Sustainable Tour Operating ?

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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Environmental Management in the Business Chain
Environmental Management in the Business Chain
Silvia Hendriks Reibestein
Silvia Hendriks Reibestein
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Environmental Management in the Business Chain
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Environmental Management in the Business Chain
MSc Thesis
Leisure, Tourism & Environment
MSc Thesis
Leisure, Tourism & Environment
Wageningen University
Chair Group Socio Spatial Analysis
Wageningen University
Chair Group Socio Spatial Analysis
Author: Silvia Hendriks Reibestein
Examiner: Dr. V.R. van der Duim,
Dr. L.M. van den Berg
Author: Silvia Hendriks Reibestein
Examiner: Dr. V.R. van der Duim,
Dr. L.M. van den Berg
Student code: 620603-684-090
Thesis code: 80436
Date: March 2007
Student code: 620603-684-090
Thesis code: 80436
Date: March 2007
Preface
Preface
The combination of sustainable tourism with the “WORK HARD/PLAY HARD” culture
as a contracting manager was always a challenge to me when I was still running
around preparing the ‘perfect’ product for tour operators. Therefore, it was an
obvious subject for me to write a thesis about.
The combination of sustainable tourism with the “WORK HARD/PLAY HARD” culture
as a contracting manager was always a challenge to me when I was still running
around preparing the ‘perfect’ product for tour operators. Therefore, it was an
obvious subject for me to write a thesis about.
Nevertheless, at a certain point during my studies I stopped and didn’t think I
would pick it up again. As is described in this thesis, sometimes the initiative for
action has to come from the ‘outside’. Two people took this initiative for which I
want to thank them, Jan-Willem te Kloeze en Marlies van der Riet set the ball rolling again which inspired me to finish the studies with this thesis.
Nevertheless, at a certain point during my studies I stopped and didn’t think I
would pick it up again. As is described in this thesis, sometimes the initiative for
action has to come from the ‘outside’. Two people took this initiative for which I
want to thank them, Jan-Willem te Kloeze en Marlies van der Riet set the ball rolling again which inspired me to finish the studies with this thesis.
Also, I want to thank the people who supported this research by providing me
with all the practical means to accomplish it. René van der Duim provided me with
constructive criticism, helpful ideas and a lot of patience! Ruud de Vroom, Selim
Lapa and Luis Rivero Correa made sure I had some very comfortable trips to do
the research in Lanzarote and Antalya. And of course, the kind cooperation of the
tour operators, the incoming agents and many others within these destinations
provided me with the building blocks to finish it.
Also, I want to thank the people who supported this research by providing me
with all the practical means to accomplish it. René van der Duim provided me with
constructive criticism, helpful ideas and a lot of patience! Ruud de Vroom, Selim
Lapa and Luis Rivero Correa made sure I had some very comfortable trips to do
the research in Lanzarote and Antalya. And of course, the kind cooperation of the
tour operators, the incoming agents and many others within these destinations
provided me with the building blocks to finish it.
Moreover, for my mother and Zeno nothing was ever too difficult or too much,
which was always a very reassuring thought during all the times I spent away from
home. Thank you both enormously for that!
Moreover, for my mother and Zeno nothing was ever too difficult or too much,
which was always a very reassuring thought during all the times I spent away from
home. Thank you both enormously for that!
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Index
Index
SUMMARY
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1
Tour operators’ representation in foreign tourist destinations
1.2
Central Research Question
1.3
Research Objectives and Sub Questions
1.4
Selected Destinations
1.5
Methodology
CHAPTER 2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
CHAPTER 3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
TRANSLATION
Translation
Social Learning
2.2.1
Orienting Concepts
Power
Existing translation resources for the interaction between
tour operators and local agents
Existing translation resources of local agents
19
19
22
23
26
28
30
2.5
METHODS
Data Collection
Data Analysis
Validation
Participating Tour Operators
Participating Local Agents
32
32
34
35
37
39
CHAPTER 3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
41
41
42
43
44
46
49
49
50
CHAPTER 4 TRANSLATION ANALYSIS TOUR OPERATORS
4.1
Product-oriented Environmental Management System –PMZ
4.2
Tour Operating & PMZ
4.2.1
Organizational Engagement to PMZ
4.2.2
Awareness Sustainable Tourism
4.2.3
Awareness Destination Characteristics
4.3
Translation Resources
4.3.1
Communication & Learning
4.3.2
Power & Negotiation
CHAPTER 4 TRANSLATION ANALYSIS TOUR OPERATORS
4.1
Product-oriented Environmental Management System –PMZ
4.2
Tour Operating & PMZ
4.2.1
Organizational Engagement to PMZ
4.2.2
Awareness Sustainable Tourism
4.2.3
Awareness Destination Characteristics
4.3
Translation Resources
4.3.1
Communication & Learning
4.3.2
Power & Negotiation
Page
SUMMARY
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1
Tour operators’ representation in foreign tourist destinations
1.2
Central Research Question
1.3
Research Objectives and Sub Questions
1.4
Selected Destinations
1.5
Methodology
11
13
15
15
17
17
CHAPTER 2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
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-6-
11
13
15
15
17
17
TRANSLATION
Translation
Social Learning
2.2.1
Orienting Concepts
Power
Existing translation resources for the interaction between
tour operators and local agents
Existing translation resources of local agents
19
19
22
23
26
METHODS
Data Collection
Data Analysis
Validation
Participating Tour Operators
Participating Local Agents
32
32
34
35
37
39
28
30
41
41
42
43
44
46
49
49
50
CHAPTER 5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
CHAPTER 6
6.1
6.2
6.3
PMZ ‘TRANSLATION’ IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS
Antalya
5.1.1
Tourism Take-Off
5.1.2
Political Arena
Present-day developments
Local Agents Antalya
5.3.1
Awareness Sustainable Tourism
5.3.2
Interaction with Dutch Tour Operators
5.3.3
Interaction with Local Stakeholders
5.3.4
Organisational Engagement to Sustainable Tourism
Lanzarote
5.4.1
Introduction
5.4.2
Present-day developments
5.4.3
Political Backdrop
Local Agents Lanzarote
5.5.1
Awareness Sustainable Tourism
5.5.2
Interaction with Dutch Tour operators
5.5.3
Interaction with Local Stakeholders
5.5.4
Organizational Engagement to Sustainable Tourism
53
53
53
54
55
59
59
62
65
68
73
73
74
75
79
79
84
86
88
CHAPTER 5
5.1
CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
Outline Primary Results
Problem Roots
6.2.1
Tour operators
6.2.2
Local Incoming Agents
6.2.3
ANVR – Association of Travel Organizers
6.2.4
Business as Usual ?
Recommendations
6.3.1
Tour Operators
6.3.2
Local Agents
6.3.3
ANVR – Association of Travel Organizers
91
91
94
94
96
97
98
99
99
102
103
CHAPTER 6
6.1
6.2
104
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
6.3
PMZ ‘TRANSLATION’ IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS
Antalya
5.1.1
Tourism Take-Off
5.1.2
Political Arena
Present-day developments
Local Agents Antalya
5.3.1
Awareness Sustainable Tourism
5.3.2
Interaction with Dutch Tour Operators
5.3.3
Interaction with Local Stakeholders
5.3.4
Organisational Engagement to Sustainable Tourism
Lanzarote
5.4.1
Introduction
5.4.2
Present-day developments
5.4.3
Political Backdrop
Local Agents Lanzarote
5.5.1
Awareness Sustainable Tourism
5.5.2
Interaction with Dutch Tour operators
5.5.3
Interaction with Local Stakeholders
5.5.4
Organizational Engagement to Sustainable Tourism
53
53
53
54
55
59
59
62
65
68
73
73
74
75
79
79
84
86
88
CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
Outline Primary Results
Problem Roots
6.2.1
Tour operators
6.2.2
Local Incoming Agents
6.2.3
ANVR – Association of Travel Organizers
6.2.4
Business as Usual ?
Recommendations
6.3.1
Tour Operators
6.3.2
Local Agents
6.3.3
ANVR – Association of Travel Organizers
91
91
94
94
96
97
98
99
99
102
103
104
APPENDICES
APPENDICES
1
2, 2A
3
4
5
Research summary for participants
Prompt list of issues, Interview questions
Invitation to Side training sessions
Sustainable Tourism Contract
Research participants’ contact data
1
2, 2A
3
4
5
110
111
115
116
118
Page
Research summary for participants
Prompt list of issues, Interview questions
Invitation to Side training sessions
Sustainable Tourism Contract
Research participants’ contact data
110
111
115
116
118
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SUMMARY
SUMMARY
The massive variety of tourist destinations presented in travel agencies, Internet
and in many other ways, can be offered to the consumer thanks to a close collaboration between various actors in the tourism business chain.
Following the introduction of the ANVR’s PMZ System (Product-oriented
Environmental Management System) among the Dutch tour operators in 2003,
each tour operators’ PMZ Action Plan needed to be embedded in the collaboration with the business partners abroad. Therefore, the focus of this research is on
the role of sustainable tourism in the business chain. Whether it plays a part, and
the weight of this part in the collaboration between the tour operators and the
incoming local agents, resulted in the following central research question:
How does the introduction of the Product-oriented Environmental Management
System (PMZ) contribute to the translation of sustainable tourism in the tourism
business chains and which role can local agents play in this translation process?
The massive variety of tourist destinations presented in travel agencies, Internet
and in many other ways, can be offered to the consumer thanks to a close collaboration between various actors in the tourism business chain.
Following the introduction of the ANVR’s PMZ System (Product-oriented
Environmental Management System) among the Dutch tour operators in 2003,
each tour operators’ PMZ Action Plan needed to be embedded in the collaboration with the business partners abroad. Therefore, the focus of this research is on
the role of sustainable tourism in the business chain. Whether it plays a part, and
the weight of this part in the collaboration between the tour operators and the
incoming local agents, resulted in the following central research question:
How does the introduction of the Product-oriented Environmental Management
System (PMZ) contribute to the translation of sustainable tourism in the tourism
business chains and which role can local agents play in this translation process?
Translation reflects the methods and resources that can be used to associate with
other actors in the business chain and to establish networks. Chapter 2 starts out
with a theoretical description of two processes that can stimulate the translation
process regarding sustainable tourism: Social Learning and Power. Moreover, it
describes the existing resources used in this business chain interaction that relate
to communication, learning and power.
Translation reflects the methods and resources that can be used to associate with
other actors in the business chain and to establish networks. Chapter 2 starts out
with a theoretical description of two processes that can stimulate the translation
process regarding sustainable tourism: Social Learning and Power. Moreover, it
describes the existing resources used in this business chain interaction that relate
to communication, learning and power.
The primary and secondary research data and in-depth interviews with seven
Dutch tour operators and their local incoming agents in two mass-tourism destinations, resulted in three explanatory case studies. The cases describe the implementation of the PMZ action program of the participating tour operators in their
collaboration with the incoming travel agents in the destinations Lanzarote (Spain)
and Antalya (Turkey).
The primary and secondary research data and in-depth interviews with seven
Dutch tour operators and their local incoming agents in two mass-tourism destinations, resulted in three explanatory case studies. The cases describe the implementation of the PMZ action program of the participating tour operators in their
collaboration with the incoming travel agents in the destinations Lanzarote (Spain)
and Antalya (Turkey).
In Chapter 4, the first case study gives a general picture of the participating tour
operators’ vision on sustainable tourism. The participating mainstream tour operators were selected on their ANVR membership and the inclusion of Lanzarote or
Antalya in their product supply in the year 2006.
A striking lack of awareness and engagement with the concept of sustainable
tourism became evident. The lack of engagement emerged from the minimal
attention for sustainable tourism or PMZ within the organization’s corporate cultures. Moreover, the responsibility for local environmental or social issues was
mostly shifted to the local actors.
Furthermore, the tour operators describe the communication, learning, power and
negotiation with the local agents in Lanzarote and Antalya. Obviously all these
resources are used, except when it concerns PMZ issues. These were not considered relevant to include in the dialogue with local agents. PMZ issues don’t play a
In Chapter 4, the first case study gives a general picture of the participating tour
operators’ vision on sustainable tourism. The participating mainstream tour operators were selected on their ANVR membership and the inclusion of Lanzarote or
Antalya in their product supply in the year 2006.
A striking lack of awareness and engagement with the concept of sustainable
tourism became evident. The lack of engagement emerged from the minimal
attention for sustainable tourism or PMZ within the organization’s corporate cultures. Moreover, the responsibility for local environmental or social issues was
mostly shifted to the local actors.
Furthermore, the tour operators describe the communication, learning, power and
negotiation with the local agents in Lanzarote and Antalya. Obviously all these
resources are used, except when it concerns PMZ issues. These were not considered relevant to include in the dialogue with local agents. PMZ issues don’t play a
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role since sustainable tourism is not considered commercially relevant or negotiable.
role since sustainable tourism is not considered commercially relevant or negotiable.
Chapter 5 presents the vision on sustainable tourism from the viewpoint of these
tour operators’ local incoming agents in Lanzarote and Antalya. The case study of
each destination begins with a brief description of the destinations’ social and
environmental context. The general description of the local agents’ approach to
sustainable tourism did not comply with many tour operators’ expectations. The
awareness of sustainable tourism issues was omnipresent. The local agents are also
aware of possibilities for action but they lack the initiative to implement them. In
both destinations, a more intensive PMZ interaction with the Dutch tour operators
could result in more local initiatives for sustainable tourism.
Chapter 5 presents the vision on sustainable tourism from the viewpoint of these
tour operators’ local incoming agents in Lanzarote and Antalya. The case study of
each destination begins with a brief description of the destinations’ social and
environmental context. The general description of the local agents’ approach to
sustainable tourism did not comply with many tour operators’ expectations. The
awareness of sustainable tourism issues was omnipresent. The local agents are also
aware of possibilities for action but they lack the initiative to implement them. In
both destinations, a more intensive PMZ interaction with the Dutch tour operators
could result in more local initiatives for sustainable tourism.
Overall, PMZ has not been included in the daily routines of the participating tour
operators yet. Therefore, the PMZ interaction between these two important actors
in the tourism business chain is minimal due to the lack of communication on sustainable tourism within tour operating until now.
Nevertheless, the interest and awareness of sustainable tourism among the participating local incoming agents was clearly present. Through dialogue, the product
managers and local agents could share their understandings of PMZ issues, which
could provide a doorway to more initiative for sustainable tourism in many mainstream tourist destinations. In Chapter 6 the recommendations contain accessible
and down-to-earth suggestions to reach for a shift within the corporate culture of
contract and product managers. By taking the taboo off PMZ and sustainable
tourism within this corporate culture, and by including it in the dialogue with local
agents, it can lead to tangible sustainable results, also in mass-tourism destinations.
Overall, PMZ has not been included in the daily routines of the participating tour
operators yet. Therefore, the PMZ interaction between these two important actors
in the tourism business chain is minimal due to the lack of communication on sustainable tourism within tour operating until now.
Nevertheless, the interest and awareness of sustainable tourism among the participating local incoming agents was clearly present. Through dialogue, the product
managers and local agents could share their understandings of PMZ issues, which
could provide a doorway to more initiative for sustainable tourism in many mainstream tourist destinations. In Chapter 6 the recommendations contain accessible
and down-to-earth suggestions to reach for a shift within the corporate culture of
contract and product managers. By taking the taboo off PMZ and sustainable
tourism within this corporate culture, and by including it in the dialogue with local
agents, it can lead to tangible sustainable results, also in mass-tourism destinations.
Page
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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Within the tourism industry it is generally agreed that the increasing environmental concerns in society will raise the demand for more sustainable destinations and
travel preferences. In return, these preferences and demands will increase the
pressure for destination management policies and tour operator responsibility. The
tourist destination developments of the 1960/70s, which were the result of overbuilding, are expected to face severe decline as consumers look for more attractive destinations that feature a clean environment and well preserved natural and
cultural attractions (Dodds et al, 2005). Because of these societal concerns an
increasing number of tour operators try to enhance their corporate behavior from
the perspective of sustainable tourism.
Within the tourism industry it is generally agreed that the increasing environmental concerns in society will raise the demand for more sustainable destinations and
travel preferences. In return, these preferences and demands will increase the
pressure for destination management policies and tour operator responsibility. The
tourist destination developments of the 1960/70s, which were the result of overbuilding, are expected to face severe decline as consumers look for more attractive destinations that feature a clean environment and well preserved natural and
cultural attractions (Dodds et al, 2005). Because of these societal concerns an
increasing number of tour operators try to enhance their corporate behavior from
the perspective of sustainable tourism.
The sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism for which a suitable balance must be established.
According to the World Tourism Organization (2004), “sustainable tourism guidelines and management practices are applicable to all forms of tourism in all types
of destinations, including mass tourism and the various niche tourism segments.”
The sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism for which a suitable balance must be established.
According to the World Tourism Organization (2004), “sustainable tourism guidelines and management practices are applicable to all forms of tourism in all types
of destinations, including mass tourism and the various niche tourism segments.”
Sustainable tourism doesn’t come about spontaneously; it needs to be pursued
consciously and consistently by the numerous actors in the tourism chain. The
consistency is hampered by the fact that the international character of this business process also involves many political differences which can offer the international actors many ‘escapes’ from the innovation (In ‘t Veld et al, 2006). For example in Spain the financial influx for the local governments (Ayuntamiento or
Cabildo) depends for a large part on their approvals for new urbanizations. The
Ayuntamientos are eager to exchange large stretches of mountainous or agricultural land for buildings and golf courses because they need the money. The ecological consequences are rarely taken into consideration at the time the decisionmaking process takes place. According to many Spanish hoteliers this is the main
cause of unsustainable tourism (Sidrach de Cardona Toral, pers.com.).
However, working actively with suppliers based in the tourist destination can generate action from local authorities by sending a clear message about visitors’ and
companies’ priorities for action. As more suppliers begin to adopt sustainable practices, the public sector also needs to respond by supporting sustainable practices
for public utilities and infrastructure, such as solid waste treatment facilities, recycling opportunities, wastewater treatment plants and public transport (www.toinitiative.org). Even though many ‘mainstream’ tourism companies proclaim to support the concept of sustainable tourism, little is known about the efforts of implementation within the international company networks.
Sustainable tourism doesn’t come about spontaneously; it needs to be pursued
consciously and consistently by the numerous actors in the tourism chain. The
consistency is hampered by the fact that the international character of this business process also involves many political differences which can offer the international actors many ‘escapes’ from the innovation (In ‘t Veld et al, 2006). For example in Spain the financial influx for the local governments (Ayuntamiento or
Cabildo) depends for a large part on their approvals for new urbanizations. The
Ayuntamientos are eager to exchange large stretches of mountainous or agricultural land for buildings and golf courses because they need the money. The ecological consequences are rarely taken into consideration at the time the decisionmaking process takes place. According to many Spanish hoteliers this is the main
cause of unsustainable tourism (Sidrach de Cardona Toral, pers.com.).
However, working actively with suppliers based in the tourist destination can generate action from local authorities by sending a clear message about visitors’ and
companies’ priorities for action. As more suppliers begin to adopt sustainable practices, the public sector also needs to respond by supporting sustainable practices
for public utilities and infrastructure, such as solid waste treatment facilities, recycling opportunities, wastewater treatment plants and public transport (www.toinitiative.org). Even though many ‘mainstream’ tourism companies proclaim to support the concept of sustainable tourism, little is known about the efforts of implementation within the international company networks.
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
In The Netherlands the Netherlands Association of Tour operators (ANVR) has
introduced the so called ‘Product-oriented Environmental Management System’
(PMZ, see paragraph 4.1) which all the members had to introduce and implement
before the end of 2003 (Duim, 2005). In order to give information about the PMZ
system a course has been developed for tour operators. According to the ANVR
(2006) this PMZ aims especially at the ecological and social sustainability of products offered by the ANVR members, which for an important part consist of accommodations and excursions in foreign destinations. It is a pragmatic approach of
what a tour operator can do regarding sustainable tourism. All ANVR tour operators have agreed to take the following measures (Egmond, 2004):
In The Netherlands the Netherlands Association of Tour operators (ANVR) has
introduced the so called ‘Product-oriented Environmental Management System’
(PMZ, see paragraph 4.1) which all the members had to introduce and implement
before the end of 2003 (Duim, 2005). In order to give information about the PMZ
system a course has been developed for tour operators. According to the ANVR
(2006) this PMZ aims especially at the ecological and social sustainability of products offered by the ANVR members, which for an important part consist of accommodations and excursions in foreign destinations. It is a pragmatic approach of
what a tour operator can do regarding sustainable tourism. All ANVR tour operators have agreed to take the following measures (Egmond, 2004):
1
2
1
2
3
4
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Set up an environmental policy statement.
Set up an environmental program with at least one measure on each of
the following issues; transport, residence, entertainment/excursions,
internal environmental care, client information.
Appointment of an Environmental Coordinator who has finished the PMZ
course.
Not offering travel products which figure on the list of ‘irresponsible
travel products’.
3
4
Set up an environmental policy statement.
Set up an environmental program with at least one measure on each of
the following issues; transport, residence, entertainment/excursions,
internal environmental care, client information.
Appointment of an Environmental Coordinator who has finished the PMZ
course.
Not offering travel products which figure on the list of ‘irresponsible
travel products’.
Since the introduction of the PMZ, all Dutch ANVR tour operators must work
according to these guidelines for a more sustainable tourism. For example within
the company they use recyclable goods in their offices, they communicate their
sustainable behavior to the office employees and to their clients by some brief
information in the travel catalogue and sometimes on their Internet websites.
Furthermore, some tour operators try to include more sustainable products within
their product line which becomes visible in the catalogues.
Since the introduction of the PMZ, all Dutch ANVR tour operators must work
according to these guidelines for a more sustainable tourism. For example within
the company they use recyclable goods in their offices, they communicate their
sustainable behavior to the office employees and to their clients by some brief
information in the travel catalogue and sometimes on their Internet websites.
Furthermore, some tour operators try to include more sustainable products within
their product line which becomes visible in the catalogues.
Since the tourism networks are extremely large and complex, most tour operators
work with local incoming agencies (hereafter referred to as local agents) that can
provide them with services in the tourist destination. These local agents provide
facilities such as the reception of the tourists in the airports upon arrival, the transfers of the tourists to the accommodations, assistance to the local representative
etc. Moreover, they are closely involved in the development of the tour operators’
product line. It seems obvious that it is important that these central ‘nodes’
(Duim, 2005) are also well informed of the need to work more sustainable both
internally as well as externally. This research was an attempt to explore the communicative interaction with, and the role of the local agent in the advancement of
sustainable tourism in the tourism business chain.
Since the tourism networks are extremely large and complex, most tour operators
work with local incoming agencies (hereafter referred to as local agents) that can
provide them with services in the tourist destination. These local agents provide
facilities such as the reception of the tourists in the airports upon arrival, the transfers of the tourists to the accommodations, assistance to the local representative
etc. Moreover, they are closely involved in the development of the tour operators’
product line. It seems obvious that it is important that these central ‘nodes’
(Duim, 2005) are also well informed of the need to work more sustainable both
internally as well as externally. This research was an attempt to explore the communicative interaction with, and the role of the local agent in the advancement of
sustainable tourism in the tourism business chain.
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For the research two ‘mass tourism’ destinations were selected which both gained
an important position in the product supply of many Dutch tour operators over a
similar period of time. In both destinations the attention from the European
tourist industry initiated approximately in the seventies. Thus, both destinations
have presumably encountered comparable influences from the international
tourist industry. Both Lanzarote and Antalya swiftly became major tourist destinations for the European market which had an important impact on the local socioeconomic and environmental circumstances. The destination contexts and its influence on the behavior of the local actors provided the settings of the case descriptions.
For the research two ‘mass tourism’ destinations were selected which both gained
an important position in the product supply of many Dutch tour operators over a
similar period of time. In both destinations the attention from the European
tourist industry initiated approximately in the seventies. Thus, both destinations
have presumably encountered comparable influences from the international
tourist industry. Both Lanzarote and Antalya swiftly became major tourist destinations for the European market which had an important impact on the local socioeconomic and environmental circumstances. The destination contexts and its influence on the behavior of the local actors provided the settings of the case descriptions.
1.1
1.1
Tour operators’ representation in foreign tourist destinations
Tour operators’ representation in foreign tourist destinations
Tourism is increasingly analyzed in terms of ‘chains’. The tourism business chain
depends on complex chains of distribution involving specialized activities such as
transportation, retailing, storage etc. There are many producers providing a small
part of the complete tourism product (Duim and Caalders, 2005). The local agents
play an important role in building and maintaining the relations between local
businesses and international tour operators and they provide in-depth knowledge
of the destination to the tour operators. Among the local businesses they work
with are accommodation suppliers, transport companies, excursion suppliers, car
rental companies, international and local tourist guides and others.
Tourism is increasingly analyzed in terms of ‘chains’. The tourism business chain
depends on complex chains of distribution involving specialized activities such as
transportation, retailing, storage etc. There are many producers providing a small
part of the complete tourism product (Duim and Caalders, 2005). The local agents
play an important role in building and maintaining the relations between local
businesses and international tour operators and they provide in-depth knowledge
of the destination to the tour operators. Among the local businesses they work
with are accommodation suppliers, transport companies, excursion suppliers, car
rental companies, international and local tourist guides and others.
Most Dutch tour operators have a person in charge of product development who
decides which products and services are most suitable for inclusion in the product
line. In preparation to this, the local agents are informed of the companies’ wishes with regard to the new product line and instructed to find suitable products. In
order to familiarize themselves with the various destinations and the suppliers, the
product/contract managers regularly visit them and keep in close contact with the
local agents. Through these regular visits a relationship with the local providers is
gradually built up. However, these relationships remain rather superficial since in
most cases, they only meet personally when new contract conditions need to be
discussed. By the accommodation suppliers the relationships are often perceived
as quite problematic (Buhalis, 2000). In their perception the tour operators often
do not treat them as ‘partners’ but more often as opponents. This attitude illustrates the important position the incoming agents have facilitating the translation 1
between these parties.
Most Dutch tour operators have a person in charge of product development who
decides which products and services are most suitable for inclusion in the product
line. In preparation to this, the local agents are informed of the companies’ wishes with regard to the new product line and instructed to find suitable products. In
order to familiarize themselves with the various destinations and the suppliers, the
product/contract managers regularly visit them and keep in close contact with the
local agents. Through these regular visits a relationship with the local providers is
gradually built up. However, these relationships remain rather superficial since in
most cases, they only meet personally when new contract conditions need to be
discussed. By the accommodation suppliers the relationships are often perceived
as quite problematic (Buhalis, 2000). In their perception the tour operators often
do not treat them as ‘partners’ but more often as opponents. This attitude illustrates the important position the incoming agents have facilitating the translation 1
between these parties.
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1
Translation refers to the methods of interaction by which actors form
associations with other actors (Duim, 2005).
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1
Translation refers to the methods of interaction by which actors form
associations with other actors (Duim, 2005).
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For example often, varying per destination, the new conditions are already prenegotiated by the local agent and merely need to be formalized by the visiting
tour operator. And even though many large tour operators offer a better sense of
security on financial matters, the relationships with smaller tour operators are considered superior since they are more personal and respectful, which leads to better co-operation with the accommodation suppliers. This finding by Buhalis
(2000) reconfirms the importance of interpersonal relationships for a well functioning network.
For example often, varying per destination, the new conditions are already prenegotiated by the local agent and merely need to be formalized by the visiting
tour operator. And even though many large tour operators offer a better sense of
security on financial matters, the relationships with smaller tour operators are considered superior since they are more personal and respectful, which leads to better co-operation with the accommodation suppliers. This finding by Buhalis
(2000) reconfirms the importance of interpersonal relationships for a well functioning network.
The relationship of the local providers with the incoming agent is more stable and
profound since both parties have a very intense contact throughout the tourist
season. The accommodation managers meet with the incoming agents frequently
to speak about the ongoing business of all the tour operators the incoming agent
represents, and often also to socialize.
The relationship of the local providers with the incoming agent is more stable and
profound since both parties have a very intense contact throughout the tourist
season. The accommodation managers meet with the incoming agents frequently
to speak about the ongoing business of all the tour operators the incoming agent
represents, and often also to socialize.
Furthermore, the entire staff of the incoming agent is in daily contact with the
providers in order to organize events and tours, pass on reservations to the hotels,
payments, assist the tourists, solve problems etc. According to Bastakis et al
(2003), the human-based relationship with the incoming agent is extremely
important for small- and medium-sized local tourism entrepreneurs that often lack
the knowledge about market trends, alternative sources of finance etc.. Thus, it is
essential that the tour operator knows that the local agent has the capacity to
know and act at a distance. Trust lies at the root of any sustainable form of cooperation (Appelman, 2004).
Furthermore, the entire staff of the incoming agent is in daily contact with the
providers in order to organize events and tours, pass on reservations to the hotels,
payments, assist the tourists, solve problems etc. According to Bastakis et al
(2003), the human-based relationship with the incoming agent is extremely
important for small- and medium-sized local tourism entrepreneurs that often lack
the knowledge about market trends, alternative sources of finance etc.. Thus, it is
essential that the tour operator knows that the local agent has the capacity to
know and act at a distance. Trust lies at the root of any sustainable form of cooperation (Appelman, 2004).
Because of this influential position towards their local and international business
partners, their communication on a more sustainable kind of tourism can have a
very large impact, both locally as well as internationally. For example for the local
transfers and bus-excursions they can insist on the use of ‘clean’ busses, the
choice of excursions can be enlarged with more sustainable products, local accommodation suppliers can be influenced to work more sustainable and local politicians can be stimulated to adjust and initiate policies which could enhance the
positive attitude of the local entrepreneurs towards sustainable tourism. Such a
social change may require a transformation in thinking and learning.
Because of this influential position towards their local and international business
partners, their communication on a more sustainable kind of tourism can have a
very large impact, both locally as well as internationally. For example for the local
transfers and bus-excursions they can insist on the use of ‘clean’ busses, the
choice of excursions can be enlarged with more sustainable products, local accommodation suppliers can be influenced to work more sustainable and local politicians can be stimulated to adjust and initiate policies which could enhance the
positive attitude of the local entrepreneurs towards sustainable tourism. Such a
social change may require a transformation in thinking and learning.
An important learning process that all actors are subject to, is the ‘social learning’
process. Through the interaction with others, people continue to acquire and
deepen their awareness and knowledge on issues that affect them. This increasing awareness and knowledge can be a stimulus to adjust their behavior with
regard to some of these issues.
The introduction of the PMZ system was coupled to some organizational measures
An important learning process that all actors are subject to, is the ‘social learning’
process. Through the interaction with others, people continue to acquire and
deepen their awareness and knowledge on issues that affect them. This increasing awareness and knowledge can be a stimulus to adjust their behavior with
regard to some of these issues.
The introduction of the PMZ system was coupled to some organizational measures
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which the ANVR members had to implement. For example, the awareness and knowledge of the employees of the tour operator on environmental issues and
problems should be enhanced and evaluated on a regular basis. Moreover, by
means of a regular internal communication the employees should be engaged in the
companies’ PMZ objectives and activities. Therefore, since the introduction of the PMZ
system, it can be assumed that the social learning process and awareness of the environmental impact of tourism has increased among the tour operator staff members and
thus, has led to a more active communicative interaction on this subject with their local
agents.
which the ANVR members had to implement. For example, the awareness and knowledge of the employees of the tour operator on environmental issues and
problems should be enhanced and evaluated on a regular basis. Moreover, by
means of a regular internal communication the employees should be engaged in the
companies’ PMZ objectives and activities. Therefore, since the introduction of the PMZ
system, it can be assumed that the social learning process and awareness of the environmental impact of tourism has increased among the tour operator staff members and
thus, has led to a more active communicative interaction on this subject with their local
agents.
1.2
1.2
Central Research Question
Central Research Question
The assumption was that the introduction of the PMZ system had increased the environmental awareness among tour operator staff members, and had resulted in an active
communication and learning process on PMZ issues between the tour operators and the
local agents. In order to verify this assumption, and determine the impact of the PMZ
system on the collaboration of these actors in the business chain, the following central
research question was formulated:
The assumption was that the introduction of the PMZ system had increased the environmental awareness among tour operator staff members, and had resulted in an active
communication and learning process on PMZ issues between the tour operators and the
local agents. In order to verify this assumption, and determine the impact of the PMZ
system on the collaboration of these actors in the business chain, the following central
research question was formulated:
How does the introduction of the Dutch Product-oriented Environmental Management
System (PMZ) contribute to the translation of ‘sustainable tourism’ in the tourism business chains and which role can local agents play in this translation process?
How does the introduction of the Dutch Product-oriented Environmental Management
System (PMZ) contribute to the translation of ‘sustainable tourism’ in the tourism business chains and which role can local agents play in this translation process?
1.3
1.3
Research Objectives and Sub questions
Research Objectives and Sub questions
The research attempts to reveal the communication strategies, learning processes and
power relations between some tour operators and their local agents with regard to more
sustainable practices. It illustrates the impact of these resources on the local agents’
company awareness and behavior. Moreover, it aims to reveal the local agents’ awareness and capabilities to attain this end. In which way does social learning and empowerment2 take place between the actors?
The research attempts to reveal the communication strategies, learning processes and
power relations between some tour operators and their local agents with regard to more
sustainable practices. It illustrates the impact of these resources on the local agents’
company awareness and behavior. Moreover, it aims to reveal the local agents’ awareness and capabilities to attain this end. In which way does social learning and empowerment2 take place between the actors?
In the research the focus was on the sustainability of the natural environment. The participating tour operators revealed and elaborated on their communication strategies.
The local agents elaborated on their perception of this communication and on the
impact it can have on the subjective and normative character of their decision-making
when environmental externalities3 are involved, and on the way some of their decisions
have been implemented.
In the research the focus was on the sustainability of the natural environment. The participating tour operators revealed and elaborated on their communication strategies.
The local agents elaborated on their perception of this communication and on the
impact it can have on the subjective and normative character of their decision-making
when environmental externalities3 are involved, and on the way some of their decisions
have been implemented.
2
3
Empowerment: an increased responsibility through the formation of a common will, as
a means to facilitate action.
In this paper, externalities refer to the environmental impacts within the destination
stemming from the three main elements of tourism: transport, accommodation and
activities.
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2
3
Empowerment: an increased responsibility through the formation of a common will, as
a means to facilitate action.
In this paper, externalities refer to the environmental impacts within the destination
stemming from the three main elements of tourism: transport, accommodation and
activities.
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The analysis and recommendations can be used to revise the translation process
by both actors in the chain.
The analysis and recommendations can be used to revise the translation process
by both actors in the chain.
Sub questions
Sub questions
1
1
To what extent does PMZ lead to ‘translation’ of sustainable tourism
among tour operators and local agents?
To what extent does PMZ lead to ‘translation’ of sustainable tourism
among tour operators and local agents?
The translation process largely depends on the communicative interaction and
learning processes in the tourism business chain. Therefore, the first question is
divided in sub-questions with regard to the orienting concepts of social learning.
These orienting concepts are further described in paragraph 2.2.1.
The translation process largely depends on the communicative interaction and
learning processes in the tourism business chain. Therefore, the first question is
divided in sub-questions with regard to the orienting concepts of social learning.
These orienting concepts are further described in paragraph 2.2.1.
1 a To what extent does PMZ contribute to the dialogue and negotiation on
sustainable tourism?
1 a To what extent does PMZ contribute to the dialogue and negotiation on
sustainable tourism?
1 b To what extent does PMZ incite reflection and system orientation with
regard to sustainable tourism among tour operators and local agents?
1 b To what extent does PMZ incite reflection and system orientation with
regard to sustainable tourism among tour operators and local agents?
2
Are there clear differences in PMZ communication between the participating tour operators and the local agents, and do these differences affect
the local agents’ attitude and behavior?
2
Are there clear differences in PMZ communication between the participating tour operators and the local agents, and do these differences affect
the local agents’ attitude and behavior?
3
To what extent do local agents feel empowered by the Tour
Operators’ PMZ communication?
3
To what extent do local agents feel empowered by the Tour
Operators’ PMZ communication?
4
To what extent can local agents influence the commercial decision-making process of the tour operators which will affect their destinations’
product supply?
4
To what extent can local agents influence the commercial decision-making process of the tour operators which will affect their destinations’
product supply?
5
Which resources4 do tour operators use to persuade a local agent to work
sustainable and search for more sustainable products?
5
Which resources4 do tour operators use to persuade a local agent to work
sustainable and search for more sustainable products?
6
Which resources can local agents use to influence other local actors
towards sustainable behavior?
6
Which resources can local agents use to influence other local actors
towards sustainable behavior?
7
What recommendations can be made to improve the translation
process for sustainable tourism in the tourism business chain?
7
What recommendations can be made to improve the translation
process for sustainable tourism in the tourism business chain?
4
Resources refers to the material and immaterial instruments used in the
interaction with other actors. Material instruments can be contracts, written
documents, payments etc.. Immaterial instruments can be for example
power and personal relations.
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4
Resources refers to the material and immaterial instruments used in the
interaction with other actors. Material instruments can be contracts, written
documents, payments etc.. Immaterial instruments can be for example
power and personal relations.
1.4
Selected destinations
1.4
Selected destinations
The first destination under research was the island of Lanzarote. The Canary
Islands are a very important destination for all mainstream tour operators that
have Spain in their product line. Apart from a striking landscape they offer a
whole year round ‘product-supply’ due to the climate which remains around 22
degrees and sunny.
The first destination under research was the island of Lanzarote. The Canary
Islands are a very important destination for all mainstream tour operators that
have Spain in their product line. Apart from a striking landscape they offer a
whole year round ‘product-supply’ due to the climate which remains around 22
degrees and sunny.
“Lanzarote is an island full of striking contrasts. Although the whole Canary archipelago is volcanic, it is on Lanzarote where the recent volcanic history is most
evident. Lanzarote is an island with many picturesque beaches, featuring golden
sand and crystalline waters. Lanzarote developed within certain aesthetic guidelines and… above all… without spoiling the island’s landscape heritage, customs
and traditions.” (www.turismolanzarote.com, 2006)
“Lanzarote is an island full of striking contrasts. Although the whole Canary archipelago is volcanic, it is on Lanzarote where the recent volcanic history is most
evident. Lanzarote is an island with many picturesque beaches, featuring golden
sand and crystalline waters. Lanzarote developed within certain aesthetic guidelines and… above all… without spoiling the island’s landscape heritage, customs
and traditions.” (www.turismolanzarote.com, 2006)
The above tourist guide’s description of Lanzarote is quite conflicting with the
information published by Greenpeace in July 2006 about the destructive activities
to the Spanish coastlines due to tourism. In this publication they elaborated on
local plans in Lanzarote to construct approx. 2200 new tourist units which would
endanger some endemic plants (www.greenpeace.org, 2006).
The above tourist guide’s description of Lanzarote is quite conflicting with the
information published by Greenpeace in July 2006 about the destructive activities
to the Spanish coastlines due to tourism. In this publication they elaborated on
local plans in Lanzarote to construct approx. 2200 new tourist units which would
endanger some endemic plants (www.greenpeace.org, 2006).
A second destination was researched in order to compare the translation process
and its effects on the awareness and behavior of local agents in quite different
destinations. Antalya (Turkey) is still a relatively ‘young’ tourist destination where
construction of tourist accommodation and facilities is still happening on a large
scale. Because the market demand for Turkey is very instable, the influence of
tour operators in that area may have a big impact on the behavior of local agents
and thus, on many local actors.
A second destination was researched in order to compare the translation process
and its effects on the awareness and behavior of local agents in quite different
destinations. Antalya (Turkey) is still a relatively ‘young’ tourist destination where
construction of tourist accommodation and facilities is still happening on a large
scale. Because the market demand for Turkey is very instable, the influence of
tour operators in that area may have a big impact on the behavior of local agents
and thus, on many local actors.
The research also illuminated some contextual differences between these destinations, and its influence on the local actors’ awareness and engagement to sustainable tourism.
The research also illuminated some contextual differences between these destinations, and its influence on the local actors’ awareness and engagement to sustainable tourism.
1.5
1.5
Methodology
The interpretive research was founded on a qualitative methodology. Prior to the
field work, secondary data on the available translation resources were collected
through Internet and through correspondence with local incoming agents currently active in Turkey, Spain and Greece.
Subsequently, several mainstream Dutch tour operators with ANVR membership,
and their representative incoming local agents in Lanzarote and Antalya, have par-
Methodology
The interpretive research was founded on a qualitative methodology. Prior to the
field work, secondary data on the available translation resources were collected
through Internet and through correspondence with local incoming agents currently active in Turkey, Spain and Greece.
