1 INTRODUCTION - Visit Montenegro

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1 INTRODUCTION - Visit Montenegro
Regional Touristic Masterplan Ulcinj
Supplement 1
Environmental Assessment
Environmental Screening
and Initial Assessment
May 2003
FINAL REPORT
DEUTSCHE INVESTITIONS- UND
ENTWICKLUNGSGESELLSCHAFT MBH, COLOGNE
MONTENEGRO
Environmental Assessment of Urban
and Tourism Development Plan
Ulcinj
PHASE 1, ENVIRONMENTAL SCREENING
AND INITIAL ASSESSMENT
August 2002
Prepared by:
P1452
In Cooperation with
MonteCEP, Local Team
Sasa Karajovic (Local Coordinator)
Aleksandra Ivanovic
Prof. Dr. Vukic Pulevic
Vesna Macic
Ruza Cirovic
Darko Saveljic
Jelena Franovic
Dragana Cenic
Prepared by
ERM Lahmeyer International
Achim Brönner
Susanne Ende
Margarete Langer
Peter Mertel
Dr. Norbert Raschke (EIA Team Leader)
This report has been prepared by ERM Lahmeyer International GmbH (ERM-LI) with all reasonable skill, care and diligence
within the terms of the Contract with the client, incorporating Environmental Resources Management’s General Terms and
Conditions of Business and taking account of the manpower and resources devoted to it by agreement with the client.
ERM Lahmeyer International GmbH disclaims any responsibility to the client and others in respect of any matters outside the
scope of the above.
This report is confidential to the client and ERM Lahmeyer International GmbH accepts no responsibility of whatsoever nature
to third parties whom this report, or any part thereof, is made known. Any such party relies upon the report at their own risk.
ERM Lahmeyer International GmbH
Peter Mertel
Project Director
P1452, DEG
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Neu-Isenburg, 30 August 2002
Dr. Norbert Raschke
Project Manager
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CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
ES1
1
INTRODUCTION
1
1.1
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1
1.2
BACKGROUND TO PROJECT
1
2
PROJECT DETAILS
3
2.1
PROJECT LOCATION AND SITE SETTING
3
2.2
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT
3
3
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY SETUP
5
3.1
STUDY APPROACH
5
3.2
ENVIRONMENTAL INVESTIGATION AREA
5
3.3
MONTENEGRO ENVIRONMENTAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK
5
4
ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE DESCRIPTION
8
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4.1
NATURAL SETTING AND LANDSCAPE HISTORY
8
4.2
4.2.1
GEOLOGY AND GEOMORPHOLOGY
Geology
8
8
4.3
CLIMATE
10
4.4
SOILS
13
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
HYDROLOGY
Hydrographic Characteristics of the Coastal Land
The Adriatic Sea
14
14
14
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.5
4.6.6
FLORA AND FAUNA
Flora Elements
General Overview
Fauna
Marine Flora and Fauna
Aquatic Flora and Fauna of Bojana River
Important Ecological Sites in the Vicinity/Ulcinj Region
15
15
15
21
33
37
40
4.7
LANDSCAPE TYPES
41
4.8
4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.8.4
HUMAN ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS
Cultural Heritage
Land Use Statistical Data
Population
Infrastructure
42
42
43
44
45
4.9
PROTECTED AREAS
47
4.10
CONSTRAINTS IN COMPILING INFORMATION, DATA GAPS
48
5
EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
49
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5.1
GENERAL
49
5.2
RELEVANT LEGISLATION
49
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
WATER QUALITY
Available Information
Freshwater Pollution
Marine Pollution
Groundwater Situation
51
51
52
52
52
5.4
SOILS
53
6
POTENTIAL IMPACTS
54
7
AREAS SUITABLE FOR FURTHER PLANNING AND AREAS RECOMMENDED FOR PROTECTION
55
7.1
AREAS SENSITIVE TO DEVELOPMENT
55
7.2
EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SUITABILITY AND RESTRICTIONS
56
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8
OPTIONS FOR PROTECTION, MITIGATION AND ENHANCEMENT
58
8.1
PLANNING GUIDE
58
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
FLORA
Forest Vegetation
Halophyte Vegetation
58
58
60
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
FAUNA
Birds
Herpetofauna
60
60
60
8.4
8.4.1
8.4.2
8.4.3
8.4.4
8.4.5
8.4.6
8.4.7
ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
Landscape
Transport and Traffic
Waste Water Treatment and Sea Water Quality
Waste Management
Use of Resources
Golf Course
Marina
60
60
60
61
61
61
61
61
9
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PHASE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY
63
10
REFERENCES
64
ANNEX
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INDEX
List of Figures
Figure 1-1
Study area and site location
Geological overview
Climate chart of Ulcinj
Wind rose of Ulcinj region
Fauna
Sampling stations (1995 – 2000)
Monuments in Velika Plaža surroundings
Cadastral units covering Velika Plaža region
2
9
12
13
22
35
42
44
Table 4-1
Table 4-2
Average monthly air temperature
Main vascular plant species at Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana Island
11
16
Table 4-3
Table 4-4
Table 4-5
Table 4-6
Table 4-7
Table 4-8
Amphibians in the investigation area
Reptiles in the investigation area
Most important birds in Ulcinj region
Average annual results in the water column at location A
Average annual results in the water column at location B
List of endangered Species
23
24
29
35
36
39
Table 4-9
Table 4-10
Table 4-11
Land use categories and ownership
Development of number of inhabitants, flats and summer houses
Planned Wastewater sewerage system Novi Ulcinj – Velika Plaža and Velika Plaža – East
43
45
46
Table 5-1
Table 5-2
Table 7-1
Classification for water assessment
Results of bathing water monitoring at three locations (1996-2002)
Ecological sensitive areas and conservation value
50
52
56
Figure 4-1
Figure 4-2
Figure 4-3
Figure 4-4
Figure 4-5
Figure 4-6
Figure 4-7
List of Tables
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Introduction
DEG – Deutsche Investitions- und
Entwicklungsgesellschaft (The Client) in
December 2001 commissioned ERM
Lahmeyer International (The Consultant) to
conduct an Environmental Assessment of
the proposed Urban and Tourism
Development of Ulcinj (The Project),
especially for the area of Velika Plaža.
The Tourism Development project at Ulcinj
is one of the model projects identified by the
Tourism Master Plan for Croatia and
Montenegro, which had been prepared on
behalf of DEG in 2000/01. The Project has
been designed to support the Municipality
of Ulcinj in the preparation and the
implementation of an Urban Development
Plan presently prepared by Albert Speer &
Partner.
This study on hand presents the results of
Phase 1 “Environmental Screening and Initial
Assessment”. The purpose of the study is to
identify ecological sensitive areas, to enable
the project developer to consider
environmental constraints and enhancement
opportunities from the very beginning. In
the later Project Phase 2, a detailed EIA will
be conducted for a selected sub-area.
The report on hand was prepared by ERM
Lahmeyer International in cooperation with
the consulting company MonteCEP.
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Project Description
Ulcinj is located at the south-eastern part of
the Montenegrin Mediterranean coast west
of the border to Albania. The study area is
located east of Ulcinj town and the Porta
Milena channel. It is covering the coastal
stretch down to the border which has a
length of approx. 13 kilometres and a width
of approx. 2 kilometres (area approx. 2,600
hectares). The regional road R 17 Ulcinj Port Milena - Ada Bojana passes along the
northern edge of the study area, by which
the region is connected to Ulcinj. The main
road M 2.4 (E752) connects the region of
Velika Plaža with other settlements on the
coast and the capital of Montenegro,
Podgorica. The distance from Ulcinj to the
railway station at Bar is about 25 km, the
distance from Ulcinj to the airport in Tivat
further up the coast is 90 km, and the
distance from Ulcinj to the Podgorica airport
is 110 km.
Due to the early stage of project
development, the project description given
below should be considered preliminary.
Along the coastal stretch south–east of
Ulcinj town, the stepwise establishment of
accommodation (hotels, resorts) and leisure
facilities as well as related infrastructure is
envisaged with a final capacity of up to
35.000 beds as a maximum option Presently,
the project is in a conception stage, i.e.
planning is preliminary and only key
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features are defined. These include tourism
infrastructure including hotel buildings,
internal access roads, other auxiliary and
ancillary facilities (roads, paths,
water/energy supply and distribution,
wastewater/waste collection and disposal),
parks and green spaces. The possibility of
the establishment of a golf course and the
construction of a marina is presently under
consideration.
Description of the Environment
The investigation area is limited by the sea,
port Milena, the road R-17 and the eastern
branch of Bojana River, and by this also
including Ada Island. The project area is
characterized by decreasing human
utilization from West to East. From Port
Milena towards the East some residential
areas exist as well as a larger hotel complex.
Close to the regional road little settlements
and scattered single houses with garden and
orchards together with agricultural use
(mostly meadows) are dominating. In the
stretch, which is closer to the sea wetlands,
swamps and other less intensively used land
are prevailing. In the coastal stretch, dunes
(only low in height) and a broad sandy
beach are typical features of the landscape.
In some parts smaller forests resp. groves
are occurring. In the Eastern Part the two
river arms of Bojana River are surrounding
Ada island. The island itself is mainly
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covered by wetlands. Nearby the beaches
hotel and old resort facilities are situated.
The island of Ada is a famous region for
nudist vacation. The eastern branch of
Bojana River forms the border with Albania.
The main environmental conditions in the
project are summarized in the following.
Physical Environment
Topography, Geology, Soils and Geomorphology
Velika Plaža with the fluvial plane in the
hinterland is made of small grain sand that
originates from Skadar Lake catchments
area. The material is transported by Bojana
River towards the littoral part of the sea and
then transported by the long shore currents
and deposited along the Velika Plaža beach.
Wind also has some influence on erosion
and transportation of sand. In the coastal
stretch, dunes (only low in height) and a
broad sandy beach are typical features of the
landscape. The river transports and deposits
large amounts of sediment at the delta.
Currents deposit the sediments on the Great
Beach.
January. The average yearly rainfall
amounts to 1,109 l/m2. There are 108
days/year of summer days in Ulcinj.
Hydrology
Bojana River is a partly navigable,
international river which forms the natural
border between Albania and Montenegro in
the investigation area. The river enters the
Adriatic sea via a delta with sandy Ada
Island that divides the mouth of the river
into two branches. The flow is slow and
with small gradient.
The Adriatic Sea at Montenegrin coast is 200
km wide and forms a part of the south
Adriatic plain where the deepest parts of the
Adriatic Sea are measured. The area shows a
strong water exchange with the
Mediterranean. Due to the large water
volumes in the southern Adriatic Sea the
water temperature does not decrease below
12°C during winter time. At the end of
summer surface layers reaches temperatures
of up to 27°C or more.
Ecological Resources
Flora
In the Ulcinj area particular autochthonous
flora is developed due to the special
ecological conditions such as maritime
impacts of the Adriatic Sea, mediterranean
climate and regular seasonal flooding.
Different types of habitats are present in the
investigation area (salted and brackish
inland and wetland habitats, dry pastures,
natural and semi-natural forests, arable land
and orchards).
The biotope types with the highest
ecological sensitivity and the highest
conservation value are the salt-tolerant
halophyte vegetation and the natural forest
vegetation. Important plant species are the
endemic Skadar Oak (Quercus robur ssp.
scutariensis) and the highly endangered Sand
Lily (Pancratium maritimum.).
Important floristic habitat areas are:
•
Coastal stretch with protected
halophyte vegetation
•
In the Eastern part and on Ada
Island occur natural forests with
Skadar Oak, Alder, Ash, Hornbeam
and Willow
•
Small grove in the western part with
Skadar Oak
Climate
Montenegro´s coasts enjoy a Mediterranean
climate, having dry summers and mild,
rainy winters. The average monthly air
temperature for Ulcinj is 15.8°C with an
average maximum of 27°C in July/August
and an average minimum of about 5°C in
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•
Natural forests in the western part
with Skadar Oak, Ash and Poplar,
affected by human activities.
Fauna
Amphibians and Reptiles
In Velika Plaža area important aquatic
ecosystems such as marshes and permanent
water-bearing ponds are located. Important
areas for amphibians and reptiles are:
•
Both sides of Bojana river are
important reproduction areas of
several endemic species
•
Area East of existing hotel complex
is an important reproduction area
for lizards and newts. The pond in
the centre is habitat for protected
newts
Avifauna
The investigation area is a very important
habitat for different endangered and
protected bird species (e.g. Pygmy
cormorant). The following important bird
habitats have been identified:
•
West of Bojana river - important
nesting area for protected bird
species
•
Marine part in front of Bojana River
mouth is important feeding area for
migratory birds (important fish
spawning area).
•
Ada Island is important nesting and
feeding area for Pygmy Cormorant
and other protected bird species. It
is important to mention that the
Bojana River delta (its right stream)
is very important for feeding and
resting of birds during winter and
during migration.
•
Velika Plaža (its eastern part that is
bordering with right stream – one
third of its total length)
•
Sasko Lake (outside investigation
area)
•
Dunes with halophyte vegetation
are habitat for lizards.
The Union of European Herpetologists
designated Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana as
the priority area in the Adriatic See for
research concerning potentially unique
group of species and local endemic species.
conservation value is proposed as a
potential conservation area.
Marine Flora and Fauna
The coastal and marine part of the
investigated area has a typically developed
beach area from where the littoral system is
continuing with mostly sandy and muddy
bottom. The hydrographic parameters
(temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved
oxygen) are continuously monitored in this
area. The sea water quality at locations Port
Milena and Ada Bojana exceeds partly biochemical parameters for bathing waters,
whereas at Velika Plaža the values are below
threshold limits.
The data from literature show the existence
of some economically important species of
invertebrates and fish which makes this area
interesting for fisheries.
•
Ulcinjska solana (the eastern part)
(outside investigation area).
The area in the East of the investigation area
with a very high ecological value and a high
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Flora and Fauna of the Bojana River
The Bojana River, a short field river, has
large water flow and high level of nutrients.
Due to this, the diversity of phytoplankton,
microfauna, zoobenthos and macrophyte
vegetation is high along the riverbanks. The
large amounts of alluvium sediments rich in
phosphorus and nitrogen are the main cause
of abundance of phyto and zooplankton,
fish and crabs in the brackish waters of the
river mouth.
Bojana River is important habitat for fish
and has a specific importance as migration
route to the sea for several fish species.
Landscape Types
Four different landscape types can be
distinguished in the Ulcinj area:
The landscape of wet woodland and marsh
is characteristic for the flooding zone at the
banks of Port Milena channel and Bojana
River. The special attraction of this
landscape is traditional wooden cabins with
fishing nets called "kalimere". The
Landscape of swamps and wetlands takes
up the wide alluvial plain of Bojana River
and the surroundings of Zoganjsko Blato.
The landscape of sandy dunes and the
landscape of sandy coast are unique at the
Adriatic Sea according to its size,
characteristics and origin. The zones are
approx. 12 km in length, with an average
width of the beach of 50 m and of the dune
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stretch of several tenths to several hundreds
(400) meters. The micro relief is permanently
changing under the influence of waves and
wind. In spite of uncontrolled sand
excavation Velika Plaža is relatively stabile
and no erosion was noticed in this area.
Protected Areas
According to the Nature Protection Act
(Official Gazette of SRM 38/68) and the
Nature Protection Law (Official Gazette of
SRM 36/77, 2/82) 19 important beaches in
Montenegro have the protection status of
"spomenik prirode" (natural monument),
including Velika Plaža beach (app. > 500
ha). This is not including the hinterland. The
Nature protection law prescribes that
activities shall not change these natural
features and the protection purpose of the
area. No further details with respect to
restrictions are mentioned.
Human Environment and Socio-economic
Conditions
Cultural Heritage
There are no registered cultural monuments
in the area of Velika Plaža and Ada Island.
The closest monument is the Old Town of
Ulcinj which is located on a rocky cliff. Near
Rt Djerane and close to the mouth of Bojana
River several sites on the sea bottom are
detected where amphorae or shipwrecks can
be found. These underwater locations can be
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very attractive for sports or tourist scuba
divers.
Population
A total number of about 1130 inhabitant for
the settlements of Donji and Gornji Stoj can
be estimated by the number of voters which
constitutes less than 5% of the whole
population in Ulcinj municipality. The
number of inhabitants in the Stoj area is
decreasing since the 1981 census, whereas in
total Ulcinj municipality the population was
growing between 1981 and 1991.
Water Supply
The municipal water utility system of Ulcinj
supplies 82% of the households in the urban
area of Ulcinj and the surrounding
settlements. The existing water abstraction
rates are adequate to satisfy the current
needs of the municipality even during
summer season.
The water supply system in Ulcinj
municipality needs comprehensive
modernization. A reduction of the water
losses from the pipeline system as well as an
adequate sanitary protection of the springs
are necessary.
Wastewater Discharge
The municipality of Ulcinj has mixed
wastewater sewerage. Due to the poor
existing infrastructure and incomplete
sewage system wastewaters are discharged
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often directly into the coastal water near
attractive beaches. The tourist complexes at
Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana as well as all
the settlements in the hinterland are not
connected to the wastewater sewerage. In
the region of Velika Plaža it is planned to
build three separate wastewater sewerage
systems.
Solid Waste Treatment
The solid waste management on the
Montenegrin coast is done by the municipal
solid waste companies by deposition on
waste dumps. No air and water quality
monitoring is conducted at these sites. There
is no separation of waste according to
hazardous level.
The estimated yearly amount of waste in
Ulcinj municipality is approx 10,000 t/year.
Due to the number of tourists the average
daily amount of solid waste can increase up
to 9 time during summer.
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Power Supply
Ambient Air Quality
The area of Ulcinj municipality is supported
by the 110 kV power line Bar – Ulcinj. The
current power supply satisfies the needs of
the users. Due to the possibility of
upgrading the transformer station, it can be
concluded that future electric power needs
in the area of Ulcinj are covered.
Most of the measured parameters (e.g.
sulphur compounds, total nitrogenous
oxides, smoke, ammonium, and
formaldehydes) were below the highest
permissible concentrations (HPC). However,
ground ozone and the maximum values of
PAH were partly above HPC. Rain water
quality measurements reveal average
amounts of minerals with changing values
of conductivity . The actual pH
concentration of rain water shows 5% of
acid rain occurrence (pH below 5.6).
Existing Environmental Pollution
During the site visits and field investigations
certain existing impairments of nature and
landscape have been reported to the
Consultant by local authorities and NGOs.
Wastewater discharge is a problem in the
area (also an odour problem). No sewage
water plant exists in Ulcinj; wastewater is
discharged into the sea. The sewage pipe,
which is crossing Port Milena, is reportedly
damaged and sewage is discharging into the
channel where water quality is impaired.
The installation of a sewage treatment plant
for Ulcinj can be seen as a pre-requisite for a
further tourist development.
A waste disposal site exists in the hinterland
of Ulcinj where waste disposal technique
needs improvement. Furthermore,
uncontrolled dumping of waste can be
observed at many places. This situation
clearly needs an improvement.
The area is well known for its bird hunting
activities which can also have adverse
ecological impacts.
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Freshwater Pollution
Bojana River meets the requirements of A2
class of potable waters for almost all
parameters except nitrate (PO4) and total
coliform bacteria, the latter also exceeds the
limits for bathing waters (Category II) and
for mariculture (Category C).
Marine Pollution
The values of two of the three sea water
monitoring stations in the investigation area
are exceeding bathing water limit values
occasionally in three or four years during
the last six years (1996 - June 2002). At the
monitoring station at Velika Plaža limit
values were not exceed. Industrial pollution
is basically non-existent in the area.
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Groundwater Situation
Data on groundwater quality in the Ulcinj
area are only available for Fraskanjel Station.
Here groundwater satisfies the A1 class of
potable waters. For other water supply well
bacterial problems have been reported.
The environmental sectors likely to be
affected by the project mainly are:
•
Soils
The data of two soil samples indicate that
only few elements are exceeding threshold
values.
Landscape Infringement
•
marine environment due to operation of
the facilities (wastewater discharge if
any, recreational activities). The
construction of a marina can affect
marine environment as well as
hydraulic conditions if not properly
planned.
•
disturbance (e.g. visual, noise,
trampling, night-time light pollution)
during construction and operation
phase
•
habitat damage by visitor pressure
The old town of Ulcinj with its historical
houses is a valuable asset. In contrast to this,
the larger hotel complexes with several
storeys (seven and more) and its
monotonous concrete facades are existing
landscape infringements.
Potential Impacts
Presently at Phase 1, the project is in a
conception stage, i.e. key features are
defined which include tourism
infrastructure including hotel buildings,
internal access roads, other auxiliary and
ancillary facilities, parks and green spaces.
The possibility of the establishment of a golf
course and the construction of a marina is
presently under consideration. The planning
level allows screening the potential impacts.
However, the magnitude of impacts can be
determined and assessed only after planning
details will be known.
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terrestrial environment (especially flora
and fauna) due to clearing of existing
land and vegetation in construction
phase, which can lead to a substantial
loss. In operation phase tourists may
adversely impact sensitive halophyte
vegetation (habitat damage by
trampling) or disturb birds if not
properly protected.
sensitive areas were mapped and are
recommended to exclude these areas from
the future planning.
Other impacts to be considered are related
to traffic and transportation during
construction and operation, use of resources
(water and energy), disposal of waste and
discharge of waste water.
Evaluation of Environmental Suitability
and Restrictions
Sensitive Areas
In order to give guidance recommendations
about areas which should be excluded from
development and which areas are regarded
suitable for development from
environmental view, the ecologically
sensitive areas with high conservation value
have been identified as follows:
•
the landscape and visual environment
due to construction of buildings and
facilities.
