05:09. Part 2)
Sokka: “Aang, I’m trying to be mature and not
immediately shoot down your idea. But it sounds really
terrible”.
Aang: “Yeah, we got our outfits”.
(The conversation happened when Aang was being active
in fire’s school process for some day because he got more
information about the Fire Nation. The reason was
appropriate but that sounds so terribled although they had
completed their outfits)
The illocutionary acts from Sokka’s words show that
Sokka is figured on the idea. Basically, the idea supported
in their invasion to bear down the Fire Nation. The italic
words are included “verdictive” category. It is verdictives
because the sentence contains a calculate utterance.
88
b. Exercitives
Exercitives is an assertion of influence or exercising of power.
It is giving of a decision in against a certain course of action. The
decision is that something is to be so, as distinct from a judgment
that it is so. There is advocacy that is should be so, as opposed to an
assessment, they consist of a sentence as opposed to a verdict. It is a
very wide class, such as: Appointing, voting, ordering, urging,
advising, and warning as well as choosing.
1) An Acts of Appointing in the Avatar Script Movie
a) The dialogue between Hakoda and Katara (00:04:04. Part 1)
Hakoda: “Everything ok?”
Katara: “We’re fine, dad”.
Hakoda: “I am Hakoda, Katara and Sokka’s father”.
Katara: “He knows who you are. I called you dad, right?”
(The dialogue showed that Hakoda was caring with
Katara and Aang. He as a commandant of Aang’s team
who responsible about his duties. It seems that, Katara
was angry with her father, chief Hakoda. It was because
chief Hakoda left hers and her brother since they was
child)
89
Katara’s utterance showed his statement appointed her
father’s status. She meant her father did not need to
introduce his self one more time. It was because in
previously Katara was called him“dad” to the chieft
Hakoda. Absolutely, Aang knew who chieft Hakoda. The
italic utterance is included “verdictive” type of illocutionary
acts because it contains an appointing utterance.
b) Dialogue between Sokka and Aang (00:08:07. Part 1)
Sokka: “And the best part is, the eclipse is not even our
biggest advantage. We have a secret. You!”
Aang: “Me?”
Sokka: “Yup. The whole world thinks you’re dead. Is not
that great?”
(The conversation showed the big idea from Sokka. There
was a way to get the victory that has a purpose to pacify
the world.
The illocutionary act from Sokka’s utterance is a
statement of appointing that he stated the secret is actually
Aang. Sokka has a plan for next invasion to charge Fire
Nation that recently defeated Earth Kingdom, Ba Sing Sei.
Sokka’s utterance is an appointing which included
“exercitives” type of illocutionary acts.
90
2) An Acts of Ordering in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Sokka and Aang (00:16:17. Part 2)
Sokka: “What could you possibly do for a country of
depraved little fire monsters?”
Aang: “I am gonna throw them a secret dance party”.
Sokka: ”Go to your room!”
(The statements happened when Aang was planing to hold
a secret dance party in the cave for everyone in the school,
to which Sokka, still was wearing his beard who disguised
as Mr. Wang Fire that acting as Aang’s parent several
times ago, responded with an irritated, “Go to your
room!”)
Sokka’s utterance shows that he orders Aang to go to
his room. The italic utterance is included an “exercitives”
type of illocutionary acts because it contains an ordering
utterance.
91
3) An Acts of Warning in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between the teacher and Aang (00:06:01. Part 2)
Teacher: “Is this a new mind ready for molding?”
Aang: “That’s right. Let the molding begin”.
Teacher: “Wait a minute! You are not from the fire
nation”.
(The conversation happened when the guard was catching
and escorting him into a classroom. The teacher assumed
that he was a new student from the Fire Nation. However,
Aang stated the different style with the fire’s students.
That made him was a colony from Earth Kingdom)
The italic utterance is a teacher’s warning to Aang
that he does not a citizen of Fire. It is included “exercitives”
type of illocutionary acts because it contains of warning
utterance.
b) Dialogue between Aang and Angie (00:07:08. Part 2)
Aang: “We made it through the day, Momo…”
“And it was pretty fun”.
Angie: “Don’t let the headmaster catch you with that
monkey”.
92
(The conversation of Aang and Angie happened in the
fire’s school yard. When Aang took out his pet, Momo,
from his clothe. He stated in this school they have a pretty
day. Angie said to Aang, it would be dangerous if the
headmaster saw Momo)
The illocutionary from Angie’s utterance shows that
she sends Aang a warning to keep his pet from monitoring
Headmaster. That is bothering students in the learning
process if the pet be free. It is included an “exercitives” type
of illocutionary acts. The dialogue is called exercitives
because it is a warning utterance. That was marked from
Angie’s statement.