Subsequently, several mainstream Dutch tour operators with ANVR membership,
and their representative incoming local agents in Lanzarote and Antalya, have parPage
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ticipated in this research. The research procedures specifying the objectives,
methodologies and results, are illustrated in the figure below.
The methodology is described in detail in Chapter 3.
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ticipated in this research. The research procedures specifying the objectives,
methodologies and results, are illustrated in the figure below.
The methodology is described in detail in Chapter 3.
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CHAPTER 2
2.1
TRANSLATION
CHAPTER 2
Translation
2.1
TRANSLATION
Translation
Translation reflects the methods by which actors form associations with other
actors, actor-networks and chains are established and stabilized. Furthermore, it
refers to the processes of negotiation and representation between actors (Duim,
2005). Within the tourism chain the local agent is crucial since it is the facilitator
of the communication process between the international tour operators, the local
suppliers and local politicians (Örnek, pers.com.) and, last but not least, the consumers. Within the translation process power relations play an important role as
well. Power can be interpreted as a relational phenomenon conceived as a way to
make others act in a manipulated manner, but also as the formation of a common
will and as a means to facilitate action (empowerment). Thus, power can result in
an increased responsibility through the positive strengths of collaborative association (Allen in Duim, 2005: 128).
Translation reflects the methods by which actors form associations with other
actors, actor-networks and chains are established and stabilized. Furthermore, it
refers to the processes of negotiation and representation between actors (Duim,
2005). Within the tourism chain the local agent is crucial since it is the facilitator
of the communication process between the international tour operators, the local
suppliers and local politicians (Örnek, pers.com.) and, last but not least, the consumers. Within the translation process power relations play an important role as
well. Power can be interpreted as a relational phenomenon conceived as a way to
make others act in a manipulated manner, but also as the formation of a common
will and as a means to facilitate action (empowerment). Thus, power can result in
an increased responsibility through the positive strengths of collaborative association (Allen in Duim, 2005: 128).
The translation process can be divided into four moments: problematization,
interessement, enrolment and mobilization (Duim, 2005).
Problematization, defined as the efforts to convince other actors that a project is
an indispensable solution to something which they perceive as problem (Duim,
2005), has passed when the ANVR has implemented the PMZ regulation for all
ANVR members as a ‘niche’ strategy which may lead to a more sustainable tourism
industry. Interessement, the process of translating an actor’s concerns and views
into those of others within the network, should be taking place since its introduction and should lead to enrolment if it is successful. Enrolment in the case of the
participating actors is taking place if their awareness of sustainability issues has
increased and their behavior has been adjusted in the desired direction.
Mobilization will take place if the network behavior has been successfully translated and all known means, both social and technological, are used throughout the
actor-network in order to work as sustainable as possible.
The translation process can be divided into four moments: problematization,
interessement, enrolment and mobilization (Duim, 2005).
Problematization, defined as the efforts to convince other actors that a project is
an indispensable solution to something which they perceive as problem (Duim,
2005), has passed when the ANVR has implemented the PMZ regulation for all
ANVR members as a ‘niche’ strategy which may lead to a more sustainable tourism
industry. Interessement, the process of translating an actor’s concerns and views
into those of others within the network, should be taking place since its introduction and should lead to enrolment if it is successful. Enrolment in the case of the
participating actors is taking place if their awareness of sustainability issues has
increased and their behavior has been adjusted in the desired direction.
Mobilization will take place if the network behavior has been successfully translated and all known means, both social and technological, are used throughout the
actor-network in order to work as sustainable as possible.
Successful niche management depends on the quality of learning and the quality
of institutional embedding (Hoogma, Kemp et al, 2002). Therefore, the translation process of the PMZ ‘niche’ strategy is highly dependent on the communication and learning processes within the actor-network. Even though it is not explicitly described as such within the PMZ measures, it seems that the PMZ also has
learning goals which are to change awareness and behavior, to change/adapt a
subsystem in society (the tourism enterprises) in order to create a better and more
sustainable tourism environment. To reach an optimal PMZ and to continue and
accelerate the processes of transformation towards more sustainable business,
learning is essential. Communication can support ‘single-loop learning’ which can
Successful niche management depends on the quality of learning and the quality
of institutional embedding (Hoogma, Kemp et al, 2002). Therefore, the translation process of the PMZ ‘niche’ strategy is highly dependent on the communication and learning processes within the actor-network. Even though it is not explicitly described as such within the PMZ measures, it seems that the PMZ also has
learning goals which are to change awareness and behavior, to change/adapt a
subsystem in society (the tourism enterprises) in order to create a better and more
sustainable tourism environment. To reach an optimal PMZ and to continue and
accelerate the processes of transformation towards more sustainable business,
learning is essential. Communication can support ‘single-loop learning’ which can
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lead to practical improvements like i.e. office adjustments and consumer information. By ‘single-loop learning’ an instrumental learning is meant which changes the
strategies of action without changing the underlying values (Argyris and Schon,
1996). However, the implementation of PMZ should not merely be a question of
incorporating its practical implications within companies’ internal operations; it
should involve a critical review of the companies’ values and corporate culture
through self reflection. Moreover, it should spread out across the entire business
chains’ activities. Therefore, ‘double-loop learning’ is needed which can stimulate
actors to take new information into consideration and can accelerate a learning
process where conceptions, values and technologies are not only tested, but questioned and explored.
lead to practical improvements like i.e. office adjustments and consumer information. By ‘single-loop learning’ an instrumental learning is meant which changes the
strategies of action without changing the underlying values (Argyris and Schon,
1996). However, the implementation of PMZ should not merely be a question of
incorporating its practical implications within companies’ internal operations; it
should involve a critical review of the companies’ values and corporate culture
through self reflection. Moreover, it should spread out across the entire business
chains’ activities. Therefore, ‘double-loop learning’ is needed which can stimulate
actors to take new information into consideration and can accelerate a learning
process where conceptions, values and technologies are not only tested, but questioned and explored.
To bind and involve many stakeholders with completely different knowledge
backgrounds and different social contexts is extremely complicated which is why
‘social learning’ has to take place to learn to appreciate the diversity and stimulate
behavioral changes. The concept of ‘social learning’ includes the interactions
between people as possibilities or opportunities for meaningful learning (Wals et
al, 2004). It is a process of iterative reflection that occurs when we share our
experiences, ideas and environments with others (Keen et al, 2005). Especially the
interaction between the tour operators’ environmental managers and
product/contract managers with the local agents might lead to social learning,
which could be one of the strengths of the PMZ system. Social relationships such
as power relations, cultural norms and communication networks can support or
hinder the learning process.
Effective learning demands an environment of openness, trust, dialogue and
empowerment. “Trust and cooperative learning facilitate both recognition and
transcendence of knowledge, action and communication boundaries” (Keen et al,
2005). If the social relationships are used as a means to improve the learning
process they can be supportive. The participants must learn to see and accept
their interrelatedness and interdependency and the possibility to learn from each
other. Then, the parties that are involved will learn, feel the new ideas are ‘theirs’
and will be committed to them.
Another important influence on the process of translation is power. According to
Duim (2005) “power in tourism chains is a relational effect”. It is drawn from the
manner in which resources are mobilized over variable time spans in variable locations. For example a tour operator which is relatively unknown in the Netherlands,
can have a great deal of power in a tourist destination. It may be that all of its
clients have been sent to that destination over a certain period of time due to
which the company is in high regard with the local suppliers. Another example can
be the knowledge of a well functioning local agent, a typical example of the
proverb ‘knowledge is power’. The local agent must inform the tour operator of
To bind and involve many stakeholders with completely different knowledge
backgrounds and different social contexts is extremely complicated which is why
‘social learning’ has to take place to learn to appreciate the diversity and stimulate
behavioral changes. The concept of ‘social learning’ includes the interactions
between people as possibilities or opportunities for meaningful learning (Wals et
al, 2004). It is a process of iterative reflection that occurs when we share our
experiences, ideas and environments with others (Keen et al, 2005). Especially the
interaction between the tour operators’ environmental managers and
product/contract managers with the local agents might lead to social learning,
which could be one of the strengths of the PMZ system. Social relationships such
as power relations, cultural norms and communication networks can support or
hinder the learning process.
Effective learning demands an environment of openness, trust, dialogue and
empowerment. “Trust and cooperative learning facilitate both recognition and
transcendence of knowledge, action and communication boundaries” (Keen et al,
2005). If the social relationships are used as a means to improve the learning
process they can be supportive. The participants must learn to see and accept
their interrelatedness and interdependency and the possibility to learn from each
other. Then, the parties that are involved will learn, feel the new ideas are ‘theirs’
and will be committed to them.
Another important influence on the process of translation is power. According to
Duim (2005) “power in tourism chains is a relational effect”. It is drawn from the
manner in which resources are mobilized over variable time spans in variable locations. For example a tour operator which is relatively unknown in the Netherlands,
can have a great deal of power in a tourist destination. It may be that all of its
clients have been sent to that destination over a certain period of time due to
which the company is in high regard with the local suppliers. Another example can
be the knowledge of a well functioning local agent, a typical example of the
proverb ‘knowledge is power’. The local agent must inform the tour operator of
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local news, and is well informed by the tour operator of the market characteristics,
new trends, market opportunities etc. At the same time, the suppliers in the
tourist destination identify with the local agent and consider it a local entrepreneur
with a high level of foreign market-information. It means that various actors in
the chain (tour operators and local suppliers) depend for a large part on the information provided by the local agent which can be an important influence on their
business decisions.
local news, and is well informed by the tour operator of the market characteristics,
new trends, market opportunities etc. At the same time, the suppliers in the
tourist destination identify with the local agent and consider it a local entrepreneur
with a high level of foreign market-information. It means that various actors in
the chain (tour operators and local suppliers) depend for a large part on the information provided by the local agent which can be an important influence on their
business decisions.
In Mediterranean cultures another power element can have an important influence
in the decision making processes of individual actors. By anthropologists referred
to as patronage, is the attachment between individuals, ‘patrons’ and ‘clients’. It
is a relation of reciprocity between people of unequal social background, which
can mobilize attitudes and behavior (Albera et al, 2001). These patronage systems
are highly ambiguous and flexible and derive their dynamism from a continuous
interplay between two parties; the competition between patrons for clients, and
the leverage clients have to change patrons. In brief; patrons provide access to
resources, clients provide political support. Nowadays a common way to describe
these contacts and activities is by using the word ‘networking’.
In Mediterranean cultures another power element can have an important influence
in the decision making processes of individual actors. By anthropologists referred
to as patronage, is the attachment between individuals, ‘patrons’ and ‘clients’. It
is a relation of reciprocity between people of unequal social background, which
can mobilize attitudes and behavior (Albera et al, 2001). These patronage systems
are highly ambiguous and flexible and derive their dynamism from a continuous
interplay between two parties; the competition between patrons for clients, and
the leverage clients have to change patrons. In brief; patrons provide access to
resources, clients provide political support. Nowadays a common way to describe
these contacts and activities is by using the word ‘networking’.
A last example of a “relational effect” of power (Duim, 2005) is often overlooked
by Dutch tour operators. Many tour operators believe that the Dutch industry
does not have much power in foreign tourist destinations, due to the difference in
scale with the English and German tour operators. However, in each destination
this can vary because of this relational effect, because in many tourist destinations
the Dutch tour operators are quite well esteemed. They are considered stable and
trustworthy partners, financially reliable, they try to spread the visitors over the
season and the clients are usually regarded as pleasant and polite.
A last example of a “relational effect” of power (Duim, 2005) is often overlooked
by Dutch tour operators. Many tour operators believe that the Dutch industry
does not have much power in foreign tourist destinations, due to the difference in
scale with the English and German tour operators. However, in each destination
this can vary because of this relational effect, because in many tourist destinations
the Dutch tour operators are quite well esteemed. They are considered stable and
trustworthy partners, financially reliable, they try to spread the visitors over the
season and the clients are usually regarded as pleasant and polite.
These representations of power actually point to resources that can be mobilized
and used to incite and facilitate empowerment of other actors, and it underlines
that it is not possible to decide beforehand which of the actors in tourism networks
is of most significance. Their relations need to be described based on empirical
research (Johannesson, 2005).
These representations of power actually point to resources that can be mobilized
and used to incite and facilitate empowerment of other actors, and it underlines
that it is not possible to decide beforehand which of the actors in tourism networks
is of most significance. Their relations need to be described based on empirical
research (Johannesson, 2005).
As communication, social learning and power are important elements in the translation of sustainable tourism in the business chain, they are focused on hereafter.
Therefore, when referring to the translation process, a combination of these three
elements is implied.
As communication, social learning and power are important elements in the translation of sustainable tourism in the business chain, they are focused on hereafter.
Therefore, when referring to the translation process, a combination of these three
elements is implied.
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2.2
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Social Learning
2.2
Social Learning
Observing one’s pattern of behavior is the first step toward doing something to
affect it. People form personal standards partly on the basis of how significant persons in their lives have reacted to their behavior. Standards can be acquired
through direct tuition as well as through the evaluative reactions of others towards
one’s behavior (Bandura, 1991). The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes
the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of
continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences.
Observing one’s pattern of behavior is the first step toward doing something to
affect it. People form personal standards partly on the basis of how significant persons in their lives have reacted to their behavior. Standards can be acquired
through direct tuition as well as through the evaluative reactions of others towards
one’s behavior (Bandura, 1991). The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes
the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of
continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences.
Argyris and Schon (1996) propose two types of learning; single- and double-loop
learning. Single loop learning refers to changes in routine behaviors, skills and
practices. It refers to instrumental learning that can change strategies of action,
without affecting the underlying values of a theory of action. For example, many
tour operators believe they work sustainable if they have adjusted their office interiors to sustainable standards. They do not believe that the local environmental
problems in the tourist destinations are their responsibility. It is when they would
learn that e.g. the economical power and drive of the tour operators has incited
and incites the local people in many destinations to make environmentally
unfriendly constructions and use environmentally unfriendly means of transport, it
would be ‘double-loop learning’. Double-loop learning pertains to question and
change underlying assumptions and values of theories-in-use. It inspires to question and change the values and norms that are the foundation for the operating
assumptions and actions.
Argyris and Schon (1996) propose two types of learning; single- and double-loop
learning. Single loop learning refers to changes in routine behaviors, skills and
practices. It refers to instrumental learning that can change strategies of action,
without affecting the underlying values of a theory of action. For example, many
tour operators believe they work sustainable if they have adjusted their office interiors to sustainable standards. They do not believe that the local environmental
problems in the tourist destinations are their responsibility. It is when they would
learn that e.g. the economical power and drive of the tour operators has incited
and incites the local people in many destinations to make environmentally
unfriendly constructions and use environmentally unfriendly means of transport, it
would be ‘double-loop learning’. Double-loop learning pertains to question and
change underlying assumptions and values of theories-in-use. It inspires to question and change the values and norms that are the foundation for the operating
assumptions and actions.
An interesting example of interessement through social learning is with the Finnish
tour operator FTS. With approx. 300.000 passengers yearly this organization considers the ecological and social environment to be important sales arguments for
the tourist destinations. Because of this, FTS has developed a corporate policy for
sustainable tourism which aims to activate their business partners towards sustainable tourism. In this process, the Manager Sustainable Tourism plays a key
role. Initially the accommodation suppliers need to fill out a checklist, which is followed up by a personal meeting with FTS’ Manager Sustainable Tourism. Through
these personal meetings, this manager hopes to involve all the local actors and to
engage them for sustainable behavior. This involvement and engagement clearly
stimulates the environmental consciousness of their business partners (Egmond,
2004).
An interesting example of interessement through social learning is with the Finnish
tour operator FTS. With approx. 300.000 passengers yearly this organization considers the ecological and social environment to be important sales arguments for
the tourist destinations. Because of this, FTS has developed a corporate policy for
sustainable tourism which aims to activate their business partners towards sustainable tourism. In this process, the Manager Sustainable Tourism plays a key
role. Initially the accommodation suppliers need to fill out a checklist, which is followed up by a personal meeting with FTS’ Manager Sustainable Tourism. Through
these personal meetings, this manager hopes to involve all the local actors and to
engage them for sustainable behavior. This involvement and engagement clearly
stimulates the environmental consciousness of their business partners (Egmond,
2004).
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2.2.1
Orienting Concepts
2.2.1
Orienting Concepts
To bind and involve many stakeholders with completely different knowledge
backgrounds and different social contexts is extremely complicated which is why
‘social learning’ has to take place to learn to appreciate the diversity and stimulate
behavioral changes. ‘The quality of learning is crucial in building an organization
that is dedicated to producing innovation and ready to change to meet the
demands of the environment’ (Argyris, 1993). The introduction of PMZ is an
innovation which can affect numerous actors on a local and global level which
makes it important for the actors to work, but also to learn together. The learning process requires negotiation and dialogue to identify points of (dis)agreement.
To bind and involve many stakeholders with completely different knowledge
backgrounds and different social contexts is extremely complicated which is why
‘social learning’ has to take place to learn to appreciate the diversity and stimulate
behavioral changes. ‘The quality of learning is crucial in building an organization
that is dedicated to producing innovation and ready to change to meet the
demands of the environment’ (Argyris, 1993). The introduction of PMZ is an
innovation which can affect numerous actors on a local and global level which
makes it important for the actors to work, but also to learn together. The learning process requires negotiation and dialogue to identify points of (dis)agreement.
Some orienting concepts which can help the assessment of the actors’ interactions
and social learning process are: reflection, systems orientation, negotiation and
participation (Keen et al, 2005). The existence of a combination of these concepts
in an actors’ way of thinking, could lay the foundation of a double-loop learning
process; a change of values. A brief clarification of these orienting concepts is
outlined hereunder. Through the in-depth interviews these concepts were interpreted and described in the case studies.
Some orienting concepts which can help the assessment of the actors’ interactions
and social learning process are: reflection, systems orientation, negotiation and
participation (Keen et al, 2005). The existence of a combination of these concepts
in an actors’ way of thinking, could lay the foundation of a double-loop learning
process; a change of values. A brief clarification of these orienting concepts is
outlined hereunder. Through the in-depth interviews these concepts were interpreted and described in the case studies.
Reflection can lead to new learning but can also be rather difficult to do since critical reviews on previous activities should be done continuously and can be quite
confronting. Some insight into a persons’ reflection process can be developed by
following the steps of diagnosing what matters, designing what could be done
about it, implementing the solution and evaluating and reflecting on the practical
experiences. These steps provide a framework for reflection on actions and ideas,
and on the relationship between knowledge, values and behavior. From reflecting
on practical experiences a deeper understanding can develop, which is a learning
process and can also be a stimulus to search for more information. This kind of
reflection can also reveal how for example cultural and political contexts affect a
persons’ learning process and activities. Since the collaborations between the
actors in the tourism business chain take place in many different contexts, reflection is considered an important element of social learning
Reflection can lead to new learning but can also be rather difficult to do since critical reviews on previous activities should be done continuously and can be quite
confronting. Some insight into a persons’ reflection process can be developed by
following the steps of diagnosing what matters, designing what could be done
about it, implementing the solution and evaluating and reflecting on the practical
experiences. These steps provide a framework for reflection on actions and ideas,
and on the relationship between knowledge, values and behavior. From reflecting
on practical experiences a deeper understanding can develop, which is a learning
process and can also be a stimulus to search for more information. This kind of
reflection can also reveal how for example cultural and political contexts affect a
persons’ learning process and activities. Since the collaborations between the
actors in the tourism business chain take place in many different contexts, reflection is considered an important element of social learning
Systems orientation is when actors take multiple processes into account to provide
an understanding of an integrated framework. A combination of the separate elements can obtain new characteristics when they are combined, also depending on
the context. For example a ‘private beach’ at a hotel can be considered a comfortable and pleasant feature of the accommodation by a tour operator. Such a
‘private beach’ may have negative consequences for the local inhabitants who are
obliged to travel far if they want to enjoy a beach, it may disrupt a local tradition
of mussel-fishing, or have another ecological side effect.
If however a variety of social and ecological consequences of the ‘private’ beach
Systems orientation is when actors take multiple processes into account to provide
an understanding of an integrated framework. A combination of the separate elements can obtain new characteristics when they are combined, also depending on
the context. For example a ‘private beach’ at a hotel can be considered a comfortable and pleasant feature of the accommodation by a tour operator. Such a
‘private beach’ may have negative consequences for the local inhabitants who are
obliged to travel far if they want to enjoy a beach, it may disrupt a local tradition
of mussel-fishing, or have another ecological side effect.
If however a variety of social and ecological consequences of the ‘private’ beach
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are included in the consideration it can be regarded as ‘systems orientation’. In this
framework both ecological as well as social processes are integrated and interacting. Through social dialogue and negotiation the different perspectives of the
actors involved are integrated and result in a composite of all the actors’ views on
the problems.
are included in the consideration it can be regarded as ‘systems orientation’. In this
framework both ecological as well as social processes are integrated and interacting. Through social dialogue and negotiation the different perspectives of the
actors involved are integrated and result in a composite of all the actors’ views on
the problems.
Negotiation takes place when actors set up dialogues to address conflicts over
ideas, potential solutions and actual practices. Even though “conflict” usually has
a negative connotation, a very constructive approach to conflict is taken by Brown
(1995, in Keen 2005:15) as follows:
Negotiation takes place when actors set up dialogues to address conflicts over
ideas, potential solutions and actual practices. Even though “conflict” usually has
a negative connotation, a very constructive approach to conflict is taken by Brown
(1995, in Keen 2005:15) as follows:
-
-
Conflict
Conflict
Conflict
Conflict
Conflict
is
is
is
is
is
not a sign of failure; it’s a part of change
a step towards a solution
shared – not the responsibility of a sole actor
part of an ongoing process
a matter for negotiation – not the end of the line.
Conflict
Conflict
Conflict
Conflict
Conflict
is
is
is
is
is
not a sign of failure; it’s a part of change
a step towards a solution
shared – not the responsibility of a sole actor
part of an ongoing process
a matter for negotiation – not the end of the line.
The negotiation process can further be distinguished in two types; distributiveand integrative (Aarts and Van Woerkum, 1999). Distributive negotiations start
from fixed positions, which are held as firmly as possible. Integrative negotiations
start from an interest in or an idea about the desired future. In distributive negotiations the negotiators keep underlying motives to themselves, whereas in integrative negotiations the negotiators are open about their motives, beliefs and
interests and try to share them with their negotiating partners. Furthermore, there
is a concern for the consequences of possible solutions for the other and the negotiators learn to be reflective. Such social learning processes are absent in distributive negotiations.
Generally, negotiation strategies are built on existing certainties towards future
plans. The solutions to environmental problems are often not clear and fixed, but
surrounded by factors which can be perceived as uncertainties by the negotiators.
The negotiation process can further be distinguished in two types; distributiveand integrative (Aarts and Van Woerkum, 1999). Distributive negotiations start
from fixed positions, which are held as firmly as possible. Integrative negotiations
start from an interest in or an idea about the desired future. In distributive negotiations the negotiators keep underlying motives to themselves, whereas in integrative negotiations the negotiators are open about their motives, beliefs and
interests and try to share them with their negotiating partners. Furthermore, there
is a concern for the consequences of possible solutions for the other and the negotiators learn to be reflective. Such social learning processes are absent in distributive negotiations.
Generally, negotiation strategies are built on existing certainties towards future
plans. The solutions to environmental problems are often not clear and fixed, but
surrounded by factors which can be perceived as uncertainties by the negotiators.
Three uncertainties are distinguished by Leeuwis and Pyburn (2002):
Three uncertainties are distinguished by Leeuwis and Pyburn (2002):
1
uncertainties with regard to the outcome of a negotiation; the actors may
consider the suggested solutions desirable or inevitable for the long term,
but they abstain to undertake actions in the short term.
1
uncertainties with regard to the outcome of a negotiation; the actors may
consider the suggested solutions desirable or inevitable for the long term,
but they abstain to undertake actions in the short term.
2
uncertainties with regard to the interaction itself; most people strive for
social approval and prefer to behave tactfully in their interactions. In this
context, questions of honor, status and identity also play an important
role.
2
uncertainties with regard to the interaction itself; most people strive for
social approval and prefer to behave tactfully in their interactions. In this
context, questions of honor, status and identity also play an important
role.
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3
uncertainties with regard to learning; by means of interaction people
learn to recognize each others points of view. However, at the moment of
confrontation with new facts they can be perceived as threatening to the
existing status quo which can create a resistance to learning.
3
uncertainties with regard to learning; by means of interaction people
learn to recognize each others points of view. However, at the moment of
confrontation with new facts they can be perceived as threatening to the
existing status quo which can create a resistance to learning.
These uncertainties can influence the choice between an integrative or distributive
negotiating style by actors, and these negotiating styles can also have a big impact
on the social learning process. Therefore, negotiation is considered an important
orienting concept. By assessing the existence of any of these uncertainties it was
used as an important indicator of the preferred negotiating styles and an actor’s
social learning process.
These uncertainties can influence the choice between an integrative or distributive
negotiating style by actors, and these negotiating styles can also have a big impact
on the social learning process. Therefore, negotiation is considered an important
orienting concept. By assessing the existence of any of these uncertainties it was
used as an important indicator of the preferred negotiating styles and an actor’s
social learning process.
Participation is the level of involvement of the various actors. Learning and
engagement can occur through a variety of participation types, spread across different stages of a project. From a social learning perspective, the level of participation can have an important influence on the single- and double-loop learning
processes. Sharing information both ways can accelerate the learning process and
result in a better understanding and engagement with the other actor. Moreover,
this understanding can improve the environment of openness and trust, essential
for an effective learning process. Nevertheless, rather than interpreting the level
of participation, social learning and engagement as a continuum from bad (coercing) to good (co-acting), in the case studies the types of participation between the
actors was merely indicated. The different types of participation are described
hereunder (Keen et al, 2005: 16).
Participation is the level of involvement of the various actors. Learning and
engagement can occur through a variety of participation types, spread across different stages of a project. From a social learning perspective, the level of participation can have an important influence on the single- and double-loop learning
processes. Sharing information both ways can accelerate the learning process and
result in a better understanding and engagement with the other actor. Moreover,
this understanding can improve the environment of openness and trust, essential
for an effective learning process. Nevertheless, rather than interpreting the level
of participation, social learning and engagement as a continuum from bad (coercing) to good (co-acting), in the case studies the types of participation between the
actors was merely indicated. The different types of participation are described
hereunder (Keen et al, 2005: 16).
TYPE OF
PARTICIPATION
DESCRIPTION
TYPE OF
PARTICIPATION
DESCRIPTION
Coercing
A context of large-scale power imbalance, where the
will of one group is effectively imposed upon the other.
Coercing
A context of large-scale power imbalance, where the
will of one group is effectively imposed upon the other.
Informing
Information is transferred in a one-way flow; there is no
knowledge or sharing of decision making.
Informing
Information is transferred in a one-way flow; there is no
knowledge or sharing of decision making.
Consulting
Information is sought from different groups, but one
group maintains the power to analyze the information
and decide the best course of action.
Consulting
Information is sought from different groups, but one
group maintains the power to analyze the information
and decide the best course of action.
Enticing
Different groups share information and jointly consider
priority issues, but one group maintains power and
entices other groups to act through incentives.
Enticing
Different groups share information and jointly consider
priority issues, but one group maintains power and
entices other groups to act through incentives.
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TYPE OF
PARTICIPATION
DESCRIPTION
TYPE OF
PARTICIPATION
DESCRIPTION
Co-learning
Knowledge is shared to create new understandings and
work together to form action plans, and define roles and
responsibilities. Decision making power is negotiated
within institutional and social constraints.
Co-learning
Knowledge is shared to create new understandings and
work together to form action plans, and define roles and
responsibilities. Decision making power is negotiated
within institutional and social constraints.
Co-acting
Knowledge is shared between the groups engaged in
the activity, but knowledge flows and learning outside
of the groups involved is not assured. Power in decision
making remains with the initiators of the action.
Co-acting
Knowledge is shared between the groups engaged in
the activity, but knowledge flows and learning outside
of the groups involved is not assured. Power in decision
making remains with the initiators of the action.
2.3
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Power
2.3
Power
Social power can be defined as the ability of an actor to create behavioral or opinion changes in another actor. The actors can range from individual people to
entire organizations. The process of delegation 5 between a tour operator and a
local agent enables the exercise of power which is drawn from the way in which
resources are mobilized over variable spans of time and space (Duim, 2005).
There are many resources which can lead to power, such as money, ownership of
land or goods, knowledge, ideas, social influence etc.. A local agents’ influence in
the tour operators’ product supply is an example of power through delegation.
Also, in a country like Turkey personal contacts are very important, and can provide an easy connection and communication with politicians (Lapa, pers.com.).
Social power can be defined as the ability of an actor to create behavioral or opinion changes in another actor. The actors can range from individual people to
entire organizations. The process of delegation 5 between a tour operator and a
local agent enables the exercise of power which is drawn from the way in which
resources are mobilized over variable spans of time and space (Duim, 2005).
There are many resources which can lead to power, such as money, ownership of
land or goods, knowledge, ideas, social influence etc.. A local agents’ influence in
the tour operators’ product supply is an example of power through delegation.
Also, in a country like Turkey personal contacts are very important, and can provide an easy connection and communication with politicians (Lapa, pers.com.).
When these resources are mobilized in a productive and positive collaboration
between actors, it can lead to an increased responsibility or ‘empowerment’ of the
actors concerned. This empowerment then again could be a support towards a
successful translation process between actors.
When these resources are mobilized in a productive and positive collaboration
between actors, it can lead to an increased responsibility or ‘empowerment’ of the
actors concerned. This empowerment then again could be a support towards a
successful translation process between actors.
Literature describes various types of power which can be exercised by individuals
and social groups (Stangor, 2004: 161). These types are presented hereunder.
Literature describes various types of power which can be exercised by individuals
and social groups (Stangor, 2004: 161). These types are presented hereunder.
5
A shift of decision-making authority to an actor with the capacity to know
and act at a distance.
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5
A shift of decision-making authority to an actor with the capacity to know
and act at a distance.
TYPES OF POWER
TYPES OF POWER
Reward power
The ability to distribute positive or negative rewards
Reward power
The ability to distribute positive or negative rewards
Coercive power
The ability to dispense punishments
Coercive power
The ability to dispense punishments
Legitimate power
Authority that comes from a belief on the part of those
being influenced that the person has the legitimate right
to demand compliance
Legitimate power
Authority that comes from a belief on the part of those
being influenced that the person has the legitimate right
to demand compliance
Referent power
Influence based on identification with, attraction to,
respect for, trust in the power holder
Referent power
Influence based on identification with, attraction to,
respect for, trust in the power holder
Expert power
Power that comes from other’s beliefs that the powerholder possesses superior skills and abilities
Expert power
Power that comes from other’s beliefs that the powerholder possesses superior skills and abilities
Informational power
Power that comes from the ability to use information to
persuade others
Informational power
Power that comes from the ability to use information to
persuade others
In the complex translation process between tour operators and local agents,
undoubtedly all types of power are used. Within the research the attention is
focused on the use of varying types of power, and the level of empowerment and
sense of responsibility between the tour operators and the local agents they lead
to.
In the complex translation process between tour operators and local agents,
undoubtedly all types of power are used. Within the research the attention is
focused on the use of varying types of power, and the level of empowerment and
sense of responsibility between the tour operators and the local agents they lead
to.
For example, economic incentives can illustrate both the use of Reward power and
Coercive power. A local agent can give economic penalties or rewards to local suppliers, but depending on the juridical construction, only after consent from the
tour operator.
For example, economic incentives can illustrate both the use of Reward power and
Coercive power. A local agent can give economic penalties or rewards to local suppliers, but depending on the juridical construction, only after consent from the
tour operator.
Referent power is based on social influence. Influence refers to the communication
processes through which individuals or groups attempt to change the thoughts
and behavior of others (Stangor, 2004). The level of influence tour operators and
local agents can have on local actors is dependent on various elements such as the
length of the relationship, the volume of business, and the local actors’ trust in the
tour operator or the local agent.
Referent power is based on social influence. Influence refers to the communication
processes through which individuals or groups attempt to change the thoughts
and behavior of others (Stangor, 2004). The level of influence tour operators and
local agents can have on local actors is dependent on various elements such as the
length of the relationship, the volume of business, and the local actors’ trust in the
tour operator or the local agent.
Expert Power represents a type of informational influence based on the desire to
obtain valid and accurate information. An example of this type of power can be
the knowledge of market demands and (future) market expectations of a tour
Expert Power represents a type of informational influence based on the desire to
obtain valid and accurate information. An example of this type of power can be
the knowledge of market demands and (future) market expectations of a tour
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operator. Knowledge on local juridical, social and environmental issues is an
example of the expert power of a local agent.
operator. Knowledge on local juridical, social and environmental issues is an
example of the expert power of a local agent.
Informational power is based upon the ability of people to influence others by providing information and convincing them that their beliefs are accurate.
Informational power can lead to informational conformity and private acceptance
of new beliefs as a result of gaining new information.
Informational power is based upon the ability of people to influence others by providing information and convincing them that their beliefs are accurate.
Informational power can lead to informational conformity and private acceptance
of new beliefs as a result of gaining new information.
2.4
2.4
Existing translation resources for the interaction between tour operators
and local agents
Existing translation resources for the interaction between tour operators
and local agents
The resources are the means that can be used to frame the interactions between
the actors and render them durable. In the translation process of the PMZ system,
the tour operators’ resources that relate to communication, learning or power are
presented in Box 1.
The resources are the means that can be used to frame the interactions between
the actors and render them durable. In the translation process of the PMZ system,
the tour operators’ resources that relate to communication, learning or power are
presented in Box 1.
Communication
Communication
Telephone
Internet/email
Tourism trade fairs
Checklists
Local representatives
Telephone
Internet/email
Tourism trade fairs
Checklists
Local representatives
Learning
Learning
Purchasing visits in the destinations
Personal meetings to discuss the product planning
Workshops
Printed materials
Questionnaires
Purchasing visits in the destinations
Personal meetings to discuss the product planning
Workshops
Printed materials
Questionnaires
Power
Power
Contract conditions
Economic rewards/sanctions (i.e. handling fee)
Juridical ownership
Market knowledge
Information
Trust
Box 1
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Contract conditions
Economic rewards/sanctions (i.e. handling fee)
Juridical ownership
Market knowledge
Information
Trust
Tour Operator Translation Resources
Box 1
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Tour Operator Translation Resources
Communication
Communication
An intensive interaction between actors is by telephone and email. The frequency
and choice between these two instruments depends on the urgency of the issue
on hand, and on the personal preference of the staff member involved.
An intensive interaction between actors is by telephone and email. The frequency
and choice between these two instruments depends on the urgency of the issue
on hand, and on the personal preference of the staff member involved.
On a yearly basis there are several tourism fairs where many top- and middlemanagement members arrange meetings with business partners and local agents.
For example the Vakantiebeurs in Utrecht, the ITB in Berlin and WTM in London
are very well frequented.
On a yearly basis there are several tourism fairs where many top- and middlemanagement members arrange meetings with business partners and local agents.
For example the Vakantiebeurs in Utrecht, the ITB in Berlin and WTM in London
are very well frequented.
The local representatives can provide information on the local agents’ activities
and cooperation with local suppliers.
The local representatives can provide information on the local agents’ activities
and cooperation with local suppliers.
Learning
Learning
In order to conclude the contracts, the contract managers pay several visits per
year to the destinations.
In order to conclude the contracts, the contract managers pay several visits per
year to the destinations.
Some tour operators invite their local agents to the main office in the Netherlands
on a regular basis, in order for the top management to discuss organizational
issues as well as matters which affect the destination and the planning (De Vroom,
pers.com.).
Some tour operators invite their local agents to the main office in the Netherlands
on a regular basis, in order for the top management to discuss organizational
issues as well as matters which affect the destination and the planning (De Vroom,
pers.com.).
Workshops and printed materials can be given to the agents in order to improve
their knowledge level on important issues.
Workshops and printed materials can be given to the agents in order to improve
their knowledge level on important issues.
If questionnaires are used they should clearly indicate what the information gathered will be used for. A summary report can illustrate the local environmental and
social circumstances and can be illustrative for the areas ‘performance’ with regard
to sustainable tourism.
If questionnaires are used they should clearly indicate what the information gathered will be used for. A summary report can illustrate the local environmental and
social circumstances and can be illustrative for the areas ‘performance’ with regard
to sustainable tourism.
Power
Power
Power can be exercised in several ways, among which are the contract conditions
with the local agent. One of these conditions is the handling fee (amount paid per
person by the tour operator to the local agent) which is renegotiated on a regular
basis.
Power can be exercised in several ways, among which are the contract conditions
with the local agent. One of these conditions is the handling fee (amount paid per
person by the tour operator to the local agent) which is renegotiated on a regular
basis.
Another power resource which is frequently used is the market knowledge of the
tour operator, which can be persuasive and influence the local agents’ behavior.
Another power resource which is frequently used is the market knowledge of the
tour operator, which can be persuasive and influence the local agents’ behavior.
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By sharing the available information with a local agent, that agent will feel more
engaged with the organization and empowered to act on its behalf.
By sharing the available information with a local agent, that agent will feel more
engaged with the organization and empowered to act on its behalf.
Juridical ownership is an important power instrument. Several tour operators are
shareholder in the local agents’ company which can influence the desired behavior.
Juridical ownership is an important power instrument. Several tour operators are
shareholder in the local agents’ company which can influence the desired behavior.
2.5
2.5
Existing translation resources of local agents
Existing translation resources of local agents
The translation resources that can be used by local agents, and relate to communication, learning or power are presented in Box 2.
The translation resources that can be used by local agents, and relate to communication, learning or power are presented in Box 2.
Communication
Communication
Telephone, email/Internet
Publications in media/Internet
Conferences for tourist entrepreneurs
(International) Trade Fairs
Telephone, email/Internet
Publications in media/Internet
Conferences for tourist entrepreneurs
(International) Trade Fairs
Learning
Learning
Workshops for tourist entrepreneurs
Cooperation with local (environmental) NGO’s
Organizing Educational tours for TO staff, government officials
etc. Training of staff members
Workshops for tourist entrepreneurs
Cooperation with local (environmental) NGO’s
Organizing Educational tours for TO staff, government officials
etc. Training of staff members
Power
Power
Payments to local suppliers
Stop-sales
Distribution of contracted allotments among cooperating tour
operators
Influence on tour operator’s choice of suppliers and products
Trust
Box 2
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Payments to local suppliers
Stop-sales
Distribution of contracted allotments among cooperating tour
operators
Influence on tour operator’s choice of suppliers and products
Trust
Incoming Agents Translation Resources
Box 2
Incoming Agents Translation Resources
Communication
Communication
As for other organizations, the most frequent means to contact all the business
partners is through telephone and email. Another important means of communication however is through Internet and the possibility to present information in
As for other organizations, the most frequent means to contact all the business
partners is through telephone and email. Another important means of communication however is through Internet and the possibility to present information in
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(local) newspapers or other publications. These resources can be implemented in
order to spread information towards both local suppliers, other local stakeholders
and to the cooperating tour operators.
(local) newspapers or other publications. These resources can be implemented in
order to spread information towards both local suppliers, other local stakeholders
and to the cooperating tour operators.
Learning
Learning
Learning can be stimulated through for example workshops for local actors such
as the incoming agents’ business partners. Another example of staff training is
described in the TOI website, and regards motivational training on sustainable
tourism to the guides of an incoming agent in Turkey, Vasco Travel. A description
of this training is presented on www.toinitiative.org.
Learning can be stimulated through for example workshops for local actors such
as the incoming agents’ business partners. Another example of staff training is
described in the TOI website, and regards motivational training on sustainable
tourism to the guides of an incoming agent in Turkey, Vasco Travel. A description
of this training is presented on www.toinitiative.org.
Power
Power
In order to present a suitable offer to the tour operator; the local agents make a
pre-selection of the available products. In problematic situations with existing
product suppliers, the local agent can advise the tour operator on how to proceed
with e.g. forthcoming payments, or on the necessity to stop the sales of a specific product.
In order to present a suitable offer to the tour operator; the local agents make a
pre-selection of the available products. In problematic situations with existing
product suppliers, the local agent can advise the tour operator on how to proceed
with e.g. forthcoming payments, or on the necessity to stop the sales of a specific product.
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 3
The research was based on the collection and analysis of qualitative information
with the aim to unravel a network of relationships. Through ‘in-depth’ interviews
the actual integration of the PMZ structure into the business culture and corporate
behaviors was explored. The research was explanatory and had the goal to gain
insight into the interaction of two important actors in the tourism production
chain.
3.1
3.1
Data Collection
Data Collection
Since more than one case was explored, a collective case study approach was
used. The cases describe the opinions and activities of the participating tour operators, the local agents in Lanzarote and the local agents in Antalya. Since the social
and environmental circumstances of these actors are diverse, they are presented in
separate cases.