The potential impacts can be minimized to a
certain degree if environmental constraints
are considered. It is the purpose of this
study to allow, to integrate environmental
considerations into the planning. Ecological
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Recommendations for Area Development
Important areas for birds
West of Bojana river - important nesting area for protected bird species
Marine part in front of Bojana River mouth is important feeding area for migratory birds
(important fish spawning area)
Ada Island is important nesting and feeding area for Pygmy Cormorant and other protected
bird species.
The undeveloped open beach, dunes and landscapes and temporary wetlands/marschlands
behind the dunes are bird habitats
Important areas for Amphibia/ Reptiles
Both sides of Bojana river are important reproduction areas of several endemic species
Area East of existing hotel complex is important reproduction area for lizards and newts.
The Pond in the centre is habitat for protected newts
Dunes with halophyte vegetation are habitat for lizards (also protectable from floristic
viewpoint)
Important floristic areas
Coastal stretch with protected halophyte vegetation
In the Eastern part and on Ada island occurs natural forest with Skadar Oak, Alder, Ash,
Hornbeam and Willow
Small grove in the western part with Skadar Oak
Natural forests in the western part with Skadar Oak, Ash, Poplar, affected by human
activities
It can be summarised that most of the
ecological sensitive areas are located in the
East of the investigation area. Whereas less
sensitive areas, with the exception of single
locations and the Skadar Oaks are situated
in the West.
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It is recommended to restrict the future
development to the western part (approx.
distance to Port Milena 7 km resp. 4 km
measured from the boundary of the existing
hotel complex at Odmaralista including a
less intensively used buffer zone to the
East).
The area in the eastern part of the
investigation area with a very high
ecological value and a high conservation
value is recommended to be protected as a
Conservation Area. Development should be
clearly restricted and the area should be
strictly protected and impacts and damages
be avoided.
A golf course which is also a planning
option could be integrated into the existing
landscape and could act as a buffer zone
between more intensively used recreational
areas and areas with high ecological value in
the East of the investigation area.
Single locations in the western part with a
high conservation value such as the Skadar
Oak grove, should be protected and
integrated into the planning as far as
feasible, e.g. they could be developed as
visiting points for nature interested tourists,
cutting of single Skadar Oaks should be
avoided as this species is endemic and total
abundance in this region is limited. In
particular large and old specimen of Skadar
Oak should be conserved.
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The planned greenspaces between the
development fields should be designed
protecting the natural vegetation of the
wetlands, pastures and woodland to
preserve the present habitat functions for
birds, amphibia and reptiles. In particular
the pond and adjacent wetland near the
existing accomodation facilities at
Odmaralista, which is habitat for newts,
should be preserved as the setting is of
significant ecological quality.
The natural forest with Skadar Oak, Field
Ash and White Poplar has also a high
conservation value, but at its present state is
already affected by human activities. If
cutting of this natural forest vegetation can
not be avoided, compensation is regarded
feasible. Other smaller single areas with
ecological value should be preserved, but if
this is not feasible, appropriate
compensation measures will be possible.
Any measures for conservation
compensation, protection or supervision/
management require to be made conditional
for the future developers.
Options for Protection, Mitigation and
Enhancement
The further planning in environmental
context should be based on the general
understanding of a planning policy which
aims at:
• Maintaining and enhance biodiversity
and natural landscapes of the area
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•
Minimising pollution of soil, air and
water and the sea
•
Minimising the consumption of
resources, particularly water and nonrenewable resources
•
Increasing tourist’s awareness of the
importance of these objectives for
sustainable use of the area for
recreation.
The general concept should be, to protect
the eastern part of the investigation area and
to allow an environmental sound
development in the western part of Velika
Plaža. The former requires adequate
regulatory and institutional setup and
monitoring, the latter careful planning
integration of the existing ecological
sensitive areas and to protect habitats of
important species. Any habitat damage by
visitor pressure should be avoided and kept
at minimum by establishing respective
buffer zones around sensitive areas and by
guidance of tourists. The effectiveness of the
proposed mitigation measures should be
monitored and an appropriate institutional
setup established.
Following main considerations are
recommended for protection, avoidance,
mitigation and enhancement.
Forest Vegetation
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Cutting of Skadar Oak should be avoided to
the maximum extend possible.
Compensation planting of Skadar Oak
should be established if any of them would
be cut on locations designated for future
constructions. A compensation factor of 1 on
3 is proposed. The area of Spatula (in the
East) is an appropriate area for
compensation planting. It can be
additionally improved if a conservation area
will be created in the area of Spatula as
mentioned above. It is recommended that
important habitats are connected in order to
prevent habitat fragmentation.
Halophyte Vegetation
For the access areas to the beach it is
recommended to construct boardwalks to
bridge the halophyte vegetation. Wooden
footpaths are appropriate for that
construction. Boardwalks are protection
measures at sandy beaches to protect
vegetation against destruction by trampling.
Examples of these protection measures can
be found at many European beaches. If
properly maintained they are well accepted,
as boardwalks also facilitate walking in the
sandy area. The boardwalks in the access
areas should be interconnected to provide a
footwalk communication system. Cleaning
and maintenance of the beach shall be
undertaken carefully in order not to damage
halophyte vegetation. Use of bulldozers and
similar heavy equipment should be limited
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to the beach area without vegetation at
Velika Plaža.
Birds
The parts of the Velika Plaža near the Bojana
River, as well as greater part of Ada Island
are worth to be protected as ornithological
reserve due to their function for protected
bird species. In these areas the vehicle traffic
should be restricted, and tourists, visitors
and other pedestrians should have limited
access through guided paths. This area is
suitable for controlled bird watching
activities. The erection of bird watching
towers and appropriate information panels
and other information material should be
provided.
Herpetofauna
It is recommended to maintain and protect
the wetland areas in the Velika Plaža - Ada
Bojana region, especially small ponds and
sand-excavation holes. In the forests and
groves, overgrazing by domestic animals
should be reduced. Some of the existing
ponds are polluted by waste. Cleaning of
these sites is recommended.
In cases where it will not be possible to
exclude important ponds and wetlands from
the development of tourist complexes,
important species (e.g. newt) should be
transferred to nearby existing habitats under
expert control. The creation of new habitats
for loss compensation should be considered
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(e.g. sand excavation). Furthermore habitat
improvement by cleaning (i.e. removing of
solid waste) should be considered where
appropriate.
Landscape
In order to minimize impacts on landscape
and visual environment due to erection of
buildings and facilities it is recommended to
restrict the number of storeys. Planting of
green screens and roadside trees are
appropriate mitigation measure.
Additional Considerations
to a possible future municipal wastewater
treatment plant. It is recommended to
construct appropriate wastewater treatment
facilities for Uljinj, which also can effectively
treat the effluents from the tourism complex
either . Any additional discharge of
untreated sewage water is environmentally
not acceptable and will be no sound
perspective for tourism development. In this
context the existing high transparency of the
seawater should be highlighted as a
valuable asset (also attractive for scubadiving).
Waste Management
Transport and Traffic
The construction phase will require
attention regarding nuisances for the
residential areas along main access roads.
For operation it is expected that increase in
road traffic will lead to additional air
pollution and increase in ambient noise
levels near road sections, which serve as
access to the tourist development area. Also
traffic communication from the
development area to Ulcinj town may
increase and result in traffic congestion. The
development should include attractive
public transport to minimise adverse
impacts.
Waste Water Treatment and Sea Water Quality
Presently it is not clear whether the new
tourist resort development will be connected
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It is recommended to develop a waste
management concept which can be an
effective tool to reduce waste amounts resp.
enhancing the use of more environmental
friendly products and encourage recycling
of residues in the tourist as well as in Uljincj
municipality.
Use of Resources
Water
In general, drinking water resources should
be responsibly managed. Presently, the pipe
distribution system network in the Uljincj
service area has 60 % losses, this should
clearly be improved.
The tourist development will increase high
water demand in summer peak months. The
project should implement modern water
saving techniques to reduce consumption,
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e.g. by rain water collection from roofs and
underground storage, separate grey water
pipes for e.g. toilet flushing etc.
Electricity and Energy
The new development should demonstrate
saving on non-renewable energy by
implementing solar heating (hot water etc.),
photovoltaic etc.
Golf Course
In case the planning pursues to establish a
golf course, excessive use of ground water
for watering the vegetation should be
avoided by respective techniques. It is
recommended that a separate detailed
environmental assessment including green
space concept with the intention to make the
golf course function as an ecological buffer
zone between the intensively used western
area and the areas proposed for protection
in the east should be undertaken.
Marina
The establishment of a marina is part of the
development planning discussion at the
present project stage. It is recommended
that in case of building of marina, clear
priority should be given to a location within
the Port Milena. A construction at the river
mouth of Bojana should be avoided for
ecological as well as hydraulic reasons. It is
important to understand that any
construction within this site would
significantly disturb or stop further feeding
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of the beach and cause the erosion of the
beach at Velika Plaža. A Coastal Area
Spatial Plan (CASP) of Montenegro
presently exists as a draft version and
should be consulted for any marina
planning.
Phase 2 Outlook
In Phase 2 of the environmental study, a
detailed EIA will be prepared for a sub-area
based on the planning details to be provided
by the technical planner. The area presently
envisaged by the technical planner is located
in the western part of the investigation area
and by this fits with the general
recommendations given above.
In Phase 2 the environmental components
will be investigated in more detail. Also the
study will focus on the actual area selected
for development and investigate impacts of
the construction phase. The location of
single Skadar Oak trees, esp. tall and old
trees worth to be preserved, will be
surveyed and entered on a map. The actual
status of the halophyte vegetation including
existing impairments will be investigated.
Both results will provide planning guide for
placements of buildings and structures,
roads etc.
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1
INTRODUCTION
1.1
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
DEG – Deutsche Investitions- und
Entwicklungsgesellschaft (The Client) in
December 2001 commissioned ERM
Lahmeyer International (The Consultant) to
conduct an Environmental Assessment of
the proposed Urban and Tourism
Development of Ulcinj (The Project),
especially for the area of Velika Plaža 1.
The Tourism Development project at Ulcinj
is one of the model projects identified by the
Tourism Master Plan for Croatia and
Montenegro, which had been prepared on
behalf of DEG in 2000/01. The Project has
been designed to support the Municipality
of Ulcinj in the preparation and the
implementation of an Urban Development
Plan prepared by Albert Speer & Partner,
Germany.
The environmental considerations should
enable the project developer to integrate
environmental constraints and enhancement
opportunities from the very beginning of the
planning process. It is intended to exclude
areas with a high ecological value and to
determine areas where future development
is environmentally acceptable.
1
the "Great Beach"
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The report on hand was prepared by ERM
Lahmeyer International in cooperation with
the consulting company MonteCEP 2.
1.2
BACKGROUND TO PROJECT
The Municipality of Ulcinj is located at the
south-eastern part of the Mediterranean
coast of Montenegro at the border to
Albania. The main economic activities in the
southern part of the Montenegrin Coast
have always been tourism and related
activities, salt processing and agriculture.
Ulcinj, with its extended sandy beaches and
the historic old town is one of the main
tourism destinations in Montenegro.
Following the 1979 earthquake, which hit
and largely devastated the Montenegrin
Coast, a master plan for the future
development of the urban settlement of
Ulcinj was prepared with technical and
financial assistance provided by UN
agencies. The implementation of this master
plan has faced a substantial setback during
the Balkan crisis in the 90s until the end of
war in Serbia. Although Montenegro was
not directly involved in war activities, the
economical development and especially
tourism has dramatically suffered. The redevelopment of this area both in
infrastructure and economical terms is one
2
of the priority activities of the Stability Pact
in this area.
In 2000/2001 the DEG funded the
elaboration of a Tourism Master Plan for
Croatia and Montenegro. The results of this
study have been presented in 2001 and form
a basis for the re-development of tourism to
its past importance in the whole area. The
Municipality of Ulcinj has been chosen as
one of the priority projects to be further
developed as part of the integrated
approach for the sustainable development
towards stability of the Balkan region.
The destination Ulcinj has significant
importance for the future Montenegrin
tourism strategy. It is the largest single
sandy beach on the whole Croatian and
Montenegrin Adriatic Sea coast. It is located
close to the population centre of Ulcinj and
at the same time it is largely undeveloped.
Along with the significant increase of
accomodation capacity up to 35.000 beds in
the 2 to 4 star segment, the project at the
same time aims at improvement of leisure
and recreartion infrastructure; conservation
of valuable nature and landscape and thus
overall re-placing of Ulcinj as an attractive
holiday destination on the European and
international market which helps
strengthening the economic situation in
Montenegro. In the long run, a potential of
Kotor office, Montenegro
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up to 40.000 accomodation beds at the
Velika Plaza could sustainably develop.
Figure 1-1
Study area and site location
The Urban Planners and Architects Albert
Speer & Partner AS&P, Frankfurt/Main, have
been assigned by DEG to prepare an urban
and tourism development plan for Ulcinj
(Title: "Pre-Masterplan Ulcinj"). To this, the
environmental assessment, at present the
Phase 1 "Environmental Screening and
Initial Assessment" as presented in this
report at hand, is contributing.
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2
PROJECT DETAILS
2.1
PROJECT LOCATION AND SITE
SETTING
Ulcinj is located at the south-eastern part of
the Montenegrin Mediterranean coast west
of the border to Albania.
The study area is located east of Ulcinj town
and the Porta Milena channel. It is covering
the coastal stretch down to the border which
has a length of approx 13 kilometres and a
width of approx. 2 kilometres (area approx.
2,600 hectares). The area is limited by the
sea, Port Milena to the West, regional road
R-17 to the North and the eastern branch of
Bojana River which form the border, and by
this is also including Ada Island. Figure 1-1
gives an overview of the study area.
Towards the east to the Albanian border, the
land use structure is characterised by
decreasing human activities. From Port
Milena towards the East some residential
areas exist as well as a larger hotel complex.
Close to the road R17 little settlements resp.
single houses with garden and orchards
together with agricultural use (mostly
meadows and grasslands) are dominating
land use structure. In the stretch, which is
closer to the sea wetlands, swamps and
other less intensively used land are
prevailing. In the coastal stretch, beach
ridges and low dunes and the a wide sandy
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beach are typical features of the landscape.
In some parts smaller forests groves are
occurring. In the Eastern Part the two river
arms of Bojana River are surrounding Ada
Island. The island itself is mainly covered by
wetlands. Nearby the beaches, hotel and
resort facilities are situated. Ada Island is a
famous region for nudist vacation.
The regional road R 17 Ulcinj - Port Milena Ada Bojana passes along the northern edge
of the study area, by which the region is
connected to Ulcinj. The main road
M 2.4 (E752) connects the region of Velika
Plaža with other settlements on the coast
and the capital of Montenegro, Podgorica.
The distance from Ulcinj to the railway
station at Bar is about 25 km, the distance
from Ulcinj to the airport in Tivat further up
the coast is 90 km, and the distance from
Ulcinj to the Podgorica airport is 110 km.
2.2
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT
Due to the early stage of project
development, the project description given
below should be considered preliminary3.
Along the coastal stretch south–east of
Ulcinj town, the stepwise establishment of
accommodation (hotels, resorts) and leisure
facilities as well as related infrastructure is
envisaged with a final capacity of up to
35.000 beds as a maximum option in the 2 to
3
Status as by June/July 2002
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3
4 star category segment. Presently, the
project is in a conception stage, i.e. planning
is preliminary and only key features are
defined. These include tourism
infrastructure including hotel and
accomodation buildings, internal access
roads, other auxiliary and ancillary facilities
(roads, paths, water/energy supply and
distribution, wastewater/waste collection
and disposal), parks and green spaces.
The present preliminary planning setting
envisages several about 700 x 1.000 metres
sized development modules with the
accommodation buildings and
infrastructure facilities alternate with about
300 to 500 metres wide green spaces in
between. Each development module would
provide a capacity of 6.000 to 8.000
accommodation beds.
It is intended to establish a planning
framework to secure that the green
freespaces will be kept free from built-up in
the future.
In detail following planning concept is
persued:
•
Development in Phases, beginning with
a module in the North –West. As an
initial stage, a first such complex could
be developed in the area of the existing
holiday complex at Odmaralista east of
Porta Milena
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•
The built up of plots will consider the
existing green and open space structure.
Structues and a sequence of density and
building typology (type/size ) will be
established:
-
-
-
plots which are suitable for club/resorthotels with a size of 800 –
1.000 beds each will be developed
closer to the beach;
larger buildings, such as bigger
hotels and space taking sports
facilities (e.g. tennis) are placed into
the existing open grasslands;
along the main access road (regional
road RD 17) small buildings will be
placed which provide holiday
appartments and small hotels in the
2 to 3 star segment
•
In every development module at least
one public footpath leads from the
development areas close to the main
road to the beach
•
A public beach promenade will be
developed (e.g. boardwalks)
•
Within the green spaces between the
modules public communication
pathways and parking spots for day
visitors will be established
•
A public transport system will connect
the modules with Ulcinj town;
•
Private individual car traffic within the
modules will be restricted by means of
road layout, parking regulations etc.
•
A public pedestrian-/bicycle pathway
will connect the modules. This will be
available for emenrgency access (e.g. fire
brigade) and could also be used for
public transportation
•
Each development module will be
developed as an independent unit
(village character)
•
The resort hotels will provide
accomodation for staff in the area of
small unit buit-up
•
Existing natural structures, such as the
dune strip will be preserved and losses
of green structures will be compensated
•
In each development module a public
multifunctional area for events will be
established
•
•
The modules will be managed and
coordinated; a common event concept
will be set up
On Ada Island a development zone will
be defined around the existing holiday
complex and the extend limited by
development/building regulations.
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The possibility of the establishment of a golf
course and the construction of a marina
(approx. 250 boat slots) on the coast of
Velika Plaza is presently under
consideration.
Issues of waste water and sewerage system,
waste disposal and management and
respective infrastructure (waste treatment
facility/landfill; sewage treatment plant) are
not scope of the planning activities of the
present AS&P Pre-Masterplan Ulcinj
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3
3.1
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY
SETUP
development of tourism
infrastructure and
related facilities,
respectively areas that
should not be affected.
STUDY APPROACH
The objective of the environmental study
activities is to closely link the elaboration of
the urban development study with the
needs of an environmental sound planning
procedure. It is the purpose of the present
Phase 1 environmental study to allow,
integrating environmental considerations
into the planning at an early stage.
The environmental investigations for this
project are staged into two principal study
phases. The key steps of the environmental
studies are defined as follows:
Phase 1:
Phase 1a:
Phase 1b:
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Environmental Screening
and Initial Assessment
(IEE)
Analyse the
environmental baseline
condition in the project
area and scope the
environmental impacts
likely to occur by the
implementation of the
Urban Development
Plan.
Identify sub-areas
suitable for future
Phase 2
Detailed EIA for a
Selected Sub-Area
A sub-area will be
selected as the outcome
of the present AS&P
Study considering the
results of the Phase 1
environmental
assessment. This subarea will be the location
for the first development
complex (capacity 6.000 –
8.000 accommodation
beds) and will be subject
to a detailed EIA. The
EIA will be based on the
more detailed planning
of AS&P.
The report on hand constitutes the Phase 1
Environmental Screening and Initial
Assessment. To analyse in-depth and to
prepare a detailed Environmental Impact
Assessment study will be task of the Phase 2
where for a selected sub-areas taking into
account the detailed planning of AS&P
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3.2
ENVIRONMENTAL INVESTIGATION
AREA
Where necessary the project study area as
delimited in Chapter 2.1 and depicted in
Figure 1-1 is extended to consider important
nature reserves in the vicinity and for
instance functional relations of bird habitats.
For the purpose of this study it has been
assumed that for these extension areas the
existing data will be sufficient whereas for
the project area ecological sensitive areas
were field mapped for the single
environmental components.
3.3
MONTENEGRO ENVIRONMENTAL
LEGAL FRAMEWORK
The Project is planned within the legal and
statutory framework and environmental
regulations which are applicable in
Montenegro. The environmental
requirements are summarised below.
Environmental Impact Assessment is
regulated in the Montenegrin legislation by
The Environmental Law (Sluzbeni List RCG
12/96), The Environmental Impact
Assessment Act (Sluzbeni List RCG 14/97)
and the Guidelines for Components of EIA
Study (Sluzbeni List RCG 21/97). The
Environmental Law provides the basic
obligation to carry out an EIA for all projects
with potential impact on the environment.
The EIA Act includes an Annex with a list of
projects for which an EIA must be carried
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out. The projects can be planned and
realized by domestic or international
individuals or companies. In accordance
with EIA Act and EIA Guidelines the EIA
study has to be conducted before the
projects are realized. The EIA must be
approved by the Competent Authority
(Ministry of Environmental Protection and
Physical Planning) during the process of
obtaining Building Permit or other
realization permits.
Article 20 of the Environmental law
prescribes that all spatial and urban plans
need to assess the environmental conditions.
Each planning document has to be approved
by the competent authority.
The EIA study is among the technical
planning documentation part of the permit
application documents of an activity or
project.
According to above statutory requirements,
an EIA consists of 10 defined components,
which are described by the Guidelines in
further detail:
(i)
Description of the location of the
planned activity or project;
(ii)
Description of the planned activity or
project and technological process (e.g.
production process);
(iii)
Analysis of alternative technical and
other solutions;
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(iv)
Analysis of the environmental quality
of the area where the activity is
planned (Environmental baseline
description);
(v)
Potential and expected impacts on the
environment;
(vi)
Proposal of measures that will be
undertaken to avoid or mitigate
negative effects during construction
and operation incl case of accident or
emergency;
(vii) Detailed explanation of expected
inevitable effects on the environment
and if applicable also of lacking
environmental protection measures;
(viii) Specification of an environmental
monitoring program;
(ix)
Concise and clear summary
understandable for the general public;
and
(x)
Total cost of investment.