4) An Acts of Urging in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Aang and Taff (00:09:10. Part 1)
Aang: “I hate not being able to do anything”.
Taff: “Hopefully, you won’t need too”.
(The conversation happened when the fire’s soldiers
attached their ship. Aang could not anything because he
was in a secret mission. So, he disappeared for several
moments)
93
Aang’s utterance is included in exercitives of
illocutionary act. The statement showed that Aang could not
still hide and just see his friends engaged in combat. It was
tactics of aggression that Aang covered him until the precise
moment. It calls “exercitives” of illocutionary act because
Aang’s utterance point out the urging statement.
5) An Acts of Advising in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between May and Zuko (00:03:02. Part 1)
May: “Aren’t you cold?”
Zuko: “I’ve got a lot on my mind. It’s been so long. Over
three years since I was home”.
May: (yawning) “Huh, I just asked if you were cold. I didn’t
as for your whole life story. Stop worrying”.
(The conversation happened when Zuko was watching the
moon in a deck alone in the midnight. Then, May
approached him. He revealed all of his conflicted feelings.
May worried to Zuko)
The illocutionary acts is an advising statement. It
explores in May’s utterance that stated to stop worrying.
The italic statement is included “exercitives” type of
illocutionary act because it contains an advising utterance.
Her utterance is adviced Zuko to calm.
94
b) Dialogue between Katara and Aang (00:03:47. Part 1)
Aang: “And why am I the only one who’s completely out of
it?”
Katara: “You need to take it easy, ok? You got hurt pretty
bad”.
(The conversation happened when Aang was waking up
from his out since Azula defeated him. He did not know
why he was the one who was out. Katara stated that he
was so weak and needed a rest)
The illocutionary act from Katara’s utterance is
advising type of acts. Katara advised Aang to take a rest.
Actually, Aang was out since two weeks. So, there were not
more that he reminded before he took the suitable rest. The
italic sentence is included “exercitive” type of illocutionary
acts because her utterance is included into an advising.
6) An Acts of Voting in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Taff and Sokka (00:03:30. Part 2)
Taff: “Plus, they have real food out there. Does anyone
wanna sit in the dirt and eat cave-hoppers?”
(Taff blended the earth and put out cave-hoppers. Momo
ate it but cough up outright.)
95
Sokka: “Looks like we got outvoted, sport. Let’s get some
new clothes”.
(The scene happened in a cave when Aang’s team found
the hideaway. In the first day, they were sharing what they
did more after they found the secret place)
The Sokka’s utterance is included “exercitive” type of
illocutionary act. It found in the Sokka’s statement that
showed a voting from Taff and Momo. They voted to look
for some foods outside from the cave because in their
hideaway not find a food, just there are cave-hoppers. The
other reason was to get new clothes for cover their identity.
The utterance is included exercitives because the sentence
shows a voting.
7) An Acts of Choosing in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Aang and Sokka (00:03:44. Part 2)
Aang: “I don’t know about this, these clothes belong to
somebody”.
Katara: “I call the silk robe”.
Aang: “But if it’s essential to our survival”.
96
(The conversation happened when they were finding an
unattended clothesline and stolen some outfits of fire’s
citizen. At the first, Aang disagreed to take fire’s clothes
without any permission. However, when he saw Katara
run away to the clothesline, Aang repeated his judgment
and finally he decided to follow his friends)
The utterance is included “exercitives” type of
illocutionary acts because it contains the choosing
utterance.
c.
Commissives
Commissives is an assuming of an obligation or declaring of
an intention. The whole point of a commissive is to commit the
speaker to a certain course of action. Such as: opposing, undertaking,
agreeing, purposing, planning, and adopting.
1) An Acts of Opposing in the Avatar Script Movie
a. The dialogue between Sokka and Aang (00:14:06. Part 1)
Sokka: “Here, tie this around your head. It’ll cover your
arrow”.
Aang: “I’m not going out if I can’t wear my arrow
proudly”.
Sokka: “Aang, come on! Be practical”.
97
(The conversation happened when Aang was in the dock at
a port. Aang expressed unhappiness when Sokka gave him
a tie to cover his arrow. Actually, the arrow was Aang’s
identity. If the arrow was showing, Fire Nation would find
him and his team. Basically, the team was not ready to
charge the big power Fire Nation)
The conversation above shows that there is an opposing
statement. Instead, the Sokka’s statement made Aang
opposed the idea. Basically, his arrow was something that
sensitive for Aang. The italic utterance is included a
“commissive” type of illocutionary acts. It is because the
statement contains an opposing utterance.
2) An Acts of Undertaking in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Students and Aang (00:17:46. Part 2)
Aang: “You have for generations. It just so happens that I
know several classic Fire Nation dances. A hundred years
ago this was known as “the Phoenix fight””.