Since more than one case was explored, a collective case study approach was
used. The cases describe the opinions and activities of the participating tour operators, the local agents in Lanzarote and the local agents in Antalya. Since the social
and environmental circumstances of these actors are diverse, they are presented in
separate cases.
Although the immediate focus was on the interviews with the participants, other
types of data were included in the research process as well. According to Layder
(1998) the recognition of a ‘multi-strategy’ framework can strengthen the production of adequate explanations of empirical data.
Although the immediate focus was on the interviews with the participants, other
types of data were included in the research process as well. According to Layder
(1998) the recognition of a ‘multi-strategy’ framework can strengthen the production of adequate explanations of empirical data.
The case descriptions of the foreign destinations begin with a presentation of the
local context, for which the relevant data were collected in various ways. Prior to
the visit in the destinations, the information was collected through Internet and
through email correspondence with local actors.
The main activities to collect the primary and secondary data during the visit to
the destinations are summarized hereunder.
The case descriptions of the foreign destinations begin with a presentation of the
local context, for which the relevant data were collected in various ways. Prior to
the visit in the destinations, the information was collected through Internet and
through email correspondence with local actors.
The main activities to collect the primary and secondary data during the visit to
the destinations are summarized hereunder.
Primary Data Collection
Primary Data Collection
-
-
-
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METHODS
The research was based on the collection and analysis of qualitative information
with the aim to unravel a network of relationships. Through ‘in-depth’ interviews
the actual integration of the PMZ structure into the business culture and corporate
behaviors was explored. The research was explanatory and had the goal to gain
insight into the interaction of two important actors in the tourism production
chain.
-
Page
METHODS
Making field notes by observing as an ‘outsider’ when moving around the
destination unaccompanied.
Making field notes by observing as an ‘insider’ when moving around the
destination accompanied by local actors.
Visiting and making photographs of prominent local issues, referred to by
the participants.
Unstructured interviews with local actors such as hotel managers and
other staff members in hotels, local representatives etc.
In-depth interviews with the local actors referred to in paragraph 3.4 and
3.5.
-
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Making field notes by observing as an ‘outsider’ when moving around the
destination unaccompanied.
Making field notes by observing as an ‘insider’ when moving around the
destination accompanied by local actors.
Visiting and making photographs of prominent local issues, referred to by
the participants.
Unstructured interviews with local actors such as hotel managers and
other staff members in hotels, local representatives etc.
In-depth interviews with the local actors referred to in paragraph 3.4 and
3.5.
Secondary Data Collection
Written materials provided by the participants and other local actors.
Local newspapers (in Lanzarote).
Secondary Data Collection
Written materials provided by the participants and other local actors.
Local newspapers (in Lanzarote).
The selection criteria for the tour operators were:
•
Membership ANVR;
•
offer of charter flight package holidays to the destinations
Lanzarote and Antalya;
•
mainstream product offer, not specialized on a limited range of
tourist destinations.
The selection criteria for the tour operators were:
•
Membership ANVR;
•
offer of charter flight package holidays to the destinations
Lanzarote and Antalya;
•
mainstream product offer, not specialized on a limited range of
tourist destinations.
The contract or product managers responsible for either Lanzarote or Antalya were
initially approached by telephone with a short description of the research and a
request for participation. Following the telephone conversation, a brief summary
of the research was forwarded by email (Appendix 1). With the exception of the
tour operators indicated in paragraph 3.4, all contacted tour operators agreed to
participate.
The participating tour operators supplied the contact data of the local agents in
the respective destinations, who were then initially asked to participate by email.
From the tour operators who were unable to participate, the local agents were
approached as well. In the cases when there was no reaction to this initial
approach by email it was followed up with telephone calls to fix the appointments.
The primary data collection took place through in-depth interviews with the participating actors. The interviews were semi-structured with a prompt list and openended questions in order not to lose the main direction in the conversations with
the participants. Since both tour operators as well as local agents usually perceive
to be under great time-pressure it was unlikely that they would participate in several sessions, but they were very willing to cooperate to a single round.
The contract or product managers responsible for either Lanzarote or Antalya were
initially approached by telephone with a short description of the research and a
request for participation. Following the telephone conversation, a brief summary
of the research was forwarded by email (Appendix 1). With the exception of the
tour operators indicated in paragraph 3.4, all contacted tour operators agreed to
participate.
The participating tour operators supplied the contact data of the local agents in
the respective destinations, who were then initially asked to participate by email.
From the tour operators who were unable to participate, the local agents were
approached as well. In the cases when there was no reaction to this initial
approach by email it was followed up with telephone calls to fix the appointments.
The primary data collection took place through in-depth interviews with the participating actors. The interviews were semi-structured with a prompt list and openended questions in order not to lose the main direction in the conversations with
the participants. Since both tour operators as well as local agents usually perceive
to be under great time-pressure it was unlikely that they would participate in several sessions, but they were very willing to cooperate to a single round.
Therefore, it was of the utmost importance that the conversation remained
focused on the research issues. The meetings with the tour operators were held in
the head office of the respective company, the local agents were interviewed in
the main office in the respective destination. Hence all the information was provided in a familiar setting to the interviewees. Moreover, the semi-structured
interviews provided a relaxed atmosphere where the researcher could take time to
establish rapport, verbal and non-verbal cues were recorded and included in the
analysis and follow up questions were framed to further extend responses. The
interviews with the tour operators were held in the Dutch language and took on
average 50 min. each. The interviews with the local agents lasted on average 11/2
hour each. Within the tourist destinations the communication with all the local
actors was in the English language. If an interview was held in another language,
Therefore, it was of the utmost importance that the conversation remained
focused on the research issues. The meetings with the tour operators were held in
the head office of the respective company, the local agents were interviewed in
the main office in the respective destination. Hence all the information was provided in a familiar setting to the interviewees. Moreover, the semi-structured
interviews provided a relaxed atmosphere where the researcher could take time to
establish rapport, verbal and non-verbal cues were recorded and included in the
analysis and follow up questions were framed to further extend responses. The
interviews with the tour operators were held in the Dutch language and took on
average 50 min. each. The interviews with the local agents lasted on average 11/2
hour each. Within the tourist destinations the communication with all the local
actors was in the English language. If an interview was held in another language,
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
it is mentioned in the contact data of the participating actors in Appendix 5.
it is mentioned in the contact data of the participating actors in Appendix 5.
In order to be accepted by the participants as an ‘insider’, while introducing the
interview the tour operators and local agents were briefly informed of the professional background of the researcher as tour operator and as incoming agent, with
an acquaintance of both destinations. Moreover, in Antalya most appointments
were made by a local incoming agent who does not represent a Dutch mainstream
tour operator.
In order to be accepted by the participants as an ‘insider’, while introducing the
interview the tour operators and local agents were briefly informed of the professional background of the researcher as tour operator and as incoming agent, with
an acquaintance of both destinations. Moreover, in Antalya most appointments
were made by a local incoming agent who does not represent a Dutch mainstream
tour operator.
The prompt list of issues that was used to focus the conversations and the open
ended questions are listed in Appendix 2 and 2 A.
The prompt list of issues that was used to focus the conversations and the open
ended questions are listed in Appendix 2 and 2 A.
3.2
3.2
Data Analysis
Data Analysis
All the interviews were recorded and transmitted onto a personal computer, and
fully transcribed in Word. Both the audio as well as the written material was used
in the coding process in order not to lose the meaning of verbal cues in the conversations. In rare cases when the comments were made in an abstract manner,
they were interpreted by the researcher. Through this interpretative approach, the
researchers’ prior understandings may be incorporated in the descriptions
(Denzin1989b in Creswell 1998: 206).
All the interviews were recorded and transmitted onto a personal computer, and
fully transcribed in Word. Both the audio as well as the written material was used
in the coding process in order not to lose the meaning of verbal cues in the conversations. In rare cases when the comments were made in an abstract manner,
they were interpreted by the researcher. Through this interpretative approach, the
researchers’ prior understandings may be incorporated in the descriptions
(Denzin1989b in Creswell 1998: 206).
The coding aimed at summarizing the comments made during the conversation
with the participants and to provide a general description of the common features
of the participating tour operators (Chapter 4) and local agents (Chapter 5).
The coding aimed at summarizing the comments made during the conversation
with the participants and to provide a general description of the common features
of the participating tour operators (Chapter 4) and local agents (Chapter 5).
The coding emanated from the research sub-questions and was done by organizing the available texts into categories on the basis of similar features regarding
certain themes and relationships (Miles and Huberman, 1994). The texts were
screened for clear and explicit comments with relevance to the coding, and also
for implicit expressions that related to the coding concept. For example, when categorizing negotiation tactics, the researcher was looking for the information
through various ‘sub-coding’ questions:
The coding emanated from the research sub-questions and was done by organizing the available texts into categories on the basis of similar features regarding
certain themes and relationships (Miles and Huberman, 1994). The texts were
screened for clear and explicit comments with relevance to the coding, and also
for implicit expressions that related to the coding concept. For example, when categorizing negotiation tactics, the researcher was looking for the information
through various ‘sub-coding’ questions:
-
(How) does the interviewee describe the negotiation on sustainable
tourism explicitly?
-
(How) does the interviewee describe the negotiation on sustainable
tourism explicitly?
-
Are the actors willing to listen to the perspective of other actors on the
relationship between the natural environment and tourism?
-
Are the actors willing to listen to the perspective of other actors on the
relationship between the natural environment and tourism?
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-
Are the actors aware of each others’ motives and actions?
-
Are the actors aware of each others’ motives and actions?
The Coding Concepts are described in Box 3. They represent the main coding
issues and the ‘sub-coding’ which was used to complete the picture and for “reading behind the lines”. All the coding was based on the theories described in chapter 2.
The Coding Concepts are described in Box 3. They represent the main coding
issues and the ‘sub-coding’ which was used to complete the picture and for “reading behind the lines”. All the coding was based on the theories described in chapter 2.
•
Sub questions
•
Sub questions
•
Awareness of sustainable tourism; factual knowledge, reflection, system
thinking
•
Awareness of sustainable tourism; factual knowledge, reflection, system
thinking
•
Organizational Engagement
•
Organizational Engagement
•
Behavioral Consequences
•
Behavioral Consequences
•
Power Relation between actors; Trust-Consultation-Participation-Power
types-Trust in the other actor’s knowledge-Level of Empowerment
•
Power Relation between actors; Trust-Consultation-Participation-Power
types-Trust in the other actor’s knowledge-Level of Empowerment
•
Communicative interaction; methods, personal/impersonal, frequency,
main topics, learning
•
Communicative interaction; methods, personal/impersonal, frequency,
main topics, learning
•
Negotiation; Distributive-Integrative
•
Negotiation; Distributive-Integrative
Box 3
Coding Concepts
Box 3
Coding Concepts
The coding of the interviews with the local agents was complemented with:
The coding of the interviews with the local agents was complemented with:
•
Contextual influences; which elements are perceived important and why?
•
Contextual influences; which elements are perceived important and why?
•
Strengths & weaknesses of the current translation process; which elements do the participants mention explicitly?
•
Strengths & weaknesses of the current translation process; which elements do the participants mention explicitly?
3.3
Validation
3.3
Validation
The tour operators were randomly selected for this research and represent a wide
spread in company size and sales methods (both through travel agencies and
through Internet).
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The tour operators were randomly selected for this research and represent a wide
spread in company size and sales methods (both through travel agencies and
through Internet).
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
A bottleneck for the validity is the small amount of participants. However, the participating tour operators represent approx. 47% of the total number of outgoing
tourists in 2005 (Reisrevue, 2006). Therefore, even though the participants are
not representative for all the Dutch tour operators, this substantial market share
represents an important part of the outgoing tourism to the researched destinations. This reinforces the possibility to generalize the information (external validity).
A bottleneck for the validity is the small amount of participants. However, the participating tour operators represent approx. 47% of the total number of outgoing
tourists in 2005 (Reisrevue, 2006). Therefore, even though the participants are
not representative for all the Dutch tour operators, this substantial market share
represents an important part of the outgoing tourism to the researched destinations. This reinforces the possibility to generalize the information (external validity).
The use of only a qualitative approach with personal interviews with the participants, always involves the possibility of unknown biases or social-emotional influences that can affect the answering.
This did not appear to be the case in any of the interviews, the posture towards
PMZ, sustainable tourism and the cooperation with business partners, appeared to
be described in a very honest and unreserved way.
Another issue that should be kept in mind is the use of a foreign language for the
in-depth interviews with the local agents. When referring to ‘language’ also the
‘context’ has a role in this. Even when someone masters a foreign language there
are still several drawbacks in transferring the desired message. Language is
embedded in a wider context in which nonverbal cues, body language and other
signals can make part of the true meaning of what is said. Moreover, in the cases
of a limited knowledge of the foreign language these drawbacks can have an even
bigger impact on the message that’s being transferred. However, by recording and
making brief notes during the interviews, and by verifying the message when in
doubt about the actual meaning or the underlying motivation, this drawback was
minimized meticulously.
The use of only a qualitative approach with personal interviews with the participants, always involves the possibility of unknown biases or social-emotional influences that can affect the answering.
This did not appear to be the case in any of the interviews, the posture towards
PMZ, sustainable tourism and the cooperation with business partners, appeared to
be described in a very honest and unreserved way.
Another issue that should be kept in mind is the use of a foreign language for the
in-depth interviews with the local agents. When referring to ‘language’ also the
‘context’ has a role in this. Even when someone masters a foreign language there
are still several drawbacks in transferring the desired message. Language is
embedded in a wider context in which nonverbal cues, body language and other
signals can make part of the true meaning of what is said. Moreover, in the cases
of a limited knowledge of the foreign language these drawbacks can have an even
bigger impact on the message that’s being transferred. However, by recording and
making brief notes during the interviews, and by verifying the message when in
doubt about the actual meaning or the underlying motivation, this drawback was
minimized meticulously.
Familiarity with the setting or previous acquaintances with participants could lead
to a bias and “dull the researchers’ ability to view the setting objectively” (Morse,
1994). Therefore, two destinations were selected where the researcher hadn’t
been in a long period of time (10 years) and did not have a personal acquaintance
with the interviewees. However, the former acquaintance with the destination and
the professional context of the participants did establish a level of trust with the
interviewees, so that they were willing to share their information freely. Moreover,
it facilitated the researchers’ comprehension of the setting, the participants’ experiences and the available data and made it possible to identify similar features
which could be generalized.
Familiarity with the setting or previous acquaintances with participants could lead
to a bias and “dull the researchers’ ability to view the setting objectively” (Morse,
1994). Therefore, two destinations were selected where the researcher hadn’t
been in a long period of time (10 years) and did not have a personal acquaintance
with the interviewees. However, the former acquaintance with the destination and
the professional context of the participants did establish a level of trust with the
interviewees, so that they were willing to share their information freely. Moreover,
it facilitated the researchers’ comprehension of the setting, the participants’ experiences and the available data and made it possible to identify similar features
which could be generalized.
More validation of the research was realized through the combined use of secondary and primary data sources. The interviews were held in a short period of
time which assures that all the interviewees were in the same business period and
environmental context. Moreover, since the interviewees represent two opposing
More validation of the research was realized through the combined use of secondary and primary data sources. The interviews were held in a short period of
time which assures that all the interviewees were in the same business period and
environmental context. Moreover, since the interviewees represent two opposing
Page
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sides of the communication strategies, a balanced overview was achieved.
sides of the communication strategies, a balanced overview was achieved.
3.4
3.4
Participating Tour Operators
Participating Tour Operators
The participating tour operators presented the destinations Antalya and/or
Lanzarote as a charter package in their summer 2006 catalogue. Within these
charter destinations they cooperate with a local agent.
The participating tour operators presented the destinations Antalya and/or
Lanzarote as a charter package in their summer 2006 catalogue. Within these
charter destinations they cooperate with a local agent.
For all the participating companies the interview was with the contract or product
manager who is responsible for the products of Lanzarote or Antalya, and who
is in regular contact with the local agents in the foreign destinations. For the OAD
group an interview with a PMZ coordinator was included.
For all the participating companies the interview was with the contract or product
manager who is responsible for the products of Lanzarote or Antalya, and who
is in regular contact with the local agents in the foreign destinations. For the OAD
group an interview with a PMZ coordinator was included.
The participating tour operators were:
The participating tour operators were:
OAD Reizen, Bex Reizen, Hotelplan
In existence since 1924, this company has become the second largest tour operator in The Netherlands with various subsidiary companies. The subsidiary companies Bex Reizen (direct sales through Internet) and Hotelplan have their own product departments that work in close cooperation with the OAD head office. Some
of the local agents with whom they cooperate are shared with OAD Reizen, and
in some destinations the subsidiary companies work with different local agents. In
Turkey and the Canary Islands they cooperate with the same local agents. The
number of passengers and market share of Bex Reizen is included in the OAD figures in Box 4.
OAD Reizen, Bex Reizen, Hotelplan
In existence since 1924, this company has become the second largest tour operator in The Netherlands with various subsidiary companies. The subsidiary companies Bex Reizen (direct sales through Internet) and Hotelplan have their own product departments that work in close cooperation with the OAD head office. Some
of the local agents with whom they cooperate are shared with OAD Reizen, and
in some destinations the subsidiary companies work with different local agents. In
Turkey and the Canary Islands they cooperate with the same local agents. The
number of passengers and market share of Bex Reizen is included in the OAD figures in Box 4.
ER Travel Group
ER Travel is the umbrella organization for the brand names Evenements Reizen, D
Tours Vliegreizen and direct seller VAYA. The sales are done through ANVR travel agencies as well as through Internet. Vaya is a direct seller on the Internet.
ER Travel Group
ER Travel is the umbrella organization for the brand names Evenements Reizen, D
Tours Vliegreizen and direct seller VAYA. The sales are done through ANVR travel agencies as well as through Internet. Vaya is a direct seller on the Internet.
Silverjet
Silverjet was founded in 1997; the product offer is concentrated on luxury items
world-wide. The number of passengers in Box 4 is an approximate figure (Kleijne,
pers.com.).
Silverjet
Silverjet was founded in 1997; the product offer is concentrated on luxury items
world-wide. The number of passengers in Box 4 is an approximate figure (Kleijne,
pers.com.).
Sudtours
Sudtours was founded in 1981. In their program they offer mostly Mediterranean
destinations, as well as Dubai, Kenya and the Caribbean. The sales are done
through ANVR travel agencies as well as through Internet.
Sudtours
Sudtours was founded in 1981. In their program they offer mostly Mediterranean
destinations, as well as Dubai, Kenya and the Caribbean. The sales are done
through ANVR travel agencies as well as through Internet.
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Sunweb
Sunweb was founded in 2000 and is prominent with sales through Internet.
Sunweb Vakanties B.V. is representative of the trademarks: GoGo Tours
Jongerenreizen, Marysol Vliegreizen, Husk Studentenreizen, Jiba, TraXs, X-travel.
Sunweb
Sunweb was founded in 2000 and is prominent with sales through Internet.
Sunweb Vakanties B.V. is representative of the trademarks: GoGo Tours
Jongerenreizen, Marysol Vliegreizen, Husk Studentenreizen, Jiba, TraXs, X-travel.
Due to a high work pressure, the product managers of Thomas Cook and TUI NL
were not able to participate. However, since the incoming agents who represent
these companies in Lanzarote and Antalya participated in the research, the tour
operators’ passenger numbers and market shares are included in Box 4.
The number of passengers and market shares in Box 4 are mentioned to illustrate
the capacities of the participating tour operators. They do not always reveal the
number of flight passengers as some of these organizations also offer packages to
foreign destinations by other means of transport.
Due to a high work pressure, the product managers of Thomas Cook and TUI NL
were not able to participate. However, since the incoming agents who represent
these companies in Lanzarote and Antalya participated in the research, the tour
operators’ passenger numbers and market shares are included in Box 4.
The number of passengers and market shares in Box 4 are mentioned to illustrate
the capacities of the participating tour operators. They do not always reveal the
number of flight passengers as some of these organizations also offer packages to
foreign destinations by other means of transport.
TOUR
OPERATORS
Total Passenger No.
2005
Outgoing Passengers
Market Share 2005 (%)
TOUR
OPERATORS
Total Passenger No.
2005
Outgoing Passengers
Market Share 2005 (%)
OAD Reizen
Hotelplan
ER Travel Group
Silverjet
Sudtours
Subweb
Thomas Cook
TUI NL
726.000
117.000
110.000
6.000
170.000
335.000
1.250.000
1.255.000
8,7
1,4
1,3
OAD Reizen
Hotelplan
ER Travel Group
Silverjet
Sudtours
Subweb
Thomas Cook
TUI NL
726.000
117.000
110.000
6.000
170.000
335.000
1.250.000
1.255.000
8,7
1,4
1,3
Box 4
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Passenger Numbers 2005.
2
4
15
15
Box 4
Source: Reisrevue Travel Top 50, 2006
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Passenger Numbers 2005.
2
4
15
15
Source: Reisrevue Travel Top 50, 2006
3.5
Participating Local Agents
3.5
Participating Local Agents
The participating incoming agents are indicated hereunder with the names of the
Dutch tour operators they represent. The annual passenger numbers are approximates for the year 2005, provided by the participants.
The participating incoming agents are indicated hereunder with the names of the
Dutch tour operators they represent. The annual passenger numbers are approximates for the year 2005, provided by the participants.
Antalya
Antalya
Incoming A gent
Dutch Tour Operators
Dutch c lients
Diana Travel Agency
Neckermann, Olympia
Hotelplan (before shift to OAD Group)
T otal c lients
50.000
500.000
Holiday Service Turkey
OAD Group
65.000
110.000
Aquasun
Sunweb
35.000
Novum Touristik
Sudtours
9.000
TUI Türkiye/Tantur Turizm
TUI NL
Sun Group
De Jong Intra, ER Travel Group
Peter Langhout, Sun Direct,
Medisun, ADO Reizen
Incoming A gent
Dutch Tour Operators
Dutch c lients
Diana Travel Agency
Neckermann, Olympia
Hotelplan (before shift to OAD Group)
T otal c lients
50.000
500.000
Holiday Service Turkey
OAD Group
65.000
110.000
180.000
Aquasun
Sunweb
35.000
180.000
250.000
Novum Touristik
Sudtours
9.000
250.000
54.000
800.000
TUI Türkiye/Tantur Turizm
TUI NL
54.000
800.000
22.000
42.000
22.000
42.000
Sun Group
De Jong Intra, ER Travel Group
Peter Langhout, Sun Direct,
Medisun, ADO Reizen
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Lanzarote
Lanzarote
Incoming A gent
Dutch Tour Operators
Dutch c lients
T otal c lients
Viajes Jetsol I.S.
Sudtours
12.000
75.000
Sun Valentin
OAD Reizen
not available
Poseidon Travel Group S.L.
ER Travel Group
11.000
Incoming A gent
Dutch Tour Operators
25.000
-40-
T otal c lients
Viajes Jetsol I.S.
Sudtours
12.000
75.000
Sun Valentin
OAD Reizen
not available
Poseidon Travel Group S.L.
ER Travel Group
11.000
25.000
18.000
120.000
320.000
Thomas Cook Service AG
Neckermann
18.000
120.000
Thomas Cook Service AG
Neckermann
TUI España Turismo S.A.
TUI NL
15.000
320.000
TUI España Turismo S.A.
TUI NL
15.000
Viajes Canarias Europa
Silverjet
200
Viajes Canarias Europa
Silverjet
200
28.000
The contact data of all participants are indicated in Appendix 5.
Page
Dutch c lients
The contact data of all participants are indicated in Appendix 5.
Page
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28.000
CHAPTER 4
TRANSLATION ANALYSIS TOUR OPERATORS
CHAPTER 4
TRANSLATION ANALYSIS TOUR OPERATORS
The case studies in Chapter 4 and 5 describe the perspectives on the PMZ process
from the viewpoint of tour operators and local agents. The analysis of the in-depth
interviews with the participants is presented in a generalized manner. Where issues
became dominant during several interview sessions with various participants, they
were included in order to reach a holistic analysis. However, if one participant had
a clearly opposing opinion on that particular issue it is also indicated in the
description. Furthermore, some arguments and perceived realities of the participants are quoted in order to illustrate the analysis.
The case studies in Chapter 4 and 5 describe the perspectives on the PMZ process
from the viewpoint of tour operators and local agents. The analysis of the in-depth
interviews with the participants is presented in a generalized manner. Where issues
became dominant during several interview sessions with various participants, they
were included in order to reach a holistic analysis. However, if one participant had
a clearly opposing opinion on that particular issue it is also indicated in the
description. Furthermore, some arguments and perceived realities of the participants are quoted in order to illustrate the analysis.
4.1
4.1
Product-oriented Environmental Management System – PMZ
Product-oriented Environmental Management System – PMZ
The ANVR (Algemeen Nederlands Verbond van Reisondernemingen) is a federation that represents and promotes the collective interests of tour operators in the
Netherlands and aims at reinforcing the competitive position of Dutch tourism
organizations. The PMZ system has been developed by the ANVR to guide the
member tour operators in their efforts towards a sustainable future.
The ANVR (Algemeen Nederlands Verbond van Reisondernemingen) is a federation that represents and promotes the collective interests of tour operators in the
Netherlands and aims at reinforcing the competitive position of Dutch tourism
organizations. The PMZ system has been developed by the ANVR to guide the
member tour operators in their efforts towards a sustainable future.
A PMZ course for tour operators offers a step by step introductory approach for
tour operator management on how to implement PMZ in the company (Egmond,
2004). In order to gain some insight into the PMZ procedures before the description of the tour operators’ case study, the ANVR’s management suggestions are
summarized hereunder.
A PMZ course for tour operators offers a step by step introductory approach for
tour operator management on how to implement PMZ in the company (Egmond,
2004). In order to gain some insight into the PMZ procedures before the description of the tour operators’ case study, the ANVR’s management suggestions are
summarized hereunder.
Step 1: Preparation of PMZ activities
All employees should be informed about the PMZ system, the practical implications and the envisioned value of working in a sustainable fashion.
Step 1: Preparation of PMZ activities
All employees should be informed about the PMZ system, the practical implications and the envisioned value of working in a sustainable fashion.
Step 2: Obtain insight in the environmental consequences of the tour operator’s
products
Each company should try to obtain a good insight into the environmental consequences of the existing product offer. Since it is rather complicated to get a
detailed and correct insight into these data, the PMZ course introduces several
informative websites.
Step 2: Obtain insight in the environmental consequences of the tour operator’s
products
Each company should try to obtain a good insight into the environmental consequences of the existing product offer. Since it is rather complicated to get a
detailed and correct insight into these data, the PMZ course introduces several
informative websites.
Step 3: Set up a PMZ Policy Statement
The companies must create a mission statement with regard to its PMZ activities.
Step 3: Set up a PMZ Policy Statement
The companies must create a mission statement with regard to its PMZ activities.
Step 4: Set up a PMZ Action program
Set up a mid-term PMZ strategy, in which the envisioned activities during the following 5 years are described with regard to both in- and external management.
Step 4: Set up a PMZ Action program
Set up a mid-term PMZ strategy, in which the envisioned activities during the following 5 years are described with regard to both in- and external management.
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Set up a short-term PMZ strategy, with the planned activities for the following 2
years.
Set up a short-term PMZ strategy, with the planned activities for the following 2
years.
This short term strategy must include:
1 measure concerning information
1 measure concerning transportation
1 measure concerning accommodation
1 measure concerning excursions/entertainment
1 measure concerning internal environmental care
This short term strategy must include:
1 measure concerning information
1 measure concerning transportation
1 measure concerning accommodation
1 measure concerning excursions/entertainment
1 measure concerning internal environmental care
Step 5-8: Evaluation of PMZ activities
In various ways the tour operator must evaluate the organizational and integrating aspects of the PMZ introduction in the company. Furthermore, the awareness
and knowledge of environmental issues and problems should be enhanced and
evaluated on a regular basis.
Step 5-8: Evaluation of PMZ activities
In various ways the tour operator must evaluate the organizational and integrating aspects of the PMZ introduction in the company. Furthermore, the awareness
and knowledge of environmental issues and problems should be enhanced and
evaluated on a regular basis.
The PMZ guidelines give an indication of the elements which should be taken into
consideration by the tour operators, some of which are:
The PMZ guidelines give an indication of the elements which should be taken into
consideration by the tour operators, some of which are:
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the use of raw materials, water, energy
the emission of toxic materials to water, and the CO2 emission
production and solutions to waste, noise, smells
damage to endemic plants/wildlife.
the use of raw materials, water, energy
the emission of toxic materials to water, and the CO2 emission
production and solutions to waste, noise, smells
damage to endemic plants/wildlife.
Moreover, by means of a regular internal communication the employees of the
tour operator should be engaged in the companies’ PMZ objectives and activities.
Moreover, by means of a regular internal communication the employees of the
tour operator should be engaged in the companies’ PMZ objectives and activities.
4.2
4.2
TOUR OPERATING & PMZ
TOUR OPERATING & PMZ
The first description reveals the communication, learning and power elements in
the translation process of sustainable tourism, from the tour operators’ viewpoints.
It elaborates on the awareness of PMZ issues, on the styles of communication the
participating tour operators utilize towards their local agents, and on how they
communicate and facilitate their wishes and demands for more sustainable behavior from their suppliers. The coding aimed at summarizing the comments made
during the conversation with the contract and product managers whereby the
main findings are described hereunder.
The first description reveals the communication, learning and power elements in
the translation process of sustainable tourism, from the tour operators’ viewpoints.
It elaborates on the awareness of PMZ issues, on the styles of communication the
participating tour operators utilize towards their local agents, and on how they
communicate and facilitate their wishes and demands for more sustainable behavior from their suppliers. The coding aimed at summarizing the comments made
during the conversation with the contract and product managers whereby the
main findings are described hereunder.
Even though the professional titles of the participants vary from Contract- or
Product Manager to Destination- and Project manager, in the case description all
Even though the professional titles of the participants vary from Contract- or
Product Manager to Destination- and Project manager, in the case description all
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participants are referred to as interviewee or product manager. As only one PMZ
coordinator was interviewed this persons’ viewpoints are mentioned separately.
Since this person has a large amount of professional experience as product manager and therefore still easily identifies with this profession, the material was subjected to the same coding as the contract and product managers’.
participants are referred to as interviewee or product manager. As only one PMZ
coordinator was interviewed this persons’ viewpoints are mentioned separately.
Since this person has a large amount of professional experience as product manager and therefore still easily identifies with this profession, the material was subjected to the same coding as the contract and product managers’.
4.2.1
4.2.1
Organizational Engagement with PMZ
Organizational Engagement with PMZ
All the participating companies have one or several staff members who have concluded the PMZ course and are appointed as PMZ coordinators within their organizations. One of the requirements for the PMZ certificate is that the PMZ coordinators provide the company with information on issues of sustainable tourism on
a regular basis (Egmond, 2004:59). This in-company communication can stimulate the sense of involvement with sustainable tourism and the PMZ process.
All the participating companies have one or several staff members who have concluded the PMZ course and are appointed as PMZ coordinators within their organizations. One of the requirements for the PMZ certificate is that the PMZ coordinators provide the company with information on issues of sustainable tourism on
a regular basis (Egmond, 2004:59). This in-company communication can stimulate the sense of involvement with sustainable tourism and the PMZ process.
During the conversations with the interviewees, none of the product managers
indicated to feel engaged to sustainable tourism from a professional point of view.
When they were asked about a general impression of the companies’ PMZ policies
the reactions were very doubtful. Often, only a comment towards the companies’
conformation to the ANVR conditions could be made.
During the conversations with the interviewees, none of the product managers
indicated to feel engaged to sustainable tourism from a professional point of view.
When they were asked about a general impression of the companies’ PMZ policies
the reactions were very doubtful. Often, only a comment towards the companies’
conformation to the ANVR conditions could be made.
Upon elaboration, the interviewees all admitted that they were not informed on a
regular basis on environmental or social issues through internal communication.
Apparently, the PMZ process had only received a brief mention when it was introduced in 2003 and the interviewees did not perceive to be adequately informed
through in-company communication on sustainable tourism or PMZ. Moreover,
none of the interviewees perceived PMZ to be an issue for negotiation.
Nevertheless, one product manager expressed concern with this lack of organizational communication and suggested the PMZ certificate should be renewed on a
regular basis, in order to keep it within the focus of attention.
Upon elaboration, the interviewees all admitted that they were not informed on a
regular basis on environmental or social issues through internal communication.
Apparently, the PMZ process had only received a brief mention when it was introduced in 2003 and the interviewees did not perceive to be adequately informed
through in-company communication on sustainable tourism or PMZ. Moreover,
none of the interviewees perceived PMZ to be an issue for negotiation.
Nevertheless, one product manager expressed concern with this lack of organizational communication and suggested the PMZ certificate should be renewed on a
regular basis, in order to keep it within the focus of attention.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“PMZ, what’s that?”
“PMZ, what’s that?”
“It doesn’t live on the work floor, PMZ influence is practically zero”
“It doesn’t live on the work floor, PMZ influence is practically zero”
“PMZ policy? Not sure if we have that….”
“PMZ policy? Not sure if we have that….”
“Sustainable? To me that means to continue a good contract for the
next 3 years!”
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“Sustainable? To me that means to continue a good contract for the
next 3 years!”
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All interviewees emphasized that they perceive a high commercial pressure during
their visits to the destinations, and that due to this pressure they feel inhibited to
consider social or environmental issues. Some interviewees consider the commercial pressure as the main reason why they don’t consider these issues, but others
clearly indicated that the lack of engagement is due to the lack of awareness.
Moreover, they indicated that the small awareness is due to insufficient information and that it is the case throughout the company.
All interviewees emphasized that they perceive a high commercial pressure during
their visits to the destinations, and that due to this pressure they feel inhibited to
consider social or environmental issues. Some interviewees consider the commercial pressure as the main reason why they don’t consider these issues, but others
clearly indicated that the lack of engagement is due to the lack of awareness.
Moreover, they indicated that the small awareness is due to insufficient information and that it is the case throughout the company.
According to the interviewed PMZ coordinator the lack of active attention is due
to the commercial pressure. For example, this companies’ PMZ policy indicates
that if there’s a choice between two equivalent products, the most sustainable one
should be given preference to for a contract. The PMZ coordinator strongly doubted if this policy was ever materialized in reality, and commented that in order to
increase the organizational interest the market demand for ‘sustainable tourism’
should be stimulated. According to this interviewee only when the clients start
asking for it, the tour operators will start working on a more sustainable product
offer.
According to the interviewed PMZ coordinator the lack of active attention is due
to the commercial pressure. For example, this companies’ PMZ policy indicates
that if there’s a choice between two equivalent products, the most sustainable one
should be given preference to for a contract. The PMZ coordinator strongly doubted if this policy was ever materialized in reality, and commented that in order to
increase the organizational interest the market demand for ‘sustainable tourism’
should be stimulated. According to this interviewee only when the clients start
asking for it, the tour operators will start working on a more sustainable product
offer.
The interviews clearly revealed that the PMZ system has not embedded in the participating companies’ common way of thinking and acting, the ‘corporate culture’
yet. Apparently the commercial goals are merely reflected in short-term figures
and seem to disregard the long-term continuity of the current product supply.
The interviews clearly revealed that the PMZ system has not embedded in the participating companies’ common way of thinking and acting, the ‘corporate culture’
yet. Apparently the commercial goals are merely reflected in short-term figures
and seem to disregard the long-term continuity of the current product supply.
4.2.2
4.2.2
Awareness Sustainable Tourism
Awareness Sustainable Tourism
Since the qualitative information provided during the interviews with the tour
operators does not aim to delineate each interviewee’s in-depth knowledge on
e.g. environmental issues, the analysis is based on their perception of sustainable
tourism as an integrated process (systems orientation) and the meaning it has for
the interviewees which they elucidated during the conversations.
Since the qualitative information provided during the interviews with the tour
operators does not aim to delineate each interviewee’s in-depth knowledge on
e.g. environmental issues, the analysis is based on their perception of sustainable
tourism as an integrated process (systems orientation) and the meaning it has for
the interviewees which they elucidated during the conversations.
All interviewees immediately linked ‘sustainable’ to the ecological environment,
and expressed their personal concern with this issue. They all indicated that a positive side effect of tourism was the economic influx it has for the local people in
the destinations, and a negative side effect the damage to the ecological environment in situ.
All interviewees immediately linked ‘sustainable’ to the ecological environment,
and expressed their personal concern with this issue. They all indicated that a positive side effect of tourism was the economic influx it has for the local people in
the destinations, and a negative side effect the damage to the ecological environment in situ.
However, they all asserted that tour operators are not responsible for any local
environmental or social consequences due to tourism. According to most interviewees, the tour operator is only responsible for the well being of the tourist
However, they all asserted that tour operators are not responsible for any local
environmental or social consequences due to tourism. According to most interviewees, the tour operator is only responsible for the well being of the tourist
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during this persons’ holidays, and all the local ecological or social consequences
which derive from tourism are the local governments’ responsibility.
during this persons’ holidays, and all the local ecological or social consequences
which derive from tourism are the local governments’ responsibility.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“Tourism is greed, it starts in idyllic places and destroys them”
“Tourism is greed, it starts in idyllic places and destroys them”
“What can I do? Discuss the type of washing powder used by the
hotelier?”
“What can I do? Discuss the type of washing powder used by the
hotelier?”
“Guilty are the local governments!”
“Guilty are the local governments!”
The only exception to this, which was mentioned on several occasions, is when the
tour operator is involved during the construction process of an accommodation.
During the construction the tour operator should insist on environmentally friendly means and end-results.
The only exception to this, which was mentioned on several occasions, is when the
tour operator is involved during the construction process of an accommodation.
During the construction the tour operator should insist on environmentally friendly means and end-results.
Many comments were made on the past experiences in Spain which in some destinations led to an overload of building constructions and an overcapacity of
accommodations. The suggestion was that these experiences should be used by
other local governments in order not to make the same mistakes when developing
a tourist resort.
Many comments were made on the past experiences in Spain which in some destinations led to an overload of building constructions and an overcapacity of
accommodations. The suggestion was that these experiences should be used by
other local governments in order not to make the same mistakes when developing
a tourist resort.
The interviewees did not know if their company had contact with other local
actors than the contract partners, such as local NGO’s, but they all accentuated
that the Dutch tour operators do not have enough power abroad to be of influence with local actors such as politicians. They all believed that this economical
power is the only type of power which can be of influence in a foreign destination.
The interviewees did not know if their company had contact with other local
actors than the contract partners, such as local NGO’s, but they all accentuated
that the Dutch tour operators do not have enough power abroad to be of influence with local actors such as politicians. They all believed that this economical
power is the only type of power which can be of influence in a foreign destination.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“I agree with the concept, it may be good to discuss it more often local
ly”
“I agree with the concept, it may be good to discuss it more often local
ly”
“The environment is important, but people don’t want to spend their
money on it”
“The environment is important, but people don’t want to spend their
money on it”
“For ‘sustainable’ a political game needs to be played”
“For ‘sustainable’ a political game needs to be played”
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The interviewed PMZ coordinator strongly asserted that a close cooperation of
Dutch tour operators in a new Travel Foundation will strengthen the power abroad
and can create a highly influential position towards local politics within the foreign
destinations.
The interviewed PMZ coordinator strongly asserted that a close cooperation of
Dutch tour operators in a new Travel Foundation will strengthen the power abroad
and can create a highly influential position towards local politics within the foreign
destinations.
In situations where policy measures such as the PMZ system are implemented to
incite people to behavioral changes, often the people respond reluctantly. To
explain this reluctance to any change they can come up with a range of arguments
to present their own behavior in a less negative way, called self-justification
(Aronson in Holland et al, 2002). After some reflection, the participants justified
themselves mainly by shifting the causes and consequences to others.
During the interviews this which was done repeatedly with comments like “it’s the
destinations responsibility” and “the local governments have to deal with it”. The
participants recognized certain environmental problems but all expressed their
doubt to have any influence in local polity. Moreover, as there’s a very restricted
communication from the PMZ coordinators or the top management regarding sustainable issues, they still prefer to refrain from any action and do not regard it as
the tour operators’ responsibility.
In situations where policy measures such as the PMZ system are implemented to
incite people to behavioral changes, often the people respond reluctantly. To
explain this reluctance to any change they can come up with a range of arguments
to present their own behavior in a less negative way, called self-justification
(Aronson in Holland et al, 2002). After some reflection, the participants justified
themselves mainly by shifting the causes and consequences to others.
During the interviews this which was done repeatedly with comments like “it’s the
destinations responsibility” and “the local governments have to deal with it”. The
participants recognized certain environmental problems but all expressed their
doubt to have any influence in local polity. Moreover, as there’s a very restricted
communication from the PMZ coordinators or the top management regarding sustainable issues, they still prefer to refrain from any action and do not regard it as
the tour operators’ responsibility.