The EIA Act defines that only registered
companies are allowed to conduct EIA
studies and that at least one competent
expert for each segment has to be hired.
Public participation is not obligatory but can
be organized by the Ministry if the project
may have a great influence on the
environment (Article 7, EIA Act). The
project proponent / investor submitts the
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EIA Report to the competent authority. The
Ministry appoints a commission to evaluate
the EIA. Based on the results of the
evaluation report an authorized person in
the Ministry decides about approval or
disapproval of the study.
The Annex of the EIA Act comprises a list of
projects for which EIA has to be carried out.
The most important types of projects are the
production of metals, chemical industry,
food industry, mining, energy production,
agriculture, forestry and fisheries, building
and infrastructure. The construction of
ports, marinas, navigational channels, sea,
river and lake docks as well as the
construction of tourist settlements, hotel
complexes and hotels are recorded in No. 61
and No. 72 of the list as projects mandatory
to EIA study.
The need for Environmental Assessment in
the planning procedure is regulated by the
Environmental Law and the EIA Act, while
the 1995 Law on Physical Planning does not
specifically address the Environmental
Assessment. However, it should be
mentioned that the regular planning
procedure in Montenegro implicitly requires
environmental protection consideration at
different planning stages.
There are no legal regulations in
Montenegro yet relating to the Strategic
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Environmental Impact Assessment (SEA) 4,
although some elements of SEA procedure
can be found in different planning
procedures. Presently, the passing of the
new Montenegrin Physical Planning Law is
in process under the auspicies of UNDP
experts. Strategic Impact Assessment is
expected to be included in the new law.
Further details and other relevant
environmental laws are compiled in
Annex D.
Information on EU EIA Standards: EIA for
tourism developments mandatory in the EU
counties by the EIA Directive 85/337/EEC and
amendment Directive 97/11/EE). Strategic
Environmental Assessment (SEA ) will be
statutory in the EU member states through
Directive 2001-42-EC to be implemented by July
2004;
4
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4
4.1
ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE
DESCRIPTION
NATURAL SETTING AND LANDSCAPE
HISTORY
The lowland area east of Ulcinj which
extends into Albania is bordered by the
Brivska Gora (208m) and the Mozura (622m)
hills. The area (about 60 sq. kilometers) was
a former coastal bay which was formed by
the natural forces of the river Bojana, the sea
currents and the wind to the present status.
The Boyana River which flows out of the
Skadar Lake is collecting substantial
amounts of sediments on its short way to the
sea especially by the contributions of the
tributaries Kiri and Drimac in Albania. As
the Bojana is passing through the lowland
plain, larger sediments deposit on the way
to the sea and only sands and fine particles
reach the sea. This fine grained sediments
were transported from the river mouth to
the West by currents where a barrier island
formed in front of the bay. Additional
sediments from the river, the transport and
deposition by sea currents and wind
subsequently closed the barrier island to
form a shallow lagoon, which subsequently
filled up where at the same time the sandy
barrier beach with dunes kept growing into
the sea. This created a unique environment
of muddy swamps in the former lagoon
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(Zoganjsko Blato) and windblown
dunefields at the sea shore.
In the 19th century Zorganj Mud (Zorganjsko
Blato) was an unpassable swamp (approx 25
sqkm) with brackish waters and malaria.
Stepwise hydraulic works started in 1913
when the swamp was connected with the
sea by the Milena canal and blocked from
the Bojana by a dyke , with the initial
intention the dewater the area to stop
malaria.
The establishment of the large Ulcinj
saltpans (1926-1934) in this area and the
substantial enlargement by 60 % from the
early 1980s with new large basins (knete)
significantly altered the landscape character.
In the mouth of the Bojana the delta shaped
Ada Island is located with approximate size
of 4.5 sq kilometres. It reportedly was
initially formed by sediment depositions
around two smaller sandy islands and the
shipwreck of the Italian shooner Merito
which ran aground and sank in 1865. Ada
Island and the Velika Plaza beachline are
part of the coastal erosion and deposition
dynamics. The western part of the island
and the beach are permanently growing into
the sea, whereas on the eastern part of Ada
erosion is taking place.
FINAL REPORT
8
4.2
GEOLOGY AND GEOMORPHOLOGY
4.2.1
Geology
The sediments of Velika Plaža belong to the
Quaternary period consisting of alluvial and
sandy sediments.
Alluvial sediments are also developed in the
lower flow of the Bojana River and in larger
parts of the Velika Plaža where the
sediments are formed of pebbles, sand, mud
and muddy clay. Beach sediments are sandy
and can be found along the whole Velika
Plaža. The geological units are depicted on
Figure 4-1.
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Figure 4-1
4.2.1.1
Geological overview
Mineral and Energy Resources
In the wider area of Velika Plaža a small
number of sites exists where mineral
resources can be found. The main mineral
resources are sand (excavation of sand along
the banks of Bojana River and Velika Plaža)
and some coal. Crude oil and natural gas are
detected in land and deep sea floor.
Sulphuric thermo-mineral waters serve for
therapeutical and medical purposes.
Seawater is used for the production of sea
salt at Solana.
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The Ulcinj sand accumulation reaches from
Port Milena channel to Bojana River. The
depth of the accumulation averages 17 m,
ranging from 4 m near Bojana River to 110 m
along Velika Plaža. Carbonates and quartz
form the main constituents of the sands. 17
further minerals are found in small amounts
(magnetite, chromate, titanic, ilmenit and
other). The fine granulated sand meets the
construction standard and for that reason is
mostly used for these purposes. The main
excavation area is located in the southern
part of Velika Plaža, near the mouth of
Bojana River. The presumed quantity of
FINAL REPORT
9
sand resources in Velika Plaža is estimated
to about 200 Mio m³.
The results of the sea floor borings for crude
oil (five deep and four shallow borings) in
the vicinity of Ulcinj reveal the occurrence of
smaller amounts of hydrocarbons. However
the hydrocarbons cannot be used
commercially due to the depth of water of
320 m. The exploration results of the
hydrocarbon findings correspond to the
recent discovery of crude oil in the Italian
part of the Adriatic basin as well as the longterm exploitation of crude oil in
neighbouring Albania.
Sulphuric thermo-mineral waters in the area
of Ulcinj are unique in Montenegro. The
combination of these waters with in Ulcinj
area abundant peloids (healthy mud) allows
the use for therapeutical and medical
purposes (rheumatic disease and diseases of
skeletal system, neurological, gynaecological
and skin illnesses).
The sea salt is produced in the Solana of
Ulcinj due to the high salinity of the coastal
waters and the favourable climatic
conditions of this area.
4.2.1.2
Seismic characteristics
The Montenegrin coast is an area of
intensive seismic activity due to the
movements of the tectonic plates in the
bordering zone towards the Dinarids. The
most important seismic zones of the coastal
area are located in the southern part of
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Montenegro: Skadar zone, Ulcinj zone and
Budva zone. In these zones powerful
earthquakes are likely to occur with a
maximum intensity of 9 on the MCS scale.
The seismic risk is increased by the fact that
the area of Velika Plaža is mainly made up
of Quaternary sediments. The region is
under 9c seismic zone with seismic
coefficient 0,12 ks.
Most of the investigation area is considered
to show average ground conditions.
However, some areas are seismically
unstable such as the slopes made up of clay
with flint sediments in the area near the
Bojana River, where permanent
deformations due to the 1979 earthquake
can be observed (see Map 1).
Parts of the terrain are considered
conditionally stable such as the sandy
terrains close to the sea with high
groundwater level or the partially or
permanently swamps respectively.
4.2.1.3
Geomorphology and Landforms
Fluvial accumulations and coastal relief are
the main geomorphologic characteristics in
the region of Velika Plaža.
The most characteristic parts of the fluvial
accumulated relief are located in the area of
Spatula. The Ulcinj valley represents the
alluvial plain. A dam along the Bojana River
protects the valley against flooding. Velika
Plaža is cut by meanders of Bojana River.
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The river forms a wide delta wherein Ada
Island is located.
Coastal relief was formed under the
influence of abrasion and accumulation
processes at the border between sea and
land. As a result large sandy accumulations
are found at Velika Plaža. The fine
granulated sand originates from the
ophiolitic belt of the Skadar Lake catchment
area. The material is transported by Bojana
River towards the sea, carried by the
longshore currents and deposited along the
Velika Plaža beach.
Wind also has some influence on the erosion
and transportation processes of sand. In the
coastal stretch, dunes (only low in height)
and a broad sandy beach are typical features
of the landscape.
On Map 1 the areas with high groundwater
levels resp. swamps are marked. It can be
expected that lowlands behind the dunes are
partly flooded during highwater. No
detailed information on the spatial extension
could be obtained so far. In Phase 2 a
mapping of potential flooding areas will be
conducted. Furthermore, it seems that the
data source for Map 1 (GUP 1985) is partly
outdated (e.g. built-up areas in the western
part with high groundwater level).
FINAL REPORT
10
4.3
CLIMATE
The characteristics of climate are based on
data of the meteorological station in Ulcinj
(published in Basic study CO1 for the
Coastal Zone Spatial Plan, 2000).
Montenegro's coasts enjoy a Mediterranean
climate, having dry summers and mild,
rainy winters (cf. climate chart). The average
temperature for all months is above 5°C.
Average monthly temperatures over 10°C
start in early March and end in December.
The average monthly air temperature for
Ulcinj is 15.8°C. Absolute maximum
temperature was measured in August at
40.5°C. Absolute minimum temperature was
measured in February at –6.4°C.
Maximal air temperature (cf. Table 4-1)
averages monthly values of 27°C in the
warmest months (July and August) and 10
to 11°C during coldest months (January and
February). Minimal air temperature during
winter months shows average values of 5°C,
while in summer months the minimal air
temperature amounts to 20°C.
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Table 4-1
Average monthly air temperature
Temperature
Jan
Feb Mar Apr May Jun
Average
7.7
8.2
Max
10.1 11.3 13.1 15.1 20.2 23.7 27.1 27.0 23.8 19.2 14.4 11.3
Min
4.6
4.8
Aug Sep
Oct Nov Dec
10.6 13.7 18.2 22.0 24.8 24.8 21.4 17.4 12.2
6.2
10.7 15.3 20.1 23.1 22.9 18.8 15.0
There are 108 days/year of summer days in
Ulcinj municipality (daily maximum
temperature above 25°C) and 27.6
days/year of tropic days (daily maximum
temperature above 30°C). Only 9 days/year
are frosty days (daily minimum temperature
below 0°C).
The rainfall regime on the Montenegrin
coast has its maximum during winter and
minimum during summer period. Most of
the rainfall takes place in October,
November and December with 30 to 40% of
total annual precipitation; lowest amounts
of rainfall are in June, July and August with
only 10% of annual precipitation.
During winter period, the daily average of
rainfall is 5-8 l/m2, although the daily
highest values can reach over 40 l/m2.
During summer period, daily average of
rainfall is 1 l/m2. Average yearly rainfall for
Ulcinj is 1109 l/m2, which is the lowest
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Jul
8.0
8.6
5.3
value at the Montenegrin coast. Extreme
rainfall within a 24 h period and for a return
period of 100 years is estimated with
amounts of 191 l/m2 in Ulcinj.
FINAL REPORT
11
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Figure 4-2
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Climate chart of Ulcinj
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12
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
For the Ulcinj area the following wind
directions and frequencies are typical (cf.
Figure 4-3): northeast (16.8 %), east (16.3 %),
east-northeast (11.6 %), west (8 %), westsouthwest (7.7 %) north-northeast (7.4 %)
and calms with a frequency of only 3.9 %.
Extreme winds on the coast in Ulcinj reach
velocities of 20 m/s (72 km/h).
Figure 4-3
Wind rose of Ulcinj region
The average value of annual relative air
humidity for the area of Ulcinj is 65.9 %
(minimum 61.5 % in July and maximum 69.3
% in May).
Increased cloudiness is the characteristic of
winter period in contrast to summer period.
The average annual cloud cover for Ulcinj is
41% (minimum of 18% in July/August and
maximum of 55% in December).
Average monthly insulation values for
Ulcinj are 212.9 hours (maximum 332.0 h in
July).
4.4
The soils in the study consists of several soil
types with different physico- chemical
properties and varying levels of agricultural
quality (bonity class I to VIII, where class I is
the best5).
Marine sand and gravel formed by sea
waves are deposited along the lower coast at
Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana island beach
(see Map 2). This area represents the largest
amounts of fine sand of Montenegro.
Alluvial soils are occurring in Donji and
Gornji Stoj, at the Ada Island and along the
Bojana River. These soils mostly consist of
sandy and muddy components and are
situated in lower terrains so they are often
salted by seawater. The soils near Bojana
River are also haline due to the influence of
seawater in the river. The coastal zone near
the river is often flooded. The processes of
seawater intrusion and flooding occur in
micro depressions (also known as "knete").
The soils in these micro depressions are
favoured by swamp and marsh vegetation
and support an important habitat for
5
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SOILS
A map of the soil quality was not available.
FINAL REPORT
13
wildlife especially birds. They have low
bonity classes between IV to VI.
The raised terrains of Donji and Gornji Stoj,
so-called Brijeg od mora and Spatula, are
situated between 2.2 to 2.9 m a.s.l. The soils
are of better quality (class III to IV) than in
the lower parts. To a certain extent this area
is cultivated with vegetables and fruits
mainly citrus fruits, in lesser amounts with
flowers and cereals. Most parts of that area
are covered with woods and macchia 6,
partly with meadows and pasture. The
current soil quality in Stoj and Ada is of
class III to IV, rarely class V, and can be
improved up to two classes by irrigation.
Swamp clay soil occurs in a small area near
Spatula and at Ada island. The quality of
this soil is poor (class VI) but can be
improved by irrigation and drainage to be
appropriate for agricultural use.
According to Agriculture Law (Sluzbeni list
RCG 15/92) all farming land from quality
class I to IV should be protected for
agricultural use. Exceptions are other
essential requirements in cities or tourist
settlements.
6
Bush and shrub vegetation
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
4.5
HYDROLOGY
4.5.1
Hydrographic Characteristics of the
Coastal Land
The Bojana River (Buna in Albania) is a
partly navigable, international river. The
river is 43 km long with main tributaries
Moraca in Montenegro and Drim in Albania.
It flows from Skadar Lake through Albanian
territory for 18 km. For the next 25 km it
becomes the border between Montenegro
and Albania.
The river runs into the Adriatic Sea via a
delta. Ada Island divides the delta into two
branches. Two other smaller islands (Franz
Joseph and an unnamed island) also belong
to the delta of Bojana River, but are on
Albanian territory.
The Bojana River is the outflow of a complex
hydrological system of the south–western
Balkan area. The most important waters are
Lake Skadar and Moraca River in
Montenegro, Cemi River, Drim River and
Kiri River in Albania, White Drim branch
from Kosovo, Black Drim branch from
Ohrid Lake as well as several further river
branches, streams, artificial lakes, channels,
etc. The catchment of Bojana River takes up
an area of 19.000 km².
Skadar Lake, the tributaries and the delta
control the water regime of Bojana river. The
flow is slow owing to a small gradient of
1.2 m/km. The characteristics of the delta
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are the influence of waves, variations of sea
level and influence of sea current. The
Bojana River transports and deposits large
amounts of sediments at the delta, while it
has erosive characteristics and meanders
upstream.
The total annual average discharge of Bojana
River at the hydropower station Fraskanjel7
is 640 m³/s as, which puts the river at 4th
place in Yugoslavia after Dunav, Sava and
Tisa. Estimated 35% of total water of Bojana
River originates from Montenegro. The
amplitude of high water oscillation at
gauging station was 2.75 m (period 1952 to
1987) with a maximum of 4.56 m a.s.l. in
January 1963 and a minimum of 1.81 m a.s.l.
in February 1983.
Average depth of Bojana River is about 3 to
5 m and exceeds 8 m in some parts. At the
mouth of the river the sea waves formed a
ridge that protrudes when water level is
low. The river branch west of Ada Island is
the smaller one with depths of 0.9 m in
winter and 1.2 in summer, while the bigger
branch east of Ada Island forms the border
to Albania and has depths of 1.2 m during
winter and 1.6 m during summer period.
Flood defence is done mainly through
passive measures by protection dams and
some river regulation works. The largest
constructions are found at Sveti Nikola-Rec
located about 15 kilometres north of the river
mouth
7
FINAL REPORT
14
with length of 6,337 m and at Sutjel - Sveti
Djordje with length of 1,455 m. These dams
protect the area of 600 ha between Bojana
and the old barrage of Solana as well as the
Ulcinjsko polje.
4.5.2
The Adriatic Sea
The Adriatic Sea at Montenegrin coast is 200
km wide and forms a part of the south
Adriatic plain where the deepest parts of the
Adriatic Sea are measured. The area differs
from other parts of the Adriatic Sea by its
large mass of water (26.000 km³ from total of
32.000 km³) and stronger water exchange
with the Mediterranean. The water exchange
takes place through the 741 m deep Otrant
passage and is of great influence on the open
and coastal waters of the Adriatic sea near
the Montenegrin coast.
In the area of Ulcinj the shore and the
intertidal belt are exposed to strong
influence of water movements and are
characterized by frequent and periodic
changes of physical and chemical
conditions. The shore is the typically
developed sandy beach.
Waves are occurring mostly during winter
time from northern direction (January,
February, March) and southern direction
(November). The most frequent waves are
0.5 to 1.5 m high (59-71%) while the waves
with a height of more than 1,5 m (6 - 8%) are
less common and typically are connected to
strong and long-term winds from southern
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
direction. The rarest waves are those with
more than 4.5 m in height (0.1%). Quiet sea
with no waves takes place during 14 to 27%
of the year.
The sea currents along the Montenegrin
coast are directly influenced by the south
Adriatic currents with highest speeds of 42
cm/s (incoming current) and 88 cm/s
(outgoing current) along the Italian coast,
which is six times faster than in other parts
of the Adriatic Sea. The main surface current
moves from Otrant gate in the southeast
towards the northern Adriatic Sea with a
speed of 42 cm/s.
Due to the large water volumes in the
southern Adriatic Sea the water temperature
does not decrease below 12°C during winter
time. The temperature shows an isothermal
distribution with same temperatures in
surface waters and deeper layers of the open
sea. In spring time the surface layers starts
warming up so that a thermocline in 10 to 30
m depth is formed. While warming up
continues the thermocline becomes more
distinct until the end of summer where
surface layers reaches temperatures of up to
27°C or more. The shallow part of the sea at
the Bojana estuary shows lower water
temperatures (19 to 22°C) due to the
freshwater input of the river.
The salinity of the seawater varies between
29.7‰ at Bojana River and 39‰ in the open
sea because of the inflow of the
Mediterranean waters.
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The colour of the coastal sea is blue and
blue-green, respectively depending on the
cloudiness, the nature of the sea bottom and
the coastal vegetation. At the Bojana River
mouth the colour changes to yellowish
green up to brown and dark-yellow. Deep
blue is the characteristic colour of the open
Adriatic Sea.
The transparency of the sea water along the
Montenegrin coast is down to the bottom,
except in areas close to Bojana River. Low
transparency of the coastal waters often
extends towards Mala Plaža (beach at
Ulcinj). The transparency is increasing
towards the open sea and reaches values of
60 m in the middle of Ulcinj basin.
4.6
FLORA AND FAUNA
4.6.1
Flora Elements
4.6.2
General Overview
for the preparation of draft lists of important
or endangered plants species within the
investigation area (cf. Table 4-2).
In the Ulcinj area particular autochthonous
flora is developed due to the special
ecological conditions such as maritime
impacts of the Adriatic Sea, mediterranean
climate and regular seasonal flooding. The
flora occurs in different types of habitats like
salted and brackish inland and wetland
habitats, dry pastures, natural forests and
woodlands.
In addition to the seasonal observation
comparative literature has been consulted
FINAL REPORT
15
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Table 4-2
Main8 vascular plant species at Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana Island
Latin name of
species
Aegilops ovata L.
Agropyrum junceum
(L.) P. B.
Alnus glutinosa L.
Ammophila arenaria
Lk.
Atriplex hastata L.
Blackstonia perfoliata
(L.) Hud.
Bromus tectorum L
Cakile maritima
Scop.
Calystegia soldanella
(L.) R. BR.
Carpinus orientalis L.
Cyinanchum acutum
L.
Cuscuta sp. L.
Cyperus capitatus
Vand
Daucus pumilus
(Gou.) Ball. (= D.
pusillus Michx.)
Echinophora spinosa
L.
8
English Name of
species
local names
Ovate Goatgrass
Corresponding habitat
types in EU Habitats
Directive (Natura 2000)9
-
Sand Couch
-
Common Alder, Jova
44.3 (91E0, 92C0)
16.212 -16.227 (2120, 2137
(just in UK!))
18.21, 15.14 (1230, 1340 - 5)
European Beachgrass
Wild Orache
Conservation
status in
MN10
Actual
endangering
status11
Hudsons yellow-wort Downy Chess
-
Sea Racket
17.2 (1210)
+
Sea Bindweed
16.212 (2120)
+
Oriental Hornbeam,
Bjelograbi
-
Stranglewort-
-
Dodder
-
Capitate Galingale
16.212 (2120)
+
American Wild
Carrot, Rattlesnake
Weed
-
+
Sea Parsnip
16.212 (2120)
+
Species with biological importance for vegetation structure in the investigation area
The Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats– Version EUR15, compiled by Carlos Romão (DGXI.D.2), and adopted by the Habitats Committee of European
Commission on 25 April 1996.