Students: “Ooh…wow…”
Aang: “And this was the “cam elephant strut”.
(The conversation happend when the children were
arriving in dance party in the cave. The school band
began to play. However they were nervous did not know
98
how to dance. Basically they were afraid if they got in
trouble. Then, Aang demonstrated some dance forms)
The Aang’s utterance showed that Aang has a motion
of dance. The italic statement is included a “commissive”
type of illocutionary acts because it contains an undertaking
utterance.
3) An Acts of Agreeing in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Taff and Aang (00:13:57. Part 2)
Taff: “Hey Aang! We’re going into town to find some
dinner”.
Aang: “Well. I am pretty hungry. Maybe dinner’s a good
idea”.
(The conversation happened in a docking at a port. Aang
was unhappy. He felt that he should confess at the Banish
event. He was shame that everyone taught that he died.
Then, his friends approached him. Taff stated him to have
a dinner with them)
Aang’s stomach made a noise which forced him in
agreeing response. Then, he uttered that he was so pretty
hungry. The italic utterance is calls “commissive” type of
illocutionary acts because it includes in agreeing utterance.
99
4) An Acts of Purposing in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Aang and Sokka (00:12:53. Part 1)
Aang: “I can’t just stand by and do nothing”.
Sokka: “Aang! No! You’re still hurt, and you have to stay
secret just let us handle this”.
(The conversation happened in a deck of cruiser when
fire’s soldiers was charging Aang’s team)
The conversation showed the purpose of the Sokka’s
statement. The purpose was to restrain Aang and hidden
him. It fooled fire’s soldiers. Besides, Aang was unstable
since he completely out for two weeks. His appearance was
not good idea because the soldiers absolutely attacked them
directly as well as finished him rightly. Aang which was so
weak will defeat easily. The type illocutionary acts of the
utterance is a “commissive” because it is contained a
purposing utterance.
5) An Acts of Planning in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Aang and Sokka (00:23:08. Part 1)
Aang: “What about the invasion?”
Sokka: “We’ll join up with my dad and the invasion force
on the day of the eclipse”.
100
(The conversation happened in a shoreline. Aang decided
that the world had to think he is dead. This was for the
biggest planning. He abolished his glider and asked how
their plan of the invasion)
The conversations above showed the Sokka’s plan
since the awakening of Aang. His planning joined with his
father that was on the eclipse day. The italic sentence is
included “commissive” type of illocutionary acts because it
consisted of a planning utterance.
b) Dialogue between Azula and Zuko (00:01:06. Part 1)
Azula: “I need you Zuko. I’ve plotted every move of this
day, and the only way we win is together”.
(The conversation happened when fire’s troops were
squeaking through Aang’s troops. Azula pointed out that
she invited Zuko to handle Ba Sing’s war. She knew that
so difficult to win alone. Actually, she needed other power
to sweep out the war. Then, they collaborated to get Ba
Sing Sei the Earth Kingdom. It would advance both of
them, between she with Zuko)
Azula’s utterance is included in “commissive” type of
illocutionary acts. It is commissives because it contains a
101
planning utterance. The goal of planning held the Kingdom,
Ba Sing Sei.
c) The dialogue between Taff and Aang (00:23:21. Part 1)
Taff: “Hey, what’s…”
“Oh, it’s your glider”.
Aang: “That’s ok. If someone saw it, it would give away
my identity.
It’s better for now that no one knows I’m alive”.
(The scene happened in the shoreline. The conversation
showed that Aang was awakening and blaming him)
Aang’s utterance is included in “commissive” type of
illocutionary acts. It is commissives because the statement
contains a planning utterance. In fact, the planning was
hiding the trailed that signify he was still alive. Although he
lost his glider and the glider is Aang’s identification, but he
accepted it to win.
102
d) The dialogue between Aang and Sokka (00:03:11. Part 2)
Aang: “If we get Fire Nation disguises we’ll just as safe
as we would be hiding in a cave”.
(The utterance happened when Aang and his group were
coming in a cave in the first day. They would leave in the
cave who fire’s soldiers can not find them. Meanwhile,
there was nervous if they were in the cave for long time
with doing nothing. Then, they planed other choice except
be a cave people)
The illocutionary acts from Aang’s utterance showed
that the statement was a planning after they found the
hideaway. The next plan was to seek out new clothes so
they could blend in with Fire Nation citizens, eliminating
the need to hide. Aang’s statement is called “commissive”
type of illocutionary acts because the utterance contains a
planning.
6) An Acts of Adopting in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Aang and his comrades (00:04:50. Part 2)
Aang: “I used to visit my friend Kuzon here 100 years
ago. So, everyone just follow my lead and stay cool, or say
they say in Fire Nation “stay flamin”, greeting my hotman
oh...hiihii.. I guess?”