4.2.3
4.2.3
Awareness Destination Characteristics
Awareness Destination Characteristics
The general knowledge level on some problematic destination characteristics was
used as an introduction to a reflection process (see paragraph 2.2.1). As it can be
difficult to make critical reviews on previous activities (self-reflection) in an interview setting, it was stimulated by asking for sustainable suggestions which could
be part of a solution.
The general knowledge level on some problematic destination characteristics was
used as an introduction to a reflection process (see paragraph 2.2.1). As it can be
difficult to make critical reviews on previous activities (self-reflection) in an interview setting, it was stimulated by asking for sustainable suggestions which could
be part of a solution.
Most interviewees spontaneously linked Antalya with a perception of ‘over construction’ of very large tourist accommodations. In their opinion, the Turkish government gives too many permits for new hotels and they are constructed everywhere, without regard for the natural environment. Furthermore, many of these
“mega” hotels need (artificial) beaches which are also added with governmental
permission, but without regard for the negative ecological consequences in the
future. According to one interviewee, even the local agent and local suppliers are
aware and opposed to these developments. On the other hand, frequent references were also made towards the prudence of the Turkish authorities regarding
several natural areas such as Belek where “every tree is counted” prior to any new
construction. The interviewees could not further explain the reason for this paradox.
Most interviewees spontaneously linked Antalya with a perception of ‘over construction’ of very large tourist accommodations. In their opinion, the Turkish government gives too many permits for new hotels and they are constructed everywhere, without regard for the natural environment. Furthermore, many of these
“mega” hotels need (artificial) beaches which are also added with governmental
permission, but without regard for the negative ecological consequences in the
future. According to one interviewee, even the local agent and local suppliers are
aware and opposed to these developments. On the other hand, frequent references were also made towards the prudence of the Turkish authorities regarding
several natural areas such as Belek where “every tree is counted” prior to any new
construction. The interviewees could not further explain the reason for this paradox.
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Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“Antalya is a disaster, they have learned nothing from the other countries”
“Antalya is a disaster, they have learned nothing from the other countries”
“In Turkey it’s all about money. They just plonk down huge hotels with
artificial beaches which will remain empty due to overcapacity”
“In Turkey it’s all about money. They just plonk down huge hotels with
artificial beaches which will remain empty due to overcapacity”
The Canary Islands with Lanzarote in particular, is perceived quite contrastingly.
Spain is often referred to as a negative example for destination development, but
Lanzarote is perceived to be an exception to that. Moreover, Lanzarote is known
to be actively engaged with sustainable issues, such as a limitation on the construction of new accommodations. However, none of the interviewees was able to
give anymore specific or current information.
The Canary Islands with Lanzarote in particular, is perceived quite contrastingly.
Spain is often referred to as a negative example for destination development, but
Lanzarote is perceived to be an exception to that. Moreover, Lanzarote is known
to be actively engaged with sustainable issues, such as a limitation on the construction of new accommodations. However, none of the interviewees was able to
give anymore specific or current information.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“Lanzarote has no environmental problems, it functions very
sustainable”
“Lanzarote has no environmental problems, it functions very
sustainable”
“the Canary Islands are a good example for sustainable tourism”
“the Canary Islands are a good example for sustainable tourism”
When asked which elements of the existing product offer could be changed in
order to offer a more sustainable product, the interviewees had a chance to reflect
on the destinations’ characteristics and link it to their personal knowledge and values.
When asked which elements of the existing product offer could be changed in
order to offer a more sustainable product, the interviewees had a chance to reflect
on the destinations’ characteristics and link it to their personal knowledge and values.
With regard to the product supply a spontaneous reaction regarded the high number of ‘All Inclusive’ accommodations. Especially in Turkey this kind of product is
very dominant, but they are referred to by most interviewees as having a negative
impact on the social environment in the tourist destinations. According to the
interviewees, these products take away the economic influx for the local entrepreneur which creates a negative spiral effect. The suggested solution would be
for all tour operators to take this product out of their programs, and for local governments to support the local small- and medium tourism entrepreneurs with, for
example relevant education.
With regard to the product supply a spontaneous reaction regarded the high number of ‘All Inclusive’ accommodations. Especially in Turkey this kind of product is
very dominant, but they are referred to by most interviewees as having a negative
impact on the social environment in the tourist destinations. According to the
interviewees, these products take away the economic influx for the local entrepreneur which creates a negative spiral effect. The suggested solution would be
for all tour operators to take this product out of their programs, and for local governments to support the local small- and medium tourism entrepreneurs with, for
example relevant education.
With regard to the local means of transport, e.g. the transfers upon arrival and
departure, none of the interviewees considered this an important element for
improvement.
With regard to the local means of transport, e.g. the transfers upon arrival and
departure, none of the interviewees considered this an important element for
improvement.
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The local excursions were generally disregarded, according to the participants they
are not part of the tour operators’ product supply and the only requirement is that
the excursions are insured. On location these excursions are offered to the tourists
by the tour operators’ ‘local rep’. However this person does not receive any
instructions on the ‘sustainable’ requirements of these products.
The local excursions were generally disregarded, according to the participants they
are not part of the tour operators’ product supply and the only requirement is that
the excursions are insured. On location these excursions are offered to the tourists
by the tour operators’ ‘local rep’. However this person does not receive any
instructions on the ‘sustainable’ requirements of these products.
Furthermore, a suggestion was made that certain sustainable clauses could be
included standard in all the contractual agreements.
Furthermore, a suggestion was made that certain sustainable clauses could be
included standard in all the contractual agreements.
The interviewed PMZ coordinator insisted on the belief that the demand for sustainable tourism must be increased and tour operators must unite in order to get
legitimate power with local authorities.
The interviewed PMZ coordinator insisted on the belief that the demand for sustainable tourism must be increased and tour operators must unite in order to get
legitimate power with local authorities.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“No more All Inclusive, it’s a waist of food!!”
“No more All Inclusive, it’s a waist of food!!”
“It’s too expensive, sustainable tourism”
“It’s too expensive, sustainable tourism”
“Clean busses? When we discuss the transfers, CO2 never gets into it!”
“Clean busses? When we discuss the transfers, CO2 never gets into it!”
“We’re not responsible, the local governments are!”
“We’re not responsible, the local governments are!”
The knowledge on the destinations’ characteristics was mostly restricted to issues
that can be related directly to the product supply, such as the overview of the
accommodations in the destinations.
The knowledge on the destinations’ characteristics was mostly restricted to issues
that can be related directly to the product supply, such as the overview of the
accommodations in the destinations.
The ideas of possible improvements in the existing product range were limited, by
displacing most of the responsibilities to the local actors like the incoming agents
again (self-justification). For example the use of technical adjustments to the
coaches or the current offer of excursions were all brushed aside as a responsibility of the local agent, even though the coach-transfers are included in the holiday
package to the clients, and the excursions are sold by the tour operators’ local representatives. Because these elements were not considered to be the tour operators’ responsibility, the possibility to include these issues in the negotiations with
the local agents and the feasible advantages this could lead to, was not reflected
on.
The ideas of possible improvements in the existing product range were limited, by
displacing most of the responsibilities to the local actors like the incoming agents
again (self-justification). For example the use of technical adjustments to the
coaches or the current offer of excursions were all brushed aside as a responsibility of the local agent, even though the coach-transfers are included in the holiday
package to the clients, and the excursions are sold by the tour operators’ local representatives. Because these elements were not considered to be the tour operators’ responsibility, the possibility to include these issues in the negotiations with
the local agents and the feasible advantages this could lead to, was not reflected
on.
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4.3
Translation Resources
4.3
Translation Resources
4.3.1
Communication & L earning
4.3.1
Communication & L earning
The product managers meet with the local agents two or three times yearly during the contracting visits in the destination. On top of that they usually meet at
fairs such as the Vakantiebeurs (Utrecht), ITB (Berlin) and WTM (London) in order
to discuss the cooperation and product issues. However, the main means of communication are telephone and email, dependent on the urgency of the issue on
hand and the personal preference of the product manager.
The product managers meet with the local agents two or three times yearly during the contracting visits in the destination. On top of that they usually meet at
fairs such as the Vakantiebeurs (Utrecht), ITB (Berlin) and WTM (London) in order
to discuss the cooperation and product issues. However, the main means of communication are telephone and email, dependent on the urgency of the issue on
hand and the personal preference of the product manager.
One of the interviewees pointed out that personal contact increases the level of
trust with the local actors. Moreover, once a year this participants’ CEO invites the
local agents to the main office in The Netherlands in order to brief them on actual organizational and production issues. However, none of the interviewees could
comment on educational activities for local agents such as workshops or informative printed materials regarding PMZ.
One of the interviewees pointed out that personal contact increases the level of
trust with the local actors. Moreover, once a year this participants’ CEO invites the
local agents to the main office in The Netherlands in order to brief them on actual organizational and production issues. However, none of the interviewees could
comment on educational activities for local agents such as workshops or informative printed materials regarding PMZ.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“A personal approach is fruitful, what goes around comes around”
“A personal approach is fruitful, what goes around comes around”
“Most of the suppliers prefer the contact with the local agent”
“Most of the suppliers prefer the contact with the local agent”
In interviews with product managers that are acquainted with both destinations,
the cultural difference between these countries and the effects on the communication and cooperation with the local agents were spontaneously elaborated on.
Generally the interviewees described the Turkish local agents as very efficient and
diligent cooperators, and the Spanish local agents as very experienced but with a
more willful style of working.
In interviews with product managers that are acquainted with both destinations,
the cultural difference between these countries and the effects on the communication and cooperation with the local agents were spontaneously elaborated on.
Generally the interviewees described the Turkish local agents as very efficient and
diligent cooperators, and the Spanish local agents as very experienced but with a
more willful style of working.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“The Spanish are headstrong people, the pioneers of tourism”
“The Spanish are headstrong people, the pioneers of tourism”
“Locally they always aim to ‘help’ their friends”
“Locally they always aim to ‘help’ their friends”
“Local agents aren’t interested in the issue of sustainable tourism”
“Local agents aren’t interested in the issue of sustainable tourism”
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Generally, people do not like uncertainties and tend to minimize risks. During the
short contracting visits abroad, the product managers feel the pressure of the
uncertainties with regard to the outcome of their negotiations with the local producers.
Moreover, according to Neuliep (2006), some communicative situations, especially in intercultural communication contexts, have higher information levels than
communication with persons with the same cultural background. For example a
conversation in a foreign environment with a person who may hold different social
values, while using a foreign language, require the persons involved to reduce
more uncertainties than usual (Leeuwis et al, 2002).
All these uncertainties may be part of the reason for the reluctance to discuss
sustainability issues and for stereotyping the ‘Spanish’ and the ‘Turkish’ local
agents. Even though the participants have ample opportunities to discuss these
issues with the local agents and they may consider the possible solutions desirable
for the long term, they abstain to undertake action in the short term.
4.3.2
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Generally, people do not like uncertainties and tend to minimize risks. During the
short contracting visits abroad, the product managers feel the pressure of the
uncertainties with regard to the outcome of their negotiations with the local producers.
Moreover, according to Neuliep (2006), some communicative situations, especially in intercultural communication contexts, have higher information levels than
communication with persons with the same cultural background. For example a
conversation in a foreign environment with a person who may hold different social
values, while using a foreign language, require the persons involved to reduce
more uncertainties than usual (Leeuwis et al, 2002).
All these uncertainties may be part of the reason for the reluctance to discuss
sustainability issues and for stereotyping the ‘Spanish’ and the ‘Turkish’ local
agents. Even though the participants have ample opportunities to discuss these
issues with the local agents and they may consider the possible solutions desirable
for the long term, they abstain to undertake action in the short term.
Power & N egotiation
4.3.2
Power & N egotiation
As Duim maintains (2005), the exercise of power (see paragraph 2.3) also depends
on the kind of resources that are mobilized to sustain that exercise. The interviewees clearly indicated several resources which are used on a regular basis to support their product requirements. Most attention was given to the market knowledge which they share with their local agents during their contracting visits in the
foreign destinations.
As Duim maintains (2005), the exercise of power (see paragraph 2.3) also depends
on the kind of resources that are mobilized to sustain that exercise. The interviewees clearly indicated several resources which are used on a regular basis to support their product requirements. Most attention was given to the market knowledge which they share with their local agents during their contracting visits in the
foreign destinations.
A type of power which is used in a variable way among the participating tour
operators is ‘coercive power’, in other words the ability to dispense punishments.
In practice this is used in the negotiations about the handling fees or in more
extreme cases, by ending the cooperation. From the seven participants, two interviewees clearly indicated that in the communication process with their agents,
they regularly indicate that a bad cooperation means a change of local agent. The
other interviewees however adamantly disapproved of what was referred to as a
‘ping-pong’ policy.
A type of power which is used in a variable way among the participating tour
operators is ‘coercive power’, in other words the ability to dispense punishments.
In practice this is used in the negotiations about the handling fees or in more
extreme cases, by ending the cooperation. From the seven participants, two interviewees clearly indicated that in the communication process with their agents,
they regularly indicate that a bad cooperation means a change of local agent. The
other interviewees however adamantly disapproved of what was referred to as a
‘ping-pong’ policy.
In line with other studies that report on the lack of hard sanctions such as cancellation of contracts (Wijk and Persoon, 2006), clearly absent are the contractual
clauses on sustainable issues in the regular contract conditions with both the local
agents as well as with other business partners in the destinations. Only the PMZ
coordinator indicated the existence of two standard clauses in the company’s
accommodation contracts. One clause refers to the company policy on sustainable
In line with other studies that report on the lack of hard sanctions such as cancellation of contracts (Wijk and Persoon, 2006), clearly absent are the contractual
clauses on sustainable issues in the regular contract conditions with both the local
agents as well as with other business partners in the destinations. Only the PMZ
coordinator indicated the existence of two standard clauses in the company’s
accommodation contracts. One clause refers to the company policy on sustainable
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tourism and another clause refers to the rejection of child prostitution.
tourism and another clause refers to the rejection of child prostitution.
Overall, to exercise power in order to persuade the local agents to more sustainable behavior was not considered relevant by the participants.
Overall, to exercise power in order to persuade the local agents to more sustainable behavior was not considered relevant by the participants.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“Cooperation can be problematic sometimes, then we provoke a bit with
other agents…”
“Cooperation can be problematic sometimes, then we provoke a bit with
other agents…”
“We have long-term co operations with local agents, no ‘ping-pong’
policy”
“We have long-term co operations with local agents, no ‘ping-pong’
policy”
“We go contracting together, but obviously, during the negotiations I am
‘leading’”
“We go contracting together, but obviously, during the negotiations I am
‘leading’”
None of the interviewees indicated to ever set up a dialogue with the local agents
regarding sustainable tourism, be it about problems they perceive or possible solutions. All the product managers admitted that they never discussed anything other
than for example the required location of accommodations. As these requests
were solely based on short-term commercial considerations, they had never considered asking for any additional environmental information. According to them
the local agents have very little awareness of environmental problems and therefore that issue doesn’t have the local agents’ priority. Furthermore, all interviewees
strongly believe that local agents don’t have any power on a local level which
could enable them to initiate political or entrepreneurial changes towards more
sustainable behavior. As the tour operators do not stimulate the involvement of
the local agents in their commercial decision making, or the local agents’ environmental awareness; it can be indicated as an ‘informing’ type of participation.
None of the interviewees indicated to ever set up a dialogue with the local agents
regarding sustainable tourism, be it about problems they perceive or possible solutions. All the product managers admitted that they never discussed anything other
than for example the required location of accommodations. As these requests
were solely based on short-term commercial considerations, they had never considered asking for any additional environmental information. According to them
the local agents have very little awareness of environmental problems and therefore that issue doesn’t have the local agents’ priority. Furthermore, all interviewees
strongly believe that local agents don’t have any power on a local level which
could enable them to initiate political or entrepreneurial changes towards more
sustainable behavior. As the tour operators do not stimulate the involvement of
the local agents in their commercial decision making, or the local agents’ environmental awareness; it can be indicated as an ‘informing’ type of participation.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“we never need information on sustainable issues, only commercial
information matters”
“we never need information on sustainable issues, only commercial
information matters”
“I can’t imagine any contract cancellation over an issue regarding
sustainable tourism”
“I can’t imagine any contract cancellation over an issue regarding
sustainable tourism”
“It (sustainability) should be mentioned more often during the
negotiations”
“It (sustainability) should be mentioned more often during the
negotiations”
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
The negotiation strategies were not discussed into detail, but the general impression was that most product managers are uncertain about a confrontation with
new issues of negotiation which is perceived as threatening to the existing status
quo of their product supply. The overall tendency to shift the responsibility to
another actor is used in order to reduce the feeling of uncertainty. In line with
other studies (Leeuwis et al, 2002; Wijk and Persoon 2006), people tend to minimize the uncertainties in their professional interactions by mechanisms such as
stereotyping and shifting the responsibility for action. These mechanisms hinder
processes of reframing and social learning.
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The negotiation strategies were not discussed into detail, but the general impression was that most product managers are uncertain about a confrontation with
new issues of negotiation which is perceived as threatening to the existing status
quo of their product supply. The overall tendency to shift the responsibility to
another actor is used in order to reduce the feeling of uncertainty. In line with
other studies (Leeuwis et al, 2002; Wijk and Persoon 2006), people tend to minimize the uncertainties in their professional interactions by mechanisms such as
stereotyping and shifting the responsibility for action. These mechanisms hinder
processes of reframing and social learning.
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CHAPTER 5
5.1
PMZ ‘TRANSLATION’ IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS
CHAPTER 5
Antalya
5.1
PMZ ‘TRANSLATION’ IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS
Antalya
Antalya is a resort on the Mediterranean Sea, with well preserved city ramparts
and a picturesque harbor, numerous mosques and other cultural sites.
Antalya is a resort on the Mediterranean Sea, with well preserved city ramparts
and a picturesque harbor, numerous mosques and other cultural sites.
Because of the archaeological and natural riches of the area, in many
tourist publications Antalya is also presented as the ‘Turkish Riviera’.
Because of the archaeological and natural riches of the area, in many
tourist publications Antalya is also presented as the ‘Turkish Riviera’.
In the research, the
area that stretches
roughly from
Kemer to Alanya is
referred to as
‘Antalya’.
In the research, the
area that stretches
roughly from
Kemer to Alanya is
referred to as
‘Antalya’.
5.1.1
5.1.1
Tourism Take-Off
Tourism Take-Off
Turkish tourism has made a remarkable progress over the last two decades.
Tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of Turkey. Since the mid
1980s the number of foreign arrivals has grown at a tremendous rate, though fluctuating at times due to external factors beyond the control of the sector. Examples
of these external factors were eminent in 2006 and caused an unexpected and
severe drop of the number of visitors from The Netherlands. Boxes 5 and 6 give
a brief overview of the growth and distribution of tourist arrivals until 2005 (the
percentages are taken from the total number of arrivals in Turkey).
Turkish tourism has made a remarkable progress over the last two decades.
Tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of Turkey. Since the mid
1980s the number of foreign arrivals has grown at a tremendous rate, though fluctuating at times due to external factors beyond the control of the sector. Examples
of these external factors were eminent in 2006 and caused an unexpected and
severe drop of the number of visitors from The Netherlands. Boxes 5 and 6 give
a brief overview of the growth and distribution of tourist arrivals until 2005 (the
percentages are taken from the total number of arrivals in Turkey).
Distribution o f T ourist A rrivals b y M ain T ourism C enter
2003
%
2004
%
2005
Distribution o f T ourist A rrivals b y M ain T ourism C enter
2003
%
2004
%
2005
Antalya 4.682.104
33,4
Istanbul 3.148.266
22,4
Mugla 1.998.559
14,3
Izmir
534.880
3,8
Aydın 275.336
2,0
Others 3.390.413
24,2
Total
14.029.558
100,0
Box 5 source: www.kulturturizm.gov.tr
6.047.246
3.473.185
2.526.407
764.658
257.774
4.448.340
17.517.610
(2006)
34,5
19,8
14.4
4,4
1,5
25,4
100,0
6.884.636
4.849.220
2.835.893
788.999
338.923
5.427.215
21.124.886
%
32,6
23,0
13,4
3,7
1,6
25,7
100,0
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Antalya 4.682.104
33,4
Istanbul 3.148.266
22,4
Mugla 1.998.559
14,3
Izmir
534.880
3,8
Aydın 275.336
2,0
Others 3.390.413
24,2
Total
14.029.558
100,0
Box 5 source: www.kulturturizm.gov.tr
6.047.246
3.473.185
2.526.407
764.658
257.774
4.448.340
17.517.610
(2006)
34,5
19,8
14.4
4,4
1,5
25,4
100,0
6.884.636
4.849.220
2.835.893
788.999
338.923
5.427.215
21.124.886
%
32,6
23,0
13,4
3,7
1,6
25,7
100,0
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Distribution o f T ourist A rrivals i n T urkey b y N ationality
2003
1
2
3
4
5
Germany
U.S.
U.K.
Bulgaria
N.L.
Box 6
3.332.451
2.121.254
1.091.404
1.006.612
940.098
Distribution o f T ourist A rrivals i n T urkey b y N ationality
%
2004
%
2005
23,8
15,1
7,8
7,2
6,7
3.983.939
2.792.123
1.387.817
1.309.885
1.191.382
22,7
15,9
7,9
7,5
6,8
4.243.584
3.432.082
1.757.843
1.621.918
1.254.153
%
2003
20,1
16,3
8,3
7,7
5,9
1
2
3
4
5
source: www.kulturturizm.gov.tr (2006)
Box 6
-54-
3.332.451
2.121.254
1.091.404
1.006.612
940.098
2004
%
2005
23,8
15,1
7,8
7,2
6,7
3.983.939
2.792.123
1.387.817
1.309.885
1.191.382
22,7
15,9
7,9
7,5
6,8
4.243.584
3.432.082
1.757.843
1.621.918
1.254.153
%
20,1
16,3
8,3
7,7
5,9
source: www.kulturturizm.gov.tr (2006)
Until the millennium, the tourism sector in Antalya focused on mass tourism which
led to huge investments on the coastline. Moreover the general tendency of the
accommodation facilities has been towards all inclusive package holidays providing all kinds of activities within the accommodations. This situation increased the
differentiation between luxury beach hotels and the local settlements behind
them. In some cases the local settlements even lost the direct access to the coasts.
Until the millennium, the tourism sector in Antalya focused on mass tourism which
led to huge investments on the coastline. Moreover the general tendency of the
accommodation facilities has been towards all inclusive package holidays providing all kinds of activities within the accommodations. This situation increased the
differentiation between luxury beach hotels and the local settlements behind
them. In some cases the local settlements even lost the direct access to the coasts.
5.1.2
5.1.2
Political Arena
Political Arena
The Republic of Turkey is a democratic constitutional republic with executive
power for the Ministers and legislative power for the Grand National Assembly
representing the 81 provinces. Municipal governments exist in each provincial
capital, as well as in communities with at least 5,000 inhabitants. Municipal governments are responsible for implementing national programs for health and social
assistance, public works and transportation. Each municipality (belediye) is headed by a mayor (belediye baskanı), who is elected by the citizens for a five-year
term.
The Republic of Turkey is a democratic constitutional republic with executive
power for the Ministers and legislative power for the Grand National Assembly
representing the 81 provinces. Municipal governments exist in each provincial
capital, as well as in communities with at least 5,000 inhabitants. Municipal governments are responsible for implementing national programs for health and social
assistance, public works and transportation. Each municipality (belediye) is headed by a mayor (belediye baskanı), who is elected by the citizens for a five-year
term.
Tourism entered the political arena in Turkey in 1961, when the Constitution and
State Planning Organization (SPO) was established as the government body,
responsible for the preparation of five year development plans. The first plan was
introduced in 1963, and concerned the tourism policies about the construction of
a maximum number of accommodation facilities (Tezcan, 2004). Nowadays, the
government views investment as vital to the country’s economic development. At
the end of 2001, it initiated a reform program to improve the investment climate
(www.turkey-now.com, 2006).
Tourism entered the political arena in Turkey in 1961, when the Constitution and
State Planning Organization (SPO) was established as the government body,
responsible for the preparation of five year development plans. The first plan was
introduced in 1963, and concerned the tourism policies about the construction of
a maximum number of accommodation facilities (Tezcan, 2004). Nowadays, the
government views investment as vital to the country’s economic development. At
the end of 2001, it initiated a reform program to improve the investment climate
(www.turkey-now.com, 2006).
The Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism has defined Tourism Development
Page
Germany
U.S.
U.K.
Bulgaria
N.L.
%
The Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism has defined Tourism Development
Page
-54-
Regions (TDR) and Tourism Zones. The main objective of the TDR projects is to
develop, organize and integrate different types of tourism activities in a defined
area. These TDRs are planned to allow optimal land use among various tourism
activities such as golf courses, marinas, accommodation facilities, meeting & exhibition centers, shopping centers, health, and education facilities in one region.
Tourism Zones refer to specific areas to which a higher priority is given for tourism
investments and whose location and borders are determined by the National
Government.
Regions (TDR) and Tourism Zones. The main objective of the TDR projects is to
develop, organize and integrate different types of tourism activities in a defined
area. These TDRs are planned to allow optimal land use among various tourism
activities such as golf courses, marinas, accommodation facilities, meeting & exhibition centers, shopping centers, health, and education facilities in one region.
Tourism Zones refer to specific areas to which a higher priority is given for tourism
investments and whose location and borders are determined by the National
Government.
Physical plans of all scales and types of tourism activities in TDRs can either be
produced by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism or can be produced by private
organizations. The final approval is given by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
Physical plans of all scales and types of tourism activities in TDRs can either be
produced by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism or can be produced by private
organizations. The final approval is given by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
Two of these TDR projects are located in the
Antalya area;
Two of these TDR projects are located in the
Antalya area;
Northern Antalya
(Kepez-Varsak-Topallı)
Tourism Development
Region and Antalya
Manavgat Oymapinar
Tourism Development
Region.
Northern Antalya
(Kepez-Varsak-Topallı)
Tourism Development
Region and Antalya
Manavgat Oymapinar
Tourism Development
Region.
Source: www.kultur.gov.tr, 2006
Source: www.kultur.gov.tr, 2006
In 1972, the law organizing travel agencies’ operations and the Association of
Turkish Travel Agencies (TÜRSAB) was enacted.
As a non-profit organization, TÜRSAB was founded to represent travel agents and
assist The Ministry on promotional activities. The main aims of the association are
the development of the travel agency profession in harmony with the country’s
economy and tourism sector and protection of the professional ethics and solidarity. Travel agencies are established with an operation license by the Ministry of
Tourism, and they are obliged to become members of the Association of Turkish
Travel Agencies (www.tursab.org.tr, 2006).
In 1972, the law organizing travel agencies’ operations and the Association of
Turkish Travel Agencies (TÜRSAB) was enacted.
As a non-profit organization, TÜRSAB was founded to represent travel agents and
assist The Ministry on promotional activities. The main aims of the association are
the development of the travel agency profession in harmony with the country’s
economy and tourism sector and protection of the professional ethics and solidarity. Travel agencies are established with an operation license by the Ministry of
Tourism, and they are obliged to become members of the Association of Turkish
Travel Agencies (www.tursab.org.tr, 2006).
5.2
5.2
Present-day developments
The most recent tourism policy document is the Tourism Vision of Turkey 2010
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Present-day developments
The most recent tourism policy document is the Tourism Vision of Turkey 2010
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-55-
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
launched in 2004. For Antalya the priority is investment in infrastructure including
improved water and sanitation systems and waste management systems.
launched in 2004. For Antalya the priority is investment in infrastructure including
improved water and sanitation systems and waste management systems.
On the Internet website of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism the goals for the
year 2010 are presented in the slide below.
On the Internet website of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism the goals for the
year 2010 are presented in the slide below.
Source: www.kulturturizm.gov.tr, 2006
Source: www.kulturturizm.gov.tr, 2006
Furthermore, the Ministry’s Internet presentation states that the planned investments for the Antalya area will continue as it has the capacity of hosting
10.000.000 tourists. Equal to a report on the Canary Islands (Bianchi, 2004), the
policy makers appear to assume that sustainable tourism is equivalent to ‘high
income tourism’. This can explain the focus on the numerous golf courses and
large and luxurious hotels.
Furthermore, the Ministry’s Internet presentation states that the planned investments for the Antalya area will continue as it has the capacity of hosting
10.000.000 tourists. Equal to a report on the Canary Islands (Bianchi, 2004), the
policy makers appear to assume that sustainable tourism is equivalent to ‘high
income tourism’. This can explain the focus on the numerous golf courses and
large and luxurious hotels.
An example of a move towards more of this kind of ‘sustainable’ tourism development occurred in Belek, a coastal city located in the East Antalya region. During
the eighties there was a large-scale tourism development that resulted in environmental and landscape deterioration within the TDR of Antalya Manavgat. All the
investors of this region handed over the management to Betuyab (Belek Turizm
Yatirimcilar Birligi/Belek Tourism Investors Union) to develop the region through
sustainable ‘BELEK – 2000’ projects (www.omt.uned.es, 2006).
Betuyab is a management association founded by the investor companies of the
region with the support of the Ministry of Tourism. However, the high number of
golf courses and luxury accommodations may be illustrative for the trend among
the policy-makers to qualify ‘sustainable’ equivalent to ‘quality’ and ‘luxury’
tourism.
An example of a move towards more of this kind of ‘sustainable’ tourism development occurred in Belek, a coastal city located in the East Antalya region. During
the eighties there was a large-scale tourism development that resulted in environmental and landscape deterioration within the TDR of Antalya Manavgat. All the
investors of this region handed over the management to Betuyab (Belek Turizm
Yatirimcilar Birligi/Belek Tourism Investors Union) to develop the region through
sustainable ‘BELEK – 2000’ projects (www.omt.uned.es, 2006).
Betuyab is a management association founded by the investor companies of the
region with the support of the Ministry of Tourism. However, the high number of
golf courses and luxury accommodations may be illustrative for the trend among
the policy-makers to qualify ‘sustainable’ equivalent to ‘quality’ and ‘luxury’
tourism.
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The decision making in the tourist areas that are assigned as tourist zones is the
Ministry of Tourism in Ankara. Outside these areas it is the local municipal governments. For example in a newly developed beach resort by the name of Lara,
the coastal zone falls under the ministry, and the inland area on the other side of
the main coastal road falls under municipal regulations.
The decision making in the tourist areas that are assigned as tourist zones is the
Ministry of Tourism in Ankara. Outside these areas it is the local municipal governments. For example in a newly developed beach resort by the name of Lara,
the coastal zone falls under the ministry, and the inland area on the other side of
the main coastal road falls under municipal regulations.
The present institutional setting of the Antalya area foresees continuous growth
and high seasonal peaks, with no restrictions or coordinated planning. So far the
lack of organization has led to a big gap between supply and demand. During the
low-season periods the hoteliers have serious occupancy problems due to the
overcapacity of tourist accommodations. Moreover, since many people move to
Antalya to find employment also the number of (secondary) houses continues to
grow, thus contributing to the intensive building constructions and infrastructural
needs. All open spaces between settlements are likely to be filled up.
The present institutional setting of the Antalya area foresees continuous growth
and high seasonal peaks, with no restrictions or coordinated planning. So far the
lack of organization has led to a big gap between supply and demand. During the
low-season periods the hoteliers have serious occupancy problems due to the
overcapacity of tourist accommodations. Moreover, since many people move to
Antalya to find employment also the number of (secondary) houses continues to
grow, thus contributing to the intensive building constructions and infrastructural
needs. All open spaces between settlements are likely to be filled up.
According to WWF Turkey (www.wwf.org.tr, 2006) the mass tourism development
areas are lacking infrastructural capacity to support the TDR’s and tourist zones
which were created by the Ministry of Tourism to rapidly increase the bed capacity. The effects are damaging the natural environment as neither a proper strategic planning, nor adequate infrastructure was created to support these areas.
Consequently, the uncontrolled urbanization led to negative impacts such as:
According to WWF Turkey (www.wwf.org.tr, 2006) the mass tourism development
areas are lacking infrastructural capacity to support the TDR’s and tourist zones
which were created by the Ministry of Tourism to rapidly increase the bed capacity. The effects are damaging the natural environment as neither a proper strategic planning, nor adequate infrastructure was created to support these areas.
Consequently, the uncontrolled urbanization led to negative impacts such as:
-
-
-
The destruction of natural flora and fauna;
The inadequacy of the physical infrastructure due to seasonal overloading;
The pollution due to the debris and fugitive dust resulting from construc
tion works;
The increased quantity of solid waste.
-
A few years ago, a partnership between the Tour Operators’ Initiative (TOI), the
Side Municipality and the Side Tourism Association was formed which initiated a
plan of action to solve Side’s solid waste problems.
The destruction of natural flora and fauna;
The inadequacy of the physical infrastructure due to seasonal overloading;
The pollution due to the debris and fugitive dust resulting from construc
tion works;
The increased quantity of solid waste.
A few years ago, a partnership between the Tour Operators’ Initiative (TOI), the
Side Municipality and the Side Tourism Association was formed which initiated a
plan of action to solve Side’s solid waste problems.
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Side sanitary land-fill area (source: Mr. A. Akçacioglu)
Side sanitary land-fill area (source: Mr. A. Akçacioglu)
A sanitary land-fill area was constructed and as part of the waste separation
scheme, which aimed at minimizing the pressure on the land-fill area, waste separation bins were placed in approximately 100 hotels in Side. All the shops in the
old town started using different colored bags to collect their waste. Boxes for used
batteries were placed in every hotel and in a local school. Waste separation bins
for organic and recyclable waste were placed in Side’s historic city centre for residents and tourists.
A sanitary land-fill area was constructed and as part of the waste separation
scheme, which aimed at minimizing the pressure on the land-fill area, waste separation bins were placed in approximately 100 hotels in Side. All the shops in the
old town started using different colored bags to collect their waste. Boxes for used
batteries were placed in every hotel and in a local school. Waste separation bins
for organic and recyclable waste were placed in Side’s historic city centre for residents and tourists.
Moreover training sessions on Solid Waste Management and Waste Separation
Techniques, have been organized for accommodation managers and other staff
members, for sanitation workers and all other stakeholders. The attendance to
these training sessions increased swiftly due to the awareness raising activities of
the local participant to the project (Vasco Travel).
Moreover training sessions on Solid Waste Management and Waste Separation
Techniques, have been organized for accommodation managers and other staff
members, for sanitation workers and all other stakeholders. The attendance to
these training sessions increased swiftly due to the awareness raising activities of
the local participant to the project (Vasco Travel).
Within a month after these measures were first implemented, already more than
15 tons of recyclable waste was separated and sold to recycling companies
(Akçacioglu, pers. com.).
Within a month after these measures were first implemented, already more than
15 tons of recyclable waste was separated and sold to recycling companies
(Akçacioglu, pers. com.).
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5.3
LOCAL AGENTS ANTALYA
5.3
LOCAL AGENTS ANTALYA
5.3.1
Awareness Sustainable Tourism6
5.3.1
Awareness Sustainable Tourism6
Through the in-depth conversations with the participants, the awareness and
opinion on local environmental issues related to the tourism business were considered a valid indication of the local agent’s awareness of sustainable tourism.
Through the in-depth conversations with the participants, the awareness and
opinion on local environmental issues related to the tourism business were considered a valid indication of the local agent’s awareness of sustainable tourism.
When asked about environmental issues, all interviewees spontaneously commented on the excessive number of extremely large hotels. Many of the enormous hotels were constructed during the previous years, without adequate infrastructural facilities such as waste water disposal. With most interviewees, the initial response appeared to be based on a professional concern for the quality of the
product supply.
When asked about environmental issues, all interviewees spontaneously commented on the excessive number of extremely large hotels. Many of the enormous hotels were constructed during the previous years, without adequate infrastructural facilities such as waste water disposal. With most interviewees, the initial response appeared to be based on a professional concern for the quality of the
product supply.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“They’re building all these monstrous hotels, beton monsters….”
“They’re building all these monstrous hotels, beton monsters….”
“We don’t agree with these policies…now there’s less demand and more
offer so the quality will go down”
“We don’t agree with these policies…now there’s less demand and more
offer so the quality will go down”
However, upon reflecting on these issues, a clear understanding of the environmental consequences of this over construction and a personal engagement
became apparent.
At first with some reluctance, some other issues were mentioned as the conversation continued. For example, the ‘All-Inclusive’ system was indicated as a negative influence on sustainable tourism. As it limits the interaction with the locals it
creates a widening gap between the visiting tourists and the local people. This
could result in a lack of interest for the social and natural environment by the
tourists.
However, upon reflecting on these issues, a clear understanding of the environmental consequences of this over construction and a personal engagement
became apparent.
At first with some reluctance, some other issues were mentioned as the conversation continued. For example, the ‘All-Inclusive’ system was indicated as a negative influence on sustainable tourism. As it limits the interaction with the locals it
creates a widening gap between the visiting tourists and the local people. This
could result in a lack of interest for the social and natural environment by the
tourists.
The high number of golf-courses was considered another damaging development
to which many local people are opposed, and which may be damaging to the natural environment due to the need to cut many trees and flatten the sand dunes
which have an ecological importance. Another example which was presented to
illustrate an infrastructural plan to which many local people are opposed, regarded an area in the vicinity of Antalya, called Lara. This area was frequently referred
to in relation to the over construction of hotels. Many enormous hotels were constructed over the last (approx.) 8 years, and on a remaining piece of sand dunes a
theme park might be built in the near future.
The high number of golf-courses was considered another damaging development
to which many local people are opposed, and which may be damaging to the natural environment due to the need to cut many trees and flatten the sand dunes
which have an ecological importance. Another example which was presented to
illustrate an infrastructural plan to which many local people are opposed, regarded an area in the vicinity of Antalya, called Lara. This area was frequently referred
to in relation to the over construction of hotels. Many enormous hotels were constructed over the last (approx.) 8 years, and on a remaining piece of sand dunes a
theme park might be built in the near future.
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In the case study all participants are referred to as interviewee or local agent. When
referring to the contact with the tour operator, the professional title of product
manager is used.
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In the case study all participants are referred to as interviewee or local agent. When
referring to the contact with the tour operator, the professional title of product
manager is used.
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Lara sand dune area
Lara sand dune area
Some recent constructions in Lara
Some recent constructions in Lara
The local people are objecting to this idea but it is supported by the Ministry of
Tourism. To oppose this project the local people have organized various activities,
and several busloads of people went to the parliament in Ankara to demonstrate.
The local people are objecting to this idea but it is supported by the Ministry of
Tourism. To oppose this project the local people have organized various activities,
and several busloads of people went to the parliament in Ankara to demonstrate.
By several interviewees some positive examples of sustainable tourism were given
as well. In Side the construction of a golf course has been prevented due to the
protests of the local people and a local NGO (Sorgun Ormani). Moreover, the
solid waste treatment system which was installed in 2003 in Side was also referred
to by several interviewees to give an indication of the possibilities for action if the
initiative is taken by the parties involved.
By several interviewees some positive examples of sustainable tourism were given
as well. In Side the construction of a golf course has been prevented due to the
protests of the local people and a local NGO (Sorgun Ormani). Moreover, the
solid waste treatment system which was installed in 2003 in Side was also referred
to by several interviewees to give an indication of the possibilities for action if the
initiative is taken by the parties involved.
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Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“I feel sorry for what they’re doing in Belek, for one golf course they
have to cut 20.000 trees which is terrible, but how to prevent this…?”
“I feel sorry for what they’re doing in Belek, for one golf course they
have to cut 20.000 trees which is terrible, but how to prevent this…?”
“The people are willing to do something but they need the initiative,
somebody has to move them”.
“The people are willing to do something but they need the initiative,
somebody has to move them”.
“The local awareness (sustainable tourism) should be stimulated, and that
doesn’t have to be too difficult!”
“The local awareness (sustainable tourism) should be stimulated, and that
doesn’t have to be too difficult!”
What became apparent during the interviews was an awareness of sustainable
tourism, but some constraint to the prevailing issues. Upon further in-depth discussion the main reason for this occurred to be a sense of incompetence as an individual to influence the existing political support to the investors. Only two participants mentioned the current preparation of a new law which would enable the
destinations to get more interaction and participation between the national government, local government and local stakeholders.
What became apparent during the interviews was an awareness of sustainable
tourism, but some constraint to the prevailing issues. Upon further in-depth discussion the main reason for this occurred to be a sense of incompetence as an individual to influence the existing political support to the investors. Only two participants mentioned the current preparation of a new law which would enable the
destinations to get more interaction and participation between the national government, local government and local stakeholders.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“In Turkey I don’t think they really take it very serious….”