9
Conservation Status according to Montenegrin Act on Protection of Rare, Endangered and Threatened Animal and Plant Species, Official Gazette of SR Montenegro,
No. 36/82, Podgorica 1982.
10
Endangering Status according to Prof. Pulevic, Univ. of Podgoriza. The Montenegrian Act on Protection of Rare, Endangered and Threatened Animal and Plant
Species from 1982 is not reflecting actual status of endangered halophyte vegetation, therefore additional assessment was made.
11
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16
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Latin name of
species
Eryngium
maritimum L.
Euphorbia paralias L.
Euphorbia peplis L.
Euphorbia terracina
L.
Fraxinus angustifolia
L.
Inula crithmoides L.
Iris pseudacorus
Juncus acutus L.
Juncus maritimus
Lam
Lagurus ovatus L.
Hainardia cylindrica
Geut. (=Lepturus
cylindricus Trin.)
Lepturus incurvus
Sch et Thel.
Limonium
angustifolium L. (=L.
vulgare)
Lippia nodiflora L.
Medicago marina L.
Nuphar luteum L.
Nymphea alba L.
Oenanthera biennis
L.
Pancratium
maritimum L.
Periploca graeca L.
Phragmites
communis L.
Polygonum
maritimum L.
Populus alba L.
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English Name of
species
local names
Corresponding habitat
types in EU Habitats
Directive (Natura 2000)9
Sea Holly
17.2 (1210), 16.212 (2120)
+
Sea Spurge
Purple Spurge
Geraldtons Carnation
Spurge
Field Ash, Lučki
Jasen
Golden Samphire
Yellow Iris
Sharp Rush
+
Hare's-Tail
17.2 (1210), 16.212 (2120)
17.2 (1210), 16.211 (2110)
16.211 (2110), 16.221-16.227
(2133), 16224 (2220)
41.86 (91B0), 44.4 (91F0),
44.7 (92C0)
18.21 (1230)
54.5 (17140)
15.13 (1330), 15.15 (1410),
37.4 (6420) 54.5 (7140)
-
Common Barbgrass
-
Coast Barb Grass,
Curved Sicklegrass
-
Wild Privet
As Endemic ssp in: 18.22
(1240), 15.18 (1510)
+
-
+
Sea Rush
Conservation
status in
MN10
Actual
endangering
status11
Mat Grass, Garden
Lippia
Sea Medick
Yellow Water Lily
Wild Water Lilly
16.211 (2110), 16.212 (2120)
-
Usual Night Candle
-
+
Sand Lily, Sea
Daffodil
Virginia Silkvine
16.211 (2110), 16.221-16.227
(2133), 16.223 (2210)
44.4 (91F0)
+ (highly
endangered)
Ditch Reed
-
Sea Knotgrass
16.212 (2120)
Silver-leaf Poplar
24.53 (3280), 44.17 (92A0),
44.7 (92C0)
FINAL REPORT
17
+
+
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Latin name of
species
English Name of
species
local names
Corresponding habitat
types in EU Habitats
Directive (Natura 2000)9
Pseudorlaya pumila
(L.) Grande
Dune Carrot
-
Quercus robur L. ssp
scutariensis Cernj.
Skadar Oak
Only as Q. robur in:
16.29 (2180), 41.11 (9110),
41.13 (9130), 41.24 (9160),
41.4 (9180), 41.51 (9190),
41.7A (9110), 44.4 (91F0),
41.6 (9230)
Reichardia picroides
(L.) Roth.
Common Reichardia
R. ligulata in: 18.23 (1250)
Salicornia fruticosa
L.
Shrubby Salicorne,
Arabian Glasswort
Only as Salicornia sp in:
15.11 (1310), 15.14 (1340),
15.16 (1420), 15.18 (1510),
15.A1 (1530)
Salicornia herbacea L. Marsh Samphire
Prickly Saltwort,
Salsola kali L.
Prickly Glasswort
Saltwort, Barilla,
Salsola soda L.
'Liscari sativa',
Kelpwort
Schoenus nigricans
L.
Tamarix africana L.
Utricularia vulgaris
L.
Vitex agnus-castus L.
Vulpia ciliata Lk.
Xanthium italicum
Mor.
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Actual
endangering
status11
+
+ (endemic to
southern
Montenegro
/ Albania)
+
+
17.2 (1210)
+
15.11 (1310)
+
Tamarisk
31.11 (4010), 37.4 (6420),
52.1&52.2 (7130), 53.3
(7210), 54.2 (7230)
44.8 (92D0)
Greater Bladderwort
-
Chaste-Tree
Bearded Fescue
44.7 (92C0), 44.8 (92D0)
-
Spiny Cocklebur
-
Black Bog-Rush
Conservation
status in
MN10
+
FINAL REPORT
18
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
All halophyte plants12 at Montenegrin
beaches are endangered. Other beaches in
Montenegro are considerably smaller in
comparison to Velika Plaža. Often they are
devastated, especially in the hinterland. The
almost intact halophyte vegetation band
along Velika Plaža therefore constitutes a
significant last refuge of beach plant species.
The most endangered plant species in
Montenegro is the Sand Lily Pancratium
maritimum which can be found only at
Velika Plaža in the narrow zone of psamohalophyte vegetation on the beach itself.
This species has disappeared from other
habitats in Montenegro and is included in
the national Red List (Act on Protection of
Rare, Endangered and Threatened Animal
and Plant Species (Sluzbeni list RCG,
36/82)).
4.6.2.1
Biotope Types / Vegetation
Communities
General Setting
Behind a bare sandy beach belt which is
several tens of meters wide, the terrestrial
vegetation of Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana is
found. This can be divided in subsequent
vegetation belts as follows:
The typical sequence is: (i) Psamo Halophytic vegetation – (in the western part
Halophytes are plants which are able to survive
in salty environment.
12
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from Porta Milena to Donji Stoj with a semi
natural Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) forest
strip on the backside of the primary dune) followed by (ii) temporary wetlands and
marsch in the depressions of the older dune
sections. This is (iii) followed by dry
pastures and meadows and fallow fields and
strips of woodland and forests.
The characteristics of the vegetation zones
are described in the following sections.
Submersed shoreline Vegetation
At short distance from the shoreline in the
sea submerse vegetation occurs, which is
described in literature as Zosteretum marinae
adriaticum (Eelgrass, Widgeon grass) and
Posidonietum oceanicae adriaticum (Posidonia
bed) associations.
Psamo Halophytic13 Vegetation
The halophytic vegetation is the most
valuable vegetation in the investigation area.
The 13 kilometres long halophytic belt of
Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana constitues the
last completely intact halophytic vegetation
community on the Montenegrin coast. In the
western part of Velika Plaža the halophytic
vegetation is affected in the areas of the
beach access paths by visitor pressure
(trampling).
salt tolerant vegetation prefering sandy
ground, e.g. coastal dune habitats
13
FINAL REPORT
19
In the investigation area the two rare and
endangered halophyte plant associations
Xanthio-Cakiletum maritimae (Beg. 1941, Pign.
1953) and Agropyretum mediterraneum (Kuhn,
Br.-Bl. 1933) are found (cf. Map No. 4:
Biotope Assessment).
The plant association of Xanthio-Cakiletum
maritimae survives in extreme ecological
conditions under direct impact of salt water
and wind. Typical plant species of this
association are: Sea Rocket (Cakile maritima
Scop.), Xanthium italicu,. Pricky Saltwort
(Salsola kali L.), Euphorbia peplis L, Euphorbia
paralias L., Polygonum maritimum L, Atriplex
hastata L., Echinophora spinosa L., Sea Holly
(Eryngium maritimum L.), Agropyrum junceum
(L.) P. B., Medicago marina L., Inula
crithmoides L., Lagurus ovatus L, Cuscuta sp.
L.
The association of Agropyretum
mediterraneum appears a bit farther from the
sea up to the hinterland and consists of
following species: Agropyrum junceum (L.) P.
B., Echinophora spinosa L., Sea Holly
(Eryngium maritimum L.), Euphorbia paralias
L, Medicago marina L., Ammophila arenaria Lk.,
Pancratium maritimum L., Calystegia soldanella
(L.) R. BR., Pseudorlaya pumila (L.) Grande,
Lagurus ovatus L, Xanthium italicum Mor.,
Cakile maritima Scop., Euphorbia peplis L,
Polygonum maritimum L., Atriplex hastata L.,
Aegilops ovata L., Lepturus cylindricus Trin.
Lepturus incurvus Sch et Thel., Vulpia ciliata
Lk., Schoenus nigricans L., Blackstonia perfoliata
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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(L.) Hud., Bromus tectorum L, Juncus
maritimus Lam, Euphorbia terracina L., Inula
crithmoides L., Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth.
Marshland Vegetation
In certain parts of the investigation area
marshland vegetation occurs as
permanently, temporally or seasonally
flooded marshes and kneta swamps of
natural or man made origin (sand
exploitation pits). Wetland vegetation with
unique species is developed: Limonium
angustifolium Wild Privet, Salicornia herbacea
Glasswort, Salicornia fruticosa Shrubby
Salicorne Juncus sp Sharp or Sea Rush,
Utricularia vulgaris Greater Bladderwort (in
permanent freshwater swamps) and marine
species of Familia Chenopodiaceae.
In the marshlands usual lush vegetation is
occurring such as: Ditch Reed Phragmites
communis, Yellow Iris Iris pseudacorus,
Yellow water Lily Nuphar luteum etc. The
marshland vegetation is not of significant
floristic importance, however it forms
important habitat for birds and amphibia
(Map 4: Biotop Assessment).
Usual vegetation of brackish water is
present on locations where marine salt water
and very shallow groundwater are mixed
such as at the mouth of Bojana River.
Pastures and Meadows
Behind the wet zone, out of the direct
influence of salt water mediterranean
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pastures and meadows are situated with
psamophytic Thero-Brachypodietalia Br.-Bl.
1947 association. The pastures and meadows
vegetation has no significant importance for
floristic conservation (Map 4: Biotop
Assessment).
Natural Forests
Behind the pastures and meadows natural
forests occurs which can be divided in two
main vegetation belts (Map 3: Flora): natural
forest with Skadar Oak, Field Ash, White
Poplar and natural forest with Ash, Oriental
Hornbeam, Common Alder, White Poplar,
Willow.
Natural Forest with Skadar Oak, Field Ash and
White Poplar
In a distance of 200 - 300 m from the sea
behind the shoreline vegetation belt among
arable land the maritime forests occur. These
natural autochthonous forests are influenced
by the Mediterranean climate and seasonal
flooding, resulting in mixed evergreen and
deciduous species. Beside the Montenegro
endemic Skadar Oak Quercus robur spp.
scutariensis14, Oriental Hornbeam Robureto14 The so-called Skadar Oak (Quercus Robur ssp.
scutariensis Cernj.) is a thermophile
mediterranean subspecies of the Pendunculate
Oak(Quercus Robur) also known as English Oak.
In Montenegro it is found in 3 areas. The typus
locality of the ssp. scutariensis is the northern
shore of the Skadar Lake where it is growing as a
FINAL REPORT
20
Carpinetum orientalis (Jankovic, M. et
Bogojevic, R. (1965)), thermophyllous
deciduous species Oriental Hornbeam
(Carpinus orientalis) occurs together with
ordinary Silver-leaf Poplar (Populus alba).
Other important tree species in this area are
Chaste-Tree (Vitex agnus castus L.), Mirta
(Mirtus communis L.), Tamarisk (Tamarix
africana) and Field Ash (Fraxinus
angustifolia). In addition to the species
mentioned in Table 4-2 the Meadow Saffron
(Colchicum hungaricum JKA) is characteristic
with its blooming time end of September.
The habitat is important for future
conservation of Fraxinus angustifolia,
Carpinus orientalis, Alnus glutinosus,
Populusalba, Salix sp., Quercus robur
scutariensis and other associated species
(Map 4: Biotop Assessment). The forests and
vegetation community in association with Field
Ash (Fraxinus angustifoluim), and Silkvine
(Periploca graeca L.) as typical ground layer
species. A second such areal is known NW of
Podgoriza in the Zeta River valley. The most
southern distribution areal is Velika Plaza and
the area adjacent to the East in Albania (without
Periploca graeca L.).
In general, the occurence of Q.robur and the
typical mediterranean Q. pubescens is depending
on the groundwater table. While Q. Pubescens
preferes dry locations, Q.robus is found in areas
with high groundwater table. (Prof. Pulevic,
Univ. Podgoriza, Personal communication July
2002)
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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also the individual trees are important for
the preservation of an authentic landscape
giving shade in hot summer days. However,
the habitat is currently experiencing
pressure of different human impacts such as
camps, touristic resorts and infrastructure,
agriculture and construction of houses.
Natural Forest with Ash, Oriental Hornbeam,
Common Alder, White Poplar, Willow
At the eastern part of the beach, so-called
Spatula near to Gornji Stoj trees in good
condition and accompanying species are
occurring. This area represents forest on
hydromorphic soils by domination of Field
Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia), Common Alder
(Alnus glutinosa), Silver-leaf Poplar (Populus
alba), Virginia Silkvine (Periploca graeca) and
Cynanchum acutum.
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Horticultural Trees and Associated Plants
The Vegetation of Ada Bojana Island shows
similar characteristics as at Velika Plaža,
particularly the halophytic vegetation and
dominant tree species. At the location of the
nudist resorts and close to the access roads
the island's natural vegetation is
horticultural altered with alochtonous and
decorative plant species.
4.6.3
4.6.3.1
Fauna
Amphibian and Reptile
Populations
The field observations in the locations of
Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana were done in
the period April 29th - May 04th 2002 and
June 11th – 13th 2002. About 5 species of
amphibians and 12 species of reptiles were
observed (cf.Table 4-3 and Table 4-4) It
should be mentioned that the Union of
European Herpetologists designated Velika
Plaža and Ada Bojana as the priority area in
the Adriatic See for research concerning
potentially unique group of species and
local endemic species.
In Velika Plaža area important aquatic
ecosystems such as marshes and permanent
water-bearing ponds are located. In these
ponds numerous populations of marsh frog
Rana ridibunda, european pond terrapin
Emys orbicularis and grass snake Natrix
natrix can be found. The ponds constitute an
FINAL REPORT
21
important reproduction area especially
during dry summer months. As frequent
species the common tree frog Hyla arborea
and the hermann’s tortoise Testudo hermanni
are occurring. In a pond at the centre of Štoj
near the school building a habitat of smooth
newt Triturus vulgaris is developed. Here,
negative anthropogenic influence can be
observed since population number is
decreasing due to pollution of the pond.
Another important pond habitat (15 x 50 m
in size, 2 m in depth, 15 years old) is located
in Donji Štoj, 500 m away from the sea (cf.
Figure 4-4, picture 1.). The pond shows rich
vegetation and the occurrence of newt
habitat such as smooth newt Triturus
vulgaris and warty newt Triturus
carnifex(cf.Figure 4-4, picture 2) which was
found mostly as pedomorphic (species
ready to reproduce larvae) at the time of the
survey. At that time of the year european
glass lizard Ophisaurus apodus are found and
many of them are killed on the highway
Ulcinj- Velika Plaža(cf. Figure 4-4, picture 3)
In the same area green lizard Lacerta viridis
and hermann’s tortoise Testudo hermanni are
noticed, too(cf. Figure 4-4, picture 4; Map 5:
Fauna).. In the bush vegetation at the back of
the beach a great number of endemic lizard
Podarcis melisellensis( cf. Figure 4-4, picture 5)
is noticed. The nose-horned snake Vipera
ammodytes (cf. Figure 4-4, picture 6) can be
found in the nearby woods.
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Picture 1: Pond, important habitat for newts
Picture 3: Glass Lizard, Ophisaurus apodus
Picture 5: Lizard, Podarcis melisellensis
Picture 2: Newt, Triturus Carnifex
Figure 4-4
Fauna
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Picture 4: Herman’s Tortoise, Testudo hermanni
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22
Picture 6: Nose-horned Snake, Vipera ammodytes
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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including construction of rest houses,
restaurants, infrastructure etc.
At Ada Bojana Island Dalmatian wall Lizard
Podarcis melisellensis is found around the
hotel complex and in the bushes at the
beach. Also the Common wall lizard Lacerta
muralis and green lizard Lacerta viridis are
observed. In the wood complex lives a very
numerous population of the Nose-horned
snake Vipera ammodytes, which is
Ada Bojana Island (about 600 ha in size with
a beach of 3,8 km in length) is connected to
the mainland via a bridge. The bridge
enables migration of certain species of
lizards, so that nowadays numerous
population can be found at the beach.
However, also negative consequences
followed the construction of the bridge such
as increasing pressure on the environment
by the increasing number of visitors
Table 4-3
Species
Triturus
vulgaris
Triturus
carnifex
Hyla
arborea
Rana
temporaria
Rana
ridibunda
endangered by human activities. The Bojana
River Delta represents the ideal habitat for
warty newt (Triturus carnifex) as well as the
following species of frogs: Rana ridibunda
(commercially used as food) and Rana
temporaria. This area is also inhabited by
Dice snake Natrix tessellata and Nose-horned
snake Vipera ammodytes (Map 5: Fauna).
Amphibians in the investigation area
local/english
name
mali mrmoljak
smooth newt
veliki mrmoljak/
arty newt
gatalinka/
common tree frog
travnjaca/
common frog
velika zelena
žaba/marsh frog
END
CORINE
IUCN
E
BRN
FFH
Mn
-
-
VU
-
III
-
+
-
22, 51
VU
-
II
II
+
-
44, 41
VU
-
II
-
+
-
-
R
-
III
-
-
-
-
EN
-
III
-
-
END - endemic status (B e - Balkan endemic specimen; YU e - Yugoslav endemic
specimen; YU se - Yugoslav sub endemic specimen)
E - European red list (ECE, 1991)
CORINE - Washington Declaration
RN - categories according the Bern Convention for protection of European living nature
and habitats (II - strictly protected fauna species, III - protected fauna species)
IUCN – Categories according to International Union for Conservation of Nature and
Natural Resources for nature protection: EN – endangered, VU – vulnerable, LR - low
vulnerability rate, LRnt - almost vulnerable, R – rare, DD - insufficient data
FFH - EC directives and legal regulations for protection of amphibians and reptiles in
countries of European Union (Herpetofauna Annexes to the proposed EC Habitats
Directive I.II.88) (II - Annex II, IV - Annex IV)
Mn - Legal regulative of Montenegro (Act on Protection of Rare, Endangered and
Threatened Animal and Plant Species (Sluzbeni list RCG, 36/82))
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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Table 4-4
Reptiles in the investigation area
Species
Testudo
hermanni
Emys
orbicularis
local/english name
sumska kornjaca/
Hermann’s tortoise
barska kornjaca
/European pond
terrapin
kucni gekon/
Turkish gecko
END CORINE
IUCN
E
BRN
FFH
Mn
-
VU
+
II
II IV
+
31-33
CORINE - Washington Declaration
VU
-
II
II IV
+
LRnt
-
III
-
+
41,61
LR
-
II
IV
+
YU e 32,41
VU
-
II
IV
+
-
31,41
VU
-
II
IV
+
YU e 31,32
EN
-
II
IV
+
blavor/european
Glass lizard
Be
EN
-
II
IV
+
Natrix natrix
bjelouska/Grass
snake
-
VU
-
III
-
+
Natrix
tessellata
ribarica/Dice snake
-
21-24
DD
-
?II
IV
+
Vipera berus
sarka/Aderr viper
YU
se
51-54
EN
-
III
-
-
Vipera
ammodytes
poskok/Nosehorned snake
Be
41,45
VU
-
II
IV
-
Hemidactylus
turcicus
Podarcis
muralis
(Lacerta
muralis)
Podarcis
melisellensis
Lacerta viridis
Lacerta
trilineata
Pseudopus
apodus
(Ophisaurus
apodus)
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zidni guster/
Common wall
lizard
kraski guster/
Dalmatian wall
lizard
zelembac/Green
lizard
veliki zelembac/
Balkan green lizard
END - endemic status (B e - Balkan endemic specimen; YU e Yugoslav endemic specimen; YU se - Yugoslav sub endemic
specimen)
-
22,24
-
IUCN – Categories according to International Union for
Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources for nature
protection: EN – endangered, VU – vulnerable, LR - low
vulnerability rate, LRnt - almost vulnerable, R – rare, DD insufficient data
E - European red list (ECE, 1991)
-
32,41
FINAL REPORT
24
BRN - categories according the Bern Convention for protection of
European living nature and habitats (II - strictly protected fauna
species, III - protected fauna species)
FFH - EC directives and legal regulations for protection of
amphibians and reptiles in countries of European Union
(Herpetofauna Annexes to the proposed EC Habitats Directive
I.II.88) (II - Annex II, IV - Annex IV)
Mn - Legal regulative of Montenegro (Act on Protection of Rare,
Endangered and Threatened Animal and Plant Species (Sluzbeni
list RCG, 36/82)
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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The populations of amphibians and reptiles
are decreasing and some species are
disappearing due to human activities. A
severe problem is decreasing of habitats
such as swamps, ponds and marshlands by
construction of buildings. Also cutting of
habitat connections by roads reduces the
number of reptiles since they get killed
crossing the roads following the natural
migrating impulse for mating and
hibernating in spring and fall.