103
(The conversation happened in town of Fire Nation.
Aang’s group traveled. They claimed to be an expert of
their customs. He called people that he saw on the street
“hotman” and used other expressions that were clearly
out of date)
The
illocutionary
acts
from
Aang’s
utterance
indicated that he adopted some greets from his prior times.
He was life one hundreds years ago and reincarnation as a
boy who fourteen years old. So, he knew anything about
Fire Nation especially the greeting. The boy was the only
one in his team who created in history of the Fire Nation.
The statement is called “commissive” type of illocutionary
acts because the utterance contains an adopting.
d. Behabitives
Behabitives is the adopting of an attitude. It includes the notion
of reaction to other people’s behavior and fortunes and of attitudes
and expressions of attitudes to someone else’s pass conduct. Such as:
complimenting, apologizing, congratulating, overlooking, criticizing,
welcoming,
thanking,
wishing,
applauding.
104
commending,
felicity,
and
1) An Acts of Apologizing in the Avatar Sript Movie
a) Dialogue between Teacher and Aang (00:06:24. Part 2)
Teacher: “Your etiquette is terrible. In the homeland, we
bow to our elders. Like so, sorry ma’am”.
Aang: “Sorry, Mom”.
(The utterance happened in a classroom local school in
Fire Nation. Aang as a new student from the school had
different attitude as fire citizen)
Aang’s statement showed an apologizing because he
came late in the class. The teacher explained that the fire’s
students bowed to elder person and said sorry if they had a
mistake. He tried to adapt the attitude. That is an
apologizing. The words are included “behabitives” type of
illocutionary acts because it contains apologizing utterance.
2) An Acts of Thanking in the Avatar Sript Movie
a) Dialogue between Sokka and the dragon (00:13:42. Part 1).
Sokka: “Thanks, universe”.
(The scene happened in the deck of a cruiser. When fire’s
soldiers tried to breakdown the cruiser, the water dragon
saved Aang’s team that was inadvertent by the fire’s
cruiser hit)
105
The illocutionary acts from Sokka’s utterance is a
thanking statement because the dragon saved them from
charged the fire’s soldiers. It bothered and attached them.
This moment so advantaged to Sokka’s troops. The
statement is included “behabitives” type of illocutionary
acts because it contains a thanking utterance.
b) Dialogue between headmaster and Aang’s parent (00:13:49.
Part 2)
Headmaster: “Thank you for coming, Mr and Mrs…”
Sokka: “Fire, Wyne Fire. This is my wife. She is Soph
Fire”.
(The conversation happened when the headmaster was
inviting Aang’s parent. Basically, the parent was Sokka
and Katara who disguised as Aang’s parent. He invited
them because Aang made some mistakes in school)
The scene was a cause of Aang disturbing music class
and he fought with his one classmate. Seriously, it was
happening in two days he was school. So, it was a warning.
The headmaster was welcome to the parent. He stated that
he was so thanking for their coming. The italic utterance is
consisted “behabitives” type of illocutionary act because it
contains a thanking utterance.
106
3) An Acts of Complimenting in the Avatar Sript Movie
a) Dialogue between Katara and Aang (00:03:52. Part 1)
Katara: ”I like your hair”.
Aang: “I have hair?”
“As much as time I was was?”
Katara: “Some weeks”.
(The conversation happened when Aang was waking up
since he was out for two weeks. At the beginning, Aang
never had hair. He was Air Nomads person who have
completely arrow in definite of his body as well as in his
head. Commonly, all of them were bald person)
The illocutionary acts from the italic utterance
showed that Katara complimented Aang’s hair. It is
included into “behabitives” type of illocutionary acts
because it contains a complimenting utterance.
4) An Acts of Congratulating in the Avatar Sript Movie
a) Dialogue between Azula and Zuko (00:01:09. Part 1)
Azula: “We did it Zuko”.
“When return home, Dad will receive you like hero”.
107
(The conversation happened when Azula and Zuko were
finishing to conquere Ba Sing Sei. Beside that, they
defeated Aang clearly. It made him obtained his honor
back since his isolation)
The illocutionary acts from the utterance showed
Azula congratulated Zuko as her partner to handle the Ba
Sing’s war. Basically, the prince Zuko had been isolated for
three years. In the successfulness, it was an occasion to get
back his honor. The type of the utterance is “behabitives” of
the illocutionary acts. It is because the statement consists of
a congratulating utterance.
5) An Acts of Criticizing in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Katara and her father, Hakoda. (00:04:17.
Part 1)
Katara: “Now you guys have finally met so would you
mind giving us a little privacy?”