“In Turkey I don’t think they really take it very serious….”
“When the pressure comes from the tourism business they (the politicians) also start to focus on the subject”
“When the pressure comes from the tourism business they (the politicians) also start to focus on the subject”
“Now there is a big discussion between tourism workers and government
to make a master plan”
“Now there is a big discussion between tourism workers and government
to make a master plan”
“There is a new law in preparation which enables the destination to get
an interaction between local and national government and private industry, all together they will have a joined right to decide”
“There is a new law in preparation which enables the destination to get
an interaction between local and national government and private industry, all together they will have a joined right to decide”
The distribution of regional and national policy making can lead to difficulties in
the coordination of the policies across the different levels of governance (Bianchi,
2002). This appears to be a main cause for the lack of coordination and local input
in the infrastructure of Antalya. And as already emerged in other Mediterranean
tourist destinations (Bianchi, 2003), the local opposition to certain tourist developments may gradually be surfacing.
The distribution of regional and national policy making can lead to difficulties in
the coordination of the policies across the different levels of governance (Bianchi,
2002). This appears to be a main cause for the lack of coordination and local input
in the infrastructure of Antalya. And as already emerged in other Mediterranean
tourist destinations (Bianchi, 2003), the local opposition to certain tourist developments may gradually be surfacing.
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Maybe the local complaints about the infrastructural disorganization within the
TDR’s and the tourist zones, have reached the policy makers in Ankara. At present, a political debate on the participation of organized stakeholders such as
tourist organizations and environmental groups in policy-making is taking place. It
could lead to more political involvement, among others, for the local agents who
are active in this area.
Maybe the local complaints about the infrastructural disorganization within the
TDR’s and the tourist zones, have reached the policy makers in Ankara. At present, a political debate on the participation of organized stakeholders such as
tourist organizations and environmental groups in policy-making is taking place. It
could lead to more political involvement, among others, for the local agents who
are active in this area.
5.3.2
5.3.2
Interaction with Dutch Tour Operators
Interaction with Dutch Tour Operators
With an overview of the present-day collaboration and communication with the
tour operators, the interviewed local agents gave some insight into their perception of its strengths and weaknesses.
With an overview of the present-day collaboration and communication with the
tour operators, the interviewed local agents gave some insight into their perception of its strengths and weaknesses.
Communication & Learning
Communication & Learning
The principal means of communication between the product managers and local
agents are email and telephone. All interviewees presented the communication
with the tour operators in a positive way, as a frequent contact to exchange information regarding the product supply. According to all the interviewees, most
product managers visit Antalya in order to contract for the new programs.
The principal means of communication between the product managers and local
agents are email and telephone. All interviewees presented the communication
with the tour operators in a positive way, as a frequent contact to exchange information regarding the product supply. According to all the interviewees, most
product managers visit Antalya in order to contract for the new programs.
Furthermore, the local agents visit the Utrecht Vakantiebeurs yearly. This visit is
considered very fruitful for the interaction with the tour operators’ product managers and acquaintance of other staff members. During these meetings the general product supply is the most usual topic of conversation, but concerning ‘PMZ’ or
‘sustainable tourism’, none of the interviewees could recall a concrete dialogue on
these issues with the product manager or any of the tour operator staff members.
Furthermore, the local agents visit the Utrecht Vakantiebeurs yearly. This visit is
considered very fruitful for the interaction with the tour operators’ product managers and acquaintance of other staff members. During these meetings the general product supply is the most usual topic of conversation, but concerning ‘PMZ’ or
‘sustainable tourism’, none of the interviewees could recall a concrete dialogue on
these issues with the product manager or any of the tour operator staff members.
When asked for suggestions on improvement of this collaboration, a spontaneous
reaction from most local agents was that the product managers usually have little
knowledge of the destination due to the time pressure. During the visits to
Antalya, they often do not even have the chance to visit all the products which are
included in the program. With regard to this, one of the local agents stated:
When asked for suggestions on improvement of this collaboration, a spontaneous
reaction from most local agents was that the product managers usually have little
knowledge of the destination due to the time pressure. During the visits to
Antalya, they often do not even have the chance to visit all the products which are
included in the program. With regard to this, one of the local agents stated:
”I would expect the product managers from tour operators who make the decisions regarding the products in the destinations and how to present and sell them
in the market, to visit the destinations very often, know the destination very
well… learn about the traditions and everything. I think this is missing in our
business…I think it’s very important that the product managers are much more in
the destinations than they are right now. I’m sure it’s the same for the others, the
”I would expect the product managers from tour operators who make the decisions regarding the products in the destinations and how to present and sell them
in the market, to visit the destinations very often, know the destination very
well… learn about the traditions and everything. I think this is missing in our
business…I think it’s very important that the product managers are much more in
the destinations than they are right now. I’m sure it’s the same for the others, the
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tour operators are cutting their cost by employing less and less people, and the
product managers have to work hard to get it all ready in time. But they are very
important in the destinations so it’s important they are there much more than at
present. They have to get it ready but they don’t actually know the destination”.
tour operators are cutting their cost by employing less and less people, and the
product managers have to work hard to get it all ready in time. But they are very
important in the destinations so it’s important they are there much more than at
present. They have to get it ready but they don’t actually know the destination”.
With regard to the PMZ coordinators, none of the local agents was acquainted
with this person for the tour operator they represent. A suggestion from a local
agent who represents a major Dutch tour operator was that all PMZ coordinators
should come to visit the destination and meet with the local actors, which could
have an affect on the policies of the tourism minister.
Also, most interviewees indicated that they would like to be more informed on the
company they represent. A newsletter with general company information was
mentioned several times as an interesting way to improve the contact with the
tour operator.
With regard to the PMZ coordinators, none of the local agents was acquainted
with this person for the tour operator they represent. A suggestion from a local
agent who represents a major Dutch tour operator was that all PMZ coordinators
should come to visit the destination and meet with the local actors, which could
have an affect on the policies of the tourism minister.
Also, most interviewees indicated that they would like to be more informed on the
company they represent. A newsletter with general company information was
mentioned several times as an interesting way to improve the contact with the
tour operator.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“We don’t know if the PMZ coordinator knows the destination…”
“We don’t know if the PMZ coordinator knows the destination…”
“We need more information, more details!”
“We need more information, more details!”
“I heard something about sustainable tourism when I was in Utrecht, but
I don’t know the details….”
“I heard something about sustainable tourism when I was in Utrecht, but
I don’t know the details….”
”Tour operator communication for exchange of experiences is needed”
”Tour operator communication for exchange of experiences is needed”
“Since 99 it’s always the Scandinavians that are leading on these environmental issues. They are not the biggest, but it does have an influence on the behaviors….”
“Since 99 it’s always the Scandinavians that are leading on these environmental issues. They are not the biggest, but it does have an influence on the behaviors….”
Similar to the findings of Bastakis et al (2003), the communication between the
product managers and the local agents appears to be rather impersonal and limited to ‘urgent matters’, except during the contracting visits in the destination.
Moreover, the tour operators all appear disinterested in the topic sustainable
tourism because of its absence in any form of communication with the various
departments of the tour operator. This combination of images does not incite the
local agents to bring up the social or ecological environment in any conversation.
All in all, without a dialogue or any other kind of communication on PMZ issues,
it’s impossible to learn from each other so that’s not happening.
Similar to the findings of Bastakis et al (2003), the communication between the
product managers and the local agents appears to be rather impersonal and limited to ‘urgent matters’, except during the contracting visits in the destination.
Moreover, the tour operators all appear disinterested in the topic sustainable
tourism because of its absence in any form of communication with the various
departments of the tour operator. This combination of images does not incite the
local agents to bring up the social or ecological environment in any conversation.
All in all, without a dialogue or any other kind of communication on PMZ issues,
it’s impossible to learn from each other so that’s not happening.
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Power & Negotiation
Power & Negotiation
The power levels in the interaction between the local agents and the tour operators vary depending on the activities that are taking place. Regarding the day-today contact and collaboration, the dominant power type seemed to be legitimate
power (see paragraph 2.3). During the interviews the cooperation with the product managers was always described as a legitimate right of the tour operator to
demand compliance of the local agent. No matter what time of the day, all local
agents considered it a matter of course to immediately meet with any request or
demand.
The power levels in the interaction between the local agents and the tour operators vary depending on the activities that are taking place. Regarding the day-today contact and collaboration, the dominant power type seemed to be legitimate
power (see paragraph 2.3). During the interviews the cooperation with the product managers was always described as a legitimate right of the tour operator to
demand compliance of the local agent. No matter what time of the day, all local
agents considered it a matter of course to immediately meet with any request or
demand.
The local agents also elaborated on their own power position in the collaboration
with the product managers. Especially in a country with a language ‘barrier’
between the product managers and the local suppliers and other local actors, the
‘inside’ knowledge of a local actor who also masters the language can be a decisive factor in the translation process. All interviewees believe that their ‘expert
power’ is fully recognized by the product managers.
The local agents also elaborated on their own power position in the collaboration
with the product managers. Especially in a country with a language ‘barrier’
between the product managers and the local suppliers and other local actors, the
‘inside’ knowledge of a local actor who also masters the language can be a decisive factor in the translation process. All interviewees believe that their ‘expert
power’ is fully recognized by the product managers.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“They always take our advice about properties”
“They always take our advice about properties”
“If it’s important and urgent they call us in nighttime!”
“If it’s important and urgent they call us in nighttime!”
Dialogues to address issues which can lead to more sustainable tourism generally
don’t take place between the local agents and the product managers. The product managers usually focus the conversations on the financial and commercial elements regarding the planned product supply, and refrain from environmental or
social issues which might be related to it. Moreover, the solutions to these local
environmental or social issues generally appear to be unclear or out-of-reach for
many Turkish people. All in all, it provides a context where most interviewees,
aiming at social approval from the product manager, perceive an uncertainty
toward a negotiation on sustainable tourism itself. This uncertainty can explain
their preference to remain silent on these issues.
Dialogues to address issues which can lead to more sustainable tourism generally
don’t take place between the local agents and the product managers. The product managers usually focus the conversations on the financial and commercial elements regarding the planned product supply, and refrain from environmental or
social issues which might be related to it. Moreover, the solutions to these local
environmental or social issues generally appear to be unclear or out-of-reach for
many Turkish people. All in all, it provides a context where most interviewees,
aiming at social approval from the product manager, perceive an uncertainty
toward a negotiation on sustainable tourism itself. This uncertainty can explain
their preference to remain silent on these issues.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“We can easily follow the investment of the hotelier … they have a budget for the environment infrastructure to keep it on the right level, they
know the hardware is not enough…”
“We can easily follow the investment of the hotelier … they have a budget for the environment infrastructure to keep it on the right level, they
know the hardware is not enough…”
“We want more contact because we have a different mentality”
“We want more contact because we have a different mentality”
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Even though they prefer to remain silent on environmental issues in their discussions with the product managers, the local agents clearly indicated that the tour
operators’ choice of products depends entirely on their pre-selection. Due to the
very limited knowledge of the destination which is enforced by a language barrier, the product managers can only choose from a product supply which is entirely
pre-selected by the local agents. This dependence on the local agents for a suitable product supply implies a lost opportunity if these actors continue to be
unaware of the introduction of the PMZ system for Dutch tour operators.
Even though they prefer to remain silent on environmental issues in their discussions with the product managers, the local agents clearly indicated that the tour
operators’ choice of products depends entirely on their pre-selection. Due to the
very limited knowledge of the destination which is enforced by a language barrier, the product managers can only choose from a product supply which is entirely
pre-selected by the local agents. This dependence on the local agents for a suitable product supply implies a lost opportunity if these actors continue to be
unaware of the introduction of the PMZ system for Dutch tour operators.
5.3.3
5.3.3
Interaction with Local Stakeholders
Interaction with Local Stakeholders
A discussion on the available resources, such as the means of communication or
the perceived business ‘power’ used in the interaction with the local stakeholders,
provides more insight into the role the local agents are able to fulfill in the PMZ
translation process.
A discussion on the available resources, such as the means of communication or
the perceived business ‘power’ used in the interaction with the local stakeholders,
provides more insight into the role the local agents are able to fulfill in the PMZ
translation process.
The Association of Turkish Travel Agencies (TÜRSAB), an affiliated member of
ECTAA7, arranges regular meetings with all incoming local agents to discuss ongoing operational issues. By most interviewees these meetings (approx. 4 times per
year) are considered fruitful and worthwhile to attend to as it provides them with
current information on several operational issues, and a neutral occasion to meet
with the other local agents. However, even though TÜRSAB has an environmental
committee, the interviewees underlined that environmental issues didn’t appear
high on the TÜRSAB agenda during the area meetings yet.
The Association of Turkish Travel Agencies (TÜRSAB), an affiliated member of
ECTAA7, arranges regular meetings with all incoming local agents to discuss ongoing operational issues. By most interviewees these meetings (approx. 4 times per
year) are considered fruitful and worthwhile to attend to as it provides them with
current information on several operational issues, and a neutral occasion to meet
with the other local agents. However, even though TÜRSAB has an environmental
committee, the interviewees underlined that environmental issues didn’t appear
high on the TÜRSAB agenda during the area meetings yet.
TÜRSAB also distributes a monthly, full-color magazine with abundant information
among all the members. The articles cover a wide variety of topics, aimed at
incoming agents, outgoing travel agents, excursion organizers etc.. Furthermore,
a fortnightly bulletin in Turkish for TÜRSAB members contains official news and
information.
TÜRSAB also distributes a monthly, full-color magazine with abundant information
among all the members. The articles cover a wide variety of topics, aimed at
incoming agents, outgoing travel agents, excursion organizers etc.. Furthermore,
a fortnightly bulletin in Turkish for TÜRSAB members contains official news and
information.
Upon further inquiry with the main office of TÜRSAB in Istanbul, their interest and
efforts towards sustainable tourism were summarized as follows (Atakan,
pers.com.): “TÜRSAB makes every possible effort to increase the awareness on
this issue of vital importance, not only among its members, but also in other circles concerned, as well as among the public. The public opinion is considered very
important in such a delicate issue where innumerable actors are involved.
Upon further inquiry with the main office of TÜRSAB in Istanbul, their interest and
efforts towards sustainable tourism were summarized as follows (Atakan,
pers.com.): “TÜRSAB makes every possible effort to increase the awareness on
this issue of vital importance, not only among its members, but also in other circles concerned, as well as among the public. The public opinion is considered very
important in such a delicate issue where innumerable actors are involved.
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The European Travel Agents’ and Tour Operators’ Associations
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The European Travel Agents’ and Tour Operators’ Associations
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Our efforts contain:
Inclusion of these issues in various ways in TÜRSAB’s publications,
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Our efforts contain:
Inclusion of these issues in various ways in TÜRSAB’s publications,
TÜRSAB’s President puts much emphasis on the sustainability of tourism,
on every occasion in his speeches or remarks at national, international conferences and meetings, in the press articles, TV interviews and of course at the
meetings with TÜRSAB’s members etc. TÜRSAB maintains very successful
relations with the media, and therefore has frequent opportunities to convey
its views and approach to this matter effectively to millions of audiences and
readers.
TÜRSAB’s President puts much emphasis on the sustainability of tourism,
on every occasion in his speeches or remarks at national, international conferences and meetings, in the press articles, TV interviews and of course at the
meetings with TÜRSAB’s members etc. TÜRSAB maintains very successful
relations with the media, and therefore has frequent opportunities to convey
its views and approach to this matter effectively to millions of audiences and
readers.
TÜRSAB works in constant contact with all the authorities concerned on
any issue directly or indirectly related to tourism and tourism development,
which naturally includes the issues of sustainability.”
TÜRSAB works in constant contact with all the authorities concerned on
any issue directly or indirectly related to tourism and tourism development,
which naturally includes the issues of sustainability.”
The interviewees’ communication with the local suppliers is dominated by telephone and email for the standardized messages such as reservations. But issues
that are related to the content and quality of the product supply or the composition thereof are dominated by the personal contact between the local agents and
the local actors involved. As mentioned before, personal contacts are considered
essential to obtain a good result in the Turkish business context.
The interviewees’ communication with the local suppliers is dominated by telephone and email for the standardized messages such as reservations. But issues
that are related to the content and quality of the product supply or the composition thereof are dominated by the personal contact between the local agents and
the local actors involved. As mentioned before, personal contacts are considered
essential to obtain a good result in the Turkish business context.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“The attention from Holland will influence our partners (local actors).”
“The attention from Holland will influence our partners (local actors).”
“Without a local agent a tour operator can’t be successful here in
Turkey. You need to know the people and how to treat them, you need
to know their family and everything….only the tour operators who have
a very good agent can be successful…”
“Without a local agent a tour operator can’t be successful here in
Turkey. You need to know the people and how to treat them, you need
to know their family and everything….only the tour operators who have
a very good agent can be successful…”
A characteristic of the southern and eastern Mediterranean countries like Turkey,
is a ’high-context’ culture. The theory of high-context culture refers to the way
persons interact with each other throughout their daily lives (Hall in Jandt, 1995).
This means the key emphasis is placed upon group and interpersonal relationships,
and developing trust between individuals plays a crucial role. These features clearly came forward in the interviewees’ descriptions of the communication- and
negotiation processes. The knowledge of the Turkish language was often indicated to be a very important element which leads to a sense of ‘bonding’8 that
enforces the social network. Also, as the interviewees consider themselves the
A characteristic of the southern and eastern Mediterranean countries like Turkey,
is a ’high-context’ culture. The theory of high-context culture refers to the way
persons interact with each other throughout their daily lives (Hall in Jandt, 1995).
This means the key emphasis is placed upon group and interpersonal relationships,
and developing trust between individuals plays a crucial role. These features clearly came forward in the interviewees’ descriptions of the communication- and
negotiation processes. The knowledge of the Turkish language was often indicated to be a very important element which leads to a sense of ‘bonding’8 that
enforces the social network. Also, as the interviewees consider themselves the
8
Formation of a close personal relationship
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8
Formation of a close personal relationship
facilitators/mediators between the local actors and the tour operators they represent, these negotiation processes are usually dominated by the integrative style
which could provide a sound basis for social learning. However, this is inhibited
due to the lack of communication on PMZ issues.
facilitators/mediators between the local actors and the tour operators they represent, these negotiation processes are usually dominated by the integrative style
which could provide a sound basis for social learning. However, this is inhibited
due to the lack of communication on PMZ issues.
Upon the product managers’ requests, the local agents can pre-select suitable
alternatives or additions to the existing programs. This selective process is highly
influenced by the quality standards which are required by the tour operator.
However, none of the interviewees could recall any environmental or social aspect
to be included in these requirements. Apart from the commercial qualities of the
selected products, only some safety standards within the accommodations are
taken into consideration in the selection process.
Upon the product managers’ requests, the local agents can pre-select suitable
alternatives or additions to the existing programs. This selective process is highly
influenced by the quality standards which are required by the tour operator.
However, none of the interviewees could recall any environmental or social aspect
to be included in these requirements. Apart from the commercial qualities of the
selected products, only some safety standards within the accommodations are
taken into consideration in the selection process.
Since most of the interviewees work with independent tour operators from different nationalities, they employ various means to provide their tour operators with
a suitable product supply.
The Dutch tour operators usually visit the destination to conclude the contracts
directly with the suppliers. However for some (international) tour operators the
local agents also conclude the contracts and distribute the contracted allotments
among the companies they represent. In these cases, the local agent is the suppliers’ contract partner and thus has the legitimate power (see paragraph 2.3) to
make certain quality demands. Nevertheless in all cases, according to the interviewees, as the local agents are the first contact for the suppliers they are often
regarded the ‘business-partner’ by these local actors. According to all the participants this mix of legitimate/referent power is a substantial instrument in their
interaction with the local suppliers.
Since most of the interviewees work with independent tour operators from different nationalities, they employ various means to provide their tour operators with
a suitable product supply.
The Dutch tour operators usually visit the destination to conclude the contracts
directly with the suppliers. However for some (international) tour operators the
local agents also conclude the contracts and distribute the contracted allotments
among the companies they represent. In these cases, the local agent is the suppliers’ contract partner and thus has the legitimate power (see paragraph 2.3) to
make certain quality demands. Nevertheless in all cases, according to the interviewees, as the local agents are the first contact for the suppliers they are often
regarded the ‘business-partner’ by these local actors. According to all the participants this mix of legitimate/referent power is a substantial instrument in their
interaction with the local suppliers.
Moreover, another important power type is based on the total number of guests
the local suppliers receive through the cooperation with a local agent. Therefore,
this ‘reward’ power can also influence the entire translation process.
Moreover, another important power type is based on the total number of guests
the local suppliers receive through the cooperation with a local agent. Therefore,
this ‘reward’ power can also influence the entire translation process.
Overall, the local agents’ power to influence other local actors often is perceived
to be bigger than the power of the individual tour operators they represent.
Obviously, this depends for a large part on the total number of clients which are
handled by the local agent. However, as it is based on a variety of power types it
can have a big influence on the translation process towards sustainable behavior
of the local actors they are in contact with. Most interviewees indicated that
through ‘networking’ many local activities or demands can be influenced and
enforced which could be a valuable contribution in the PMZ translation process.
Overall, the local agents’ power to influence other local actors often is perceived
to be bigger than the power of the individual tour operators they represent.
Obviously, this depends for a large part on the total number of clients which are
handled by the local agent. However, as it is based on a variety of power types it
can have a big influence on the translation process towards sustainable behavior
of the local actors they are in contact with. Most interviewees indicated that
through ‘networking’ many local activities or demands can be influenced and
enforced which could be a valuable contribution in the PMZ translation process.
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Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
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“We are ourselves local inhabitants, so we know our products very well;
we speak the local language; and we have good relationships with the
local government”.
“We are ourselves local inhabitants, so we know our products very well;
we speak the local language; and we have good relationships with the
local government”.
“We can easily follow the investment of the hotelier … “
“We can easily follow the investment of the hotelier … “
“We took the clients out and stopped the sales. He lost more than one
million euro because of this!”
“We took the clients out and stopped the sales. He lost more than one
million euro because of this!”
The overall impression on the possibilities to stimulate more sustainable tourism
awareness and behavior are very favorable. The local agents can have an important political influence both locally as well as nationally. Through TÜRSAB’s
General Manager or the General Secretaries in the various tourist regions, the
Ministry of Tourism and the municipalities can be influenced directly for issues that
are considered important to the tour operators.
The overall impression on the possibilities to stimulate more sustainable tourism
awareness and behavior are very favorable. The local agents can have an important political influence both locally as well as nationally. Through TÜRSAB’s
General Manager or the General Secretaries in the various tourist regions, the
Ministry of Tourism and the municipalities can be influenced directly for issues that
are considered important to the tour operators.
The business relation with the other local actors is highly dependent on the personal relations between them and the volume of ‘reward’, ‘referent’ and ‘legitimate’ power the local agent is perceived to have. As these powers are related to
the total number of clients handled by the local agents, this can be an important
instrument of persuasion towards more sustainable behavior. It also disables the
argument of many product managers that Dutch tour operators are ‘too small’ to
influence the local situations. Locally, the agents’ influence is based on more
aspects than the number of clients of an individual tour operator.
The business relation with the other local actors is highly dependent on the personal relations between them and the volume of ‘reward’, ‘referent’ and ‘legitimate’ power the local agent is perceived to have. As these powers are related to
the total number of clients handled by the local agents, this can be an important
instrument of persuasion towards more sustainable behavior. It also disables the
argument of many product managers that Dutch tour operators are ‘too small’ to
influence the local situations. Locally, the agents’ influence is based on more
aspects than the number of clients of an individual tour operator.
5.3.4
5.3.4
Organizational Engagement to Sustainable Tourism
Organizational Engagement to Sustainable Tourism
One interviewee enthusiastically described the organizational engagement to sustainable tourism. Many examples on the importance of sustainable behavior were
given to illustrate this engagement both in the direct work environment (the local
agents’ office) as well as in their activities outside. However when asked if this
attitude was influenced by the interaction with the tour operator, this was denied
immediately. Great emphasis was put on their own interest for and initiative
towards a more sustainable behavior and tourist industry.
One interviewee enthusiastically described the organizational engagement to sustainable tourism. Many examples on the importance of sustainable behavior were
given to illustrate this engagement both in the direct work environment (the local
agents’ office) as well as in their activities outside. However when asked if this
attitude was influenced by the interaction with the tour operator, this was denied
immediately. Great emphasis was put on their own interest for and initiative
towards a more sustainable behavior and tourist industry.
Most other interviewees did reveal a personal interest for more sustainable tourism
but a strong organizational engagement could not be recognized in any of the
Most other interviewees did reveal a personal interest for more sustainable tourism
but a strong organizational engagement could not be recognized in any of the
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9
interviews. According to one participant, this low sense of engagement was mainly due to the general belief that without any back-up from the tour operators, an
individual company can not influence the policy making.
interviews. According to one participant, this low sense of engagement was mainly due to the general belief that without any back-up from the tour operators, an
individual company can not influence the policy making.
The cultural and political context of the destination and its influence on the lifeworld of the participants appears to have a major influence on the existing frames9
and the possibility for dialogue to emerge.
Most interviewees frame the Turkish tourist industry as being manipulated by
investors, with no influence or participation for individual companies in the political decision-making process. Most of the large new tourist constructions such as
the hotels, golf courses etc., are owned by the same construction companies that
are contracted for public works by the national government.
According to the interviewees, it’s because of these political networks that these
companies have an easy access to obtain the land and the necessary permits. As
examples of this kind of enterprises the names of Muna Insaat and Sembol Insaat
were given.
The cultural and political context of the destination and its influence on the lifeworld of the participants appears to have a major influence on the existing frames9
and the possibility for dialogue to emerge.
Most interviewees frame the Turkish tourist industry as being manipulated by
investors, with no influence or participation for individual companies in the political decision-making process. Most of the large new tourist constructions such as
the hotels, golf courses etc., are owned by the same construction companies that
are contracted for public works by the national government.
According to the interviewees, it’s because of these political networks that these
companies have an easy access to obtain the land and the necessary permits. As
examples of this kind of enterprises the names of Muna Insaat and Sembol Insaat
were given.
On Internet the following information on Muna Insaat (Muna Inc.) was found: a
construction company which was established in the seventies, built its first hotel
in 1992 in Side Kumkoy. More constructions soon followed in 1995, 2002, 2005
with more accommodations in Belek. An 18-hole golf course is planned to finish in 2007, as well as another hotel accommodation (www.papillon.com, 2007).
On Internet the following information on Muna Insaat (Muna Inc.) was found: a
construction company which was established in the seventies, built its first hotel
in 1992 in Side Kumkoy. More constructions soon followed in 1995, 2002, 2005
with more accommodations in Belek. An 18-hole golf course is planned to finish in 2007, as well as another hotel accommodation (www.papillon.com, 2007).
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“They also make constructions for the government; therefore they get
the space for the hotels”
“They also make constructions for the government; therefore they get
the space for the hotels”
“All the investors get a piece of land and they think they will earn more
money if they build 500 rooms instead of 200 rooms…”
“All the investors get a piece of land and they think they will earn more
money if they build 500 rooms instead of 200 rooms…”
“This is a big issue, there are many discussions and meetings and criticism on the government and it will unfortunately be more in the near
future”
“This is a big issue, there are many discussions and meetings and criticism on the government and it will unfortunately be more in the near
future”
Dialogue, R eflection...
Dialogue, R eflection...
Because of this general way of thinking, reflection on the learned and diagnosing
what could be improved with regard to sustainable tourism, does not seem fruitful. The initial reaction to the local developments appeared to be with disregard of
Because of this general way of thinking, reflection on the learned and diagnosing
what could be improved with regard to sustainable tourism, does not seem fruitful. The initial reaction to the local developments appeared to be with disregard of
A frame can be defined as a conceptual structure used in thinking
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9
A frame can be defined as a conceptual structure used in thinking
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the ecological impacts and the negative consequences these could have. However,
in the in-depth interviews most participants disapproved of the high number of
golf courses and were well aware of the negative ecological consequences they
may produce in future. Moreover, they agreed to Bianchi’s findings (2004) that
the political emphasis on ‘high quality’ takes place at the expense of small
investors and family enterprises and reinforces the corporate hegemony over
regional society (Bianchi, 2002). But yet, since this personal opinion is not openly
shared with others, it seems more useful to frame the positive aspects of the actual developments than to reflect on past mistakes.
the ecological impacts and the negative consequences these could have. However,
in the in-depth interviews most participants disapproved of the high number of
golf courses and were well aware of the negative ecological consequences they
may produce in future. Moreover, they agreed to Bianchi’s findings (2004) that
the political emphasis on ‘high quality’ takes place at the expense of small
investors and family enterprises and reinforces the corporate hegemony over
regional society (Bianchi, 2002). But yet, since this personal opinion is not openly
shared with others, it seems more useful to frame the positive aspects of the actual developments than to reflect on past mistakes.
Empowerment 10 ...
Empowerment 10 ...
All the local agents explicitly emphasized the trust the tour operators have in them
during the product development process and the influence this entails in the product managers’ decisions regarding this destination. This sense of involvement with
the tour operators, and the perceived influence on the product managers’ decisions, can easily be indicated as a ‘co-acting’ type of participation (see paragraph
2.2.1). However, since environmental or social issues are never addressed in their
dialogues with the product managers, they do not feel empowered to stimulate
more sustainable behavior.
All the local agents explicitly emphasized the trust the tour operators have in them
during the product development process and the influence this entails in the product managers’ decisions regarding this destination. This sense of involvement with
the tour operators, and the perceived influence on the product managers’ decisions, can easily be indicated as a ‘co-acting’ type of participation (see paragraph
2.2.1). However, since environmental or social issues are never addressed in their
dialogues with the product managers, they do not feel empowered to stimulate
more sustainable behavior.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“They trust us and we give them our offer. So we decide together in the
end.”
“They trust us and we give them our offer. So we decide together in the
end.”
“So it means we can decide here because they always follow up our
advice. They are following us”
“So it means we can decide here because they always follow up our
advice. They are following us”
and A ction ? ?
and A ction ? ?
In spite of the complete lack of negotiation on PMZ issues, the agents have adopted some sustainable activities in the local operations. Of course, the intensity of
this involvement showed a great variety among the interviewees. With the excursions that are offered to the tourists, the ecological effects are usually taken into
consideration by all interviewees and have already lead to changes in existing programs. Moreover, the enthusiastic local agent referred to previously, also has
installed magnetic instruments in the coaches that are used for round tours, which
In spite of the complete lack of negotiation on PMZ issues, the agents have adopted some sustainable activities in the local operations. Of course, the intensity of
this involvement showed a great variety among the interviewees. With the excursions that are offered to the tourists, the ecological effects are usually taken into
consideration by all interviewees and have already lead to changes in existing programs. Moreover, the enthusiastic local agent referred to previously, also has
installed magnetic instruments in the coaches that are used for round tours, which
10
Empowerment: an increased responsibility through the formation of a common will, as
a means to facilitate action
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10
Empowerment: an increased responsibility through the formation of a common will, as
a means to facilitate action
results in a lower fuel use and CO 2 emission. Furthermore, their business partner
who takes care of the local transfers has adopted a system which discourages the
bus drivers to use the coaches for private mileage which also results in a lower fuel
use. Instead of using the coach to drive another e.g. 30 km home, these drivers
can use the organizations’ mini-buses that are available for the personnel or take
a dolmus, the public transport system.
results in a lower fuel use and CO 2 emission. Furthermore, their business partner
who takes care of the local transfers has adopted a system which discourages the
bus drivers to use the coaches for private mileage which also results in a lower fuel
use. Instead of using the coach to drive another e.g. 30 km home, these drivers
can use the organizations’ mini-buses that are available for the personnel or take
a dolmus, the public transport system.
An example to illustrate the importance of a catalyst to stimulate the engagement
of the local actors was given by Mr. Yusuf Örnek (Vasco Travel) referring to the
installation of the waste treatment system in Side and the engagement of local
entrepreneurs:
” because of the cooperation of a local agent the local entrepreneurs could be
stimulated and motivated. The awareness and behavior was heavily influenced by
the cooperation of a local agent! The minister came on several occasions, speaking with the governor etc... They saw us (Vasco) as the extension of the TOI
which represents the tour operators…”
An example to illustrate the importance of a catalyst to stimulate the engagement
of the local actors was given by Mr. Yusuf Örnek (Vasco Travel) referring to the
installation of the waste treatment system in Side and the engagement of local
entrepreneurs:
” because of the cooperation of a local agent the local entrepreneurs could be
stimulated and motivated. The awareness and behavior was heavily influenced by
the cooperation of a local agent! The minister came on several occasions, speaking with the governor etc... They saw us (Vasco) as the extension of the TOI
which represents the tour operators…”
Appendix 3 presents a copy of the invitation to one of the training sessions in Side.
Appendix 3 presents a copy of the invitation to one of the training sessions in Side.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“Somebody has to take the initiative for this!”
“Somebody has to take the initiative for this!”
“It would be good if they would mention it more often, we are the ears
and eyes of the clients (tour operators), we pass the message on to our
business partners…..”
“It would be good if they would mention it more often, we are the ears
and eyes of the clients (tour operators), we pass the message on to our
business partners…..”
The participation of the interviewees in the decision making process of the product managers would certainly contribute to a strong engagement in sustainable
tourism and stimulate the social learning process if another important learning
‘tool’ wasn’t missing ..... negotiation on PMZ issues!
Dialogue and negotiation on PMZ, essential elements for social learning, are
noticeably absent in the interaction between the local agents and the product
managers. An ironic example of this became prominent when the interviews of the
tour operators were compared to the interviews of their local agents. One participating product manager explicitly stated to be convinced that the local agent
would not invest in technical improvements of the coaches to reduce the CO 2
emission. This tour operators’ business partner is the local agent who had invest-
The participation of the interviewees in the decision making process of the product managers would certainly contribute to a strong engagement in sustainable
tourism and stimulate the social learning process if another important learning
‘tool’ wasn’t missing ..... negotiation on PMZ issues!
Dialogue and negotiation on PMZ, essential elements for social learning, are
noticeably absent in the interaction between the local agents and the product
managers. An ironic example of this became prominent when the interviews of the
tour operators were compared to the interviews of their local agents. One participating product manager explicitly stated to be convinced that the local agent
would not invest in technical improvements of the coaches to reduce the CO 2
emission. This tour operators’ business partner is the local agent who had investPage
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ed in CO2 reducing equipment and enthusiastically described the agency’s
engagement to sustainable behavior.
ed in CO2 reducing equipment and enthusiastically described the agency’s
engagement to sustainable behavior.
Still, even though the translation of sustainable tourism is not supported by the
interaction of the local agents with the Dutch tour operators and their PMZ programs, the interviewees did acquire an awareness of sustainable tourism through
their interactions with other actors in the tourism business chain and numerous
other influences. And another important aspect on the road to PMZ ; the local
agents and product managers do interact in an environment of trust and empowerment.
Still, even though the translation of sustainable tourism is not supported by the
interaction of the local agents with the Dutch tour operators and their PMZ programs, the interviewees did acquire an awareness of sustainable tourism through
their interactions with other actors in the tourism business chain and numerous
other influences. And another important aspect on the road to PMZ ; the local
agents and product managers do interact in an environment of trust and empowerment.
Nevertheless, the PMZ system has not incentivated a dialogue or learning process
on sustainable tourism between these actors in the tourism chain. Therefore, PMZ
did not contribute to the translation of sustainable tourism between the product
managers and the local agents in Antalya.
Nevertheless, the PMZ system has not incentivated a dialogue or learning process
on sustainable tourism between these actors in the tourism chain. Therefore, PMZ
did not contribute to the translation of sustainable tourism between the product
managers and the local agents in Antalya.
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5.4
Lanzarote
5.4
Lanzarote
5.4.1
Introduction
5.4.1
Introduction
The Canary Islands are located at about 1500 km from the Spanish mainland, and
approx. 500 km from Saharan Africa.
The Canary Islands are located at about 1500 km from the Spanish mainland, and
approx. 500 km from Saharan Africa.
They comprise of 7 main islands with Lanzarote situated most North-East.
They comprise of 7 main islands with Lanzarote situated most North-East.
Over the past decades, the Spanish island of Lanzarote has undergone a profound
transformation. From a small agricultural and fishing community with about
35.000 inhabitants in the 1960s, it has developed into a community based around
tourism, with approx. 127.000 inhabitants and some 1.5 million tourists a year
(www.cabildodelanzarote.com, 2006).
Over the past decades, the Spanish island of Lanzarote has undergone a profound
transformation. From a small agricultural and fishing community with about
35.000 inhabitants in the 1960s, it has developed into a community based around
tourism, with approx. 127.000 inhabitants and some 1.5 million tourists a year
(www.cabildodelanzarote.com, 2006).
As a natural sanctuary, Lanzarote offers incomparable characteristics. Apart from
the vast areas in Timanfaya National Park with various types of lava, it has sand
fields (the jable of Famara) as well as sea and coast environments where a multitude of extraordinarily adapted species and subspecies of plants and animals live
together (www.turismolanzarote.com, 2006). The inhabitants of the island adapted their traditions and customs to their surroundings which led to an extremely
specialized agricultural tradition. The development of the tourist sector caused a
gradual abandonment of traditional agriculture in favor of the service sector, with
growing occupancy rates in hotels and apartments. At one point, some 250.000
beds were forecasted. This number of people would impose a great threat to the
islands’ ecosystem.
As a natural sanctuary, Lanzarote offers incomparable characteristics. Apart from
the vast areas in Timanfaya National Park with various types of lava, it has sand
fields (the jable of Famara) as well as sea and coast environments where a multitude of extraordinarily adapted species and subspecies of plants and animals live
together (www.turismolanzarote.com, 2006). The inhabitants of the island adapted their traditions and customs to their surroundings which led to an extremely
specialized agricultural tradition. The development of the tourist sector caused a
gradual abandonment of traditional agriculture in favor of the service sector, with
growing occupancy rates in hotels and apartments. At one point, some 250.000
beds were forecasted. This number of people would impose a great threat to the
islands’ ecosystem.
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With the intention of slowing down this development, political measures were
taken in to preserve Lanzarote as a Biospheres’ Reserve. This denomination
marked the beginning of the preparation of the “Lanzarote in the Biosphere
Strategy”. The plan that put forth a framework to ensure sustainable development
of the island, was introduced in 1997. The contents of this program stress the
preservation and sustainable use of natural resources, biodiversity, the natural
environment and landscape. Recovery and restoration of the cultural heritage; sustainable development of the islands’ economy; minimization of resource consumption and waste are all measures to be encouraged, from a perspective of citizen involvement. Notable events were the launch of a 10-year moratorium11
limiting new tourist developments, the development of a pilot experience of selective waste collection and the implementation of a bio-waste disposal unit
(www.ec.europa.eu, 2006).
With the intention of slowing down this development, political measures were
taken in to preserve Lanzarote as a Biospheres’ Reserve. This denomination
marked the beginning of the preparation of the “Lanzarote in the Biosphere
Strategy”. The plan that put forth a framework to ensure sustainable development
of the island, was introduced in 1997. The contents of this program stress the
preservation and sustainable use of natural resources, biodiversity, the natural
environment and landscape. Recovery and restoration of the cultural heritage; sustainable development of the islands’ economy; minimization of resource consumption and waste are all measures to be encouraged, from a perspective of citizen involvement. Notable events were the launch of a 10-year moratorium11
limiting new tourist developments, the development of a pilot experience of selective waste collection and the implementation of a bio-waste disposal unit
(www.ec.europa.eu, 2006).
5.4.2
5.4.2
Present-day developments
In the last four decades, the society of Lanzarote has changed enormously. What
began as a minor economic activity has evolved into the main activity of most
Lanzaroteños (the local inhabitants). Until the early ‘70s most people were
involved in agriculture and the fishing industry, but ‘Turismo’ offered a new way
to get an income and seemed extremely attractive. The work was less physically
intensive and “gave access to the world across the ocean” (Cabrera, pers.com.),
which made it a very attractive novelty that was welcomed by all Lanzaroteños.
The tourism business has evolved to be the principal source of income for the local
community and the standard of living has become much higher than some
decades ago. Nowadays, tourists from many nationalities seem to be flocking the
streets of the main tourist resorts Puerto del Carmen, Playa Blanca and Costa
Teguise.
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Present-day developments
In the last four decades, the society of Lanzarote has changed enormously. What
began as a minor economic activity has evolved into the main activity of most
Lanzaroteños (the local inhabitants). Until the early ‘70s most people were
involved in agriculture and the fishing industry, but ‘Turismo’ offered a new way
to get an income and seemed extremely attractive. The work was less physically
intensive and “gave access to the world across the ocean” (Cabrera, pers.com.),
which made it a very attractive novelty that was welcomed by all Lanzaroteños.