4.6.3.2
Avifauna
Sources of Information
Bird life of the Ulcinj region is well
described in the literature (cf. References).
Beside literature study, for the present study
ornithological field observations were made
at locations Velika Plaža, Ada Bojana, Sasko
Lake and Ulcinjska Solana at end of April
2002. Since the observation was conducted
during the end of spring migration the state
of avifauna recorded reflects the typical
conditions for the area. Data of the Institute
for Nature Protection gathered at the
beginning of April 2002 and data of
Schneider-Jacoby (July 2002) have been
supplemented. A second field observation
period was conducted during mid June
2002. This report provides mainly
information about nesting birds, that are
reported for the observed habitats at Velika
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Plaža, Ada Bojana Island and Ulcinjska
Solana (Ulcinj Salt Pans).
General Importance of the Uljinc Area
Ulcinj is one of the most prominent areas for
birdlife in the adriatic coast of the Balcan
region. More than 200 bird species are
known in the area. Only a few areas in
former Yugoslavia can compare with the
concentration of rare bird species which
only breed in this particular area or which
concentrate important populations there.
The coastal setting of Ulcinj is ideal for
birdlife due to its landscapes which emerged
from natural factors and human activities
(cf. Chapter 4.1). The Ulcinj salt-pans
(Ulcinjska Solana) together with its
surrounding the marshy habitats and the
vicinity to the sea, are classified as
ornithologically the most important area in
Montenegro (PUZOVIĆ & GRUBAČ 2000).
Sasko Lake and the Ulcinj Saltpan as well as
numerous small wetlands are designated as
Important Bird Areas (IBA). Just across
Bojana River in Albania Velipoja is a
designated IBA. The daily communication of
avifauna between these habitats (e.g. mouth
of Bojana and the Solana) is very common,
so that almost every flock moves from one
habitat to another daily.
Ulcinj habitats are of great importance
during fall and spring migrations of birds as
well as for winter stay and nesting. In
addition, during nesting season the coast of
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Ulcinj is passed by a number of rare bird
species such as Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia),
Sandwich Tern (Sterna sandvicensis) and
Billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica). It is very
likely that these passing by birds nest in the
neighboring sandy coast areas of Albania
(PUZOVIĆ 1994).
The particulars of the different habitats are
decribed in the following:
Velika Plaža
The beginning of the Velika Plaža at the
mouth of Port Milena and the western end
of the beach at the mouth of Bojana River
represent areas of highest ornithological
importance. Also Rt15 Đerane, across Port
Milena is an important ornithological site
because it is the only habitat in Montenegro
where Shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) can be
observed whose habitat is at the cliff several
hundreds of meters from the coast in the
sea.
At Port Milena a gull habitat can be found
with Caspian Gull (Larus cachinnans), Black
Headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) and
Common Gull (Larus canus). On the sandy
part of the beach several other species are
noticed often such as Little Gull (Larus
minutus). In Port Milena, on the wooden
poles in the canal, resting and hunting of
Pygmy Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeus)
15
Cape, Headland
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can be observed. The flocks of Dunlin
(Calidris alpina) are found in the sandy part
of the beach near Port Milena.
The open sandy beach is breeding habitat of
the Kentish Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus)
and feeding ground of Stone Curlew
(Burhinus oedicnemus) and Collared
Pratincole (Glareola pratincola). The shoreline
is an important resting and feeding location
for migratory birds. (Schneider-Jakoby
2002b).
Along whole Velika Plaža migrating ducks
and diver can be observed such as Garganey
(Anas querquedula), Wigeon (Anas penelope),
Pintail (Anas acuta), Mallard (Anas
platyrhynchos), Common Scoter (Melanitta
nigra), Smew (Mergus albellus), Great
Northern Diver (Gavia immer) and Red
Throated Diver (Gavia stellata). Most of these
species which are presently migrating use
the coastal part of Velika Plaža for overnight
rests.
The dune-slack behind the primary dune of
Velika Plaza is an important breeding and
feeding area (Schneider-Jakoby 2002b).
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Bojana River Estuary
The mouth of Bojana River represents the
area with the highest concentration of
migrating birds in the coastal zone. The area
behind the banks of Bojana River is the
nesting area of numerous singing birds
(Passeriformes) (cf. Map 5: Fauna).
The open habitat (dune and the beach) in the
south of the Natural forest with Ash,
Oriental Hornbeam, Common Ash, White
Poplar and Willow are characterised by the
occurrence of Stone Curlew (Burhinus
oedicnemus), which is breeding there.
It represents an important resting area for
Numenius phaeopus (Whimbrels) and a
retreat area for breeding shore birds like
Charadrius alexandrius (Kentish Plover).
For specialists wader f. e. Numenius
tenuirostris (Slender- Billed Curlow) this
kind of habitat is important, too. Until now
also Haematopus ostralegus (Oystercatcher)
has been breeding in this habitat (SchneiderJacoby 2002a).
The shallow water zone of both Bojana
branches are of great importance for
feeding, e.g. for terns: Little Tern (Sterna
albifrons), Common Tern (Sterna hirundo),
Billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica), Caspian
Tern (Sterna caspia) and Sandwich Stern
(Sterna sandvicensis). The estuary of Bojana
River is one of the rare habitats in
Montenegro where permanent presence of
Sandwich Stern (Sterna sandvicensis) can be
observed, a species that is nesting along the
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Drim River (according to data from
Albanian experts). The feeding of this
species is quite unique and attractive to
tourists. For catching food it flies down
vertically from the heights into the sea. But
also along the whole shallow coastline birds
are feeding (Schneider-Jakoby 2002b).
Ada Bojana
The Ada Bojana is a great natural area
showing all different succession phase of a
natural estuary. Beside the vegetation and
geomorphology, it is important for reptiles,
amphibian and birds, first of all for breeding
birds (Schneider-Jacoby 2002a).
The coastal part of the island towards the
sea does not significantly differ from Velika
Plaža. On the island interior however, there
are numerous ponds and wetlands that have
water supply from the river and that form a
habitat for Phalacrocorax sp. and Anas sp.
These wetlands are largely inaccessible, and
numerous snakes (Vipera ammodytes) are
found in this area.
On Ada the Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)
was observed which is an introduced bird
species and important for hunting.
Different from earlier years the
Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) was
not noticed at Ada beach in Spring 2002.
Only two pairs of Stone Curlew (Burhinus
oedicnemus) build their nest in the hinterland
of Ada beach. Nesting of Pheasant
(Phasianus colchicus) and Partridge (Perdix
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perdix) was observed. Schneider-Jacoby
(2002a) reports that a Heron colony of
international importance with Grey Heron
(Ardea cinerea), Little White Egret (Egretta
thula), Night Heron (Nycticorax
nycticorax),Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea),
Squacco Heron (Ardeloa ralloides) and Pygmy
Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeum) exists
near the Bojana River at the east site of the
island. He also mentioned that Stone Curlew
is breeding behind the dunes (between the
habitat for lizards and the area for endemic
species, cf. Map 5: Fauna). In the marsh that
is located in the Ada wetland the nesting of
Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus)
and Great Reed Warbler (A. arudinaceus) was
observed.
Within the south-eastern part of Ada Bojana
(important reproduction areas for endemic
species, cf. Map 5: Fauna) Great Reed
Warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) and
Ceti´s Warbler (Cettia cetti) were observed.
Also Pygmy Cormorant (Phalacrocorax
pygmeus) is fishing in the ponds (SchneiderJacoby 2002a).
Woodlands and Natural Forests with Ash,
Oriental Hornbeam, Common Alder, White
Poplar, Willow
The natural forest represents an ideal
breeding habitat for birds. Noteworthy is
the intact breeding group of Rollers (Coracias
garrulus). Further indicator species are
Golden Oriole (Oriolus oriolus), Syrian
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Woodpecker (Dendrocopus syriacus), Scops
Owl (Otus scops), Honey Buzzard (Pernis
apivorus) and Levant Sparrowhawk
(Accipiter brevipes) (Schneider –Jacoby
2002a).
Wetland Area behind Velika Plaza
The temporary wetland area in the brown
dune area is an important feeding habitat for
many endangered birds species during
breeding period such as Glossy Ibis (Plegadis
falcinellus), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta),
Squacco Heron (Ardeola ralloides) and Pygmy
Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus). Also
endangered migratory birds, e. g. Slenderbilled Curlew (Numenius tenuirostris),
Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), wading
birds and raptors (Marsh Harrier, Circus
aeruginosus) can be found.
Pastures and Meadows
The Pastures and Meadows are important
breeding habitats of Stone Curlew (Burhinus
oedicnemus), Collared Pratincole (Glareola
pratincola) and Short-toed Lark (Calandrella
brachydactyla). Species with potential
appearance in this area, particularly the area
affected by saltwater (Agropyretum und
marshland vegetation) are Billed Tern
(Gelochelidon nilotica) and Oystercatcher
(Haematopus ostralegus). They were observed
until 1998.
The dry Pastures and Meadows are an
important area of the breeding habitat of
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27
Bee–eaters (Merops apiaster) and Rollers
(Coracias garrulous) (Schneider-Jacoby
2002b). Here, also a Nightjar (Caprimulgus
europaeus) was observed (Schneider-Jacoby
2002a).
Grassland and Agricultural Area
The open grassland and agricultural areas
on the elevated terrain at both sites of the
road Ulcinj – Ada (Rd. 17) are important
habitats for Rollers (Coracias garueus) which
have almost disappeared in the area of
former Yugoslavia, and Bee–eaters (Merops
apiaster). Further an number of bird species
such as Hoopoe (Upupa epops), Honey
Buzzard (Pernis apivorus), Levant
Sparrowhawk (Accipiter brevipes), Syrian
Woodpecker (Dendrocopos syriacus), Nightjar
(Caprimulgus europaeus), Scops Owl (Otus
scops), and Crested Lark (Galerida cristata
were observed in Spring/early Summer
2002 (Schneider-Jacoby 2002b).
Ulcinjska Solana (Ulcinj Salt Pan)
The Solana constitutes a man made
ecosystem of 15 km2 size. The life of birds in
these ponds depend on human activities
such as the time of filling and discharging
the water and the water level in the ponds.
During spring migration about 20,000 birds
can be observed on the ponds in one day
among the most frequent are Plovers
(Charadriiformes). However, this state is
related to the fact that the salt ponds are
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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filled with water (during winter they are
filled by precipitation). During the time
when most of the ponds are empty the
diversity of birds is reduced. At the
beginning of April 2002 the ponds were full
of water (average depth of the basins is
approx. 30 cm) whereas at the end of the
month the solanas were empty and no birds
were observed.
The area is a unique site for breeding birds,
especially water birds. However, the
number of breeding birds is decreasing.
Some species are not breeding any more
such as Oystercatcher (Haematopus
ostralegus), Redshank (Tringa tetanus) and
Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta) but they could
be still observed (Redshank, Avocet).
The species that were found in the Solana at
the beginning of April 2002 are: Dalmatian
Pelican (Pelecanus crispus) recorded 10,
Pygmy Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeus)
30, Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) 3, Grey
Heron (Ardea cinerea) 5, Spoonbill (Platalea
leucorodia) 22, Great Flamingo
(Phoenicopterus ruber) 6, Pintail (Anas acuta)
10, Shoveler (Anas clypeata) 10, Marsh
Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) 1, Dunlin
(Calidris alpina) approx. 300, Ruff
(Philomachus pugnax) approx. 420, Black
Tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) approx. 420,
Spotted Redshank (Tringa erythropus)
approx. 260, Redshank (Tringa totanus)
approx. 300, Marsh Sandpiper (Tringa
stagnatilis) approx. 1900, Green Sandpiper
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(Tringa ochropus) approx. 350, Curlew
(Numenius arquata) approx. 70, Caspian Gull
(Larus cachinnan) 30. Furthermore Redshank
(Tringa tetanus) (Saveljić, in press), Shelduck
(Tadorna tadorna), Black-Winged Stilt
(Himatopus himantops), Stone Curlew
(Burhinus oedicnemus), Collared Pratincole
(Glareola pratincola), Little Tern (Sterna
albifrons) and Common Tern (Sterna hirundo)
were observed.
Pelican is not rare at Solana, whereas
Flamingo appears quite seldom. The salt
pan is the only location in Montenegro
where this bird can be observed. The Solana
is an important habitat during the spring
migrations of Tringa stagnatilis (Marsh
Sandpipers) which is very numerous in this
location.
Among the mentioned species following
nesting bird species were observed in 2002:
Black-Winged Stilt (Himatopus himantops),
Caspian Gull (Larus cachinnans), Stone
Curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus), Collared
Pratincole (Glareola pratincola), Little Tern
(Sterna albifrons) and Common Tern (Sterna
hirundo). Furthermore in 2000/2001
Kenthish Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus)
was nesting in this area (Saveljić, in press).
The following non-nesting birds species
were observed in the year 2002: Dalmatian
Pelican (Pelecanus crispus), Shelduck
(Tadorna tadorna), Grey Heron (Ardea
cinerea), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta). In
2000/2001 Collared Pratincole (Glareola
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28
pratincola), Stone Curlew (Burhinus
oedicnemus), Redshank (Tringa totanus) were
not nesting (Saveljić, in press).
The occurrence of these species ensure a
good chance for bird watching activities,
especially since the attractive Salt ponds can
be easily accessed from the road to Ada.
Šasko Lake
The avifauna of this lake which is located
about 6 km North of the salt pans is not very
different from that of the great Skadar Lake.
Rarely, Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus)
can be observed at the lake. At Šasko Lake
the following species were observed at April
2002 : Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps
cristatus), Little Grebe (Tachibaptus ruficollis),
Pygmy Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeus),
Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Squacco heron
(Ardeola ralloides), Spoonbill (Platalea
leucorodia), Bittern (Botaurus stellaris),
Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), ), Caspian Gull
(Larus cachinnans), Caspian tern (Sterna
caspia)and Coot (Fulica atra).
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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Table 4-5 Most important birds in Ulcinj region
Latin name
Code
Accipiter brevipes
NF
Acrocephalus
arundinaceus
Acrocephalus
schoenobaenus
AB,US,
ES
Anas acuta
Anas clypeata
Anas creca creca
Anas penelope
Anas
platyrhynchos
Anas
querquedula
Anas strepera
Ardea cinerea
Ardea purpurea
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Status
Bern
Status
Wild
BirdLife Birds
Int.'l
Dir EU
Status
Bonn
S
A II
S
Pintail
A III
V
Shoveller
Teal
Wigeon
A III
A III
A III
S
S
S
Mallard
A III
S
VP, AB Garganey
A III
V
An 2/1
Ap 2
AB
US
AB
Gadwall
Grey Heron
Purple Heron
Squacco
Heron
A III
A III
A II
V
S
An 2/1
Ap 2
A II
V
Stone Curlew
A II
V
Bittern
A II
V
AB,US
VP,
AB, US
AB, US
AB
VP, AB
VP,
AB, SL
SL
Burhinus
oedicnemus
Botaurus stellaris
Caprimulgus
spec.
VP,
AB, US
SL
Cettia cetti
ES
LN
VP
US
Status
MN
An 1
A II
Ardeola ralloides
Charadrius
alexandrius
Circus
aeruginosus
Red
English name list
IUCN
Levant
Sparrowhawk
Great Reed
Warbler
Sedge
Warbler
P
Ap 2
P
An
2/1&3/2
P
An 1
An 1
P
P
An 1
Ap 2
P
Night Jar
Ceti´s
Warbler
Kentish
Plover
Marsh
Harrier
A II
A II
Coracias garrulus
NF,
DG
Roller
Dendrocopus
syriacus
NF
Syrian
Woodpecker
A II
An 1
S
P
An 1
An 1
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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Latin name
Code
Egretta alba
Egretta garzetta
Fulica atra
US, SL
SL
Gavia immer
VP
Gavia stellata
VP
Glareloa
pratincola
Haematopus
ostralegus
Himantopus
himantopus
Sterna caspia
Pratincole
Larus canus
VP
Larus minutus
VP
Larus ridibundus
VP
Limosa limosa
US
Merops apiaster
Mergus albellus
Numenius
phaeopus
Numenius
arquata
Numenius
tenuirostris
Nycticorax
nyticorax
DG
VP
Oyster –
catcher
Black-winged
Stilt
Caspian Tern
Yelow legged
Gulll
Common
Gull
Little Gull
Black-hedded
Gull
Black-tailed
Godwit
Bee-eaters
Smew
VP
Whimbrel
Oriolus oriolus
NF
Otus scops
NF
Larus cachinnans
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US, SL
Red
English name list
IUCN
Great White
Heron
Little Egret
Coot
Great
Northern
Diver
Red-throated
Diver
AB
US
SL
VP,
US, SL
Status
Bern
Status
Wild
BirdLife Birds
Int.'l
Dir EU
A II
S
P
A II
A III
S
S
P
A III
V
P
A II
V
An 1
Ap 2
P
A II
E
An 1
Ap 2
P
A III
S
P
A III
S
P
A III
E
-
S
A III
D
A II
D
P
A III
S
P
An 1
Status
Bonn
Ap 2
P
P
An 2/2
P
A III
A II
A II
Status
MN
P
V
An 1
Ap 2
P
Ap 2
P
An 2/2
US
Curlew
A III
VP
Slender-billed
CR
Curlow
A II
An 1
AB
Night Heron
A II
An 1
Golden
Oriole
Scops Owl
D
An 2/2
A II
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Latin name
Code
Pelecanus crispus
US, SL
Perdix perdix
AB
Pernis apivorus
NF
Phalacrocorax
aristotelis
desmerestii
Phalacrocorax
carbo sinensis
Phalacrocorax
pygmaeus
Philomachus
pugnax
Phoenicopterus
ruber roseus
Platalea
leucorodia
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Status
Bern
Status
Wild
BirdLife Birds
Int.'l
Dir EU
Status
Bonn
Status
MN
A II
V
An 1
Ap 1,2
P
A III
V
An 3/1
An 1
VP, AB Shag
A III
S
AB
Cormorant
A III
S
VP,
AB,
US, SL,
ES
Pygmy
Cormorant
A II
V
An 1
US
Ruff & Reeve
A III
S
An
1&2/2
Ap 2
US
Flamingo
A II
L
An 1
Ap 2
US, SL
Spoonbill
A III
E
An 1
Ap 2
Great-crested
Grebe
A III
S
Avocet
A II
L
A1
Ap 2
P
A II
D
A1
Ap 2
P
A II
D
A1
Ap 2
P
Podiceps cristatus SL
Recurvirostra
avosetta
Sterna
sandvicensis
Sterna albifrons
Red
English name list
IUCN
Dalmatian
LR
Pelican
Partridge
Honey
Buzzard
Sterna hirundo
US
Tadorna tadorna
Tachybaptus
ruficollis
Tringa
erythropus
US
Sandwich
Tern
Little Tern
Common
Tern
Shelduck
SL
Little Grebe
Tringa ochropus
US
Tringa stagnatilis
US
VP
US
US
LR
Spotted
Redshank
Green
Sandpiper
MarshSandpiper
P
P
P
P
P
P
A II
S
p
A II
V
P
A II
S
P
A III
S
P
A II
S
P
A II
S
P
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An 1
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Latin name
Code
Tringa totanus
US
Red
English name list
IUCN
Redshank
Status
Bern
A III
Status
BirdLife
Int.'l
D
Wild
Birds
Dir EU
An 2/2
Status
Bonn
Status
MN
Ap 2
P
Code - Velika Plaža - VP, Ada Bojana - AB, Sasko lake - SL, Ulcinjska solana – US, Important reproduction area for endemic species – ES, Natural forest – NF,
Important reproduction area for lizards and newts – LN, Dry Grassland – DG
IUCN – Categories according to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources for nature protection: EX - extinct, EW - extinct in the wild, CR
- critically endangered, EN – endangered, VU – vulnerable, LR - low vulnerability rate, R – rare, DD - insufficient data
BRN - categories according the Bern Convention for protection of European living nature and habitats: II - strictly protected fauna species, III - protected fauna species
Status BirdLife Int.: E - endangered, V - vulnerable, R - rare, D - declining, L - localized, S - secure
Wild Birds Dir. EU- categories according to the Wild Bird Directive 79/409/EC: An 1 - species mentioned in Annex I, An 2/1 - species mentioned in Annex II, An 3/1 species mentioned in Annex III/I, An 3/2 - species mentioned in Annex III/II
Bonn status: Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn Convention): Ap 1 - species mentioned in Appendix 1, Ap 2 - species
mentioned in Appendix II
Mn - Legal regulative of Montenegro (Act on Protection of Rare, Endangered and Threatened Animal and Plant Species (Sluzbeni list RCG, 36/82)
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Present Degree of Disturbance and Impairment
of Bird Habitats in the Study Area
Several studies (e.g. Pusovic, 1994, Saveljić
in press, Schneider-Jacoby 2002a, b) indicate
that tourism since the 1980s is an increasing
disturbance factor for bird life on Velika
Plaza and Ada Bojana.
Within the study area, on Velika Plaza and
Ada Bojana beach habitat species like
Collared Pratincole (Glareola pratincola) are
disturbed when breeding on the beach. The
population of the Kentish Plover (Charadrius
alexandrinus) is declining; this species
breeding habitat is the sandy environment
of the beach. Important resting and feeding
sites e.g. for Pygmy Cormorant
(Phalacrocorax pygmaeus) such as the smaller
Bojana mouth are recently impaired by new
constructions. This disturbance affects the
habitats of among others, e.g. Little Tern
(Sterna albifrons ), Little Gull (Larus minutus),
Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucus)
and Egretta garzetta (Little Egret) (SchneiderJakoby 2002b).