Hakoda: “Of course”.
(The scene happened in a deck of the cruiser in the
midvoyage. It happened since Aang woke from his out. On
the time, Hakoda was talking with Aang that the meeting
was the first time. So, there were many subjects that
needed to talk. Truly, Katara was angry since her father
108
left them for some years with any information. Therefore,
Katara disliked when they were talking so long)
Katara’s statement indicated that she criticized her
father because she has something that privacy with Aang.
The type illocutionary act of the utterance is a “behabitives”
because it contains a criticizing utterance.
6) An Acts of Welcoming in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Aang and Hakoda (00:04:12. Part 1)
Aang: “Nice to officially meet you, chief Hakoda”.
Hakoda: “It’s an honor to meet you”.
(The conversation happened when Aang and Hakoda had
first meeting since Banish’s war was going on. Actually,
they were the great person who had a contribution in
Banish’s war. Aang was the only one who can master the
four elements such as; air-bending, earth-bending, waterbending, and fire-bending. However, Hakoda was the best
chief who mastered the tactic of war)
The
illocutionary
acts
from
Aang’s
utterance
indicated that he was welcoming to Hakoda. The type of the
utterance is a “behabitives” illocutionary acts. It is because
the sentence is contains a welcoming utterance.
109
b) Dialogue between Sokka and Aang (00:02:46. Part 1)
Sokka: “Aang, good to see you back with the living,
buddy”.
Aang: “Sokka?”
(The conversation showed that Sokka was so glad
knowing that Aang was back. Aang was so weak, he stated
“Sokka?” like unbelief expression. Then, Sokka hugged
him.)
The italic sentence indicated that Sokka was greeting
Aang since Azula’s charged made him is out. The type of
the sentence is included in “behabitives” of an illocutionary
acts. It because contains a welcoming utterance.
7) An Acts of Wishing in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Sokka and Aang (00:15:50. Part 2)
Sokka: “No more school for you, young man”.
Aang: “I’m not ready to leave. I’m having fun for once
just being a normal kid. You don’t know what it’s like,
Sokka. You get to be normal all the time”.
(The scene happened in a cave that Aang’s team hideaway
when Aang’s team was not permitting Aang to go to
school in Fire State)
110
Aang’s utterance showed that he hoped to be a normal
child. He exactly felt as a normal child since he was
disguising as a fire’s student. He was several times for
going to fire’s school. He was taking pleasure with his act.
The type of the italic statement is included “behabitives”
utterance. It because contains a wishing utterance.
8) An Acts of Overlooking in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Zuko and Iroh (00:18:38. Part 2).
Zuko: “Forget it! I’ll solve this myself. Waste away in
here for all I care”.
(The conversation happened when Iroh was refusing to
talk to Zuko. Zuko was visiting his uncle in the prison
then asked him to give some suggestion. But, his uncle
ignored it. It made him disappointed)
The italic utterance is included “behabitives” type of
illocutionary acts. It is because the utterance contains an
overlooking utterance. Zuko’s statement showed that he
overlooked the suggestion that he exactly wanted.
111
9) An Acts of Commending in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between May and Zuko (00:14:44. Part 2)
May: “Orange is such an awful color”.
Zuko: “You’re so beautiful when you hate the world”.
(The conversation happened when May and Zuko were
having a romantic picnic)
The illocutionary acts of Zuko’s statement showed
that the sentence included in “behabitives” type the
commending utterance.
It marked in the “beautiful” in
Zuko’s utterance. It contains commending because Zuko’s
words exactly consist of a commendation that stated that he
liked May’s words.
10) An Acts of Felicitate in the Avatar Sript Movie
a) Dialogue between Angie and Aang as a Kuzon (00:12:45.
Part 2)
Angie: “Hi Kuzon. I really liked that crazy dance you were
going”.
Kuzon: “Thanks Angie. I could show it to you again if you’d
like”.
112
(The conversation happened when Kuzon and Aang were
meeting in school yard. Angie had a feed back from
Kuzon’s performenced about his freestyle danced several
times ago)
The illocutionary act of Angie’s utterance showed
from the conversation above. It has meaning that Angie was
happy with Aang’s show. That is a performance with
combining freestyle dance and the Air Bending by him who
the only one that mastered the air bender. The italic
utterance is included into “behabitives” type of illocutionary
acts. It is because Angis’s utterance is a felicitating
utterance.
11) An Acts of Applauding in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Ozai and Zuko (00:17:54. Part 1)
Ozai: “I am proud of you, prince Zuko. I am proud
because you and your sister conquered Ba Sing Sei. I am
proud because when your loyalty was tested by your
treacherous uncle. You did the right thing and captured
the traitor. And I am proudest of all of your most
legendary accomplishment. You slay to the Avatar”.