The tourism business has evolved to be the principal source of income for the local
community and the standard of living has become much higher than some
decades ago. Nowadays, tourists from many nationalities seem to be flocking the
streets of the main tourist resorts Puerto del Carmen, Playa Blanca and Costa
Teguise.
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11
The tourism moratorium has been put in exercise in 2000
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11
The tourism moratorium has been put in exercise in 2000
Tourist arrivals by Nationality
2004
GERMANY
382.306
BELGIUM
22.585
FINLAND
23.681
FRANCE
7.101
U.K.
914.669
NETHERLANDS 60.719
Box 7
2004
2005
2006
(06 - 05)
356.615
19.416
21.440
6.485
862.330
54.988
336.839
20.555
22.994
2.467
859.881
57.007
-19.776
1.139
1.554
-4.018
-2.449
2.019
Tourist Arrivals by Nationality.
Tourist arrivals by Nationality
2004
GERMANY
382.306
BELGIUM
22.585
FINLAND
23.681
FRANCE
7.101
U.K.
914.669
NETHERLANDS 60.719
Box 7
Source: www.gobiernodecanarias.org (2007)
2004
2005
2006
(06 - 05)
356.615
19.416
21.440
6.485
862.330
54.988
336.839
20.555
22.994
2.467
859.881
57.007
-19.776
1.139
1.554
-4.018
-2.449
2.019
Tourist Arrivals by Nationality.
Source: www.gobiernodecanarias.org (2007)
In line with Bianchi (2003), the concern over land use cannot be separated from
the vitality of a local culture. Generally, the local inhabitants give much importance
to the environment and its preservation. In this context, Cesar Manrique’s name
must be brought up, as he can be given credit for a large part of the environmental consciousness of the Lanzaroteños. Having spent many years working abroad,
he was shocked when he returned to Lanzarote in 1968 and saw the development
that his native island had gone through. César Manrique had an enormous influence on the regional council (Cabildo) who gave him a free hand to do whatever
he wanted (Duim, 2005). According to his aesthetic guidelines no building, except
church towers, should be taller than a palm tree. He banned roadside boards as
well as the tipping of rubbish, and electric cables had to be laid underground. He
also recommended that all villages should only dress up in white and green, or the
odd blue in coastal areas.
In line with Bianchi (2003), the concern over land use cannot be separated from
the vitality of a local culture. Generally, the local inhabitants give much importance
to the environment and its preservation. In this context, Cesar Manrique’s name
must be brought up, as he can be given credit for a large part of the environmental consciousness of the Lanzaroteños. Having spent many years working abroad,
he was shocked when he returned to Lanzarote in 1968 and saw the development
that his native island had gone through. César Manrique had an enormous influence on the regional council (Cabildo) who gave him a free hand to do whatever
he wanted (Duim, 2005). According to his aesthetic guidelines no building, except
church towers, should be taller than a palm tree. He banned roadside boards as
well as the tipping of rubbish, and electric cables had to be laid underground. He
also recommended that all villages should only dress up in white and green, or the
odd blue in coastal areas.
5.4.3
5.4.3
Political Backdrop
Political Backdrop
Each Canary Island has its own Cabildo Insular (Island Council) with certain powers of self-government and responsibility for the local public services. Then the
islands are divided into Municipios (municipalities) which are presided by a mayor
(Alcalde). The Municipios seat in the Ayuntamiento (town hall).
Each Canary Island has its own Cabildo Insular (Island Council) with certain powers of self-government and responsibility for the local public services. Then the
islands are divided into Municipios (municipalities) which are presided by a mayor
(Alcalde). The Municipios seat in the Ayuntamiento (town hall).
The ‘Cabildo de Lanzarote’ seems actively engaged with various issues that affect
the tourism industry directly. A great deal of news articles and information on their
Internet presentations give the impression of a very ‘green’ political attitude. A
Moratorium law was installed in order to control a limited growth of tourist urbanizations, followed by the ‘Plan Territorial Especial’ (PTE) which was installed in
order to disqualify many already granted construction licences (Cabrera, 2006).
The ‘Cabildo de Lanzarote’ seems actively engaged with various issues that affect
the tourism industry directly. A great deal of news articles and information on their
Internet presentations give the impression of a very ‘green’ political attitude. A
Moratorium law was installed in order to control a limited growth of tourist urbanizations, followed by the ‘Plan Territorial Especial’ (PTE) which was installed in
order to disqualify many already granted construction licences (Cabrera, 2006).
As Duim (2005) maintains, the distribution of planning powers (e.g. the ability to
grant construction licenses) among the Municipalities and the Cabildo lies at the
heart of the problematic implementation of the restrictive laws. An example of
As Duim (2005) maintains, the distribution of planning powers (e.g. the ability to
grant construction licenses) among the Municipalities and the Cabildo lies at the
heart of the problematic implementation of the restrictive laws. An example of
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these problems became public in a recent Court case where the mayors of Yaiza
and Teguise were accused of granting construction licenses illegally (Gazettelive,
2007).
these problems became public in a recent Court case where the mayors of Yaiza
and Teguise were accused of granting construction licenses illegally (Gazettelive,
2007).
Despite the apparent commitment of the regional parliament to sustainability,
some important exemptions in the legislation regarding the growth rate of tourist
beds were made for:
Despite the apparent commitment of the regional parliament to sustainability,
some important exemptions in the legislation regarding the growth rate of tourist
beds were made for:
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Rural tourism accommodation and associated infrastructure
Rehabilitation of existing tourism establishments
Historic buildings and construction of hotels in residential areas
High quality accommodations
Five-star hotels, luxury villas and apartments
Four-star hotels if accompanied by a complementary offer such as golfcourses, marinas etc.
Rural tourism accommodation and associated infrastructure
Rehabilitation of existing tourism establishments
Historic buildings and construction of hotels in residential areas
High quality accommodations
Five-star hotels, luxury villas and apartments
Four-star hotels if accompanied by a complementary offer such as golfcourses, marinas etc.
Influenced by these exemptions is the development and rising importance of rural
tourism which localizes regions which were not developed for ‘mass’ tourism
before. It has given prestige to rural life, created jobs and diversified the economic flows. Moreover, it contributes to the preservation of rural settings and agricultural produce (Parra and Calero, 2006). Nevertheless, the increase of tourist
visitors to many inland destinations also has side effects which are perceived as
negative by the local population, such as the construction of road infrastructure
and more traffic in previously quiet areas. From six environmental problems, this
was elected as the most important one by the local population of the Canary
Islands (www.benmagec.org, 2006).
Influenced by these exemptions is the development and rising importance of rural
tourism which localizes regions which were not developed for ‘mass’ tourism
before. It has given prestige to rural life, created jobs and diversified the economic flows. Moreover, it contributes to the preservation of rural settings and agricultural produce (Parra and Calero, 2006). Nevertheless, the increase of tourist
visitors to many inland destinations also has side effects which are perceived as
negative by the local population, such as the construction of road infrastructure
and more traffic in previously quiet areas. From six environmental problems, this
was elected as the most important one by the local population of the Canary
Islands (www.benmagec.org, 2006).
According to local entrepreneurs and previous scientific reports (Bianchi, 2002;
Duim, 2005), the overcapacity of tourist accommodations was partly caused by
the Moratorium. Prior to the implementation of this law, an exceptionally high
number of licenses were applied for and granted by the local municipalities.
Before its introduction some municipalities rejected it since it would intervene with
the planned economic growth of their municipalities (Bianchi, 2004). For that reason the Moratorium law was brought to the provincial High Court and nowadays
is still at the High Court in Madrid. Pending the courts’ decision the Moratorium
law is legal and should be abided to, however, according to public opinion this is
not always the case.
According to local entrepreneurs and previous scientific reports (Bianchi, 2002;
Duim, 2005), the overcapacity of tourist accommodations was partly caused by
the Moratorium. Prior to the implementation of this law, an exceptionally high
number of licenses were applied for and granted by the local municipalities.
Before its introduction some municipalities rejected it since it would intervene with
the planned economic growth of their municipalities (Bianchi, 2004). For that reason the Moratorium law was brought to the provincial High Court and nowadays
is still at the High Court in Madrid. Pending the courts’ decision the Moratorium
law is legal and should be abided to, however, according to public opinion this is
not always the case.
An example of neglect of the moratorium occurred in Yaiza recently. In 1998, the
mayor of Yaiza granted a license to build a major hotel despite a negative report
from the Yaiza Community’s own Technical Department. The structure would
An example of neglect of the moratorium occurred in Yaiza recently. In 1998, the
mayor of Yaiza granted a license to build a major hotel despite a negative report
from the Yaiza Community’s own Technical Department. The structure would
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exceed the number of floors permitted under island laws and would impede public access to Las Coloradas Beach. In 2005 the Cabildo de Lanzarote refused to
grant an operating license to the 744-bed hotel, but it continued to illegally welcome tourists. After a holiday visit of the Spanish Minister for Coasts, the national government has ordered the demolition of this hotel as it breaches the Coastal
Law which prohibits construction in ecologically sensitive areas (Gazettelive,
2006). Unless such individual cases are brought to court, they can carry on with
the constructions and commercial activities.
exceed the number of floors permitted under island laws and would impede public access to Las Coloradas Beach. In 2005 the Cabildo de Lanzarote refused to
grant an operating license to the 744-bed hotel, but it continued to illegally welcome tourists. After a holiday visit of the Spanish Minister for Coasts, the national government has ordered the demolition of this hotel as it breaches the Coastal
Law which prohibits construction in ecologically sensitive areas (Gazettelive,
2006). Unless such individual cases are brought to court, they can carry on with
the constructions and commercial activities.
One of these individual cases which was brought to court and is still pending the
High Courts’ decision, is of a hotel on the ‘Playa de las Coloradas’.
In spite of its unsustainable location and the unclear legal status, many tour operators still include it in their product supply.
One of these individual cases which was brought to court and is still pending the
High Courts’ decision, is of a hotel on the ‘Playa de las Coloradas’.
In spite of its unsustainable location and the unclear legal status, many tour operators still include it in their product supply.
The local population strongly supports the Moratorium law and generally feels
very negative about the high number of constructions, and the negative environmental consequences it has for the entire island. For example extremely high
numbers of construction materials must be imported, and the construction sites
provide a lot of waste.
The local population strongly supports the Moratorium law and generally feels
very negative about the high number of constructions, and the negative environmental consequences it has for the entire island. For example extremely high
numbers of construction materials must be imported, and the construction sites
provide a lot of waste.
An extremely high number of hotels were added to the village of Playa Blanca
within a period of approx. 5 years. In many cases it concerns extremely large and
high complexes with many extra facilities on the grounds around them.
The general feeling among the Lanzaroteños is of dislike, the constructors are
An extremely high number of hotels were added to the village of Playa Blanca
within a period of approx. 5 years. In many cases it concerns extremely large and
high complexes with many extra facilities on the grounds around them.
The general feeling among the Lanzaroteños is of dislike, the constructors are
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considered outsiders that are disrespectful of Cesar Manrique’s guidelines which
are renowned in the local culture.
considered outsiders that are disrespectful of Cesar Manrique’s guidelines which
are renowned in the local culture.
Source : www.datosdelanzarote.com
Source : www.datosdelanzarote.com
According to an analysis of the environmental flows by Hercowitz (2003) the energy use and the constructions are mainly responsible for the pressures on
Lanzarote’s environment. Over the island’s territory particularly the construction
sector is an important channel of environmental pressure.
According to an analysis of the environmental flows by Hercowitz (2003) the energy use and the constructions are mainly responsible for the pressures on
Lanzarote’s environment. Over the island’s territory particularly the construction
sector is an important channel of environmental pressure.
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12
5.5
LOCAL AGENTS LANZAROTE
5.5
LOCAL AGENTS LANZAROTE
5.5.1
Awareness Sustainable Tourism12
5.5.1
Awareness Sustainable Tourism12
The analysis of the general awareness and systems orientation of the interviewees
was established through the in-depth elaborations on several local environmental
issues. The current issues which spontaneously and repeatedly reoccurred in all
the interviews are reflected hereunder.
The analysis of the general awareness and systems orientation of the interviewees
was established through the in-depth elaborations on several local environmental
issues. The current issues which spontaneously and repeatedly reoccurred in all
the interviews are reflected hereunder.
A frequently recurring response to the popular term ‘sustainable’ was another
notable title, namely ‘Biosphere Reserve’. With most interviewees the initial reaction which was prompted by the word sustainable, was the title given by Unesco
in 1993. It provides a clear conceptual structure (frame) for the local community to outline the island. This sustainable image was presented with a sense of
pride, and provided an accessible doorway to a more profound elaboration on the
environmental characteristics of Lanzarote.
A frequently recurring response to the popular term ‘sustainable’ was another
notable title, namely ‘Biosphere Reserve’. With most interviewees the initial reaction which was prompted by the word sustainable, was the title given by Unesco
in 1993. It provides a clear conceptual structure (frame) for the local community to outline the island. This sustainable image was presented with a sense of
pride, and provided an accessible doorway to a more profound elaboration on the
environmental characteristics of Lanzarote.
When asked for current environmental issues, the over construction of tourist
accommodations was always considered the main problem. Even though it
increases the product supply that can be offered to the tour operators, the negative consequences were perceived dominant. Initially, the commercial consequences for the product suppliers were highlighted, such as low occupancy levels
due to an overall overcapacity, hence lower economic revenue. However, a more
profound interest and knowledge on this issue quickly revealed itself when other
consequences were described. For example, the construction licenses which are
provided for ‘rural’ accommodations. According to most interviewees (and in line
with the findings of Duim and Bianchi), the exemptions to the moratorium regulations have lead to the construction of an excessive number of small-scale accommodations in the tourist resorts under a misleading pretext of ‘rural tourism’. Also
in accordance with Bianchi (2002), they expressed the concern over the transfer
of power and capital to a wealthy group of investors from elsewhere, at the
expense of smaller, but local entrepreneurs.
When asked for current environmental issues, the over construction of tourist
accommodations was always considered the main problem. Even though it
increases the product supply that can be offered to the tour operators, the negative consequences were perceived dominant. Initially, the commercial consequences for the product suppliers were highlighted, such as low occupancy levels
due to an overall overcapacity, hence lower economic revenue. However, a more
profound interest and knowledge on this issue quickly revealed itself when other
consequences were described. For example, the construction licenses which are
provided for ‘rural’ accommodations. According to most interviewees (and in line
with the findings of Duim and Bianchi), the exemptions to the moratorium regulations have lead to the construction of an excessive number of small-scale accommodations in the tourist resorts under a misleading pretext of ‘rural tourism’. Also
in accordance with Bianchi (2002), they expressed the concern over the transfer
of power and capital to a wealthy group of investors from elsewhere, at the
expense of smaller, but local entrepreneurs.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“Now if you go to Playa Blanca there is a villa on every corner, for the
‘rural tourism’. It’s no more rural!! It’s no more in the country!!”
“Now if you go to Playa Blanca there is a villa on every corner, for the
‘rural tourism’. It’s no more rural!! It’s no more in the country!!”
“Playa Blanca and Costa Teguise are terrible, it’s full and there are plans
to make more!”
“Playa Blanca and Costa Teguise are terrible, it’s full and there are plans
to make more!”
“If he knows the right people and gets the license he starts building the
hotel”
“If he knows the right people and gets the license he starts building the
hotel”
In the case study the participants are also referred to as interviewee or local agent.
When referring to the tour operators’contract or productmanager, the professional title
of product manager is used.
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12
In the case study the participants are also referred to as interviewee or local agent.
When referring to the tour operators’contract or productmanager, the professional title
of product manager is used.
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Another issue that was brought forward by all interviewees, relates to the various
means of transport available on the island. To begin with, the local public transport is considered inadequate which results in an extremely high use of cars, both
by tourists as well as local inhabitants.
Another issue that was brought forward by all interviewees, relates to the various
means of transport available on the island. To begin with, the local public transport is considered inadequate which results in an extremely high use of cars, both
by tourists as well as local inhabitants.
The negative effects such as busy and dangerous roads lead to new plans for more
infrastructure which is generally rejected by the local population. Most interviewees shared the opinion that an improved public transport system would greatly
reduce the amount of cars. As an illustrative example a very hectic arrival day was
described by all interviewees, which is Thursday.
The negative effects such as busy and dangerous roads lead to new plans for more
infrastructure which is generally rejected by the local population. Most interviewees shared the opinion that an improved public transport system would greatly
reduce the amount of cars. As an illustrative example a very hectic arrival day was
described by all interviewees, which is Thursday.
On Thursdays the guests from The Netherlands and the United Kingdom arrive in
Arrecife airport.
Usually the number of arrivals is too high for the total capacity of the coach companies that provide the transfers between the airport and the accommodations.
On most Thursday’s, all coach companies must increase their capacity with additional buses from other local companies. The excessive number of coaches and
cars usually result in traffic jams and hectic situations, and frequently to the usage
of old vehicles with a higher emission of polluting exhaust fumes.
On Thursdays the guests from The Netherlands and the United Kingdom arrive in
Arrecife airport.
Usually the number of arrivals is too high for the total capacity of the coach companies that provide the transfers between the airport and the accommodations.
On most Thursday’s, all coach companies must increase their capacity with additional buses from other local companies. The excessive number of coaches and
cars usually result in traffic jams and hectic situations, and frequently to the usage
of old vehicles with a higher emission of polluting exhaust fumes.
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28.12.2006
28.12.2006
Newsdesk
Newsdesk
Gazette
Gazette
Live.com
Live.com
Budget airline arrives
Budget airline arrives
The first budget airline to operate from Lanzarote is now up and running. Jet2com, the low-cost
The first budget airline to operate from Lanzarote is now up and running. Jet2com, the low-cost
passenger airline run by former freight specialists Channel Express, touched down on Lanzarote soil
passenger airline run by former freight specialists Channel Express, touched down on Lanzarote soil
for the first time on November 16th.
for the first time on November 16th.
Jet2com flights will connect Lanzarote with Leeds/Bradford airport every Thursday and Sunday.
Jet2com flights will connect Lanzarote with Leeds/Bradford airport every Thursday and Sunday.
The company’s website is advertising flights to Lanzarote starting from £14.99, although demand
The company’s website is advertising flights to Lanzarote starting from £14.99, although demand
and timing can mean the prices are much higher.
and timing can mean the prices are much higher.
The airport has confirmed that other budget airlines are negotiating for permission to operate,
The airport has confirmed that other budget airlines are negotiating for permission to operate,
although further details were not released. Irish airline Aer Lingus will also start operating from
although further details were not released. Irish airline Aer Lingus will also start operating from
Lanzarote soon.
Lanzarote soon.
More arrivals on Thursday’s.
More arrivals on Thursday’s.
Source: www.gazettelive.com, 2006
Source: www.gazettelive.com, 2006
Yet another issue which currently receives a great deal of attention is the political
plan regarding the construction of theme parks. According to most interviewees
the concept of theme parks did not arise from a market demand, and would merely bring more damage to the natural environment. In their opinion the concept of
theme parks is solely supported by investors since it would enable them to obtain
more construction licenses. The urbanizations around the theme parks could pass
the moratorium law as ‘rural’ or ‘residential’ areas. An article in the local newspaper La Provincia supported this opinion (Cabrera, 2006). On the front page the
findings of a research of the Govierno de Canarias, revealed that the majority of
visitors in Lanzarote consider the present offer of leisure activities to be, “muy
completa”.
Yet another issue which currently receives a great deal of attention is the political
plan regarding the construction of theme parks. According to most interviewees
the concept of theme parks did not arise from a market demand, and would merely bring more damage to the natural environment. In their opinion the concept of
theme parks is solely supported by investors since it would enable them to obtain
more construction licenses. The urbanizations around the theme parks could pass
the moratorium law as ‘rural’ or ‘residential’ areas. An article in the local newspaper La Provincia supported this opinion (Cabrera, 2006). On the front page the
findings of a research of the Govierno de Canarias, revealed that the majority of
visitors in Lanzarote consider the present offer of leisure activities to be, “muy
completa”.
Moreover, the waste from the existing and future construction sites was mentioned on several occasions, which introduced another eminent local issue, the
waste collection.
Moreover, the waste from the existing and future construction sites was mentioned on several occasions, which introduced another eminent local issue, the
waste collection.
According to the Lanzarote in the Biosphere Strategy which was initiated in 1997
by the Cabildo de Lanzarote, “the greater efficiency in collection services and
recovery and recycling would result in a reduction of the insular residues” by the
year 2007. All the interviewees described a very contrasting picture of the current waste collection system.
Separate waste collectors have become part of the ‘cityscape’ in all the tourist
resorts. They are installed in the streets, and aim to separate the collection of
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paper, glass and bio-waste from the other domestic refuse. In a resentful tone all
According to the Lanzarote in the Biosphere Strategy which was initiated in 1997
by the Cabildo de Lanzarote, “the greater efficiency in collection services and
recovery and recycling would result in a reduction of the insular residues” by the
year 2007. All the interviewees described a very contrasting picture of the current waste collection system.
Separate waste collectors have become part of the ‘cityscape’ in all the tourist
resorts. They are installed in the streets, and aim to separate the collection of
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paper, glass and bio-waste from the other domestic refuse. In a resentful tone all
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the interviewees uttered their indignation with the apparent disorganization of the
local government regarding the waste disposal. The separate waste collectors are
emptied collectively in the same garbage trucks where it is all mixed together
again. It is then transported to a crater which is transformed into a landfill, where
it is all disposed of.
the interviewees uttered their indignation with the apparent disorganization of the
local government regarding the waste disposal. The separate waste collectors are
emptied collectively in the same garbage trucks where it is all mixed together
again. It is then transported to a crater which is transformed into a landfill, where
it is all disposed of.
According to the interviewees, all domestic waste including paper and organic
materials is combined with hazardous substances such as oils, batteries, machines
and construction materials. All is dumped in the same landfill with the exception
of glass which is shipped to a recycling factory on the island Gran Canaria.
According to the interviewees, all domestic waste including paper and organic
materials is combined with hazardous substances such as oils, batteries, machines
and construction materials. All is dumped in the same landfill with the exception
of glass which is shipped to a recycling factory on the island Gran Canaria.
Lanzarote land-fill area Zonzamas
Lanzarote land-fill area Zonzamas
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“There was a European meeting here, but then they don’t show them
the garbage”
“There was a European meeting here, but then they don’t show them
the garbage”
“There is a hole; they put everything together until it is full”
“There is a hole; they put everything together until it is full”
“We don’t….it’s the tourists who produce the waste”
“We don’t….it’s the tourists who produce the waste”
“The treatment is not done the way you know it in Europe. In Holland or
Germany these systems are not allowed!”
“The treatment is not done the way you know it in Europe. In Holland or
Germany these systems are not allowed!”
“It’s full now and they are looking for a new volcano…”
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“It’s full now and they are looking for a new volcano…”
Even though it was not related to the natural environment, the interviewees also
pointed at an important social issue, the medical facilities for tourists and local
people. According to some participants, the high increase of bed capacity on the
island is in no way reflected in the bed capacity of the main hospital in Arrecife,
or in other medical facilities such as emergency transport. Apparently, the total
number of hospital beds has increased from 166 beds in 1998, to 190 beds in
2004 (El Guincho, pers.com.). Moreover, in Playa Blanca the medical centre is
closed at the weekends (Cabrera, 2006). During these days, an ambulance for
urgent cases needs to be sent from Arrecife, at approximately 40 km distance.
Even though it was not mentioned explicitly in the Lanzarote in the Biosphere
Strategy (1998), it seems conflictive with the following objectives presented in this
document:
“Improved standard of living among the resident population; Improvement of
social co-existence”.
A public opinion poll, held in December 2006, revealed that the Lanzaroteños consider the islands’ Public Health system to be a major problem. According to this
report, at present this is an insular problem with the biggest personal impact
(www.datosdelanzarote.com, 2007). In line with Bianchi (2002), the local political
approach to sustainable tourism ignores important social issues and ‘quality of life’
indicators.
Even though it was not related to the natural environment, the interviewees also
pointed at an important social issue, the medical facilities for tourists and local
people. According to some participants, the high increase of bed capacity on the
island is in no way reflected in the bed capacity of the main hospital in Arrecife,
or in other medical facilities such as emergency transport. Apparently, the total
number of hospital beds has increased from 166 beds in 1998, to 190 beds in
2004 (El Guincho, pers.com.). Moreover, in Playa Blanca the medical centre is
closed at the weekends (Cabrera, 2006). During these days, an ambulance for
urgent cases needs to be sent from Arrecife, at approximately 40 km distance.
Even though it was not mentioned explicitly in the Lanzarote in the Biosphere
Strategy (1998), it seems conflictive with the following objectives presented in this
document:
“Improved standard of living among the resident population; Improvement of
social co-existence”.
A public opinion poll, held in December 2006, revealed that the Lanzaroteños consider the islands’ Public Health system to be a major problem. According to this
report, at present this is an insular problem with the biggest personal impact
(www.datosdelanzarote.com, 2007). In line with Bianchi (2002), the local political
approach to sustainable tourism ignores important social issues and ‘quality of life’
indicators.
The participating local agents all exhibited a clear awareness of the discourse13 on
sustainable tourism, and of prevailing local issues which need to be improved.
Various critical reviews on the local communities’ previous and current activities
exhibited a reflective capacity among the interviewees. This reflectivity is an
important lever for social learning and change, and it reveals how the cultural and
political context affects the learning process and behavior.
The participating local agents all exhibited a clear awareness of the discourse13 on
sustainable tourism, and of prevailing local issues which need to be improved.
Various critical reviews on the local communities’ previous and current activities
exhibited a reflective capacity among the interviewees. This reflectivity is an
important lever for social learning and change, and it reveals how the cultural and
political context affects the learning process and behavior.
Moreover, through the elaborate reviews it became clear that the participants took
multiple processes into account in order to obtain a better understanding of the
unsustainable consequences of certain behaviors. For example, the disposition of
a wider range of products to offer to the tour operators was easily transformed
into a less attractive natural environment due to large urbanized areas and to an
overcapacity of tourist accommodations which could lead to economic downfall
for many local entrepreneurs. Also, the streets ‘buzzing’ with lively tourists were
transformed into overcrowded roads which lead to environmental pollution and
safety risks. Corresponding with Duim (2005), the descriptions emerged from a
combination of various elements. Social and economical, as well as material and
technological aspects were blended into their ‘tourismscape’.
Moreover, through the elaborate reviews it became clear that the participants took
multiple processes into account in order to obtain a better understanding of the
unsustainable consequences of certain behaviors. For example, the disposition of
a wider range of products to offer to the tour operators was easily transformed
into a less attractive natural environment due to large urbanized areas and to an
overcapacity of tourist accommodations which could lead to economic downfall
for many local entrepreneurs. Also, the streets ‘buzzing’ with lively tourists were
transformed into overcrowded roads which lead to environmental pollution and
safety risks. Corresponding with Duim (2005), the descriptions emerged from a
combination of various elements. Social and economical, as well as material and
technological aspects were blended into their ‘tourismscape’.
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13
A discourse can be defined as the ensemble of ideas, concepts and categories through
which meaning is given to phenomena (Hajer, 1993)
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13
A discourse can be defined as the ensemble of ideas, concepts and categories through
which meaning is given to phenomena (Hajer, 1993)
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Quotes f rom I nterviewees
Quotes f rom I nterviewees
-
“Lanzarote is a place where the Biosphere Reserve title is given because
of the way we preserve the environment. But many things are not really true, it’s just an image”
-
“Lanzarote is a place where the Biosphere Reserve title is given because
of the way we preserve the environment. But many things are not really true, it’s just an image”
5.5.2
Interaction with Dutch Tour operators
5.5.2
Interaction with Dutch Tour operators
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None of the interviewees described the communication with the tour operators as
being abundant. With the exception of TUI España, they all qualified the communication as being very brief or non-existent unless an urgent issue comes up
which needs to be solved immediately. The contact is directly with the product
manager but is usually limited to unexpected urgent matters, communicated
through email and telephone.
None of the interviewees described the communication with the tour operators as
being abundant. With the exception of TUI España, they all qualified the communication as being very brief or non-existent unless an urgent issue comes up
which needs to be solved immediately. The contact is directly with the product
manager but is usually limited to unexpected urgent matters, communicated
through email and telephone.
Personal meetings are concentrated on the contracting visits of the product managers and in tourism trade fairs such as the Vakantiebeurs in Utrecht. None of the
interviewees could recall any dialogue about the PMZ programs or issues regarding sustainable tourism with the product manager. Nevertheless, after meetings
with a tour operator, the relevant outcomes are also transferred to the other staff
members through internal communication. Moreover, for the staff members of
TUI España a file by the name of ‘Medio-Ambiente’ contains newspaper clippings
regarding environmental issues.
Personal meetings are concentrated on the contracting visits of the product managers and in tourism trade fairs such as the Vakantiebeurs in Utrecht. None of the
interviewees could recall any dialogue about the PMZ programs or issues regarding sustainable tourism with the product manager. Nevertheless, after meetings
with a tour operator, the relevant outcomes are also transferred to the other staff
members through internal communication. Moreover, for the staff members of
TUI España a file by the name of ‘Medio-Ambiente’ contains newspaper clippings
regarding environmental issues.
None of the interviewees had ever received any specific instructions regarding
environmental issues, to be considered during the pre-selection and contracting of
the local products. One of the local agents elaborated on several workshops given
by the tour operator, based on various topics. Nevertheless, the interviewee could
not recall a workshop on sustainable tourism issues or PMZ.
None of the interviewees had ever received any specific instructions regarding
environmental issues, to be considered during the pre-selection and contracting of
the local products. One of the local agents elaborated on several workshops given
by the tour operator, based on various topics. Nevertheless, the interviewee could
not recall a workshop on sustainable tourism issues or PMZ.
Most interviewees expressed the wish to be informed more regularly by the tour
operator, in order to become more engaged. On several occasions a newsletter
was mentioned as an interesting manner to be kept informed and involved with
the tour operators’ operations.
Most interviewees expressed the wish to be informed more regularly by the tour
operator, in order to become more engaged. On several occasions a newsletter
was mentioned as an interesting manner to be kept informed and involved with
the tour operators’ operations.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“…there’s no system with them, they don’t have any system”
“…there’s no system with them, they don’t have any system”
“In Holland we get workshops and get-togethers, very entertaining“
“In Holland we get workshops and get-togethers, very entertaining“
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“I would like to receive more information about how business is, and
maybe I can report more things if I have more information”
“I would like to receive more information about how business is, and
maybe I can report more things if I have more information”
“If that communication was different I would feel more close to them,
in the end the customers benefit from this”
“If that communication was different I would feel more close to them,
in the end the customers benefit from this”
“With (name tour operator) we’re not preventing problems, just trying
to solve afterwards”
“With (name tour operator) we’re not preventing problems, just trying
to solve afterwards”
In the case of TUI España, this limited communication was not indicated as such.
Within the group structure, the information between the tour operator and the
local agents is exchanged on a regular basis and there are clear instructions for the
communication procedures. For example, only in the case of TUI España the local
agent referred to the collection of printed materials in order to keep the product
manager informed on relevant local news which can include information on environmental issues.
In the case of TUI España, this limited communication was not indicated as such.
Within the group structure, the information between the tour operator and the
local agents is exchanged on a regular basis and there are clear instructions for the
communication procedures. For example, only in the case of TUI España the local
agent referred to the collection of printed materials in order to keep the product
manager informed on relevant local news which can include information on environmental issues.
Nevertheless, none of the participants was acquainted with the tour operators’
PMZ coordinators or briefed on sustainable issues or requirements by the product
managers or other tour operator staff members.
Nevertheless, none of the participants was acquainted with the tour operators’
PMZ coordinators or briefed on sustainable issues or requirements by the product
managers or other tour operator staff members.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
”I never heard of PMZ, since 4 years I never heard of it”
”I never heard of PMZ, since 4 years I never heard of it”
“I don’t mention these things to the tour operator, they don’t care. If I
tell them they don’t listen!”
“I don’t mention these things to the tour operator, they don’t care. If I
tell them they don’t listen!”
”I don’t know the PMZ coordinator, so I don’t know if this person knows
Lanzarote”
”I don’t know the PMZ coordinator, so I don’t know if this person knows
Lanzarote”
The restricted communication between the product managers and the interviewees was frequently perceived to be rather inflexible and demanding. The collaboration with the product managers was framed by most interviewees as the legitimate right of this actor to demand compliance. During the product planning and
contracting period, the local agents’ advice on local issues is requested regularly
but according to the interviewees, it is not always followed up. The information
flow was mostly described as moving in a one-way direction without a share in the
decision making process, thus an informing type of participation.
The restricted communication between the product managers and the interviewees was frequently perceived to be rather inflexible and demanding. The collaboration with the product managers was framed by most interviewees as the legitimate right of this actor to demand compliance. During the product planning and
contracting period, the local agents’ advice on local issues is requested regularly
but according to the interviewees, it is not always followed up. The information
flow was mostly described as moving in a one-way direction without a share in the
decision making process, thus an informing type of participation.
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Due to the restricted communicative interaction of most interviewees with the
product managers, the sense of trust and delegation from the tour operators, did
not dominate in the perception and thoughts of the interviewees.
Due to the restricted communicative interaction of most interviewees with the
product managers, the sense of trust and delegation from the tour operators, did
not dominate in the perception and thoughts of the interviewees.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“I am acting as a filter”
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“I am acting as a filter”
“The tour operators of one country should join to gain power and get a
say in a local destination“.
“The tour operators of one country should join to gain power and get a
say in a local destination“.
“I made comments on certain hotels to (name tour operator), then it was
considered but not followed“.
“I made comments on certain hotels to (name tour operator), then it was
considered but not followed“.
“They are pushing me, the téll me I múst get the right conditions... “
“They are pushing me, the téll me I múst get the right conditions... “
The engagement of the participants to sustainable tourism is entirely based on the
social and environmental context of Lanzarote. Because of this, their knowledge
on these issues is high and the wish to share it with their business partners such
as the product managers is omnipresent. However, without an interested listener
it is impossible to have a dialogue and exchange views. Moreover, the influence in
the product supply and the trust from the product manager were perceived to be
rather restricted, which does not stimulate the local agents to share any of their
knowledge regarding PMZ related issues. Sustainable tourism was never addressed
by the product manager which is a drawback since “the wider the dispersal of
power, the more opportunity there is for agents to mobilize other resources”
(Duim, 2005:129).
The engagement of the participants to sustainable tourism is entirely based on the
social and environmental context of Lanzarote. Because of this, their knowledge
on these issues is high and the wish to share it with their business partners such
as the product managers is omnipresent. However, without an interested listener
it is impossible to have a dialogue and exchange views. Moreover, the influence in
the product supply and the trust from the product manager were perceived to be
rather restricted, which does not stimulate the local agents to share any of their
knowledge regarding PMZ related issues. Sustainable tourism was never addressed
by the product manager which is a drawback since “the wider the dispersal of
power, the more opportunity there is for agents to mobilize other resources”
(Duim, 2005:129).
The bottom line is that the cooperation with the product managers does not lead
to an increased empowerment by the tour operator. Therefore it does not incite to
any of the proclaimed ‘PMZ Action’ presented in the travel brochures.
The bottom line is that the cooperation with the product managers does not lead
to an increased empowerment by the tour operator. Therefore it does not incite to
any of the proclaimed ‘PMZ Action’ presented in the travel brochures.
5.5.3
5.5.3
Interaction with Local Stakeholders
Interaction with Local Stakeholders
The main means of communication with local suppliers is by phone and Internet
and through personal meetings with the actors involved.
The main means of communication with local suppliers is by phone and Internet
and through personal meetings with the actors involved.
Moreover, all incoming travel agents in Lanzarote can become a member of a representative organization where all local issues affecting the operations, policies or
Moreover, all incoming travel agents in Lanzarote can become a member of a representative organization where all local issues affecting the operations, policies or
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environment can be discussed. These monthly dialogues with the other members
usually take place in an integrative negotiation process with a concern for the consequences of any of the suggested solutions.
environment can be discussed. These monthly dialogues with the other members
usually take place in an integrative negotiation process with a concern for the consequences of any of the suggested solutions.
On Lanzarote the incoming agents can select from two such organizations. AETUR
is a local association that represents various business-types such as travel agents,
car rental companies, theme parks, restaurants etc. (www.aetur.es). This organization only operates in Lanzarote.
The other representative organization, the Asociación de Agencias de Viajes de Las
Palmas (www.aavfgl.org), was founded in 1977 and represents incoming agents
from Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote.
On Lanzarote the incoming agents can select from two such organizations. AETUR
is a local association that represents various business-types such as travel agents,
car rental companies, theme parks, restaurants etc. (www.aetur.es). This organization only operates in Lanzarote.
The other representative organization, the Asociación de Agencias de Viajes de Las
Palmas (www.aavfgl.org), was founded in 1977 and represents incoming agents
from Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote.
According to some interviewees the majority of incoming agents have joined the
provincial organization AAVFGL. Moreover, this organization also has a person in
charge of environmental issues, who is based in Gran Canaria. Even though the
collaboration with other local agents is regarded in a positive way, all interviewees
indicated that it is rarely focused on issues regarding sustainable tourism. Usually
the issues that are discussed regard practical problems such as problems with suppliers, strikes etc.
A recent example of these negotiations was presented by one interviewee, and
regarded the high number of arrivals on Thursdays. First ‘Civil Aviation’, a handling company in the airport of Lanzarote was persuaded and willing to support
the request to the various airlines involved, considering another arrival day for the
British market. The request was not granted since the airlines refused to discuss
the arrival days. Nevertheless, all interviewees emphasized a considerable influence in local politics through this coalition of incoming agents.
According to some interviewees the majority of incoming agents have joined the
provincial organization AAVFGL. Moreover, this organization also has a person in
charge of environmental issues, who is based in Gran Canaria. Even though the
collaboration with other local agents is regarded in a positive way, all interviewees
indicated that it is rarely focused on issues regarding sustainable tourism. Usually
the issues that are discussed regard practical problems such as problems with suppliers, strikes etc.
A recent example of these negotiations was presented by one interviewee, and
regarded the high number of arrivals on Thursdays. First ‘Civil Aviation’, a handling company in the airport of Lanzarote was persuaded and willing to support
the request to the various airlines involved, considering another arrival day for the
British market. The request was not granted since the airlines refused to discuss
the arrival days. Nevertheless, all interviewees emphasized a considerable influence in local politics through this coalition of incoming agents.
Furthermore, the interviewees explained that the excursions in Lanzarote are organized and sold by a wholesale travel agency which was founded in 1984 by the
name of TAMARAGUA TOURS SL., and continued to grow to 42 members.
Tamaragua Tours is owned by its members, the incoming agents, who also sell the
excursions to their tour operators’ guests.
Furthermore, the interviewees explained that the excursions in Lanzarote are organized and sold by a wholesale travel agency which was founded in 1984 by the
name of TAMARAGUA TOURS SL., and continued to grow to 42 members.
Tamaragua Tours is owned by its members, the incoming agents, who also sell the
excursions to their tour operators’ guests.
Quotes f rom I nterviewees
Quotes f rom I nterviewees
“We are the voice of this industry”
“We are the voice of this industry”
“There is a way but we don’t use it. But we could become more active
through that organization.”
“There is a way but we don’t use it. But we could become more active
through that organization.”
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
“The tour operators should speak to the Cabildo through us, then they
would listen!! If the tour operators would tell us to fight then we could
go and they would listen! “
“The tour operators should speak to the Cabildo through us, then they
would listen!! If the tour operators would tell us to fight then we could
go and they would listen! “
“Influence politics?? There are instruments, but the initiatives from our
side are very limited.”
“Influence politics?? There are instruments, but the initiatives from our
side are very limited.”
The overall impression was that all the interviewees are interested in the issues
related to sustainable tourism and do have a strong sense of engagement. Their
engagement sources from other stimuli than the tour operator interaction, such as
the abundant information on sustainable issues in the local newspapers and from
the Cabildo, and the framework provided by the title of Biosphere Reserve.
The overall impression was that all the interviewees are interested in the issues
related to sustainable tourism and do have a strong sense of engagement. Their
engagement sources from other stimuli than the tour operator interaction, such as
the abundant information on sustainable issues in the local newspapers and from
the Cabildo, and the framework provided by the title of Biosphere Reserve.
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
5.5.4
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
“I would welcome this attention from the tour operators”
“I would welcome this attention from the tour operators”
“It’s a lovely idea and it would be better if it could also be applied…”
“It’s a lovely idea and it would be better if it could also be applied…”
Organizational Engagement to Sustainable Tourism
5.5.4
Organizational Engagement to Sustainable Tourism
In spite of a complete lack of dialogue on sustainable issues with the product managers, and a perceived lack of interest for sustainable issues from the latter, the indepth conversations with the local agents did reveal the existence of other orienting concepts of social learning in their way of thinking. If dialogues on sustainable issues would be included as a field of interest in the negotiations with the
product managers, it could provide an environment for learning and thinking
together. If it would be included, it would lead to a shared understanding and reasoning which could result in the capacity to act jointly through the empowerment
of the local agents.