A suggestion for a future conservation area
which includes bird protection functions is
marked on Map 7.
Also for the Solana and the surroundings a
decline in birdlife is reported caused by
flooding of basins, disturbance by salt
workers, hunters and herds of sheep or
cattle in the grasslands. According to
Saveljić (in press) a great decrease of the
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number of breeding pairs was noticed
during the two -year survey (2000-2001). The
complete disappearance of some species, e.
g. Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) is
reported as well.
4.6.3.3
Mammals
According to data of the public organization
Sumsko Gazdinstvo who manages the
hunting grounds in Ulcinj (RZZP Gazette
01-505/3) following wildlife mammals can
be found: rabbit Lepus europeus, jackal Canis
aureus, fox Vulpes vulpes, weasels Martes
martes, Hedgehog Erinaceus europeus, Otter
Lutra lutra and Wild hog Sus scrofa.
4.6.4
Marine Flora and Fauna
The area of Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana is
very specific according to its geological,
hydrographical and biological
characteristics. The typically formed beach
including a narrow strip of seafloor is under
tidal influence and therefore characterized
by high mechanical activity of the sea as
well as frequent and periodic changes of
physical and chemical conditions of the
environment. The littoral system or
continental shelf extends up to 200 m in
depth and is characterized by gentle
inclining isobaths from 20 m to 50 m that are
located up to several kilometres away from
the coastline. The water column above the
shelf is fed by coastal waters that are
characterized by two important conditions:
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great dynamics of the water body and
transparency (Peres & Gamulin-Brida, 1973).
For the life of marine organisms especially
benthic organisms the structure of the sea
floor is very important. At Velika Plaža and
Ada Bojana the sea floor is mostly sandy
with a grain size of not less than 0.1 mm,
silicate is the dominating mineral. The other
parts of the sediments along Velika Plaža as
well as upper littoral are of organic origin
(fragments of shells, skeletons etc.), which is
reflected by the occurrence of species,
especially Mollusca, Ostracoda and
Foraminifera (Mandić, 1999). The wide
estuary of Bojana River represents the
typical example of muddy bottom. In this
area great amounts of terrigenous (land
origin) sediment are deposited. The pelagic
sediment, formed mostly of organic remains
of pelagic species (Foraminifera, Ostracoda,
Radiolaria, Cocolitoforida, etc.) is taken
deeper to the sea floor, which in this case is
quite distant from the coastline. The
transition from terrigenous to pelagic
sediments is not distinct, but in the
transition area at depths of 200-300m a
characteristic biota (Nephrops norvegicusThenea muricata) which is of commercial
importance for scampi (Mandić, 1999 and
2001).
The biota of the coastal terrigenous bottom
sediments in the area of Velika Plaža and
Ada Bojana is widely spread and similar to
other parts of the Adriatic and
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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Mediterranean Sea. It is characterized by
four groups of organisms, which are:
• endobiota (infauna) – among which
the most important are the
polychaeta Sternaspis scutata, the
molluscs Cardium paucicostatum, the
snail Turritella tricarinata, and the
sea cucumbers Oerstergrenia digitata,
Trachythyone elongata and T.
tergestina.
•
pivotars (inrooted) - cnidarians
Pennatula phosphorea, Alcyonium
palmatum adriaticum, Virgularia
mirabilis and Veretillum cynomorium.
•
epibiota (epifauna) - polychaeta
Aphrodite aculeata, crab Dorippe
lanata, and sea cucumber Stichopus
regalis.
•
sedentary - cnidaria Alcyonium
palmatum adriaticum, mollusc Pteria
hirundo and ascidia Diazona violacea.
At the narrow coastal strip the community
Labidoplax, characterized by the existence of
euryhaline species is developed. It is
important to mention the existence of
commercially important species of
cephalopods such as: Loligo vulgaris, Sepia
officinalis, Sepiola rondeleti and Eledone
moschata (Mandić, 1984). The community of
sedentary life forms is developed on sticky
muddy sediments, which are greyish in
colour, and are mostly of terrigenous origin
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interlaced with organic sediments. The
characteristic and dominant species of this
community is the cnidaria Alcyonum
palmatum adriaticum. Other characteristic
species are the big sea cucumber Stichopus
regalis as well as the ascidia Diazona violacea.
The widely spread muddy sea bottom with
a community of sedentary species represents
an important area for fishing with submersal
trawls. In this area many different fish
species of commercial importance are
present, represented by the species Maena
spec., Mullus barbatus, and Merlucius
merlucius.
The hydrographic parameters important for
marine organisms are temperature, salinity,
dissolved oxygen, and pH. Some data for
these parameters are given in
Table 4-6 and Table 4-7, sampling Bojana
River estuary (cf. Figure 4-5).
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34
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Figure 4-5
Sampling stations (1995 – 2000)
Table 4-6
Average annual results in the
water column at location A
Depth m
ToC
Sal ‰
O2 ml/l
pH
0
17.7
26.9
5.94
8.19
2
17.43
34.89
5.55
8.18
4
17.02
36.95
5.53
8.2
6
16.92
37.41
5.55
8.17
8
16.91
37.59
5.51
8.18
Average
17.19
34.74
5.61
8.18
(Regner et al., 2001)
Investigation period for hydrographic and
biological characteristics (Regner et al., 2001)
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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Table 4-7
Average annual results in the
water column at location B
Depth m
T oC
Sal ‰
O2 ml/l
pH
0
18.58
37.62
5.28
8.14
10
18.12
38.11
5.24
8.14
20
17.34
38.25
5.19
8.12
30
16.25
38.31
5.31
8.12
50
15.60
38.26
5.32
8.15
75
15.49
38.40
5.24
8.13
100
14.97
38.48
5.15
8.14
150
14.66
38.53
5.21
8.13
Average
16.37
38.25
5.24
8.13
(Regner et al., 2001)
The monitoring of water quality carried out
in the period 1995 – 2000 in the Montenegrin
coastal zone shows that locations such as
Port Milena and the mouth of Bojana River
experiences eutrophication (Mandić, 2001).
At these locations the colour of water is
often yellowish/greenish, yellow or brown.
The density of micro-phytoplankton is high
(up to 3.9 x 105 cells/m3) which is typical for
eutrophic waters (Regner et al., 2001). In the
neritic area diatoms and nanoflagellates
(protozooplankton) are found
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(Dobrosavljević, 1983). The phytoplankton is
found primarily in the upper layers of the
water column. However, in the cases of
specific port wastewater disposal,
phytoplankton can be concentrated even at
the deeper layers where the conditions are
more favourable. This is a permanent
phenomenon in the port of Ulcinj and can be
seen in the Port Milena as well. At locations
where eutrophication is occurring such as
Port Milena, a regressive transformation of
phytocenosis can be seen by decreasing
FINAL REPORT
36
biodiversity and increasing of tolerant
species.
The density of zooplankton is also high
which points out that the investigated area
shows high productivity. This is typical for
eutrophic bays of the East Adriatic Sea and
it is to be expected due to mixing of waters
and large input of organic material.
For the area of Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana
the density of heterothrophic bacteria in
coastal waters is also high (1.5 x 102 - 1.9 x
10³/ml) which is characteristic for an
eutrophic area (Regner et al., 2002).
Unfortunately, the water quality at Port
Milena (data from summers of 1997 and
1998.) as well as at the mouth of Bojana
River (during summers of 1997 and 2000)
exceeds the limits of category II (cf. chapter
5) (Stjepčević & Ivanović, 2001). This was
caused primarily by the exceeding numbers
of coliform bacteria. The water quality at
Velika Plaža is also of category II during the
past years (Stjepčević & Ivanović, 2001).
However it should be mentioned that South
Adriatic Sea is among the cleanest parts of
the Adriatic and Mediterranean Sea. The
serious problems in the coastal waters are
inflicted due to anthropogenic influence.
The unsolved problem of wastewater
disposal leads to the pollution of toxic
bacteria and eutrophication (Regner et al.,
2001 & 2002).
The analysis of the benthos at the locations
of Port Milena and Ada Bojana reveals the
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non-existence of the microfauna (Sokač,
1975). The analysis of other abiotic factors
showed that the level of dissolved oxygen at
these locations is quite low, while the level
of pH is quite high, which both has an
negative effect on benthic fauna and flora
(Sokač, 1975). However, the diversity of
polychaeta is relatively high at the Ada
Bojana location (sampling location see
annex- Fig. 2). Numerous factors influence
their horizontal and vertical distributions.
The communities of polychaetas that
develop in polluted areas are not stabile
communities and are often short-lived,
despite their higher level of tolerance for
new ecological conditions.
The South Adriatic Sea carries cnidarians
(medusa) toVelika Plaža, among which the
most occurring are the Hydromedusae such
as Aglaura hemistoma, Liriope tetraphylla,
Rhopalonema velatum, Solmissus albescens,
Solmundella. bitentaculata and Podocoryne
incolorata (Bender & Benović, 1986). The
South Adriatic Sea has a high diversity of
cnidarians with a peak in abundance in
spring and a minimum in autumn. The
following species of cnidarians were found
as well: Eutina gegenbauri, Laodicea undulata,
Obelia sp., Persa incolorata, Phialidium
hemisphaericum, Podocoryne minima, Sarsia
gennifera, bitentaculata, Solnaris leucostyla and
Steenstrupia nutans. None of them has been
reported to be venomous.
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At the sampling locations (sampling
locations and species list see annex D) for
sea stars (echinodermates) twelve species of
Asteroida were found, among which five
species are rare (Milojević, 1986). Although
these organisms are slow migrators, many
organism migrate from the coastline
towards the deeper, more haline and
thermostabile waters during late autumn.
This activity is characteristic for the sea stars
at the mouth of Bojana River (Milojević,
1986).
For the distribution and seasonal migrations
of Cephalopoda the hydrographic parameters,
especially salinity and temperature are
important. Thus, during the rainy period,
the migration of cephalopods such as Loligo
vulgaris, Sepia officinalis and Eledone moschata
can be seen at the mouth of Bojana River.
These organisms migrate from the coastline
towards the deeper more saline and
thermostabile waters. For the distribution of
cephalopods exogenic factors such as
feeding are important. However, during the
period of reproduction, endogenic factors
are more prevalent. At the locations
(sampling locations and species list see
annex D) 11 species of cephalopods were
determined, among which 2 species are not
commercially important (Mandić,1984).
At the sampling location near Ulcinj 27
species of fish were found at a depth of 1830 m during the summer of 1979 as well as
spring and summer 1980. Most abundant
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37
was the species Mullus barbatus that was
dominant in number of species and/or in
body mass, or in both (Jovanović &
Stjepčević, 1982). It is important to notice
that the area from Ulcinj to Bojana river is a
relevant spawning are for many species of
fish. No later data was available.
4.6.5
Aquatic Flora and Fauna of Bojana
River
The description is based on the Report on
Biodiversity of River Buna compiled by the
Association for Protection of Aquatic
Wildlife of Albania and the Ecological
Association Kalimera from Ulcinj (Dhora &
Bequiraj 2001).
The Bojana River, a short field river, shows
great discharge and high level of nutrients.
Due to this, the diversity of phytoplankton,
microfauna, zoobenthos and macrophyte
vegetation is high along the riverbanks. The
large amounts of alluvium sediments rich in
phosphorus and nitrogen are the main cause
of abundance of phyto and zooplankton as
well as fish and crabs in the brackish waters
of the river mouth.
The Bojana River is important habitat for
ichtiofauna, especially as a path for
migration to the sea.
4.6.5.1
Vegetation
The Bojana River provides abundant water
mass, quiet flow and it is rich in nutrients.
There are two areas where phytoplankton is
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
abundant: the outflow from the Skadar Lake
and the delta. The main groups of
phytoplankton are Cholorphyta dominating
with Pediastrum, Diatome, mostly Cyclotella
and Synedra, Cyanophyta, with dominant
species of Microcystis and Merismopedia. In
eutrophic waters Oshillartorea and Navicula
can be found.
There are three groups of aquatic plants in
Bojana River. Firstly there are submersed
macrophytes such as Genus Potamogeton,
Myriophyllum, Najeas, Valisneria. The second
group consists of macrophytes with floating
leaves Nymphea alba, Nuphar luteum, Trapa
natans and Nymphoides peltata. To the third
group belong halophytic half submersed
plants Phargmites australis, typha sp.
4.6.5.2
Fauna
Invertebrates
Except the mollusks, the invertebrates of
Bojana River are poorly studied.
Zooplankton consists of different groups of
Protozoa, Rotatoriea and Entomostraca. The
zoobenthos is comprises mostly the groups
of Oligochaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and
Insecta. Zoobenthos enthomofauna is consisting
of larvae of the orders Ephemeroptera,
Plecopera, Trichopetra and Diptera.
There are several groups of mollusks in
Bojana River. Prosobrachs are found among
submerse macrophytes. Bivalves of the
family Unionidae are found in soft sandy
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sides and in the marshes. The main mollusk
species are: Theodoxus fluviiatis, Viviparus
mamillatius, Valvata piscinalis, Bithynia
tentaculata, Holandarana holandrii, Phsella
acuta, Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola palustris,
Radix ovata, Radix auriculariea, Unio crassus,
Unio elongatulus, Microcondylaea compressa,
Dreissena blanci, Planorbis planorbis.
Bojana River, rich with marshes, ponds and
suitable habitats is abundant in amphibians,
reptiles, birds and some mammals.
Vertebrates
Bojana River is rich in ichtiofauna, with 13
species migrating from Skadar Lake to
Adriatic and vice versa. Among them, the
sturgeon Acipenser sturio, represent an
endangered species. Other migratory fish
species are Lampetra fluviatilis(river lamprey,
Lampetra planeri lamprey, Petromyzohn
marinus sea lamprey, Acipenser naccarii
Adriatic sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus starry
sturgeon, Alosa falax nilotica Allis shad,
Anguilla anguilla sea eel, Dicentrarchus labrax
sea bass, Mugil cephalus striped mullet, Liza
ramada Thinlip mullet, Platichtys flesus luscus
Flaunder and Citharus linguatula (only
mentioned in some literature). Almost 70%
of the river fish species belong to
cyprineidas. Among the most important are
the carp Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus
gibelio, Alburnus alburnus, Scardinus
erythophthalamus, Leucius cephalus albus, Perca
fluvaiatilis and Pachychilon pictum which is
local endemic species. In the river mouth
there about 50 species of fish can be found.
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38
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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Table 4-8 List of endangered Species
Name of the species
FLORA
Trapa natans
Nymphoides peltata
Sagittaria sagittifolia
Groenlandia densa
Potamogeton gramineus
Marsilea quadrifolia
Baldelia ranunculoides
Hydrocotyle vulgaris
Hydrocharis morsus ranae
Sopirodell polyrhiya
Vallisneria spiralis
Quercus robur
MOLUSCA
Unio elongatus
Unio crassus
PISCES
Petromyzon narinus
Acipenser sturio
Acipenser naccarii
Acipenser stellatus
Barbus meridionalis petenyi
Barbus meridionalis rebeli
Gobio gobio lepidolaemus
Gobitis taenia ohridana
Naemacheilus barbatus
Gaserosteus aculeatus
Dicentrachus labrax
Blennius fluviatilis
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English name
status according
to the IUCN
categories
water chestnut
yellow floatingheart
arrowhead
opposite-leaved pondweed
variabile-leaved pondweed
European water clover
Siberian pink cups
Marsh pennywort
European frog-bit
Duck’s meat, star duckweed
Giant duckweed
Pedunculate Oak Skadar Oak
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
E
river mussel / naide
R
common river mussel/cytherea R
sea lampray
common sturgeon
adriatic sturgeon
starred sturgeon
Mountain (balkan ) barbel
Meridional barber
Turkestan gudgeon
Ohrid sekusha
Stone loach
Shy Unarmored Threespine
Stickleback
Sea bass
River blenny
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39
V
E
E
E
R
R
R
R
R
R
V
R
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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Platichthys flessus luscus
Rutilus prespensis vukovici
Pachyuchilon pictum
Flaunder
Cyprin lippu tacheté, Epirine
lippue (french common names)
E - endangered, V –vulnerable, R -rare
4.6.6
Important Ecological Sites in the
Vicinity/Ulcinj Region
This chapter summarises existing
information on important ecological sites
located in the vicinity of the investigation
area. These areas are described because of
the existing functional habitat relations
between these areas and the investigation
area.
According to Heath M.F. & Evans (2000)
there are three identified Important Bird
Areas IBA located in the Ulcinj region. These
are the Ulcinj Saltpans (1.350 ha), which are
in close vicinity to the investigation area, the
Lake Sasko (350 ha) and Skadarsko Lake
(also named Skadar or Scutari) with a total
area of 40.000 ha, which is a very important
site for breeding, wintering and passage
waterbirds. Both are located further south of
the investigation area.
Internationally important (after the Ramsar
Convention) are the estuary area and the
lagoon of the Bojana River in Montenegro.
Important national wetland ecosystems
between Lake Skadar and the Adriatic Sea
are the Bojana River and Ada Island. Due to
the increasing environmental impact the
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E
R
R
ecological value has decreased during the
last decade (Schneider-Jacoby 2002). It is
notable, that the estuary and the Ada Island
are declared as important sites on the
Albanian side, whereas the Montenegrin
side has not declared the areas to Important
Bird Areas.
The identified Important Bird Area Velipoja
in Albania has suffered from negative trends
during the last years and the bird colony in
the coastal area has transferred to the Ada
Island in Montenegro. Currently, it is
uncertain on which side of the border the
colonies have shifted.
For Montenegro the Ulcinj Saltpans form an
important breeding site especially for rare
birds and over 10 000 roosting birds. The
Lake Sasko area has generated colonisation
for Spoonbills, herons and Pygmy
Cormorants since 1989. Along the border
area of the Bojana River 2000 pairs of Pygmy
Cormorants have been referenced prior to
1990.
Ramsar sites in Montenegro are the Lake
Sasko, the Ulcinj Saltpans and in addition
the national park Lake Skadar, which is an
important bird protection site as well.
The wetland of international importance in
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40
Albania, which satisfies the criteria of the
Ramsar Convention, is the Velipolja Lagoon.
However, neither the Velipolja Lagoon nor
the Albanian side of Lake Skadar have been
notified so far.
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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4.7
LANDSCAPE TYPES
General Setting
Typical landscape views are presented on
the photos in Annex A. The present land use
is depicted on Map 7. The project area is
characterized by decreasing human
utilization from west to east. From Port
Milena towards the east some residential
areas exist as well as a larger hotel complex.
Close to the road little settlements, dwelling
houses with garden and orchards together
with agricultural use (mostly meadows) are
dominating. In the stretch closer to the sea
wetlands, swamps and other less intensively
used land are prevailing. In the coastal
stretch, dunes (only low in height) and a
broad sandy beach are typical features of the
landscape. In some parts smaller forests or
groves resp. are occurring. In the eastern
part the two river arms of Bojana River are
surrounding the Ada Island. The island
itself is mainly covered by wetlands. Nearby
a beach hotel and old resort facilities are
situated. The island of Ada is a famous
region for nudist vacation.
Local people in Port Milena and on Bojana
River do fishing with the so-called
“Kalimera” fisher net, which is typical for
this area.
The following landscape units can
bedescribed:
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The Landscape of wet woodland and
marsh is characteristic for the flooding zone
of Ulcinj area. The banks of Port Milena
channel and Bojana River (from the coast up
to its flow through Montenegro) are covered
by woods of white willow and marshes that
separate the river from sand dunes and the
swampy alluvial plain of Ulcinj valley. In
the hinterland of this harmonic landscape
the Albanian Prokletije mountain are
raising. The special attraction of this
landscape is traditional wooden cabins with
fishing nets called "kalimere" – which makes
this landscape unique.
The Landscape of swamps and wetlands
takes up the wide alluvial plain of Bojana
River and the surroundings of Zoganjsko
Blato. The landscape is defined by larger
and smaller communities of swamp and
marsh flora with dominant species.
The Landscape of sandy dunes is occurring
at Velika Plaža beach and at the coastal part
of Ada island. This zone is 13 km long and
several tenths to several hundreds (400)
meters in width. The specific characters of
this landscape is given by very fine sand, a
specific micro relief that changes under the
intensive influence of waves and wind and a
rich vegetation on the dunes. The coastal
part is consisting of loose sand, the middle
part of clayey sand with a vegetation of high
grass. In the depressions in the hinterland of
Velika Plaža hydrophil marsh vegetation
and woods are growing. This unique natural
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41
landscape changes at the beginning of
Velika Plaža where hotels and tourist
complexes were built and an artificial
landscape was formed in parks with exotic
vegetation.
The Landscape of sandy coast at Velika
Plaža is unique at the Adriatic Sea according
to its size, characteristics and origin . The
beach is characterized by 12 km of length
and an average width of 50 m. It is formed
of fine sand that is deposited in the coastal
water by Bojana River. The sand is
transported along the beach under the
influence of the long shore current. In spite
of uncontrolled sand excavation Velika
Plaža is relatively stabile and no erosion was
noticed in this area.
Existing Landscape Infringements
The old town of Ulcinj with its historical
houses is a valuable asset. In contrast to this,
the larger hotel complexes on the east side of
Mala Plaza with several storeys (seven and
more) and its monotonous concrete facades
can be regarded as an existing landscape
infringement.
In the investigation area however, only the
far western part is dominated by large
hotels in the Porta milena area. Other
holiday complexes such as in the
Odmaralista area are hidden by trees. The
existing holiday infrastructure on Ada
Bojana do not constitute a significant
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infringement factor, as buildings are
relatively low.