113
Zuko: “That was what you listened?”
(The conversation happened in a residential of Ozai. Zuko
faced one with him whom his father showed that he was
back. Ozai conveyed that he so proud Zuko killed the
Avatar)
The italic utterance showed Ozai who the King of Fire
Nation includes in “behabitives” type of illocutionary acts
especially applauding utterance. The King was pride of his
son, namely prince Zuko. He repeated the word in every
sentence. It means there is some applauding in each his
utterance. Zuko had high competence to master the Earth
Kingdom, Ba Sing Sei, and killed the Avatar.
b) Declaration Lo and Li (00:06:38. Part 1)
Lo and Li: “Now the heroes have returned home. Your
princess Azula, and after three years, your prince has
returned. Prince Zuko”.
(The scene happened in the
balcony of the Royal Plaza in the Fire Nation. The old
twin women declared that Prince Zuko and Princess Azula
had returned since conquering Ba Sing Sei)
The declaration was welcoming the Prince and
Princess of fire. The italic utterance is “behabitives” type of
illocutionary
act
especially
114
contains
an
applauding
utterance. This is behabitives type because the twin of old
women’s declaration is an adopting of an attitude in fire’s
tradition to welcome the successes a war.
e.
Expositives
Expositives is the clarifying of reasons, arguments, and
communications. Is is used in acts of exposition involving the
expounding of views, the conducting of arguments, and the
clarifying of usages and of references. Most central are such as
denying, remarking, mentioning, answering, believing, calling,
asking, and reporting.
1) An Acts of Denying in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Aang and Katara (00:04:26. Part 1)
Aang: “Are you mad at your dad or something?”
Katara: “What?”
Not at all! Why would you say that?”
Aang: (Confused)
(The conversation happened when Aang was catching
Katara that was angry with her father. Hakoda was
Katara’s father who left hers for some years to a war)
115
Katara’s utterance showed that she was denying
Aang’s statement. She disagreed with his assumption if she
was angry with her father. The italic sentence is included
“expositives” categories of illocutionary acts because it
contains a denying utterance.
b) Dialogue between Taff and Sokka (00:03:04. Part 2)
Taff: “Sokka, we do not need to become cave people what
we need is some new clothes”.
(The scene happened in a cave where Aang’s team could
hide for several time. When they were discussing, Sokka
stated that they would be cave people)
Taff’s utterance showed that she was denying with the
Sokka’s statement. He said if they become cave people. It
was because Taff want their life as the normal child. The
type of “expositives” illocutionary acts is contained in the
utterance above because the sentence is denying utterance.
116
2) An Acts of Remarking in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Katara and Aang (00:15:38. Part 1)
Katara: “Aang, I brought you some food. Oh no!”
(The conversation happened in Aang’s room. Aang
disappeared when Katara was bringing the food for lunch)
The illocutionary acts in the Katara’s utterance was a
remarking statement because Katara exactly stated what she
was bringing. She brought some food for Aang. Actually,
she did not see Aang in his room. She so surprised. Katara’s
utterance is included “expositives” type of illocutionary
acts. It is because the sentence contains a remarking
utterance.
3) An Acts of Mentioning in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Zuko and Iroh (00:18:09. Part 2)
Zuko: “I brought you some komodo-chicken. I know you
don’t care for it but I figure it beats prison food. I admit it.
I have everything. I always wanted. But it’s not at all how
I thought it would be. The truth is I need your advice. I
think the avatar is still alive. I know he’s out there. I’m
losing my mind. Please, uncle, I’m so confused. I need
your help”.
117
(The conversation happened in a prison in the Fire
Nation. Actually, Iroh was in the prison for some days.
Zuko had personal visit. In the second day, he brought
some food and has so many words to say. He mentioned
all of it)
Zuko’s utterance showed that the utterance is
mentioning statement. The italic sentence is included an
“expositives” type of illocutionary acts. The statement
contains a mentioning utteranc what he is feeling as well as
what the reasons that are mad him dissatisfied.
4) An Acts of Answering in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between student and Aang (00:17:14. Part 2)
Student: “Now what do us do?”
Aang: “This is when you start dancing”.
(The scene happened in a cave the hideaway where
Aang’s team would held to dance party)
The conversation shows when Aang was inviting the
students to attend in his cave. The invitation was to make
the fire’s students known the dance. Although, the
government of Fire Nation forbade everything about dance,
in fact Aang still arranged it. In the dialogue above, a
student asked what they should do. Then, “start to dance”
118
Aang responsed it. The italic sentence is included into
“expositives” type of illocutionary acts. It is because the
utterance contains of answering utterance.