In spite of a complete lack of dialogue on sustainable issues with the product managers, and a perceived lack of interest for sustainable issues from the latter, the indepth conversations with the local agents did reveal the existence of other orienting concepts of social learning in their way of thinking. If dialogues on sustainable issues would be included as a field of interest in the negotiations with the
product managers, it could provide an environment for learning and thinking
together. If it would be included, it would lead to a shared understanding and reasoning which could result in the capacity to act jointly through the empowerment
of the local agents.
Social learning does however take place with the incoming agents in Lanzarote
through the environmental consciousness embedded in the local culture and the
contextual effects of everyday life in a ‘Biosphere Reserve’. The local agents feel
engaged in the concept of sustainable tourism and are keen to set up dialogues
over actual practices and potential solutions.
Social learning does however take place with the incoming agents in Lanzarote
through the environmental consciousness embedded in the local culture and the
contextual effects of everyday life in a ‘Biosphere Reserve’. The local agents feel
engaged in the concept of sustainable tourism and are keen to set up dialogues
over actual practices and potential solutions.
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Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“I would like more information on the business going both ways, be
more involved! It could also improve the business if they give these
messages and make it roll…..”
“I would like more information on the business going both ways, be
more involved! It could also improve the business if they give these
messages and make it roll…..”
“Lanzarote has an image and I would really like to see something done
by the tour operators cause it’s not as bright as it should be.”
“Lanzarote has an image and I would really like to see something done
by the tour operators cause it’s not as bright as it should be.”
Empowerment
14
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
14 …
Empowerment
14 …
The collaboration with the product managers was often criticized when referring
to the communicative interactions which were described as being too limited.
Perceived as being solely focused on urgent commercial issues, according to the
interviewees the product managers lack interest in the destination and its social
and natural characteristics and present-day developments.
The collaboration with the product managers was often criticized when referring
to the communicative interactions which were described as being too limited.
Perceived as being solely focused on urgent commercial issues, according to the
interviewees the product managers lack interest in the destination and its social
and natural characteristics and present-day developments.
Furthermore, as the local agents’ advice is not always perceived to be contributing to or a decisive factor in the product managers’ decision making process, it can
be indicated as an informing type of participation. Finally, the level of trust was
not dominant in the interactions, especially with regard to the implementation of
the PMZ system and the product managers’ engagement to it.
Furthermore, as the local agents’ advice is not always perceived to be contributing to or a decisive factor in the product managers’ decision making process, it can
be indicated as an informing type of participation. Finally, the level of trust was
not dominant in the interactions, especially with regard to the implementation of
the PMZ system and the product managers’ engagement to it.
Collaboration can provide a catalyst to consider new knowledge and experiences,
which can lead to action (Keen, 2005). However, since the collaboration on PMZ
issues with Dutch product managers is not considered to be positive or productive
by the local agents, it has not evolved into an increased responsibility or ‘empowerment’ with the interviewees in Lanzarote.
Collaboration can provide a catalyst to consider new knowledge and experiences,
which can lead to action (Keen, 2005). However, since the collaboration on PMZ
issues with Dutch product managers is not considered to be positive or productive
by the local agents, it has not evolved into an increased responsibility or ‘empowerment’ with the interviewees in Lanzarote.
and A ction ? ?
and A ction ? ?
An example of action was presented with a description of Tamaragua Tours. As
the excursion supplier is owned by its members, the incoming agents can mutually decide on the content of the excursion programs. According to the interviewees, during the development of the current product supply, the environment is
taken into consideration. However, there are also various ‘old’ excursions which
do not always fully comply with the present-day ecological requirements. If the
individual excursion suppliers can provide the required licenses to operate they are
accepted, without further demands regarding sustainable issues. “If the supplier
has a license we don’t dig into it any further!”
An example of action was presented with a description of Tamaragua Tours. As
the excursion supplier is owned by its members, the incoming agents can mutually decide on the content of the excursion programs. According to the interviewees, during the development of the current product supply, the environment is
taken into consideration. However, there are also various ‘old’ excursions which
do not always fully comply with the present-day ecological requirements. If the
individual excursion suppliers can provide the required licenses to operate they are
accepted, without further demands regarding sustainable issues. “If the supplier
has a license we don’t dig into it any further!”
Empowerment: an increased responsibility through the formation of a common will, as
a means to facilitate action
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14
Empowerment: an increased responsibility through the formation of a common will, as
a means to facilitate action
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
One interviewee gave the example of a Scandinavian tour operator that has
included a sustainable tourism checklist into the contracts with the accommodation suppliers (Appendix 4). According to this local agent, even though these
issues are quite demanding towards the suppliers, the procedure never led to any
negative reactions. Moreover, in spite of the additional work with the elaborate
contract conditions, this interviewee repeatedly emphasized the respect for this
tour operators’ perseverance on sustainable tourism issues with the statement:
“It’s better to be the mouse’s head, than the lions’ tail.”
One interviewee gave the example of a Scandinavian tour operator that has
included a sustainable tourism checklist into the contracts with the accommodation suppliers (Appendix 4). According to this local agent, even though these
issues are quite demanding towards the suppliers, the procedure never led to any
negative reactions. Moreover, in spite of the additional work with the elaborate
contract conditions, this interviewee repeatedly emphasized the respect for this
tour operators’ perseverance on sustainable tourism issues with the statement:
“It’s better to be the mouse’s head, than the lions’ tail.”
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
Quotes f rom i nterviewees
“If the communication was different I would feel more close to them, in
the end the customers benefit from this.”
“If the communication was different I would feel more close to them, in
the end the customers benefit from this.”
“Tour operators just want cheap!”
“Tour operators just want cheap!”
“I am absolutely sure if the tour operators would talk to their local
agents they could influence in politics.”
“I am absolutely sure if the tour operators would talk to their local
agents they could influence in politics.”
“It could improve the business if they give these messages and make it
roll…”.
“It could improve the business if they give these messages and make it
roll…”.
Because of the low level of empowerment in the collaboration with the Dutch tour
operators, it has not resulted in the ‘mobilization of other resources’ (Duim, 2005).
The local agents possess various ‘resources’ to persuade other local actors towards
more sustainable tourism. Examples of this are the awareness of the ecological
traits of the destination, a legitimate influence on the excursion supply, political
access through the travel associations etc. But such resources need to be mobilized
through the networked relationships (Duim, 2005), which they are not. For the
independent entrepreneurs among the participants, the uncertain power relations
and the economic dependency on the cooperation with the tour operators, prevail
in their decisions. The political power the local agents could mobilize in the local
and provincial government through the various travel agent associations is not
capitalized. Also in Lanzarote an initiative from the tour operators is required for
a more active engagement.
Because of the low level of empowerment in the collaboration with the Dutch tour
operators, it has not resulted in the ‘mobilization of other resources’ (Duim, 2005).
The local agents possess various ‘resources’ to persuade other local actors towards
more sustainable tourism. Examples of this are the awareness of the ecological
traits of the destination, a legitimate influence on the excursion supply, political
access through the travel associations etc. But such resources need to be mobilized
through the networked relationships (Duim, 2005), which they are not. For the
independent entrepreneurs among the participants, the uncertain power relations
and the economic dependency on the cooperation with the tour operators, prevail
in their decisions. The political power the local agents could mobilize in the local
and provincial government through the various travel agent associations is not
capitalized. Also in Lanzarote an initiative from the tour operators is required for
a more active engagement.
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CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
This research aimed at an analysis of the implementation of PMZ programs by several mainstream tour operators in two important tourist destinations. Through indepth interviews with some prominent Dutch tour operators and their local agents
in Lanzarote and Antalya, the incorporation of sustainable tourism within the corporate culture and the business chain was illuminated. Above all, the research
aimed to reveal a social learning process, combined with a description of both
actors’ capabilities and actions, inspired by the PMZ system.
This research aimed at an analysis of the implementation of PMZ programs by several mainstream tour operators in two important tourist destinations. Through indepth interviews with some prominent Dutch tour operators and their local agents
in Lanzarote and Antalya, the incorporation of sustainable tourism within the corporate culture and the business chain was illuminated. Above all, the research
aimed to reveal a social learning process, combined with a description of both
actors’ capabilities and actions, inspired by the PMZ system.
6.1
6.1
Outline Primary Results
Outline Primary Results
TOUROPERATING & P MZ
TOUROPERATING & P MZ
Prior to the field research, the assumption which led to the central research question was that the introduction of the PMZ system by the ANVR members in 2003,
would have given ground to a social learning process among the tour operator
staff and their international business partners. The presumption of an increased
awareness due to the PMZ system was expected to have led to an active communication on sustainable issues between these actors.
Prior to the field research, the assumption which led to the central research question was that the introduction of the PMZ system by the ANVR members in 2003,
would have given ground to a social learning process among the tour operator
staff and their international business partners. The presumption of an increased
awareness due to the PMZ system was expected to have led to an active communication on sustainable issues between these actors.
The communication between the actors is intense with regard to urgent operational or commercial matters, but entirely absent with regard to any social or environmental issues. Due to this limited communication between the tour operators
and the local agents, the importance of sustainable tourism has not been included
in the framework15 of the participating product managers.
The communication between the actors is intense with regard to urgent operational or commercial matters, but entirely absent with regard to any social or environmental issues. Due to this limited communication between the tour operators
and the local agents, the importance of sustainable tourism has not been included
in the framework15 of the participating product managers.
Furthermore, the contract and product managers did not appear to be aware of
the business chain’s dependency on sustainable tourism for the continuity of the
tourism industry. They acknowledge the in-depth local expertise of the incoming
local agents with regard to commercial details. However when it concerns information on local environmental or social issues, the product managers fail to link it
to the companies’ commercial goals and therefore chose to ignore it.
Furthermore, the contract and product managers did not appear to be aware of
the business chain’s dependency on sustainable tourism for the continuity of the
tourism industry. They acknowledge the in-depth local expertise of the incoming
local agents with regard to commercial details. However when it concerns information on local environmental or social issues, the product managers fail to link it
to the companies’ commercial goals and therefore chose to ignore it.
A reason why many contract and product managers who participated in this
research do not wish to discuss these issues can be caused by the paradox which
is referred to as ‘social dilemma’. The social dilemma exists when people see the
collective interest in certain activities, but they can’t find anything positive for
their individual needs. Most product managers recognized the overall importance
of more sustainable tourism behavior, but did not see any personal advantage in
discussing it with their business partners abroad. The product managers are not
informed on, or engaged in, the companies’ PMZ objectives through a regular
A reason why many contract and product managers who participated in this
research do not wish to discuss these issues can be caused by the paradox which
is referred to as ‘social dilemma’. The social dilemma exists when people see the
collective interest in certain activities, but they can’t find anything positive for
their individual needs. Most product managers recognized the overall importance
of more sustainable tourism behavior, but did not see any personal advantage in
discussing it with their business partners abroad. The product managers are not
informed on, or engaged in, the companies’ PMZ objectives through a regular
15
Framework can be defined as a conceptual structure used in thinking
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15
Framework can be defined as a conceptual structure used in thinking
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
internal communication. On top of that, their performance is not measured up by
any sustainable issues within their team or by the superior management.
internal communication. On top of that, their performance is not measured up by
any sustainable issues within their team or by the superior management.
Overall, in line with a previous report on the PMZ system (Duim and Marwijk,
2006), PMZ has not been embraced as an ‘unquestioned routine’ in tour operating yet. Issues regarding sustainable tourism or PMZ were never explicitly
addressed by any of the participants in this research, and thus have not yet resulted in a social learning process or increased sustainable interaction among the
actors involved. In terms of the translation process as described in paragraph 2.1,
it is still in the initial stage of Problematization.
Overall, in line with a previous report on the PMZ system (Duim and Marwijk,
2006), PMZ has not been embraced as an ‘unquestioned routine’ in tour operating yet. Issues regarding sustainable tourism or PMZ were never explicitly
addressed by any of the participants in this research, and thus have not yet resulted in a social learning process or increased sustainable interaction among the
actors involved. In terms of the translation process as described in paragraph 2.1,
it is still in the initial stage of Problematization.
INCOMING L OCAL A GENTS & P MZ
INCOMING L OCAL A GENTS & P MZ
From the case studies, it became clear that the local agents in the researched destinations would welcome more attention and stimuli from the tour operators
towards more sustainable tourism.
From the case studies, it became clear that the local agents in the researched destinations would welcome more attention and stimuli from the tour operators
towards more sustainable tourism.
Their awareness of the business chains’ dependency on sustainable tourism was
evident throughout the research. Apart from a private concern for the quality of
the living environment, their perspective was highly influenced by the strategic
importance of tourism for the destination. A more sustainable tourism industry
would reduce the strategic risks regarding the quality and continuity of their destination as a tourist product. Moreover, in both destinations, some unsustainable
developments were indicated that should receive more attention from the actors
in the tourism business chain. But because of the apparent disinterest from the
tour operators, most local agents do not make an optimal use of the available
resources to work more sustainable.
Their awareness of the business chains’ dependency on sustainable tourism was
evident throughout the research. Apart from a private concern for the quality of
the living environment, their perspective was highly influenced by the strategic
importance of tourism for the destination. A more sustainable tourism industry
would reduce the strategic risks regarding the quality and continuity of their destination as a tourist product. Moreover, in both destinations, some unsustainable
developments were indicated that should receive more attention from the actors
in the tourism business chain. But because of the apparent disinterest from the
tour operators, most local agents do not make an optimal use of the available
resources to work more sustainable.
Overall, the local agent’s potential came out stronger than was pre-supposed by
the tour operators. The local agents indicated to be able to influence in local politics and in the general awareness of the local business chain. But because of a
complete lack of communication on PMZ, the possibilities for action are not
explored yet and are unknown to the participating Dutch tour operators. By the
local agents, it was regarded as a lost opportunity on the way to a more sustainable business.
Overall, the local agent’s potential came out stronger than was pre-supposed by
the tour operators. The local agents indicated to be able to influence in local politics and in the general awareness of the local business chain. But because of a
complete lack of communication on PMZ, the possibilities for action are not
explored yet and are unknown to the participating Dutch tour operators. By the
local agents, it was regarded as a lost opportunity on the way to a more sustainable business.
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TOUR O PERATOR
‹
PMZ
›
INCOMING L OCAL A GENT
TOUR O PERATOR
‹
PMZ
›
INCOMING L OCAL A GENT
During the research several noteworthy contrasts which affect the PMZ interaction, became apparent.
During the research several noteworthy contrasts which affect the PMZ interaction, became apparent.
The restricted communication between the actors involved in the research has led
to a negative stereotyping by the tour operators of their business partners. It spins
around the underlying assumption that local agents aren’t interested in sustainable
tourism.
The conversations with the participating local agents revealed a great contrast
with these stereotypes. They expressed much more awareness and concern with
sustainable tourism issues than was expected by their business partners in The
Netherlands.
The restricted communication between the actors involved in the research has led
to a negative stereotyping by the tour operators of their business partners. It spins
around the underlying assumption that local agents aren’t interested in sustainable
tourism.
The conversations with the participating local agents revealed a great contrast
with these stereotypes. They expressed much more awareness and concern with
sustainable tourism issues than was expected by their business partners in The
Netherlands.
Another contrast manifested itself when all the product managers stated that it’s
impossible to influence the policies of the destinations. However all the local
agents, both in Lanzarote and Antalya, adamantly believe that local policy making
can be influenced by them if they are supported by the tour operators.
Another contrast manifested itself when all the product managers stated that it’s
impossible to influence the policies of the destinations. However all the local
agents, both in Lanzarote and Antalya, adamantly believe that local policy making
can be influenced by them if they are supported by the tour operators.
Clearly, as a result of the lack of communication on PMZ issues, the participants
have not learned to recognize and consider each others perspectives and potential
yet. The necessary development of a new common way of thinking (reframing)
further to the introduction of the PMZ system, has not yet taken place.
Clearly, as a result of the lack of communication on PMZ issues, the participants
have not learned to recognize and consider each others perspectives and potential
yet. The necessary development of a new common way of thinking (reframing)
further to the introduction of the PMZ system, has not yet taken place.
According to all the participants in Lanzarote and Antalya and to scientific literature, social contacts are important. Especially in ‘high-context’ cultures such as
Spain and Turkey, these interpersonal contacts are considered essential and can
provide a sound cooperation between tour operators and local agents, and thus
lead to a synergy between both parties.
This is an important reason, from a sustainable and a commercial viewpoint, to
stimulate and facilitate the communication between tour operators and local
incoming agents on PMZ issues. The interactions between people can be seen as
opportunities for learning and reframing.
Simply through in-depth discussions the motivation and engagement of people
can be aroused. They can be stimulated to cooperate to more sustainable activities that can enhance the quality of the destinations they promote. An example of
this was given in the case on Antalya, where a local agent, Vasco Travel, motivated many local stakeholders to participate in the waste disposal training sessions
and to implement the new techniques in practice.
According to all the participants in Lanzarote and Antalya and to scientific literature, social contacts are important. Especially in ‘high-context’ cultures such as
Spain and Turkey, these interpersonal contacts are considered essential and can
provide a sound cooperation between tour operators and local agents, and thus
lead to a synergy between both parties.
This is an important reason, from a sustainable and a commercial viewpoint, to
stimulate and facilitate the communication between tour operators and local
incoming agents on PMZ issues. The interactions between people can be seen as
opportunities for learning and reframing.
Simply through in-depth discussions the motivation and engagement of people
can be aroused. They can be stimulated to cooperate to more sustainable activities that can enhance the quality of the destinations they promote. An example of
this was given in the case on Antalya, where a local agent, Vasco Travel, motivated many local stakeholders to participate in the waste disposal training sessions
and to implement the new techniques in practice.
The local agents’ knowledge of the local situation and on possibilities for action
could develop further and lead to a fruitful cooperation for all parties involved.
Through dialogue, the product managers and local agents could create an envi- Page
The local agents’ knowledge of the local situation and on possibilities for action
could develop further and lead to a fruitful cooperation for all parties involved.
Through dialogue, the product managers and local agents could create an envi- Page
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ronment for learning and sharing understanding of PMZ issues. This understanding and knowledge of the local situation abroad can provide a doorway to new
ideas and possibilities which can lead to innovation.
ronment for learning and sharing understanding of PMZ issues. This understanding and knowledge of the local situation abroad can provide a doorway to new
ideas and possibilities which can lead to innovation.
Instead of framing ‘sustainable tourism’ or ‘PMZ’ as a time-consuming nuisance,
the tour operators could reframe it as an opportunity and a commercial challenge.
Instead of framing ‘sustainable tourism’ or ‘PMZ’ as a time-consuming nuisance,
the tour operators could reframe it as an opportunity and a commercial challenge.
6.2
6.2
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Problem Roots
Problem Roots
The roots of the problems surrounding the lack of PMZ implementation in the
business chain are clarified hereunder. Even though some of these issues were not
included in the main research objectives, they were frequently referred to by the
participants throughout the interviews. Therefore, they were considered to be relevant to the current situation and included in the framework that leads to the recommendations.
The roots of the problems surrounding the lack of PMZ implementation in the
business chain are clarified hereunder. Even though some of these issues were not
included in the main research objectives, they were frequently referred to by the
participants throughout the interviews. Therefore, they were considered to be relevant to the current situation and included in the framework that leads to the recommendations.
6.2.1
6.2.1
›
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Tour operators
›
Corporate c ulture
Tour operators
Corporate c ulture
Corporate Culture can be defined as “the assumptions that are shared by people
and groups in an organization and control the way they interact”. Within organizations the different departments often have created their own ‘sub-cultures’
with shared ideas on how to perform best. From experience the researcher knows
that especially the demanding profession of contract or product manager has
resulted in a professional sub-culture. The best description of this sub-culture is a
“WORK HARD / PLAY HARD” culture (Deal and Kennedy, 1982) where the members aim for few uncertainties and rapid results. Some of the characteristics that
clearly came forward during the entire research process are summarized hereunder.
Corporate Culture can be defined as “the assumptions that are shared by people
and groups in an organization and control the way they interact”. Within organizations the different departments often have created their own ‘sub-cultures’
with shared ideas on how to perform best. From experience the researcher knows
that especially the demanding profession of contract or product manager has
resulted in a professional sub-culture. The best description of this sub-culture is a
“WORK HARD / PLAY HARD” culture (Deal and Kennedy, 1982) where the members aim for few uncertainties and rapid results. Some of the characteristics that
clearly came forward during the entire research process are summarized hereunder.
Goal Setting and Workload
Many Dutch tour operators’ contract and product managers are under
continuous time pressure to reach various goals regarding the product
supply by set deadlines. In the tour operating business, goal setting has
the advantage of encouraging the staff members to put in substantial
effort but it leaves little space for any activity which is considered irrelevant to reach the set goals.
Goal Setting and Workload
Many Dutch tour operators’ contract and product managers are under
continuous time pressure to reach various goals regarding the product
supply by set deadlines. In the tour operating business, goal setting has
the advantage of encouraging the staff members to put in substantial
effort but it leaves little space for any activity which is considered irrelevant to reach the set goals.
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›
Because of the fixed deadlines, many contract and product managers are
under high pressure to visit the various destinations within the shortest
time possible. In some companies the total traveling time of the contract
and product managers is implicitly used as a performance indicator. This
is the case when e.g. the person who concludes the required contracts
within the shortest time spent abroad, is considered to be the most efficient team member. Obviously, it can have a big impact on the contract
and product managers’ priorities, prior to- and during the contracting visits to foreign destinations. For example, the local agents often mentioned
the contract and product managers’ recurrent lack of available time, for
their visits to the destinations.
Because of the fixed deadlines, many contract and product managers are
under high pressure to visit the various destinations within the shortest
time possible. In some companies the total traveling time of the contract
and product managers is implicitly used as a performance indicator. This
is the case when e.g. the person who concludes the required contracts
within the shortest time spent abroad, is considered to be the most efficient team member. Obviously, it can have a big impact on the contract
and product managers’ priorities, prior to- and during the contracting visits to foreign destinations. For example, the local agents often mentioned
the contract and product managers’ recurrent lack of available time, for
their visits to the destinations.
Taboo Topics
In every company culture there are topics which are taboo to discuss
inside the organization or in certain departments. Some of these ‘unspoken rules’ exist even without the conscious knowledge of the persons
involved. The criteria set for ‘Produkt & Milieu Zorg’ (PMZ) have been
very broad and negotiable (Duim and Marwijk, 2006) which does not
match with the “WORK HARD/PLAY HARD CULTURE” in many product
departments. Even the tour operators that present a sustainable corporate image in the external publications have not introduced the PMZ
objectives in a clear, non-negotiable way within the product departments.
Thus, the PMZ objectives are broad, negotiable and in many cases
unknown, which creates a feeling of uncertainty that the contract and
product managements’ sub-culture automatically rejects. This largely
explains why it has become a taboo topic or is merely ridiculized, among
many contract and product managers.
Taboo Topics
In every company culture there are topics which are taboo to discuss
inside the organization or in certain departments. Some of these ‘unspoken rules’ exist even without the conscious knowledge of the persons
involved. The criteria set for ‘Produkt & Milieu Zorg’ (PMZ) have been
very broad and negotiable (Duim and Marwijk, 2006) which does not
match with the “WORK HARD/PLAY HARD CULTURE” in many product
departments. Even the tour operators that present a sustainable corporate image in the external publications have not introduced the PMZ
objectives in a clear, non-negotiable way within the product departments.
Thus, the PMZ objectives are broad, negotiable and in many cases
unknown, which creates a feeling of uncertainty that the contract and
product managements’ sub-culture automatically rejects. This largely
explains why it has become a taboo topic or is merely ridiculized, among
many contract and product managers.
›
Internal C ommunication
The lack of in-company communication on sustainable tourism issues and its
importance for the company has lead to a lack of engagement. The PMZ coordinators do not seem to reach the departments where the products are ‘developed’
with their internal communication means. In the PMZ-evaluation 2006 (Kloek and
Duim) out of 95 participants, only one respondent stated to ‘communicate
through purchasing department’. During the interviews with the product managers, it became clear that there is a general lack of internal information, both
from the PMZ coordinators and the top management.
Internal C ommunication
The lack of in-company communication on sustainable tourism issues and its
importance for the company has lead to a lack of engagement. The PMZ coordinators do not seem to reach the departments where the products are ‘developed’
with their internal communication means. In the PMZ-evaluation 2006 (Kloek and
Duim) out of 95 participants, only one respondent stated to ‘communicate
through purchasing department’. During the interviews with the product managers, it became clear that there is a general lack of internal information, both
from the PMZ coordinators and the top management.
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›
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
›
Empowerment
Empowerment
The lack of internal communication also affects the local agents abroad. Instead
of being thought of as business ‘partners’, they often are regarded as ‘opponents’
by the product managers, which affects their working relationship. This often
results in a minimal effort to stimulate a sense of involvement of the incoming
agents with the tour operator which is a lost opportunity; because when people
feel engaged to a company they wish to further the organization’s interests.
Moreover, a person’s productivity is clearly connected with the sense of engagement, which can be influenced by the quality of working relationships with peers
and by an involvement in the decision making.
The lack of internal communication also affects the local agents abroad. Instead
of being thought of as business ‘partners’, they often are regarded as ‘opponents’
by the product managers, which affects their working relationship. This often
results in a minimal effort to stimulate a sense of involvement of the incoming
agents with the tour operator which is a lost opportunity; because when people
feel engaged to a company they wish to further the organization’s interests.
Moreover, a person’s productivity is clearly connected with the sense of engagement, which can be influenced by the quality of working relationships with peers
and by an involvement in the decision making.
However, by limiting the communication to urgent matters instead of a regular
transfer of company information, and by the lack of empowerment from the tour
operator to the local agent, this sense of engagement is not optimized.
However, by limiting the communication to urgent matters instead of a regular
transfer of company information, and by the lack of empowerment from the tour
operator to the local agent, this sense of engagement is not optimized.
6.2.2
Local Incoming Agents
6.2.2
Local Incoming Agents
›
Culture & C ommercial I nterests
›
Culture & C ommercial I nterests
For all incoming agents it is important to maintain a good professional relationship
with the tour operators they represent. Furthermore, a cultural characteristic in
most Mediterranean countries is to be friendly and polite to guests, especially
when this ‘guest’ is considered commercially important for the continuity of the
business process.
If the tour operator never demonstrates any interest in local ecological or social
issues, it is very unlikely that a person with this cultural background will initiate a
conversation on local ‘problems’.
For all incoming agents it is important to maintain a good professional relationship
with the tour operators they represent. Furthermore, a cultural characteristic in
most Mediterranean countries is to be friendly and polite to guests, especially
when this ‘guest’ is considered commercially important for the continuity of the
business process.
If the tour operator never demonstrates any interest in local ecological or social
issues, it is very unlikely that a person with this cultural background will initiate a
conversation on local ‘problems’.
A reason for not initiating a dialogue on sustainable tourism with other incoming
agents, in order to get it on the political agenda, is also influenced by the local culture. The general belief is that political influence can only be fruitful if the
demands are supported by prominent figures such as the international tour operators. Since the tour operators in this research do not discuss these issues and
appear disinterested, it has not become an important topic of negotiation within
the meetings of the various travel agents’ associations.
A reason for not initiating a dialogue on sustainable tourism with other incoming
agents, in order to get it on the political agenda, is also influenced by the local culture. The general belief is that political influence can only be fruitful if the
demands are supported by prominent figures such as the international tour operators. Since the tour operators in this research do not discuss these issues and
appear disinterested, it has not become an important topic of negotiation within
the meetings of the various travel agents’ associations.
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6.2.3
ANVR – Association of Travel Organizers
6.2.3
ANVR – Association of Travel Organizers
Some of the reasons why the PMZ system has not been fully incorporated in tour
operating yet can be found in the method of introduction by the ANVR.
Some of the reasons why the PMZ system has not been fully incorporated in tour
operating yet can be found in the method of introduction by the ANVR.
The PMZ system was implemented as a mandatory new policy by the ANVR (‘topdown’), without clear and recurring control measures to motivate the PMZ coordinators and assure an updated knowledge level.
The PMZ system was implemented as a mandatory new policy by the ANVR (‘topdown’), without clear and recurring control measures to motivate the PMZ coordinators and assure an updated knowledge level.
Apparently the rather easy entry requirements did not trigger the PMZ coordinators to assure a clear and accessible PMZ communication, both internally and
externally.
Apparently the rather easy entry requirements did not trigger the PMZ coordinators to assure a clear and accessible PMZ communication, both internally and
externally.
Moreover, the researcher could not define if the PMZ coordinators in the participating companies hold positions that enable them to realize PMZ activities, as is
indicated in the PMZ Course.
Among the participants, most product managers (and all the local agents) were
unaware of the identity and position of the PMZ coordinator within the company,
or of the contents of a PMZ action program.
Moreover, the researcher could not define if the PMZ coordinators in the participating companies hold positions that enable them to realize PMZ activities, as is
indicated in the PMZ Course.
Among the participants, most product managers (and all the local agents) were
unaware of the identity and position of the PMZ coordinator within the company,
or of the contents of a PMZ action program.
The fact that most PMZ coordinators do not attend the PMZ meetings which take
place twice a year clearly indicates the low importance of PMZ issues within the
tour operating corporate cultures. According to the PMZ evaluation 2006 (Kloek
and Duim, 2006), 82% of the PMZ coordinators never attend to these meetings.
The fact that most PMZ coordinators do not attend the PMZ meetings which take
place twice a year clearly indicates the low importance of PMZ issues within the
tour operating corporate cultures. According to the PMZ evaluation 2006 (Kloek
and Duim, 2006), 82% of the PMZ coordinators never attend to these meetings.
It is unclear how the ANVR verifies the implementation of the proposed actions of
the tour operators.
It is unclear how the ANVR verifies the implementation of the proposed actions of
the tour operators.
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6.2.4
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Business as Usual ?
6.2.4
Business as Usual ?
Under the headings ‘PRO’S & CON’S’ the main research findings are summarized.
The PRO’s also represent keys to opportunities to put PMZ on the corporate and
political agendas.
Under the headings ‘PRO’S & CON’S’ the main research findings are summarized.
The PRO’s also represent keys to opportunities to put PMZ on the corporate and
political agendas.
The CON’s represent the current obstacles to the implementation of PMZ when
continuing with business ‘as usual’.
The CON’s represent the current obstacles to the implementation of PMZ when
continuing with business ‘as usual’.
PRO’S
CON’S
PRO’S
CON’S
- Easy communicative accessibility between tour
- Contract and product managers’ limited social/envi-
- Easy communicative accessibility between tour
- Contract and product managers’ limited social/envi-
operator & local agents: e.g. personal meetings,
ronmental knowledge of destinations
operator & local agents: e.g. personal meetings,
ronmental knowledge of destinations
telephone, Internet
telephone, Internet
- Limited awareness of strategic importance Sustainable
- Tour operators’ Goal Setting management style
- Limited awareness of strategic importance Sustainable
Tourism
- Tour operators’ Goal Setting management style
Tourism
- Local agents’ interest in sustainable tourism
- High workload contract- and product managers
- Local agents’ interest in sustainable tourism
- High workload contract- and product managers
- Local agents’ political influence through Travel
- No internal PMZ communication
- Local agents’ political influence through Travel
- No internal PMZ communication
Agent Associations
Agent Associations
- No external PMZ communication to business partners
- No external PMZ communication to business partners
- Local disapproval of current unsustainable tourism
developments
- Local disapproval of current unsustainable tourism
developments
- Limited or no PMZ clauses in Tour Operator contracts
- Local agents’ combined ‘power’ due to total han-
- Local agents’ combined ‘power’ due to total han-
dling capacity, networks etc.
dling capacity, networks etc.
- Local economic importance of tourism industry
- Local economic importance of tourism industry
- Int’l cooperation of tourism associations, e.g.
- Int’l cooperation of tourism associations, e.g.
ECTAA
ECTAA
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- Limited or no PMZ clauses in Tour Operator contracts
6.3
Recommendations
6.3
Recommendations
The current outburst of media attention for environmental issues may be the kickoff of a new trend among Dutch consumers that can lead to a new phase in the
demand for sustainable tourism; a period of growth.
The current outburst of media attention for environmental issues may be the kickoff of a new trend among Dutch consumers that can lead to a new phase in the
demand for sustainable tourism; a period of growth.
Even though many tour operators stage a sustainable corporate image in their
consumer information, this image was not reflected within the management directives or the corporate sub-culture of the contract and product managers in this
research.
Especially in this day and age, with the availability and transparency of information through Internet, it is essential to ensure that the PMZ information presented
to the consumer corresponds with the PMZ implementation by the organization.
Therefore, even though a reference to changes within corporate cultures is beyond
the scope of this research, it is good to be open-minded to new information and
recognize the opportunities.
By reexamining some of the basic ideas within the sub-culture of contract and
product management, some of the barriers to the PMZ implementation can be
dealt with and cleared up.
Even though many tour operators stage a sustainable corporate image in their
consumer information, this image was not reflected within the management directives or the corporate sub-culture of the contract and product managers in this
research.
Especially in this day and age, with the availability and transparency of information through Internet, it is essential to ensure that the PMZ information presented
to the consumer corresponds with the PMZ implementation by the organization.
Therefore, even though a reference to changes within corporate cultures is beyond
the scope of this research, it is good to be open-minded to new information and
recognize the opportunities.
By reexamining some of the basic ideas within the sub-culture of contract and
product management, some of the barriers to the PMZ implementation can be
dealt with and cleared up.
Moreover, if sustainable tourism is included in the dialogue and negotiations
between product managers and local agents, tour operators can acquire a vast
amount of information on local social and ecological issues directly related to the
tourist industry. By making it an unquestioned routine, it will enrich the knowledge level of the tour operators’ staff and stimulate the local agents to discuss
these issues with other local stakeholders. Thus, an increase of the mutual knowledge level can lead to tangible sustainable results, also in mass-tourism destinations.
Moreover, if sustainable tourism is included in the dialogue and negotiations
between product managers and local agents, tour operators can acquire a vast
amount of information on local social and ecological issues directly related to the
tourist industry. By making it an unquestioned routine, it will enrich the knowledge level of the tour operators’ staff and stimulate the local agents to discuss
these issues with other local stakeholders. Thus, an increase of the mutual knowledge level can lead to tangible sustainable results, also in mass-tourism destinations.
Therefore, a variety of elements is included in the recommendations hereunder.
Therefore, a variety of elements is included in the recommendations hereunder.
6.3.1
6.3.1
›
›
Tour Operators
›
To stimulate the interest for PMZ, the PMZ course should be included as
a standard requirement for all (new) contract and product managers.
›
New contract and product managers, or experienced staff when
appointed a new destination, should be provided a ‘tour de connaissance’
of the destinations they are responsible for. During such an introductory
visit without any contracting obligations, they can acquire:
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Tour Operators
To stimulate the interest for PMZ, the PMZ course should be included as
a standard requirement for all (new) contract and product managers.
New contract and product managers, or experienced staff when
appointed a new destination, should be provided a ‘tour de connaissance’
of the destinations they are responsible for. During such an introductory
visit without any contracting obligations, they can acquire:
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
-
›
›
›
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
acquaintance with the local agents and their style of working;
in-depth knowledge of the local contexts;
critical overview of the existing product offer in their destinations.
-
›
Goal setting and planning on strategies to reach these goals, motivates
the actors involved to gain knowledge and to organize the available
resources in order to reach the goals that are set out for them.
In order to reduce the feeling of uncertainty towards PMZ, during the
regular team meetings of contract and product managers, PMZ should be
added as a fixed point on the agenda. This would open up and stimulate
the dialogue on local sustainable issues between the team members. By
making use of metaphors and bringing in some humor it would also build
trust to generate ideas and possible solutions. Moreover, for issues that
are considered important, the team can formulate a goal to aim for by the
contract and product managers in cooperation with the local agent.
›
The contract and product managers should lightly adapt their traveling
planning in such a way that they have more time available in the various
destinations. If the total ‘package’ of appointed destinations per
Product/Contract Manager makes this difficult, the distribution of destinations among the product and contract managers should be revised to
make it possible.
By lengthening each contracting visit for example by one or two days
they can work and learn more thoroughly. The extra time will give them
the chance to discuss the local environmental and social issues and provide them with more in-depth knowledge on their destination. This will
be beneficial for both the sustainable as well as the commercial goals!
“An understanding of the cultural, environmental and socio-relational
context of the host culture increases the probability of being an effective
and productive manager” (Neuliep 2006).
Many tour operators’ contract and product managers must write a report
of all the contracting visits abroad, in order to keep the higher management informed on the current situation in the destinations. The PMZ system has not been included in the ‘standard’ topics which are reported on
after each contracting visit.
As a fixed topic in the travel reports following the contracting visits, PMZ
issues should be included. By making it one of the issues which must be
reported on, the contract or product managers will be stimulated to discuss and reflect on these issues with the local agents and other local
›
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acquaintance with the local agents and their style of working;
in-depth knowledge of the local contexts;
critical overview of the existing product offer in their destinations.
Goal setting and planning on strategies to reach these goals, motivates
the actors involved to gain knowledge and to organize the available
resources in order to reach the goals that are set out for them.
In order to reduce the feeling of uncertainty towards PMZ, during the
regular team meetings of contract and product managers, PMZ should be
added as a fixed point on the agenda. This would open up and stimulate
the dialogue on local sustainable issues between the team members. By
making use of metaphors and bringing in some humor it would also build
trust to generate ideas and possible solutions. Moreover, for issues that
are considered important, the team can formulate a goal to aim for by the
contract and product managers in cooperation with the local agent.
The contract and product managers should lightly adapt their traveling
planning in such a way that they have more time available in the various
destinations. If the total ‘package’ of appointed destinations per
Product/Contract Manager makes this difficult, the distribution of destinations among the product and contract managers should be revised to
make it possible.
By lengthening each contracting visit for example by one or two days
they can work and learn more thoroughly. The extra time will give them
the chance to discuss the local environmental and social issues and provide them with more in-depth knowledge on their destination. This will
be beneficial for both the sustainable as well as the commercial goals!
“An understanding of the cultural, environmental and socio-relational
context of the host culture increases the probability of being an effective
and productive manager” (Neuliep 2006).
Many tour operators’ contract and product managers must write a report
of all the contracting visits abroad, in order to keep the higher management informed on the current situation in the destinations. The PMZ system has not been included in the ‘standard’ topics which are reported on
after each contracting visit.
As a fixed topic in the travel reports following the contracting visits, PMZ
issues should be included. By making it one of the issues which must be
reported on, the contract or product managers will be stimulated to discuss and reflect on these issues with the local agents and other local
actors during their visits to the destinations.
›
›
›
›
actors during their visits to the destinations.
›
All the tour operators’ contracts should include at least one clause referring to sustainable tourism behavior. A very elementary example can be a
reference to the PMZ action plan on page 1 of the contract; where the
contract partner acknowledges to have been informed on it, and agrees
to cooperate to reach the PMZ targets, to the greatest possible degree.
By formalizing it in the contractual agreements, it enforces the tour operators’ legitimate power in the interaction with all local stakeholders. In
practice this also implies that the contractor feels more empowered to
bring the topic up in a conversation with local suppliers.
›
A newsletter can be emailed regularly to all the tour operators’ local
agents. For example a bi-monthly newsletter could provide some company information and developments in the Dutch market with due attention to sustainable issues. Such a newsletter will certainly reach two
important goals:
The local agent will be better informed on various ‘Dutch’ issues
including the importance of sustainable behavior;
The local agents’ higher sense of involvement with the tour operator he/she represents.
›
PMZ coordinators should be encouraged to follow the PMZ requirements
by means of e.g.:
the availability of a sufficient and fixed amount of time to be
spent on PMZ activities besides the main function;
travel facilities to become acquainted with the foreign destinations;
influence in the composition of the overall product supply.
›
The company leaders, and the consistency of their messages, are an
important influence on the values held by the lower management levels.
Therefore PMZ and the companies’ action plan should be incorporated
consistently in the CEO’s messages to the employees.
Moreover, if the company leaders want to ensure that these ideas will be
embraced as an unquestioned routine, a suggestion is to create a reward,
promotion and status system that is consistent with these ideas. This
could be essential for positioning the status of ‘PMZ Coordinator’ within
the organization.
All the tour operators’ contracts should include at least one clause referring to sustainable tourism behavior. A very elementary example can be a
reference to the PMZ action plan on page 1 of the contract; where the
contract partner acknowledges to have been informed on it, and agrees
to cooperate to reach the PMZ targets, to the greatest possible degree.