4.8
HUMAN ENVIRONMENT AND
SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS
4.8.1
Cultural Heritage
The Montenegrin coastal zone represents an
interesting and from the historical and
cultural point of view remarkable important
area, where connections among the
civilizations of East and West has been
established.
The existence of mankind in this area during
several centuries left behind numerous
remains. These monuments represent
historic, artistic, architectural, ambient and
other values, which are still standing proofs
for the high level of development of these
cultures in past epochs.
There are no registered cultural monuments
in the area of Velika Plaža and Ada Island.
The closest monument is the Old Town of
Ulcinj, which is located on a rocky cliff (see
Figure 4-6). It is surrounded by city walls
with towers and gates. The earliest evidence
of this place points out that Illyrians built up
the first settlement. After the Greek’s
dominance the area was under the influence
of Roman, Venetian and Ottoman empires.
The Old Town is a protected heritage site
(first category).
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Near Rt Djerane and close to the mouth of
Bojana River several sites on the sea bottom
are detected where amphorae of the first
century BC can be found. In the vicinity of
Velika Plaža the shipwreck of the Austrian
steamboat "Goritia” of the first World War
was discovered.
Figure 4-6
Also ancient shipwrecks can be found at the
coast and in Bojana River. These underwater
locations can be very attractive for sports or
tourist scuba divers.
Monuments in Velika Plaža
surroundings
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Table 4-9
Land use categories and ownership
2.9
2
0.9
1.9
1.9
0
509
72.8
436
456
51.8
404
123
35.4
87.3
491
54.3
436
1.5
0.5
1
38.4
0
38.4
117.4
2.3
115.1
338.3
2.2
336.1
4.12
0.38
3.74
1.83
0.2
1.63
total
built-up area
pastures
meadows
187
97.8
88.8
65.6
57.8
7.8
other land
23.5
10.6
12.9
13.4
12.6
0.8
marshland
Gornji
Stoj
total
priv.
state
total
priv.
state
forests
Donji
Stoj
fruit trees and
vineyards
All values in hectares
fields
The area of Velika Plaža is divided in the
two cadastre units Donji Stoj and Gornji Stoj
(see Figure 4-7). According to the data from
the Directorate for Cadastre of the Republic
of Montenegro it is possible to distinguish
among the following structures of land (see
Table 4-9): The total area of land is 2,368 ha
of which 53% is considered to be used
agriculturally (without forests) and 26% is
covered with forests (cf. Map 6). There is a
significant difference between the two
cadastre units. In Donji Stoj the agricultural
used area (75%) is much greater than in
Gornji Stoj (38%) whereas the area covered
with forest is smaller (13% compared to
35%). Also the land use category “other
land” shows different distributions within
the two units. In Donji Stoj the category
“other land” amounts to 12% while in Gornji
Stoj it is 24%, which results in a total average
of 19%. The two remaining categories show
similar values. In both cadastre units the
marshland covers less than 3% and the builtup area less than 0.5% of the region.
The ownership structure shows that only
17% of the area is in private ownership
while 83% is hold by the government. In
private ownership is about 20% of
agricultural land and 10% of the built-up
area.
Ownership
Land Use Statistical Data
cadastral unit
4.8.2
967.7
221.8
745.9
1405.8
180.8
1225.0
(Source: Cadastral report)
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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4.8.3
Figure 4-7
According to the statistical data from census
in 1991 in the settlements of Donji and
Gornji Stoj live about 1.250 inhabitants,
which constitute 5% of the whole population
in Ulcinj municipality (see Table 4-10). The
2001 census was not carried out, but the
current number of inhabitants can be
estimated by the number of voters, which
averages 70% of the total number of
population. The voting point Stoj, which
covers both Donji and Gornji Stoj, counts
790 voters so that a total number of about
1.130 inhabitant can be estimated. Following
from this the number of inhabitants in the
Stoj area is decreasing since the 1981 census
whereas in total Ulcinj municipality the
population was growing between 1981 and
1991.
The number of housings (flats and summer
houses) increased constantly since the 1971
census. Noticeable is the fact that in 1991 the
number of flats prevailed the number of
inhabitants. Together with the number of
summer houses there have been
approximately 3.000 housings for about
1.200 inhabitants. It is assumed the parts of
these housings are tourist’s beds but there
are no data about the number of tourist’s
beds or hotel capacities.
Cadastral units covering Velika
Plaža region
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Population
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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Table 4-10
Development of number of
inhabitants, flats and summer
houses
Donji Stoj
Gornji Stoj
total Stoj area
Ulcinj
municipality
% Stoj area
inhabitants
1991
flats
summer
houses
inhabitants
1981
flats
845
404
1.249
24.217
1.549
44
1.593
8.115
1.309
0
1.309
2.452
995
427
1.422
21.576
122
39
161
3.436
5.1
19.6
53.3
6.6
4.6
1971
inhabitants
flats
542
0
542
821
437
293
730
18.955
101
51
152
3.679
66
3.8
4.1
summer
houses
(Source: Census reports)
According to information from Ulcinj
municipality a group of refugees
temporarily inhabits the camp area (so
called “Chezk camp”) at the end of existing
hotel complex.
4.8.4
Infrastructure
The technical infrastructure is shown on
Map 6.
4.8.4.1
Water Supply
The municipal water utility system of Ulcinj
supplies the urban area of Ulcinj and the
surrounding settlements. 82% of the
households receive their water from the
municipal water supply system which is
supported by 7 springs: Gač (30 l/sec), Mide
(10 l/sec), Salč (3 l/sec), Kaliman (4 l/sec),
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Klezna (15 l/sec), Lisna Bori (200 l/sec) and
Brajša (95 l/sec).. The water abstraction is
done by pumping or gravitation. The
springs differ very much in water quality as
well as in daily and yearly extraction rates
due to their various origins from karst to
alluvial. This results in a complicated
operation of the supply system.
The existing water abstraction rates are
adequate to satisfy the current needs of the
municipality even during summer season.
In some of the karstic springs a rare
admixture of sediments occurs. In all
springs a bacterial pollution is present. The
water of Lisna Bori spring requires
purification.
The water pressure in the pipeline system is
varying especially in the lower zone of the
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45
water supply area i.e. in Velika Plaža, Donji
and Gornji Stoj. The water losses of the
pipeline system are estimated up to 60%.
The water supply system in Ulcinj
municipality needs comprehensive
modernization. A reduction of the water
losses from the pipeline system as well as an
adequate sanitary protection of the springs
is necessary.
4.8.4.2
Wastewater Discharge
The municipality of Ulcinj has mixed
wastewater sewerage. Due to the poor
existing infrastructure and incomplete
sewage system wastewaters are discharged
often directly into the coastal water near
attractive beaches.
The existing sewage system collects the
wastewater from the city area. Up to date
the main gravitational collector drain
reaches up to the pumping station of Pristan
close to Mala Plaža. The primary treatment
facility was built at this location but is
currently not in function because the
underwater outlet (radius 350 mm, length
1,500 m) has not been built, yet. The other
part of the main collector transports the
wastewater to the pumping station near the
mouth of Port Milena channel. This
sewerage system is damaged and waste
water is leaking into the channel.
Information on the exact location of the
wastewater outlet (length approx. 1,100 m)
could not be obtained so far.
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The tourist complexes at Velika Plaža and
Ada Bojana as well as all the settlements in
the hinterland are not connected to the
wastewater sewerage. The wastewater of
that area is disposed in septic tanks with
overflow, which goes directly into drainage
fields, Bratica River, Port Milena or other
rivers and channels.
Six wastewater systems and five underwater
outlets are planned in Ulcinj municipality. In
the region of Velika Plaža it is planned to
build three separate wastewater sewerage
systems, which are briefly described
following.
Wastewater Sewerage System Novi Ulcinj –
Velika Plaža
This sewage system with underwater outlet
is planned for future demands. It will collect
the wastewater of Novi Ulcinj (from the top
of Pazar to Kodra, towards the sea up to
Port Milena) as well as the western part of
Velika Plaža. For details of the planned
system see Table 4-11.
The underwater outlet, the pumping station
and the sewerage system of 5,5 km are
already constructed. The wastewater
collector for the Kodre settlement is not
constructed yet as well as the wastewater
collector for the part Đerane and the tourist
complex “Ulcinjska Rivijera” at Velika
Plaža.
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Wastewater System Velika Plaža- East
The length of Velika Plaža and the distance
of the tourist complexes from the
wastewater system Novi Ulcinj Velika Plaža
make it necessary to plan a new, separate
system for this area. For details of the
planned system see Table 4-11.
No part of this system is constructed yet.
Wastewater System Ada
A wastewater treatment using natural
processes is planned for the area of Ada
Island. The location of the wastewater
system should be defined so that the
discharge of the settlements goes directly
into the wastewater treatment and not into
the aerobic Laguna in the wetland of Ada.
Table 4-11
Planned Wastewater sewerage
system Novi Ulcinj – Velika
Plaža and Velika Plaža – East
Wastewater sewerage
system
Novi Ulcinj – Velika Plaža
total service area
9.96 km²
Wastewater sewerage
system
Velika Plaža- East
25.17 km²
total number of users
18.200
10.700
planned number of inhabitants
4.500
1.600
planned number of tourists
13.700
9.100
maximal amount of wastewater per day
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46
4.770 m³
3.230 m³
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4.8.4.3
Solid Waste Treatment
The solid waste management on the
Montenegrin coast is done by the municipal
solid waste companies, which are
responsible for the collection and deposition
of solid waste. In all six coastal
municipalities the solid waste is treated by
deposition on waste dumps. In each
municipality a site for waste deposition was
made available to these companies without
consideration of environmental pollution or
human health hazards. No air and water
quality monitoring is conducted at these
sites.
At most of the dumps the waste is treated by
open air burning which continuously
produces methane gas by anaerobic
decomposition and other toxic gases. At
none of the waste dump gas formation or
leaching is managed.
There is no separation of waste according to
hazardous level. Industrial and medical
waste is deposited on the same dump like
other solid waste.
The municipality of Ulcinj is using open
waste dumps with open burning. The
ground is not covered except in the zones
where trucks are driving. The discharge of
solid waste from the trucks is visible from
the road Bar - Ulcinj. The waste dump is
located in the vicinity of agricultural land,
settlements and Bratica River.
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The estimated yearly amount of waste in
Ulcinj municipality is about 10.000 t/year.
Due to the number of tourists in peak
season, the average daily amount of solid
waste can increase up to 9 times during
summer and can amount up to 32 t/day.
A great problem represents the wild dump
sites often placed close to main roads or
accessing roads e.g. near Bojana River at the
location “Spatula”. By the composition of
waste it can be concluded that it is deposited
by nearby restaurants.
4.8.4.4
Power Supply
The area of Ulcinj municipality is supplied
by the 110 kV power line Bar - Ulcinj via the
110/35 kV transformer station at Kodre.
This station is the only source of power
supply in Ulcinj for high voltage. It was
designed for a maximum capacity of 3 x
31,5 MVA; the present transformer installed
has a capacity of 20 MVA. Four 35 KV
power lines distribute electricity from the
transformer station.
The area within the General Urban Plan
Ulcinj (which includes Velika Plaža and Ada
Bojana) is supplied from four 35/10 kV
transformation stations. The area of Velika
Plaža is supplied by via the transformation
station "Velika Plaža 1" with the capacity of
2 x 4 MVA, an additional station of the same
capacity is planned.
The present power supply satisfies the
demand . Due to the possibility of
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upgrading the existing TS-a 35/10kV, it can
be concluded that these stations are covering
future electric power needs in the area of
Ulcinj.
4.8.4.5
Telecommunication Network
The quality of the digital telecommunication
systems in Montenegro was raised by
installation of digital centrals in almost all
cities and surrounding settlements during
the last decade. The coastal optic cable that
links all network stations and main
communication stations on the coastline
with the transit centre in Podgorica was put
in function recently. The international
connections to and from Montenegro are
managed by the international centre in
Belgrade and Zagreb since the installation of
the optic cable Herceg Novi-Dubrovnik last
year. An underwater cable Bar-Krf was laid
down recently. This connection will allow
telecommunication connections of greater
capacity to the European centres and the rest
of the world.
The telecommunication in the municipality
of Ulcinj is organized to be a network station
of the Bar group network.
4.9
PROTECTED AREAS
According to the Nature Protection Act
(Official Gazette of SRM 38/68) and the
Nature Protection Law (Official Gazette of
SRM 36/77, 2/82) 19 important beaches in
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Montenegro have the protection status of
"spomenik prirode" (natural monument),
including Velika Plaža beach (app. > 500
ha). This is not including the hinterland.
The references above only indicate the size
of the area, whereas no details are given on
the exact limitation. Considering the length
of the beach (13 km) and the given figure for
the area (500 ha), it can be roughly
calculated that a stretch of approx. 400 m is
protected.
In the Nature protection law addresses that
activities shall not change these natural
features and the purpose (protection) of the
area. No further details with respect to
restrictions are mentioned.
4.10
For the purpose of the study on hand it can
be concluded that the available information
(existing information including the mapping
results) is appropriate.
CONSTRAINTS IN COMPILING
INFORMATION, DATA GAPS
The present Phase 1 Environmental
investigation had partly to rely on existing
available information. The available
topographic maps issued and last updated
in the late 1970s are partly significantly
outdated and do not show the actual
situation. E.g. the sizes of the residential
areas are larger than indicated on the maps.
However, the land use/biotope maps
prepared during the Phase 1 investigations
show the actual differences as mapped in
2002. Aerial photos were not available for
the purpose of the study.
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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5
EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL
POLLUTION
5.1
GENERAL
During the field investigations and site visits
certain existing impairments of nature and
landscape have been reported by local
authorities and NGOs resp. detected by the
Consultant. To a certain degree these
impairments are related to the future
touristic development. Attention and
improvement will however be necessary.
Wastewater discharge is a problem in the
area (also an odour problem). No sewage
water plant exists in Ulcinj. The sewage
pipe, which is crossing Port Milena, is
reportedly cut and sewage is discharged
into the channel where water quality is
impaired. The installation of a sewage
treatment plant for Ulcinj can be seen as a
prerequisite for a touristic development.
Another environmental problem is solid
waste. A waste disposal site exists in the
hinterland of Ulcinj. At the time of the site
visit parts of the landfill were burning and
smoke was an irritation for the vicinity as
well as for the downstream valley.
Uncontrolled dumping of waste can be
observed at many places. This occurs to be a
particular problem in the hinterland of the
beach. The waste is typical household waste
with plastic bags, bottles etc. but also old
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cars most likely containing oil and other
more hazardous kind of waste (partly
containing typical items of clinic waste) can
be found. This situation clearly needs an
improvement.
The area is well known for its bird hunting
activities (also indicated on touristic maps),
which can also have adverse ecological
impacts.
5.2
2.
RELEVANT LEGISLATION
The legal documents that regulate the
parameters and allowed values of
environmental pollution, as well as the
standard methodologies for mandatory
monitoring are the following:
1. Ambient air quality standards and
emission limits to air are regulated
through the Air Protection Law of
1980 and the Air Quality Standards
Regulation of 1982. This regulation
sets limit values for ambient air
concentrations of a number of
noxious gases and hazardous
substances including the heavy
metals lead and cadmium. In a
subsequent regulation (also from
1982) maximum emissions are laid
down for a range of sources e.g.
metal industries, chemical
industries, energy production, waste
treatment and motor vehicles.
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3.
There is a number of regulations on
water resources and waste water
among which are Act on
Classification and Categorization of
Waters of 1997, the Regulation on
quality and discharge of
wastewaters (1997) and Regulation
of quality of potable waters of 1987.
The main parameters of the
Montenegrin classifications
correspond to EU limit values (cf.
Table 5-1). The Montenegrin
classification of bathing water
corresponds to EU Bathing Water
Directive 76/160/EEC (cf. Annex E1). The Montenegrin limit values to
support fish life in fresh water refer
to EU limit values 78/659/EEC (cf.
Annex E-2). The Montenegrin
classification of fresh and potable
water refers to the EU classification
of surface water intented for the
abstraction of drinking water
according to 75/440/EC (cf. Annex
E-3).
The regulation of soil quality with
regard to contents of hazardous
chemical substances is contained in
the Act on Agricultural Land (1992)
and Guidelines for the limiting
amounts of toxic matter in soil and
the methodology for its analysis
(Sluzbeni list RCG 18/97).
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In accordance with the 1996 Environmental
Law and the Ministry of Environment,
competent agencies are contracted to
conduct a yearly monitoring programme.
Over the past years the monitoring
programme was carried out jointly by the
Centre for Ecotoxicological Research from
Podgorica, the Republic
Hydrometeorological Institute and the
Marine Biology Institute. The Centre for
Ecotoxicological Research conducts air
quality monitoring, toxic and chemical
monitoring of soil and water as well as
radioactive monitoring. The Republic
Hydrometeorological Institute carries out
the monitoring of fresh water and seawater.
These monitoring programmes are financed
by the Government of Montenegro. The
Marine Biology Institute conducts the sea
quality monitoring for bathing and
mariculture which is financed by the Coastal
Zone Management Agency.
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Table 5-1
Classification for water assessment
Bathing and Recreational
(according to Article 8, 1997 W ater
I
corresponds to class G of CD
II
corresponds to class I of CD
EC
Surface W ater to Support Fish (according to A rticle 5, 1996 W ater
Categorization
Corresponds to EU classification of surface w aters needing protection or
order support fish
Salmonid
Salmo
W aters which support species such as
salar ), trout (Salmo trutta), grayling T
( hym allus
thymallus) and whitefishCoregonus )
Cyprinid W aters
W aters which support species such as
( Cyprinidae ), pike (Esox lucius), perch (perca fluviatilis)
and eel (A nguilla anguilla)
Potable
(according to Article 3, 1997 W ater
Corresponds to EU classification of surface w ater intented for the
w ater according to
A1
waters that are potable in natural state or after
A2
waters that can be drunk after
A3
waters that can be drunk only after intensive physical,
and biological
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Ambient Air Quality
Monitoring results for the Ulcinj station
The monitoring of air pollution according to
the Air Protection Law is assigned to the
Hydrometeorological Institute and the
Centre for Ecotoxicological Research. At 19
stations the following parameters have been
measured: SO2 , NOx, ozone, smoke, SPM
(suspended particulate matter), contents of
heavy metals in SMP, fluoride, H2 S and
formaldehyde (JU Centre for
Ecotoxicological Research 2001a). In Annex
E-4 the sampling results, Montenegrin and
EU limit values for the pollutants to be
studied at an initial stage according to EU
Directive 96/62/EC are depicted. The
Montenegrin short term values are
comparable to EU values. Montenegrin long
term values do not exist since the
Montenegrin regulation is quite old.
According to the last official Air Quality
Report (2001), the concentrations of sulphur
dioxide, total nitrogenous oxides and smoke
were below the highest permissible
concentrations (HPC) (cf. Annex E-4). The
maximum amounts of ground ozone
exceeded HPC 1.5 times in April and
therefore HPC was exceeded also on a
yearly basis. The air particles, suspended
particles and the concentrations of heavy
metals were below HPC and within the limit
values. The maximum values of PAH were
above HPC, while all measurements of
sulphur compounds, ammonium, and
formaldehydes were considerably below
HPC and limit values (JU Centre for
Ecotoxicological Research. 2001a).
The rain quality station in Ulcinj measuring
the 24 hrs rainfall regime was set up in 1998.
The composition of rainfall shows average
amounts of minerals, while the conductivity
raises and falls. The annual pH
concentration of rain water is decreasing
since the acidity of rainfall has been highest
in the period between 1985 and 1991. The
2001 analysis of rain quality in Ulcinj shows
5% of acid rain occurrence (pH below 5.6).
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5.3
WATER QUALITY
5.3.1
Available Information
The Hydrometeorological Institute (HMI)
and Centre for Ecotoxicological Research are
the authorized institutions monitoring the
quality of water at 13 rivers (37 stations), 3
lakes (10 stations) and 15 coastal stations.
The parameters (total of 27) include pH,
suspended matter, biochemical and
chemical oxygen demand, phosphate,
nitrogen species, various cations and anions,
detergents, phenols and bacteriological
parameters. The HMI and the Marine
Biology Institute conduct the sea water
monitoring for bathing at 55 locations along
the Montenegrin coast.
In the Ulcinj area Bojana River is sampled at
the station Fraskanjel approximately 15 km
north of the mouth of the river. Here also
groundwater quality is monitored.
There are four locations (Ada, Velika Plaža –
middle part, Port Milena and Mala Plaža)
where the Institute for Marine Biology
samples sea water for bathing and
recreation. The chemical and toxic
parameters of sea water are monitored by
the Ecotoxicological Center from Podgorica
at one of the coastal stations (Velika Plaža –
middle part).
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5.3.2
Freshwater Pollution
Bojana River meets the requirements for
bathing waters (Category II) and for
mariculture (Category C) for almost all
parameters except total coliform bacteria
which exceeds these categories. Bojana River
even meets the requirements of A2 class of
potable waters for almost all parameters
except PO4 and total coliform bacteria. These
two parameters satisfy A3 class. The reason
for this is the wastewater discharge of the
illegally built houses along the river and the
neighbouring cities. At the same station the
measurements of radioactivity show
37 mBq/l of total alpha rays, 45 mBq/l of
total beta rays and 1.22 mBq/l of 137Cs which
are acceptable values for freshwater.