5) An Acts of Believing in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Aang and Sokka (00:08:22. Part 1)
Aang: “Me?”
Sokka: “Yep, the whole world thinks you’re dead. Is not
that great?”
Aang: “The world thinks I am dead. How is that good
news? That’s terrible”.
(The scene happened in the middle of discussion between
Aang and his team to plan the invasion. Sokka appointed
Aang to target his idea. It made Aang in a secret)
The illocutionary acts from Aang’s utterance shows
that he denied about Sokka’s plan. After the Ba Sing’s war,
the world believed that Aang killed. Thus, Sokka was
continuing their assumption to hide Aang. The italic
sentence is included “expositives” type of illocutionary acts.
It is because the utterance contains the believing utterance.
119
6) An Acts of Calling in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Aang and student (00:17:03. Part 2)
Aang: “Ladies and gentlemen! The flamey-os!
Yeah, this ought to get everybody moving”.
(The scene happened when the dance party was readying
to start. Aang called the students begun to dance by
freestyle)
The illocutionary acts from Aang’s utterance showed
that he called everyone in the cave to move. The invitation
is included into “expositives” type of illocutionary acts. It is
because the statement contains the calling utterance.
7) An Acts of Reporting in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between headmaster and Mrs .Fire (00:14:00. Part
2)
Headmaster: ”Mr. and Mrs. Of fire, your son has been
enrolled here for two days and he’s already causing
problems. He’s argued with his history teacher, disrupted
music class, and roughed up my star pupil”.
Mrs. Fire: “My goodness. That does not sound like our
Kuzon”.
120
(The conversation happened in headmaster’s office when
the headmaster was calling Aang’s parent to discuss the
manner of their kid)
The illocutionary acts from Headmaster’s utterance
indicated that he reported some mistakes made by Aang.
The headmaster reported that Aang made trouble in the
class music and involved the fight with his friend. So, the
headmaster invited Aang’s parent about the considering
with Aang’s attitude. The italic sentence is included
“expositives” type of illocutionary acts. It is because the
utterance contains reporting utterance.
8) An Acts of Asking in the Avatar Script Movie
a) Dialogue between Aang and Katara (00:08:33. Part 1)
Aang: “No. No. No.
You have no idea. This is so messed up. I‘ll handle this. The
Avatar is back”.
Katara: “Aang! Wait!
Remember, they do not know we are not Fire Nation”.
(The dialogue happened when Katara was blocking Aang)
121
The illocutionary acts from Katara’s utterance
showed that she was blocking Aang to handle the charge
from fire’s armies. Katara asked Aang to consider what the
effect if Fire’s armies knew him. It would damage their
plan. The italic sentence is included into “expositives” type
of illocutionary acts. It is because the statement contains
asking utterance.
122
CHAPTER V
CLOSURE
This chapter contains closure on the research that consists of conclusion and
suggestion. Conclusion discuss about the final finding. In suggestion tells more
about an increment of ideas that will dedicate to the next researcher to find
objective research and to use theory that will support the research.
A. Conclusion
After analyzing the data in the previous chapter, the researcher gets some
sentences which included in parts of Speech Acts. The conclusions were
drawn based on the formulated problem research. Those are:
1.
The script movie on “Avatar the Last Air-bender” movie contains the
types of general speech acts theory when the main characters utter the
words in their conversation by using the utterances in the form of
rhetorical strategies, such as directness, literalness, and interaction of
directness and literalness. Then the researcher founds the conclusion of
the general speech acts. Those are 26 examples types of speech acts
which consist of three categories. The researcher finds dialogues in the
movie script, such as:
a. Directness; there are 3 conversations of direct speech acts and 4
conversations of indirect speech acts;
b.
Literalness; the finding are 4 literal speech acts and 3 non literal
speech acts.
123
c. Indirectness and literalness; they are 5 direct and literal speech acts,
2 direct and non literal speech acts, 2 indirect and literal speech acts,
and 3 indirect and non literal speech acts.
2.
The script movie on “Avatar the Last Air-bender” movie contains the
types of speech acts in Ausitn’s categories of illocutionary acts when the
main characters utter the sentences in the dialogue in the form of
rhetorical strategies. The researcher found 53 examples of Austin’s
categories of illocutionary acts. There are five categories which is
included in Austin theory. First, verdictives. It has 10 parts. They are
estimating, grading, locating, reckoning, characterizing, rule, describing,
analyzing, interpret as, and calculating. The researcher finds 11
examples. Second, exercitives. That has 7 parts such as; appointing,
voting, ordering, urging, advising, choosing, and warning. The findings
are 10 dialogues. Third, commissives which has 6 parts such as;
opposing, undertaking, agreeing, purposing, planning, and adopting. The
commissives shows in 9 examples. Fourth, behabitives consists of 11
parts they are complimenting, apologizing, congratulating, overlooking,
criticizing, welcoming, thanking, wishing, commending, felicity, and
applauding. The researcher has 12 examples in this category. Fifth,
expositives which includes in 8 parts such as denying, remarking,
mentioning, answering, believing, calling, asking, and reporting. There
are 9 examples of expositives type.