By formalizing it in the contractual agreements, it enforces the tour operators’ legitimate power in the interaction with all local stakeholders. In
practice this also implies that the contractor feels more empowered to
bring the topic up in a conversation with local suppliers.
A newsletter can be emailed regularly to all the tour operators’ local
agents. For example a bi-monthly newsletter could provide some company information and developments in the Dutch market with due attention to sustainable issues. Such a newsletter will certainly reach two
important goals:
The local agent will be better informed on various ‘Dutch’ issues
including the importance of sustainable behavior;
The local agents’ higher sense of involvement with the tour operator he/she represents.
PMZ coordinators should be encouraged to follow the PMZ requirements
by means of e.g.:
the availability of a sufficient and fixed amount of time to be
spent on PMZ activities besides the main function;
travel facilities to become acquainted with the foreign destinations;
influence in the composition of the overall product supply.
The company leaders, and the consistency of their messages, are an
important influence on the values held by the lower management levels.
Therefore PMZ and the companies’ action plan should be incorporated
consistently in the CEO’s messages to the employees.
Moreover, if the company leaders want to ensure that these ideas will be
embraced as an unquestioned routine, a suggestion is to create a reward,
promotion and status system that is consistent with these ideas. This
could be essential for positioning the status of ‘PMZ Coordinator’ within
the organization.
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
6.3.2
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Local Agents
6.3.2
›
The local agents should urgently request a copy of the tour operators’
PMZ programs. Only when the local agents are well informed about the
tour operators’ wishes and intentions, they will be able to take it into
account during the pre-selection of the product supply.
›
In order to learn from each others’ experiences and exchange valuable
information, it is necessary to open a dialogue on sustainable issues.
Therefore, all the incoming agents should include the local sustainable
issues standard in the briefing of the contract and product managers
during their visits in the destination.
›
Initiate a dialogue with the tour operator regarding the PMZ program and
its local consequences. The existing elements can be illuminated, and the
local possibilities for improvement can be negotiated.
›
Local agents should transfer the PMZ information to the local business
partners.
›
In the regular meetings of the travel agent associations, sustainable
tourism should be included as standard item on the agenda.
›
The travel agent associations can include a fixed column on sustainable
topics in all the publications.
›
With the tour operators’ PMZ coordinator(s) a regular exchange of information on local sustainable issues should be agreed on and implemented.
›
The available excursion offer can be discussed in a meeting with the
travel agents associations. In cases of unsustainable excursions, all the
members should agree to take that product out of the product supply
simultaneously, so that it will not give rise to unfair competition.
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Local Agents
The local agents should urgently request a copy of the tour operators’
PMZ programs. Only when the local agents are well informed about the
tour operators’ wishes and intentions, they will be able to take it into
account during the pre-selection of the product supply.
In order to learn from each others’ experiences and exchange valuable
information, it is necessary to open a dialogue on sustainable issues.
Therefore, all the incoming agents should include the local sustainable
issues standard in the briefing of the contract and product managers
during their visits in the destination.
Initiate a dialogue with the tour operator regarding the PMZ program and
its local consequences. The existing elements can be illuminated, and the
local possibilities for improvement can be negotiated.
Local agents should transfer the PMZ information to the local business
partners.
In the regular meetings of the travel agent associations, sustainable
tourism should be included as standard item on the agenda.
The travel agent associations can include a fixed column on sustainable
topics in all the publications.
With the tour operators’ PMZ coordinator(s) a regular exchange of information on local sustainable issues should be agreed on and implemented.
The available excursion offer can be discussed in a meeting with the
travel agents associations. In cases of unsustainable excursions, all the
members should agree to take that product out of the product supply
simultaneously, so that it will not give rise to unfair competition.
6.3.3
ANVR – Association of Travel Organizers
6.3.3
ANVR – Association of Travel Organizers
A task of the ANVR is to guard the implementation among the tour operators, and
encourage a knowledge exchange within the business chain.
A task of the ANVR is to guard the implementation among the tour operators, and
encourage a knowledge exchange within the business chain.
›
›
›
ANVR should develop and implement a performance monitoring system
on the implementation of the tour operators’ PMZ programs.
›
ANVR relations with international travel agents’ associations such as
ECTAA members, should be energized on PMZ/sustainable issues.
A possible initiative could be as follows:
The ANVR can arrange periodic meetings with the tour operators’ top
management to discuss current bottlenecks in foreign destinations. From
these issues a selection can be made to be set as a goal over a predetermined period of time. During this period both the tour operators and the
ANVR can focus on that ‘target’ simultaneously.
›
ANVR should develop and implement a performance monitoring system
on the implementation of the tour operators’ PMZ programs.
ANVR relations with international travel agents’ associations such as
ECTAA members, should be energized on PMZ/sustainable issues.
A possible initiative could be as follows:
The ANVR can arrange periodic meetings with the tour operators’ top
management to discuss current bottlenecks in foreign destinations. From
these issues a selection can be made to be set as a goal over a predetermined period of time. During this period both the tour operators and the
ANVR can focus on that ‘target’ simultaneously.
›
ANVR should stimulate all tour operator staff active in the
tour operating/product departments to complete the PMZ course
voluntarily.
Page
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ANVR should stimulate all tour operator staff active in the
tour operating/product departments to complete the PMZ course
voluntarily.
Page
-103-
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Page
-104-
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Date o f r etreival
Websites
ANVR
ANVR
http://www.anvr.nl
2006
http://www.anvr.nl
Benmagec
www.benmagec.org
2/11/06,10/2/07
http://www.ecologistasenaccion.org/print.php3?id_article=4976
10/2/07
http://www.ecologistasenaccion.org/IMG/_article_PDF/article_7120.pdf
10/2/07
http://www.ecologistasenaccion.org/article.php3?id_article=5999
10/2/07
http://www.ecologistasenaccion.org/article.php3?id_article=5999
10/2/07
Biodiversity/Belek
http://www.biodiversity.ru
2006
http://www.biodiversity.ru
2006
http://www.biodiversity.ru/coastlearn/tourism-eng/casestudies_belek.htm
19/2/07
http://www.biodiversity.ru/coastlearn/tourism-eng/casestudies_belek.htm
19/2/07
Cabildo de Lanzarote
Cabildo de Lanzarote
http://www.cabildodelanzarote.com/tema.asp?idTema=158
2006, 19/2/07
http://www.cabildodelanzarote.com/tema.asp?idTema=158
2006, 19/2/07
http://www.datosdelanzarote.com/
2006, 19/2/07
http://www.datosdelanzarote.com/
2006, 19/2/07
http://www.cabildodelanzarote.com/areas/presidencia/biosfera/biosfera/biosfera.htm 16/1/07
http://www.cabildodelanzarote.com/areas/presidencia/biosfera/biosfera/biosfera.htm 16/1/07
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EC Europa
EC Europa
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/news/lifeflash/newsflash05_05.htm#lal 10/2/07,5/9/06
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Gazettelive
Gazettelive
http://www.gazettelive.com
2006
http://www.gazettelive.com
2006
http://www.gazettelive.com/features/feature_3.htm
5/9/06
http://www.gazettelive.com/features/feature_3.htm
5/9/06
Gobierno de Canarias
http://www.gobiernodecanarias.org
Gobierno de Canarias
2006
http://www.gobiernodecanarias.org
Greenpeace
2006
Greenpeace
http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/espana/reports/destrucci-n-a-toda-costa-2006-10.pdf
http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/espana/reports/destrucci-n-a-toda-costa-2006-10.pdf
6/7/06, 10/2/07
6/7/06, 10/2/07
Kulturturizm
Kulturturizm
http://www.kultur.gov.tr
2006
http://www.kultur.gov.tr
2006
www.kulturturizm.gov.tr
28/9/2006
www.kulturturizm.gov.tr
28/9/2006
http://www.kulturturizm.gov.tr/genel/galeri/vizyon-eng/index.htm
9/2/07
http://www.kulturturizm.gov.tr/genel/galeri/vizyon-eng/index.htm
9/2/07
NRIT
-108-
2/11/06,10/2/07
http://www.ecologistasenaccion.org/IMG/_article_PDF/article_7120.pdf
Biodiversity/Belek
Page
2006
Benmagec
www.benmagec.org
http://www.ecologistasenaccion.org/print.php3?id_article=4976
Date o f r etreival
Websites
NRIT
http://www.nrit.nl/
2006
http://www.nrit.nl/
2006
http://www.nritmedia.nl/upload_files/magazine%206_1.pdf
18/7/06
http://www.nritmedia.nl/upload_files/magazine%206_1.pdf
18/7/06
http://www.tourpress.nl/bericht.php?id=7410
18/7/06
http://www.tourpress.nl/bericht.php?id=7410
18/7/06
Page
-108-
Papillon Hotels
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Papillon Hotels
2/1/07
http://www.papillon.com.tr/
WTO
http://www.omt.uned.es/cgi-bin/ficha2.pl?indice=55
2/1/07
WTO
2006
http://www.omt.uned.es/cgi-bin/ficha2.pl?indice=55
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2006
Reisrevue
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2006
http://www.reisrevue.nl/
2006
Reisrevue Travel Top
11/2/07
Reisrevue Travel Top
11/2/07
http://www.reisrevue.nl/tsre/reisrevue.portal/enc/_nfpb/true/_pageLabel/ts_page_achtergrond/portlet_ts_d
http://www.reisrevue.nl/tsre/reisrevue.portal/enc/_nfpb/true/_pageLabel/ts_page_achtergrond/portlet_ts_d
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revue/index.html
revue/index.html
Spain- Lanzarote
Spain- Lanzarote
http://www.spain-lanzarote.com/uk/index.html
2006
http://www.spain-lanzarote.com/uk/index.html
Tour Operator Initiative
http://www.toinitiative.org/supply_chain/SupplyChainEngagement.pdf
Tour Operator Initiative
2006
http://www.toinitiative.org/supply_chain/SupplyChainEngagement.pdf
http://www.toinitiative.org/good_practices/case%20studies/toicasesall.pdf
<http://www.toinitiative.org/good_practices/case%20studies/toicasesall.pdf>
2006
2006
http://www.toinitiative.org/good_practices/case%20studies/toicasesall.pdf
9/2/07 (see p.50/51)
Turismo Lanzarote
<http://www.toinitiative.org/good_practices/case%20studies/toicasesall.pdf>
9/2/07 (see p.50/51)
Turismo Lanzarote
http://www.turismolanzarote.com <http://www.turismolanzarote.com/>
2006
http://www.turismolanzarote.com <http://www.turismolanzarote.com/>
2006
http://www.turismolanzarote.com/turismo/00000/paginas/asp/inicio.asp
5/11/06
http://www.turismolanzarote.com/turismo/00000/paginas/asp/inicio.asp
5/11/06
Turkey Now
http://www.turkey-now.com <http://www.turkey-now.com/>
Turkey Now
2006/2007
Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org <http://en.wikipedia.org/>
http://en.wikipedia.org <http://en.wikipedia.org/>
2006/2007
WTO
2006
http://www.world-tourism.org <http://www.world-tourism.org/>
WWF
http://www.wwf.org.tr/ <http://www.wwf.org.tr/>
2006/2007
Wikipedia
2006/2007
WTO
http://www.world-tourism.org <http://www.world-tourism.org/>
http://www.turkey-now.com <http://www.turkey-now.com/>
2006
WWF
2006
http://www.wwf.org.tr/ <http://www.wwf.org.tr/>
Page
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2006
Page
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
APPENDIX 1
Page
-110-
APPENDIX 1
Research Summary for Tour operators & Local Agents
Research Summary for Tour operators & Local Agents
Dear ….,
Dear ….,
thank you for your willingness to cooperate to this MSc thesis research. Further to your request,
hereunder I have written a brief summary of the research topic.
thank you for your willingness to cooperate to this MSc thesis research. Further to your request,
hereunder I have written a brief summary of the research topic.
Within the tourism industry it is generally agreed that the increasing environmental concerns in
society will raise the demand for more sustainable destinations and travel preferences. These, in
turn, will increase the pressure for destination management policies and tour operator responsibility. The tourist destination developments of the 1960/70s, which were the result of overbuilding, are expected to face severe decline as consumers look for more attractive destinations
that feature a clean environment and well preserved natural and cultural attractions.
Within the tourism industry it is generally agreed that the increasing environmental concerns in
society will raise the demand for more sustainable destinations and travel preferences. These, in
turn, will increase the pressure for destination management policies and tour operator responsibility. The tourist destination developments of the 1960/70s, which were the result of overbuilding, are expected to face severe decline as consumers look for more attractive destinations
that feature a clean environment and well preserved natural and cultural attractions.
Sustainable tourism doesn’t come about spontaneously; it needs to be pursued consciously and
consistently by the numerous actors in the tourism chain. The consistency is hampered by the
fact that the international character of this business process also involves many political differences.
Sustainable tourism doesn’t come about spontaneously; it needs to be pursued consciously and
consistently by the numerous actors in the tourism chain. The consistency is hampered by the
fact that the international character of this business process also involves many political differences.
However, working actively with suppliers based in the tourist destination can generate action
from local authorities by sending a clear message about visitors’ and companies’ priorities for
action. As more suppliers begin to adopt sustainable practices, the public sector also needs to
respond by supporting sustainable practices for public utilities and infrastructure, such as solid
waste treatment facilities, recycling opportunities, public transport etc.
However, working actively with suppliers based in the tourist destination can generate action
from local authorities by sending a clear message about visitors’ and companies’ priorities for
action. As more suppliers begin to adopt sustainable practices, the public sector also needs to
respond by supporting sustainable practices for public utilities and infrastructure, such as solid
waste treatment facilities, recycling opportunities, public transport etc.
The Netherlands Association of Tour operators (ANVR) has introduced the so called ‘Product and
Environment Care System (PMZ) which all the members had to introduce and implement before
the end of 2003. It is a pragmatic approach of what a tour operator can do regarding sustainable tourism.
The Netherlands Association of Tour operators (ANVR) has introduced the so called ‘Product and
Environment Care System (PMZ) which all the members had to introduce and implement before
the end of 2003. It is a pragmatic approach of what a tour operator can do regarding sustainable tourism.
This research is an attempt to reveal the communication strategies of some tour operators
towards their local agents with regard to more sustainable behavior. The focus will be on the
sustainability of the natural environment. The participating tour operators can reveal and elaborate on their communication strategies. The local agents can elaborate on their perception of
this communication and on the impact it has on the character of their decision-making when the
environment is involved
This research is an attempt to reveal the communication strategies of some tour operators
towards their local agents with regard to more sustainable behavior. The focus will be on the
sustainability of the natural environment. The participating tour operators can reveal and elaborate on their communication strategies. The local agents can elaborate on their perception of
this communication and on the impact it has on the character of their decision-making when the
environment is involved
All the information provided in the interviews will be treated with the utmost discretion and will
only be used for this research. The research will be concluded with general recommendations for
both tour operators as well as local agents.
All the information provided in the interviews will be treated with the utmost discretion and will
only be used for this research. The research will be concluded with general recommendations for
both tour operators as well as local agents.
Yours sincerely,
Yours sincerely,
Silvia Hendriks Reibestein
Silvia Hendriks Reibestein
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APPENDIX 2
APPENDIX 2
The prompt list of issues which was used to focus the conversations is described hereunder. The main issues are
indicated with capital letters, followed by a short description of the focus of the conversation. The open-ended
questions are listed in Appendix 2 A.
The prompt list of issues which was used to focus the conversations is described hereunder. The main issues are
indicated with capital letters, followed by a short description of the focus of the conversation. The open-ended
questions are listed in Appendix 2 A.
Interviews w ith T our O perators:
INTRODUCTION
The intention of the introductory questions was mainly aimed at creating a relaxed atmosphere where the interviewee could slowly shift his/her focus of attention to the interview topic and the respective destination.
Interviews w ith T our O perators:
INTRODUCTION
The intention of the introductory questions was mainly aimed at creating a relaxed atmosphere where the interviewee could slowly shift his/her focus of attention to the interview topic and the respective destination.
SUSTAINABLE T OURISM
This issue is approached from four different starting points:
A
Personal opinion
B
PMZ companies’ policies
C
Destination characteristics
D
Communication of PMZ policies to the local agent
Through these questions the tour operator could elaborate on the companies’ policies, their personal knowledge of
PMZ and the destination and their presuppositions as to the possible solutions. Moreover, they could explain where
the responsibility for these problems and solutions lies from their viewpoint.
SUSTAINABLE T OURISM
This issue is approached from four different starting points:
A
Personal opinion
B
PMZ companies’ policies
C
Destination characteristics
D
Communication of PMZ policies to the local agent
Through these questions the tour operator could elaborate on the companies’ policies, their personal knowledge of
PMZ and the destination and their presuppositions as to the possible solutions. Moreover, they could explain where
the responsibility for these problems and solutions lies from their viewpoint.
COMMUNICATION L OCAL A GENTS
Through these questions an assessment of the communication instruments was made, as well as a reflection on the
social aspects of the interpersonal interactions such as participation and empowerment. Moreover, the tour operators could elaborate on their opinion regarding their responsibilities in the tourism chain.
COMMUNICATION L OCAL A GENTS
Through these questions an assessment of the communication instruments was made, as well as a reflection on the
social aspects of the interpersonal interactions such as participation and empowerment. Moreover, the tour operators could elaborate on their opinion regarding their responsibilities in the tourism chain.
Interviews w ith L ocal A gents
INTRODUCTION
Some of the introductory questions aimed for a relaxed context for the interviewee, as well as a grounded first
impression of the interviewee’s knowledge and interest for this topic. Moreover, this element of the conversation
gave an introduction to the social context of this destination.
Interviews w ith L ocal A gents
INTRODUCTION
Some of the introductory questions aimed for a relaxed context for the interviewee, as well as a grounded first
impression of the interviewee’s knowledge and interest for this topic. Moreover, this element of the conversation
gave an introduction to the social context of this destination.
SUSTAINABLE T OURISM
Also with the local agents, this issue has been approached from several starting points;
A
Personal Opinions
B
Company Policy
C
Destination characteristics
D
Activities related to the tour operator’ PMZ policies
E
Local Stakeholders
The answers present some contextual information with regard to recent environmental issues, local politics and local
entrepreneurial viewpoints. Moreover, they shed some light on the way the tour operators’ engage their local aents.
SUSTAINABLE T OURISM
Also with the local agents, this issue has been approached from several starting points;
A
Personal Opinions
B
Company Policy
C
Destination characteristics
D
Activities related to the tour operator’ PMZ policies
E
Local Stakeholders
The answers present some contextual information with regard to recent environmental issues, local politics and local
entrepreneurial viewpoints. Moreover, they shed some light on the way the tour operators’ engage their local aents.
COMMUNICATION T OUR O PERATOR
Knowledge on the communicative interaction can give some insight into the strengths and weaknesses of these
strategies. Also, the answers revealed the feeling of trust, participation and empowerment these interactions lead
to with the interviewee.
COMMUNICATION T OUR O PERATOR
Knowledge on the communicative interaction can give some insight into the strengths and weaknesses of these
strategies. Also, the answers revealed the feeling of trust, participation and empowerment these interactions lead
to with the interviewee.
COMPANY’S O WN I NITIATIVES
The local agent could elaborate on the companies’ own initiatives, the involvement of local stakeholders etc.
Furthermore, the local political context could be clarified.
Page
COMPANY’S O WN I NITIATIVES
The local agent could elaborate on the companies’ own initiatives, the involvement of local stakeholders etc.
Furthermore, the local political context could be clarified.
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
Sustainable Tour Operating ?
APPENDIX 2 A
APPENDIX 2 A
Questions f or i nterviews w ith t our o perators :
Questions f or i nterviews w ith t our o perators :
Communication Local Agents
Communication Local Agents
-werken de agent en TO al lang samen?
-hoe verloopt het contact met de lokale agent?
-persoonlijk contact of vnl. via bv. email? Wat is de frequentie, welk soort onderwerpen enz.?
-wordt er tijdens de ‘vrije tijd’ over sustainability gesproken ?
-hoe denken de lokale agenten over ‘duurzaamheid’ ?
- Wat voor locale ecologische en/of sociale info wordt gevraagd van de agent?
-Hoe en wanneer gebeurt dit?
-Is er een duidelijk voorbeeld wanneer een ‘duurzaam’ advies van de agent werd opgevolgd?
-Hoe zou de lokale agent hier invulling aan kunnen geven; welk soort (aanvullende) informatie zou de tour operator nog willen ontvangen?
-Zijn er voorbeelden van hoe het huidige aanbod op deze bestemming verduurzaamd zou kunnen worden,
gebaseerd op de lokale aanbieders van:
• Accommodatie
• Transport
• Excursies en activiteiten
• Voeding
-werken de agent en TO al lang samen?
-hoe verloopt het contact met de lokale agent?
-persoonlijk contact of vnl. via bv. email? Wat is de frequentie, welk soort onderwerpen enz.?
-wordt er tijdens de ‘vrije tijd’ over sustainability gesproken ?
-hoe denken de lokale agenten over ‘duurzaamheid’ ?
- Wat voor locale ecologische en/of sociale info wordt gevraagd van de agent?
-Hoe en wanneer gebeurt dit?
-Is er een duidelijk voorbeeld wanneer een ‘duurzaam’ advies van de agent werd opgevolgd?
-Hoe zou de lokale agent hier invulling aan kunnen geven; welk soort (aanvullende) informatie zou de tour operator nog willen ontvangen?
-Zijn er voorbeelden van hoe het huidige aanbod op deze bestemming verduurzaamd zou kunnen worden,
gebaseerd op de lokale aanbieders van:
• Accommodatie
• Transport
• Excursies en activiteiten
• Voeding
Sustainable Tourism
Sustainable Tourism
A
Persoonlijke ideeen
-Persoonlijke interpretatie ‘sustainable tourism’?
-Welke praktische maatregelen hebben veel effect op het meer duurzaam maken van toerisme??
A
Persoonlijke ideeen
-Persoonlijke interpretatie ‘sustainable tourism’?
-Welke praktische maatregelen hebben veel effect op het meer duurzaam maken van toerisme??
B
PMZ beleid organisatie
-Wat zijn kenmerken van het PMZ beleid van de organisatie?
-Hoe wordt de betrokkenheid onder personeel en zakenrelaties gestimuleerd?
B
PMZ beleid organisatie
-Wat zijn kenmerken van het PMZ beleid van de organisatie?
-Hoe wordt de betrokkenheid onder personeel en zakenrelaties gestimuleerd?
C
Bestemming
-Wat zijn enkele milieu kenmerken van de betreffende bestemming?
-Wat zijn de grootste milieu problemen op de bestemming?
- Welke maatregelen zijn er op de bestemming nodig?
-Welke organisaties zijn daarvoor verantwoordelijk?
-Bestaan er (niet-contractuele) contacten met lokale organisaties? Toelichten!
C
Bestemming
-Wat zijn enkele milieu kenmerken van de betreffende bestemming?
-Wat zijn de grootste milieu problemen op de bestemming?
- Welke maatregelen zijn er op de bestemming nodig?
-Welke organisaties zijn daarvoor verantwoordelijk?
-Bestaan er (niet-contractuele) contacten met lokale organisaties? Toelichten!
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D
Communicatie PMZ - Lokale Agent
-zijn er andere activiteiten om de locale agenten en andere product aanbieders te informeren over
duurzaamheid? Indien ja, welke?
-worden er ‘PMZ’ eisen aan de agent doorgegeven, welke eisen en op welke manier?
-hoe vindt de controle op de uitvoering van die eisen plaats?
-hebben de agenten een kopie van het PMZ beleid?
D
Communicatie PMZ - Lokale Agent
-zijn er andere activiteiten om de locale agenten en andere product aanbieders te informeren over
duurzaamheid? Indien ja, welke?
-worden er ‘PMZ’ eisen aan de agent doorgegeven, welke eisen en op welke manier?
-hoe vindt de controle op de uitvoering van die eisen plaats?
-hebben de agenten een kopie van het PMZ beleid?
Questions f or i nterviews w ith L ocal A gents
Questions f or i nterviews w ith L ocal A gents
A
Sustainable Tourism
-Personal impression of ‘sustainable tourism’?
A
Sustainable Tourism
-Personal impression of ‘sustainable tourism’?
B
Company Policy
-Can he/she quote some ‘opportunities’ and ‘threats’ of sustainable tourism, from an entrepreneurial
viewpoint?
B
Company Policy
-Can he/she quote some ‘opportunities’ and ‘threats’ of sustainable tourism, from an entrepreneurial
viewpoint?
C
Destination
-What are the main environmental issues in the destination?
-What does he/she perceive to be a local ecological problem?
-Can he/she elaborate on possible causes and solutions to this problem?
-Which organizations aim for a solution for this (business/politics/NGO’s?)
C
Destination
-What are the main environmental issues in the destination?
-What does he/she perceive to be a local ecological problem?
-Can he/she elaborate on possible causes and solutions to this problem?
-Which organizations aim for a solution for this (business/politics/NGO’s?)
D
Touroperator PMZ – Agent
-Are they familiar with the Dutch ‘Product and Environment Care System’ (PMZ) Dutch tour operators
have introduced?
-Has the PMZ strategy been forwarded to the local agent?
-Is ‘sustainable tourism’ ever discussed with contract manager outside the business meetings?
-Does the TO ask for an ‘environmental report’ which regards the entire destination and/or different
elements thereof? How is this produced and presented?
-Which practical adjustments from tour operators and/or product suppliers would be very useful for a
better collaboration?
D
Touroperator PMZ – Agent
-Are they familiar with the Dutch ‘Product and Environment Care System’ (PMZ) Dutch tour operators
have introduced?
-Has the PMZ strategy been forwarded to the local agent?
-Is ‘sustainable tourism’ ever discussed with contract manager outside the business meetings?
-Does the TO ask for an ‘environmental report’ which regards the entire destination and/or different
elements thereof? How is this produced and presented?
-Which practical adjustments from tour operators and/or product suppliers would be very useful for a
better collaboration?
E
Local Stakeholders
-Can he/she elaborate on local environmental politics and political possibilities for local entrepreneurs?
-With which local organizations could the TO cooperate, for their mutual benefit?
E
Local Stakeholders
-Can he/she elaborate on local environmental politics and political possibilities for local entrepreneurs?
-With which local organizations could the TO cooperate, for their mutual benefit?
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Communication Tour Operator
-How does contact with product/contract manager usually take place?
E.g. personal contact or through intermediaries (secretary, written instead of oral, frequency, topics etc.)
-Which topics are given too little/too much attention to by the TO?
-Does the agent know the PMZ manager of the TO personally?
-Does the tour operators’ PMZ manager know the destination first hand?
-Which (strict) demands does the TO have for the local agent?
- Has the agent ever given information on social and/or ecological consequences of a new product/destination prior to the contracting thereoff? Examples?
-How does the TO use this information?
-How does the TO reward sustainable initiatives?
-How can the communication with the TO be improved?
-What role does the local rep play in this?
-What kind of excursions are in the package, sustainable ones?
Communication Tour Operator
-How does contact with product/contract manager usually take place?
E.g. personal contact or through intermediaries (secretary, written instead of oral, frequency, topics etc.)
-Which topics are given too little/too much attention to by the TO?
-Does the agent know the PMZ manager of the TO personally?
-Does the tour operators’ PMZ manager know the destination first hand?
-Which (strict) demands does the TO have for the local agent?
- Has the agent ever given information on social and/or ecological consequences of a new product/destination prior to the contracting thereoff? Examples?
-How does the TO use this information?
-How does the TO reward sustainable initiatives?
-How can the communication with the TO be improved?
-What role does the local rep play in this?
-What kind of excursions are in the package, sustainable ones?
Company’s own initiatives
-Which topics are discussed with product suppliers ?
-How can demands towards suppliers be enforced?
-Do local agents co-operate locally? When/where/how?
-Do local agents have a (local) political spokesperson?
-What kind of support/stimulus from the TO would be of help to work more sustainable?
-Which resources do local agents use to influence other, non governmental, local actors?
-Can you provide examples, of how you or the tour operator could change the contents of this
destination for sustainability reasons?
Company’s own initiatives
-Which topics are discussed with product suppliers ?
-How can demands towards suppliers be enforced?
-Do local agents co-operate locally? When/where/how?
-Do local agents have a (local) political spokesperson?
-What kind of support/stimulus from the TO would be of help to work more sustainable?
-Which resources do local agents use to influence other, non governmental, local actors?
-Can you provide examples, of how you or the tour operator could change the contents of this
destination for sustainability reasons?
Can you describe the ‘POWER’ the local agents have, what kind of power (e.g. economical/political), what are the local agents’ ‘STRENGHTS/WEAKNESSES’ ?
Can you describe the ‘POWER’ the local agents have, what kind of power (e.g. economical/political), what are the local agents’ ‘STRENGHTS/WEAKNESSES’ ?
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APPENDIX 3
APPENDIX 3
Information on training session in Side (Antalya)
Information on training session in Side (Antalya)
APPENDIX 3
APPENDIX 3
Information on training session
for hoteliers in Side (Antalya)
Information on training session
for hoteliers in Side (Antalya)
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APPENDIX 4
APPENDIX 4
contract/page 1
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contract/page 1
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contract/page 2
contract/page 2
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
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APPENDIX
TOUR OPERATORS
Bex Reizen
Mrs. Esther v.d. Berg
Product Manager
Vlaardingenweg 11
843 GN Arnhem
+31 (0)26 3566666
www.bex.nl
ER Travel Group
Mr. Marcel Smith
Contract Manager
De Sfinx Building
De Binderij 67
1321 EC Almere
The Netherlands
Tel. +31 (0)36 5278282
www.er-travelgroup.nl
Hotelplan
Mrs. Annelies van Turenhout
Business Unit Manager
Zeestraat 1002518 AD Den Haag
Tel.: +31 (0)70 3958585
www.hotelplan.nl
OAD Reizen
Mr. Denis Janssen
Project Manager
Burg. v.d. Borchstraat 2
PO Box 20
7450 AA Holten
The Netherlands
Tel. +31 (0)548 377760
www.oad.nl
Silverjet Vakanties
Mrs. Astrid Kleijne
Product Manager
Vlijtseweg 230
7317 AN Apeldoorn
The Netherlands
Tel. +31 (0)55 5270212
www.silverjet.nl
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APPENDIX
5
Contact Data Interviewees
5
Contact Data Interviewees
Sudtours Vliegvakanties
Mr. Arend-Jan Bruins
Product & Contract Manager
Sarphati Plaza
Rhijnspoorplein 34
1018 TX Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Tel. +31 (0)20 5525511
www.sudtours.nl
Sunweb Vakanties
Mr. Bas Swart
Head of the Contracting Department
Postbus 1439
3000 BK Rotterdam
The Netherlands
Tel. +31 (0)10 2802136
www.sunweb.nl
ANTALYA
Aquasun Tourism Management
Mr. Serdar Akaydin
General Manager
Mrs. Ebru Bukus
Assistant General Manager
Mr. Serdar Sasi
Marmaris Area Manager
1385 Sokak No. 20
TR 07100 Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 3226183
www.aquasun.com.tr
Diana Travel Agency
Mr. Suat Somak
Area Manager
Altinova Sinan Mah. Serik Cad.
07170 Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 3404050
www.dianatravel.com.tr
TOUR OPERATORS
Bex Reizen
Mrs. Esther v.d. Berg
Product Manager
Vlaardingenweg 11
843 GN Arnhem
+31 (0)26 3566666
www.bex.nl
ER Travel Group
Mr. Marcel Smith
Contract Manager
De Sfinx Building
De Binderij 67
1321 EC Almere
The Netherlands
Tel. +31 (0)36 5278282
www.er-travelgroup.nl
Hotelplan
Mrs. Annelies van Turenhout
Business Unit Manager
Zeestraat 1002518 AD Den Haag
Tel.: +31 (0)70 3958585
www.hotelplan.nl
OAD Reizen
Mr. Denis Janssen
Project Manager
Burg. v.d. Borchstraat 2
PO Box 20
7450 AA Holten
The Netherlands
Tel. +31 (0)548 377760
www.oad.nl
Silverjet Vakanties
Mrs. Astrid Kleijne
Product Manager
Vlijtseweg 230
7317 AN Apeldoorn
The Netherlands
Tel. +31 (0)55 5270212
www.silverjet.nl
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Sudtours Vliegvakanties
Mr. Arend-Jan Bruins
Product & Contract Manager
Sarphati Plaza
Rhijnspoorplein 34
1018 TX Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Tel. +31 (0)20 5525511
www.sudtours.nl
Sunweb Vakanties
Mr. Bas Swart
Head of the Contracting Department
Postbus 1439
3000 BK Rotterdam
The Netherlands
Tel. +31 (0)10 2802136
www.sunweb.nl
ANTALYA
Aquasun Tourism Management
Mr. Serdar Akaydin
General Manager
Mrs. Ebru Bukus
Assistant General Manager
Mr. Serdar Sasi
Marmaris Area Manager
1385 Sokak No. 20
TR 07100 Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 3226183
www.aquasun.com.tr
Diana Travel Agency
Mr. Suat Somak
Area Manager
Altinova Sinan Mah. Serik Cad.
07170 Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 3404050
www.dianatravel.com.tr
Holiday Service Turkey
Mr. Ethem Esendemir
Group Product Manager
(interview in Dutch)
Sinan Mahallesi, Kavak Sokak No:1
Altinova Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 3404575
www.hst-travel.com
Sun Group
Mrs. Nuran Eker
Antalya Area Manager
(interview in German)
30 Agustos Cd. No:53
Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 2430037-38
www.suntours-tr.com
Holiday Service Turkey
Mr. Ethem Esendemir
Group Product Manager
(interview in Dutch)
Sinan Mahallesi, Kavak Sokak No:1
Altinova Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 3404575
www.hst-travel.com
Sun Group
Mrs. Nuran Eker
Antalya Area Manager
(interview in German)
30 Agustos Cd. No:53
Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 2430037-38
www.suntours-tr.com
Isis Turkey
Mr. Ahmet Akçacioglu
Environmental Engineer
Fatih Caddesi No:6
07330 Side, Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 75348
www.isis-turkey.com
TUI Türkiye/Tantur Turizm
Mr. Melih Yetis
Contracts Manager
Tantur Building Cihadiye
Mah Pinarli Beldesi No: 565
07110 Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 4621502
www.tantur.com.tr
Isis Turkey
Mr. Ahmet Akçacioglu
Environmental Engineer
Fatih Caddesi No:6
07330 Side, Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 75348
www.isis-turkey.com
TUI Türkiye/Tantur Turizm
Mr. Melih Yetis
Contracts Manager
Tantur Building Cihadiye
Mah Pinarli Beldesi No: 565
07110 Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 4621502
www.tantur.com.tr
Mastur Turizm
Mr. Selim Lapa
Managing Director
Aspendos Bulvari, No:256
07200 Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 3113988
www.mastur.com.tr
Prof. Dr. Tuncay Neyisçi
Akdeniz University
Center for Ecological Studies
07058 Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 3102091
Novum Touristik
Mr. Metin Aktay
Product Manager
(interview in German)
Fener Mah. Tekelioglu Cad. 1956 Sk
No: 68D: 3-4-4
Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 3242580
www.novum.com.tr
Mastur Turizm
Mr. Selim Lapa
Managing Director
Aspendos Bulvari, No:256
07200 Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 3113988
www.mastur.com.tr
Türsab
Mr. Onur Özer
General Secretary
(interview in German)
Barbaros Mah. Kandiller Geçidi No:8
Kaleiçi Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 2431996
www.tursab.org.tr
Prof. Dr. Tuncay Neyisçi
Akdeniz University
Center for Ecological Studies
07058 Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 3102091
Vasco Turizm
Dr. Yusuf Örnek
Managing Director
Çalayan Mah. 2054 Sk. No:8
07230 Barinaklar Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 2490330
www.vasco.com.tr
Novum Touristik
Mr. Metin Aktay
Product Manager
(interview in German)
Fener Mah. Tekelioglu Cad. 1956 Sk
No: 68D: 3-4-4
Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 3242580
www.novum.com.tr
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Türsab
Mr. Onur Özer
General Secretary
(interview in German)
Barbaros Mah. Kandiller Geçidi No:8
Kaleiçi Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 2431996
www.tursab.org.tr
Vasco Turizm
Dr. Yusuf Örnek
Managing Director
Çalayan Mah. 2054 Sk. No:8
07230 Barinaklar Antalya
Turkey
Tel. +90 (242) 2490330
www.vasco.com.tr
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Sustainable Tour Operating ?
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LANZAROTE
Associacion de Agencias de Viaje
Mr. Francisco Gomez
Junta Directiva
C/ Reyes Catlicos, 35
35001, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Tel. +34 928 432370
www.aavfgl.org
Viajes Jetsol I.S.
Mr. Francisco Gomez
Director
C/ Rociega, 2
C.C. Puerto Cinco Locales 54-55
Tel. +28 514353/54
[email protected]
Associacion de Agencias de Viaje
Mr. Francisco Gomez
Junta Directiva
C/ Reyes Catlicos, 35
35001, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Tel. +34 928 432370
www.aavfgl.org
Viajes Jetsol I.S.
Mr. Francisco Gomez
Director
C/ Rociega, 2
C.C. Puerto Cinco Locales 54-55
Tel. +28 514353/54
[email protected]
El Guincho
Mr. Pedro Hernandez, Mrs. Lavive Hernandez
C/ Blas Cabrera Felipe s/n
35500 Arrecife
Tel. +34 928 806481
[email protected]
Viajes Sun Valentin
Mrs. Carmen Teresa Cabrera
Directora
Avda. de las Playas s/n
CC Los Pocillos, Local 17
35510 Puerto del Carmen
Tel. +34 928 514236
www.sunvalentin.es
El Guincho
Mr. Pedro Hernandez, Mrs. Lavive Hernandez
C/ Blas Cabrera Felipe s/n
35500 Arrecife
Tel. +34 928 806481
[email protected]
Viajes Sun Valentin
Mrs. Carmen Teresa Cabrera
Directora
Avda. de las Playas s/n
CC Los Pocillos, Local 17
35510 Puerto del Carmen
Tel. +34 928 514236
www.sunvalentin.es
Poseidon Travel Group
Mrs. Raquel Gil Garcia
Responsible Oficina Lanzarote
Centro Comercial Matagorda
Local 130-131
35510 Puerto del Carmen
Tel. +34 928 514521
www.viajesposeidon.com
Thomas Cook Service AG
Mr. Joerg Kinder
Resident Manager
c/o Iberoservice
C/ Princesa Teguise no.6
35510 Puerto del Carmen
Tel. +34 928 514349
[email protected]
TUI España
Mrs. Joyce Kromodikoro
Asistente Comercial
(interview in Dutch)
C/ Garajonay, 18
35510 Puerto del Carmen
Tel. +34 928 596132
[email protected]
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LANZAROTE
Poseidon Travel Group
Mrs. Raquel Gil Garcia
Responsible Oficina Lanzarote
Centro Comercial Matagorda
Local 130-131
35510 Puerto del Carmen
Tel. +34 928 514521
www.viajesposeidon.com
Viajes Urbis
Mrs. Ani Suarez
Jefe de Oficina
Centro Comercial Matagorda, 19
35510 Puerto del Carmen
Tel. +34 928 511472
www.viajesurbis.com
Thomas Cook Service AG
Mr. Joerg Kinder
Resident Manager
c/o Iberoservice
C/ Princesa Teguise no.6
35510 Puerto del Carmen
Tel. +34 928 514349
[email protected]
WWF/Adena
Oficina Regional de Canarias
Mr. Jose Antonio Trujillo
Urb. Puerto Calero, 27-28
35570 Yaiza
Tel. +34 928 514532/41
www.wwf.es
Hoteles de Biosfera
Mr. Ugo Muñoz
p/a Sunlight Hotel Group
Calle Pedro Barba
335510 Puerto del Carmen
Tel.+34 928 513764
www.biospherehotels.org
TUI España
Mrs. Joyce Kromodikoro
Asistente Comercial
(interview in Dutch)
C/ Garajonay, 18
35510 Puerto del Carmen
Tel. +34 928 596132
[email protected]
Page
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Viajes Urbis
Mrs. Ani Suarez
Jefe de Oficina
Centro Comercial Matagorda, 19
35510 Puerto del Carmen
Tel. +34 928 511472
www.viajesurbis.com
WWF/Adena
Oficina Regional de Canarias
Mr. Jose Antonio Trujillo
Urb. Puerto Calero, 27-28
35570 Yaiza
Tel. +34 928 514532/41
www.wwf.es
Hoteles de Biosfera
Mr. Ugo Muñoz
p/a Sunlight Hotel Group
Calle Pedro Barba
335510 Puerto del Carmen
Tel.+34 928 513764
www.biospherehotels.org

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