124
3.
The final study contributes for:
a. Theoretical Benefits
This research is carried out as the support of speech acts theory in
the development of linguistic theories. The writer hopes this study
will be beneficial for the other researchers in a research.
b. Practical Benefits
After implementing the research, the researcher expects that these
researches are contributed for:
1) The research
To show the strategies to interest the students in language
learning process by script movie analyze. Besides, this research
chooses the familiar cartoon movie that used simple language. It
makes the students learn easily.
2) The Lecturer
To show the strategies to interest the students in language
learning process by script movie analyze. Besides, this research
chooses the familiar cartoon movie that used simple language. It
makes the students learn easily.
3) The Students
By film manuscript about speech act, the student will be easily to
deepen the material and apply in daily communication. The
researcher as well as introduce to the students that study
language is so fun.
125
4) Other Researcher
5) This research is simple analysis as an increment the other
researchers or the readers.
B. Suggestion
According to the findings of this research, the researcher suggests that
the next researcher who use speech acts in the objective research should add
more references such as Geoffrey Leech and Searle. This research focus on
Austin’s theory about the categories of illocutionary acts. In Austin’s book
“How to Do things with Words” shows theory how words are connected with
action. Besides, Austin divides types of illocutionary acts five categories such
as verdictives, exercitives, commissives, behabitives, and expositives. In
addition to, theory of speech acts in Austin’s book has extended by Leech and
Searle who are his students. Geoffrey Leech in his book with title “Principle
of Pragmatics” more specific explains about speech acts. Whereas, in John
Searle’s book entitled “Speech Acts Essay in The Philosophy of Language”
tells more about the implication of speech act in application of language.
Leech and Searle’s theories commonly still general production. Both of them
more clarify Austin’s theory. The explanation more elaborated in their book.
Its caused they applied the theory with a simple language that easily to
analyze the objective research.
126
REFERENCE
Arikunto, Suharsimi, Prof. Dr. 1998. Procedure Penelitian. PT. Rineka Cipta:
Jakarta.
Sudaryanto. 1993. Metode dan Aneka Teknik Analisis Bahasa. Duta Wacan
University Press: Yogyakarta.
Austin, J.L.1978. How to Do Things with Words. Harvard University Press:
United State America.
Parker, Frank. 1986. Linguistic for Non Linguistics. Department of English
Lousiana State University: London.
Searle, Jhon R.1977. Speech Acts Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Syndics
of the Cambridge University Press: London.
Yule, George. 1996. Pragmatics. Oxford University Press: London
Mey, L. Jacob. 1998. Concise Encyclopedia of Pragmatics. Odessen University:
Elsever.
Leech, Geoffrey. 1991. Principle of Pragmatics. Longman Singapore Publishers:
Singapore.
Lyons, Jhon. 1996. Linguistic Semantics. Great Britain in the University Press:
Cambridge.
Lado, Robert. 1964. Language Teaching. United States of America
127
128
CURRICULUM VITAE
Name
: Minarsih
Place and Date Of Birth
: Semarang, August 27th, 1992
Address
: Nongo, Muara Teweh, North Barito, Central Borneo
Mobile Phone
: 082251317844
Living now
: Morangan, Suruh, Semarang regency
Living
: Nongo, Muara Teweh, Barito Utara, Kalteng
Siblings
: A sister and a brother
Favorite food
: Ketoprak, Bakso, Mie ayam, Sate, Gado-gado,
Rolade, Bakwan malang, Tape goreng, Pisang
goreng, buntil, pepes, etc)
Favorite drink
: Dawet ayu and kopi deplok.
Hobby
: Badminton
NIM
: 11309003
Education Background
: Elementary School in MIN Muara Teweh, North
Barito, Central Borneo (2003)
Junior High School in MTsN Muara Teweh, North
Barito, Central Borneo (2006)
Senior High School in MAN 1 Salatiga, Central
Java (2009)
University in State Institute of Islamic Studies
Salatiga, Central Java. (2014)
129
Motto
: Good communication comes from people to people,
but great communication comes from people to Allah
(Reza M Syarief, Motivator Muslim)
We will be a champion when we are able to beat our
self (The Writer)
Inspiration People
: Muhammad Prophet
Motivation People
: Pa’e, Ma’e, Mas Lis, and my Ounny.
Big Dreams
: [email protected]
130
131
132
133
134
135