5.3.3
Marine Pollution
The three sea water monitoring stations in
the investigation area show the pollution of
the coastal water with wastewater
discharge. The water quality exceeds the II
class of bathing and recreational waters
partly due to amounts of total and coliform
bacteria and fecal streptococi.
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Table 5-2
Results of bathing water
monitoring at three
locations (1996-2002)
Location
1996
1997
Ada
exceeds
II class
exceeds
class
Velika
Plaža
(middle part)
II class
II class
Port Milena
exceeds
II class
exceeds
class
II
II
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002*
II class
II class
exceeds
class
II class
I class
II class
I class
II class
II class
II class
exceeds
II class
II class
II class
II class
II class
II
(Stjepcevic, B., Ivanovic A. 2001)
2002* based on data collected up to middle of
June 2002
The monitoring results also show raised
amounts of ammonia, mineral oil and
phenols. Other analysed parameters such as
nitrates, phosphates, heavy metals, toxic
organic components and others are found in
very small amounts. Other types of
pollution such as industrial pollution is
basically non-existent in the area, based on
the analysis of 36 parameters (F, Cn, PO4,
NO2, Cl, SO4, Ca, Mg, Na, K, As, Cu, B, Zn,
Pb, Cr, Fe, Mn, Cd, Mo, Ni, SiO2, Se, oils,
phenols, PAH, PCBs, THM, pesticides etc.)
(JU Centre for Ecotoxicological Research
2001).
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The closest station for radioactivity
measurement of sea water is located in Bar.
The following measurements were found:
less than 37 mBq/l of total alpha rays,
35.4 mBq/l of total beta rays and 5.55 mBq/l
of 137Cs which are acceptable values for sea
water (JU Centre for Ecotoxicological
Research, 2001).
5.3.4
Groundwater Situation
The only data on groundwater quality in the
Ulcinj area are well data from the location
Fraskanjel. However, this place is located
about 15 km upstream the Bojana River.
Here groundwater satisfies the A1 class of
potable waters.
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5.4
SOILS
Monitoring
The Centre for Ecotoxicological Research is
conducting the monitoring program of soil
pollution at 12 sites in Montenegro
according to the Guidelines for Limiting
Amounts of Toxic Matter in Soil and the
Methodology for its Analysis (Sluzbeni list
RCG 18/97). At each site 5 microlocation
sites are sampled, a composed sample is
made from it and is analysed. For each
sample 40 parameters are analysed and
those exceeding the maximal permissible
concentration (MPC) were reported (JU
Centre for Ecotoxicological Research. 2001b).
In the area of Ulcinj municipality 6 samples
were taken, two from the city dumpsite (s1,
s2), one in the Velika Plaža hinterland 1.5
km from Ulcinj (s3), one near Ada Bojana
150 m from the road (s4), and the last two
near the trafo stations (s5, s6) (JU Centre for
Ecotoxicological Research. 2001b). For the
purpose of this report, the sample s3 and s4
are within the considered area
Soil pollution
The analysed soil samples in the
investigation area (s3 and s4) show that the
levels of Ni and Cr are exceeding MPC. The
concentrations of other heavy metals were
below MPC. The measured concentrations
of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
were below MPC (JU Centre for
Ecotoxicological Research. 2001b).
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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6
POTENTIAL IMPACTS
Impact prediction and evaluation is
fundamental to EIA. The potential impacts
are depending on the project type, details of
the project (e.g. area consumption etc.) and
it’s implementation (duration and details for
construction phase and operation). At the
present stage, screening of potential impacts
and mitigation is undertaken based on the
conceptual project description. In the later
project planning, a comprehensive EIA
(Phase 2 of the Environmental
Investigations) will be undertaken.
Presently at Phase 1, the project is in a
conception stage, i.e. key features are
defined which include tourism
infrastructure including hotel buildings,
internal access roads, other auxiliary and
ancillary facilities, parks and green spaces.
The possibility of the establishment of a golf
course and the construction of a marina is
presently under consideration. The planning
level allows screening the potential impacts.
However, the magnitude of impacts can be
determined and assessed only after planning
details will be known.
The environmental sectors likely to be
affected by the project mainly are:
•
Terrestrial environment (especially flora
and fauna) due to clearing of existing
land and vegetation, which could lead
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to substantial loss. Furthermore, natural
soils will be removed or sealed.
•
Disturbance to Bird Life due to
development into habitat areas in the
undeveloped areas behind the dunes.
Disturbance could also occur through
increased numbers of beach visitors in
the eastern parts of the study area in
nesting and breeding season.
•
Marine environment due to operation of
the facilities (wastewater discharge if
any). The construction of a marina could
affect marine environment as well as
hydraulic conditions if not properly
planned. Furthermore, it could impact
avifauna if marine feeding habitats were
affected.
•
Landscape and visual amenities due to
construction of buildings and facilities.
The significance of the impact on the
terrestrial environment is clearly depending
on the area, which will be selected for the
future development.
It can be well assumed that “normal”
recreational activities (swimming, bathing
etc.) will not impact the marine environment
to any significant extend provided that
appropriate sanitation infrastructure will be
provided.
The project implementation will increase
municipal sewage flows with seasonal
peaks. Also the amounts of municipal waste
FINAL REPORT
54
will increase during high season. Both topics
will need a thorough evaluation and
assessment.
It can be assumed that a touristic
development will have positive socioeconomic impulses. The tourisitic
development in the planned order of
magnitude will affect existing community.
New work places, esp. in the services sector,
will be created as well as during the
construction phase jobs will be created.
Beside the loss of natural habitats the
disturbance (e.g. visual, noise, trampling,
night-time light pollution) during
construction and operation phase has to be
considered. In the operation phase, tourists
may adversely impact sensitive halophyte
vegetation (habitat damage by trampling) or
disturb birds if not properly protected.
The potential impacts can be minimized to a
certain degree if environmental constraints
are considered and appropriate
recommendations are be given in the
following chapter.
As already mentioned in Chapter 5 the
existing environmental pollution caused by
discharge of wastewater and by disposal of
solid waste needs clearly measures to
improve the situation. A wastewater
treatment plant and a proper functioning
landfill are needed to improve the existing
situation as well as it is a prerequisite for an
attractive touristic development. The
situation is well known to all stakeholders.
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7
AREAS SUITABLE FOR FURTHER
PLANNING AND AREAS
RECOMMENDED FOR
PROTECTION
7.1
AREAS SENSITIVE TO DEVELOPMENT
It is one of the objectives of this Phase 1
environmental study to determine sub-areas
suitable for the future development of
tourism infrastructure and related facilities
which are environmentally acceptable. This
on the other hand includes to identify areas
which should be excluded from the future
development due to their environmental
setting.
Map 7 (Ecological Importance) shows the
areas, which constitute high ecological
value. The map was compiled from the
results of the field investigations and the
evaluation of available data. Information on
the occurrence of protected flora (Map 3:
Flora), avifauna and herpetofauna (Map 5:
Fauna) has been considered as these
environmental components are the most
relevant features for the project area
development suitability evaluation.
Four areas, which are assigned a high
importance for birds, have been identified in
the investigation area (cf. Table 7-1). These
areas are located in the eastern part of the
investigation area. West of Bojana river an
important nesting area for protected bird
species can be found. The marine part in
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front of Bojana River mouth is an important
feeding area for migratory birds due to the
fact that it is an important fish spawning
area. Ada Island is an important nesting and
feeding area inter alia for Pygmy Cormorant
and the undeveloped open beach, dunes and
landscapes and temporary
wetlands/marschlands behind the dunes
are important bird habitats.
Close to the investigation area two more
locations are important for birds. West of
Bojana River in Northern direction of the
investigation area an important area for
Pygmy Cormorant can be found. Solana
saltpan is an important nesting area for nine
protected bird species and a well-known
location for bird watching.
Three areas with a high ecological value for
the herpetofauna have been detected. On
both sides of Bojana River, important
reproduction areas for several endemic
species are found. The dunes behind the
beach with the halophyte vegetation provide
important habitats for lizards. East of the
existing hotel complex an important
reproduction area for lizards and newts can
be found.
The most important floristic areas
(Halophyte vegetation and Natural Forest
vegetation) are worth to be protected. It
should be noted that the landscape of sandy
coast with beach ridges and low dunes at
Velika Plaža is quite unique at the Adriatic
Sea due to its size and geomorphologic
FINAL REPORT
55
characteristics, which makes it worth to be
protected.
In the western part the small grove mainly
with the endemic Skadar Oak is located
(Map 4: Biotope Assessment).
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Table 7-1
Ecological sensitive areas and
conservation value
Important areas for
West of Bojana
bird
- important nesting area for
Summarising, it can be concluded that most
of the ecological sensitive areas are located
in the East of the investigation area.
Whereas less sensitive areas, with the
exception of single locations and the Skadar
Oaks; are situated in the West.
Assessment
High
servation
Marine part in front of Bojana River mouth is
feeding area for migratory birds (important fish
area)
High conservation
Ada Island is important nesting and feeding
Pygmy Cormorant and other protectedspecies.
High conservation
7.2
Based on the results from the field
investigations and the compiled information
on sensitive habitats as described in the
previous chapter, recommendations for the
future development are given below.
It is recommended to restrict the future
development to the western part (approx.
distance to Port Milena 7 km resp. 4 km
measured from the boundary of the existing
hotel complex at Odmaralista including a
less intensively used buffer zone in the
East).
The area in the eastern part of the
investigation area with a very high
ecological value and a high conservation
value is recommended for a Potential
Conservation Area (cf. Map 6).
Development should be clearly restricted
and the area should be protected and
impacts and damages be avoided.
A golf course which is also a planning
option could be integrated into the existing
landscape and could act as a buffer zone
between more intensively used recreational
The undeveloped open beach, dunes and
High conservation
temporary wetlands/marschlands behind the dunes
habitats
Important areas for Amphibia/
Both sides of Bojana river are rtant
areas of several endemic
High conservation
Area East of existing hotel complex is
reproduction area for lizards and newts. The Pond
centre is habitat for protected
High conservation
Dunes
halophyte vegetation are habitat for
(also protectable from floristic
High conservation
Important floristic
Coastal stretch with protected halophyte
High conservation
In the Eastern part and on and occurs natural
with Skadar Oak, Alder, Ash, Hornbeam and
High conservation
Small grove in the western part with
High conservation
Natural forests in the western part with Skadar
Poplar, affected by
High conservation
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EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL
SUITABILITY AND RESTRICTIONS
FINAL REPORT
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areas and areas with high ecological value in
the East of the investigation area.
Single locations in the western part with a
high conservation value (cf.Map 7: Biotope
Assessment), such as the Skadar Oak grove,
should be protected and integrated into the
planning as far as feasible, e.g. they could be
developed as visiting points for nature
interested tourists, cutting of single Skadar
Oaks should be avoided as this species is
endemic and total abundance in this region
is limited. In particular large and old
specimen of Skadar Oak should be
conserved.
The natural forest with Skadar Oak, Field
Ash and White Poplar has also a high
conservation value, but at its present state is
already affected by human activities. If
cutting of this natural forest vegetation can
not be avoided, compensation is regarded
feasible.
Furthermore, cutting of single Skadar Oaks
should be avoided as this species is endemic
and total abundance in this region is limited.
The trees, in particular large and old
specimen, should be conserved as far as
possible and protected.
Other smaller single areas with ecological
value16 should be conserved, but if this is
not possible, appropriate compensation
measures will be possible, except for the
pond near the existing hotel complex which
16
is habitat for newts at Odmaralista. It would
be difficult to compensate direct impacts or
loss of the pond, because of its size
ecological quality and natural setting.
Resettlement of the pond flora and fauna
into a compensatory man made biotope is
could be an option, however success is
uncertain.
(attributed “middle” in Map 4)
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8
OPTIONS FOR PROTECTION,
MITIGATION AND
ENHANCEMENT
8.1
PLANNING GUIDE
The further planning in environmental
context should be based on the general
understanding of a planning policy which
aims at:
• Maintaining and enhance biodiversity
and natural landscapes of the area;
•
Minimising pollution of soil, air and
water and the sea;
•
Minimising the consumption of
resources, particularly water and nonrenewable resources; and
•
Increasing tourist's awareness of the
importance of these objectives for
sustainable use of the area for
recreation.
These objectives should serve as a mind set
for all parties involved in the development
process.
Possible protection measures as well as
mitigation measures have been identified,
considering the present level of planning,
and are addressed below.
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The general concept should be to protect the
eastern part of the investigation area, and to
allow an environmental sound development
in the western part of Velika Plaža. The
former requires the establishment of a
protection area, which should have a zoning
enforced, e.g. strictly protected core
conservation zone(s), and less protected
zones with activity user restrictions
(proposed limits are outlined in Map 7). The
latter requires careful planning integration
of the existing ecological sensitive areas and
to protect habitats of important species
(pond with newts, Skadar Oak, halophyte
vegetation).
Any habitat damage by visitor pressure
should be avoided resp. kept at minimum
by establishing respective buffer zones
around sensitive areas and by guidance of
tourists.
The effectiveness of the proposed mitigation
measures should be monitored.
The planned greenspaces between the
development fields should be designed to
preserve the natural vegetation of the
wetlands, dry pastures and woodland to
preserve the present habitat functions for
birds and amphibia and reptiles . In
particular the pond and adjacent wetland
near the existing accomodation facilities at
Odmaralista which is habitat for newts
should be preserved as the setting is of
significant ecological quality.
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58
It is recommended that important habitats
are connected in order to prevent habitat
fragmentation.
Any measures for conservation
compensation, protection or
supervision/management require to be
made conditional for the future delelopers.
8.2
FLORA
8.2.1
Forest Vegetation
The natural forest with Skadar Oak, Field
Ash and White Poplar has also a high
conservation value, but at its present state is
already affected by human activities. If
cutting of this natural forest vegetation can
not be avoided, compensation is regarded
feasible.
Cutting of old tree growth should be
avoided to the maximum extend possible, in
particular Skadar Oak should be preserved.
Compensation planting of old trees should
be established if any of them would be cut
on locations designated for future
constructions. A compensation factor of 3
new trees on 1 cut old tree is proposed; this
is a standard compensation practice figure.
The area of Spatula (in the East) could be an
appropriate area for compensation planting.
The compensation effect can be additionally
improved when a conservation area will be
created including the area of Spatula.
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Other smaller single areas with ecological
value should be preserved, but if this is not
feasible, appropriate compensation
measures will be possible.
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8.2.2
Halophyte Vegetation
For the access areas to the beach it is
recommended to construct boardwalks to
bridge the halophyte vegetation. Wooden
footpaths at 0,5 m above the ground level
are appropriate for that construction.
Boardwalks are protection measures at
sandy beaches to protect vegetation against
destruction by trampling. Examples of these
protection measures can be found at many
European beaches. If properly maintained
they are well accepted, as boardwalks also
facilitate walking in the sandy area. The
boardwalks in the access areas should be
interconnected to provide a footwalk
communication system. The Halophypte
vegetation should be marked as restricted
access area and awareness for beach visitors
should be created through information
boards.
Cleaning and maintenance of the beach shall
be undertaken carefully in order not to
damage halophyte vegetation. Use of
bulldozers and similar “heavy” equipment
should be limited to the beach area without
vegetation at Velika Plaža.
8.3
FAUNA
8.3.1
Birds
The baseline information on birdlife (cf.
Chapter 4.6.3.2) shows that the shoreline,the
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beach, dunes and adjacent wetlands and
grasslands are important bird habitats. In
order to minimise losses and disturbance of
bird habitats and impairment of valuable
habitat functions it is recommended that the
most eastern development module(s) should
be set back from the dunes and not be built
into the temporary flooded zones.
The parts of the Velika Plaža near the Bojana
River, as well as greater part of Ada Island
are worth to be protected due to their
function for protected bird species. In these
areas the vehicle traffic should be restricted,
and tourists, visitors and other pedestrians
should have limited access through guided
paths. This area is suitable for controlled
bird watching activities. The erection of bird
watching towers and appropriate
information panels and other information
material should be provided.
8.3.2
Herpetofauna
It is recommended to maintain and protect
the wetland areas in the Velika Plaža - Ada
Bojana region, especially small ponds and
sand-excavation pits. In the forests and
groves, overgrazing by domestic animals
should be reduced. Some of the existing
ponds are polluted by waste. Cleaning of
these sites is recommended.
If it should not be possible to exclude
important ponds and wetlands from the
development of tourist complexes,
important species (e.g. newt) should be
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60
transferred to nearby existing habitats under
expert control. The creation of new habitats
for loss compensation should be considered
(e.g. sand excavation). Furthermore habitat
improvement by cleaning (i.e. removing of
solid waste) should be considered where
appropriate.
8.4
ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
8.4.1
Landscape
In order to minimize impacts on landscape
and visual environment due to erection of
buildings and facilities it is recommended to
restrict the number of storeys. Planting of
green screens and roadside trees are
appropriate mitigation measure.
8.4.2
Transport and Traffic
The construction phase will require
attention regarding nuisances for the
residential areas along main access roads.
For operation it is expected that increase in
road traffic will lead to additional air
pollution and increase in ambient noise
levels near road sections, which serve as
access to the tourist development area. Also
traffic communication from the
development area to Ulcinj town may
increase and result in traffic congestion. The
development should include attractive
public transport to minimise adverse
impacts.
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These issues will be addressed in the Phase
2 EIA.
8.4.3
Waste Water Treatment and Sea
Water Quality
Presently it is not clear whether the new
tourist resort development will be connected
to a possible future municipal wastewater
treatment plant. For the purpose of this
study it was assumed that the basic
infrastructure installations will be
constructed by the Ulcinj municipality. For
the case that no common effluent treatment
concept will be developed, it is
recommended to construct appropriate
wastewater treatment facilities, which can
effectively treat the effluents from the
tourism complex. Any additional discharge
of untreated sewage water is
environmentally not acceptable and will be
no sound perspective for tourism
development 17. In this context the existing
high transparency of the seawater should be
highlighted as a valuable asset (also
attractive for scuba-diving).
8.4.4
Waste Management
It is recommended to develop a waste
management concept which can be an
effective tool to reduce waste amounts resp.
enhancing the use of more environmental
achieving and maintaining EU "Blue Flag" as
quality label is a valuable location asset
17
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friendly products and encourage recycling
of residues in the tourist as well as in Uljincj
municipality.
8.4.5
Use of Resources
8.4.5.1
Water
In general, drinking water resources should
be responsibly managed. Presently, the pipe
distribution system network in the Uljincj
service area has 60 % losses, this should
clearly be improved.
The tourist development will increase high
water demand in summer peak months. The
project should implement modern water
saving techniques to reduce consumption,
e.g. by rain water collection from roofs and
underground storage, separate grey water
pipes for e.g. toilet flushing etc.
Electricity and Energy
The new development should demonstrate
saving on non-renewable energy by
implementing solar heating (hot water etc.),
photovoltaics etc.
8.4.6
Golf Course
In case the planning pursues to establish a
golf course, it is recommended that this is
sited in already openland areas where no
substantial cutting of forest or woodland
would be necessary. It should be the
planning goal to make the golf couse
function as an buffer zone (cf. Chapter 7.2).
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61
Hence, a location west of the proposed
conservation zone (as outlined in Map 7)
should be considered. Facilities and
buildings required for the golf course
infrastructure should also be located to the
west of the course.
A separate detailed environmental study
including green space concept should be
undertaken.
Excessive use of ground water for watering
the vegetation in the summer months
should be avoided. Rainwater storage tanks
for irrigation of the greens and water saving
trickle irrigation systems should be
considered.
8.4.7
Marina
Status of Planning Consideration
The establishment of a marina for approx.
250 boats is part of the development
planning discussion at the present project
stage. As part of the planning by AS&P the
feasibility of a marina was studied (Prof.
Petrovic & L. Vujosevic, 2002). The
feasibility study investigated 4 different
locations: (1) Ulcinj Old town at Rt Barjak on
the western side of town beach Mala Plaza,
(2) in the mouth of the right (i.e. western)
branch of the Bojana river, (3) in the middle
of Velica Plaza, and (4) at the mouth of Port
Milena channel.
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Results of Feasibility Study and Environmental
Evaluation
A location at Uljinc town would require a
large breakwater structure which would
almost cut off the bay. This would
significantly disturb the scenery of the Mala
Plaza and the face of the Old town and
cause use conflicts with the public beach.
A marina at the Bojana river could
significantly disturb sedimentation
processes at the mouth of the river and
would be subject to high maintenance
efforts for dredging. Also the feasibility
study points out the high conflict potential
of the location with the unique nature
setting and ecological values of the area. A
construction at the river mouth of Bojana
should therefore be avoided for ecological as
well as hydraulic reasons. The unique
ecological importance of the area in
particular for bird life has been described
above. Any major disturbance as a marina
would devaluate the habitat function
drastically and contradict the concept of
establishing a nature protection area.
Hydraulic constraints are caused by the fact
that great amounts of sediments are
transported by the river towards the coast.
The River Bojana feeds the long shore
current sediment transport from the mouth
of river towards Porta Milena. Any
construction within the Bojana mouth could
alter this fragile coastal sediment dynamics
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and feeding of the beach.
The marina location in the on the Velika
Plaza is rejected by the feasilbility study as
this would have detrimental effects to the
beach. A marina on the beach would require
breakwater structure from the beach into the
sea which would interupt the sediment
transport along the coast towards Porta
Milena and cause rapid downstream erosion
of the beach at Velika Plaža.
A marina siting at the mouth of Porta milena
would technical be possible both in the
mouth and at the side of the Rt Djeran
headland. A site in the inlet however would
require dredging of the accumulated
sediments and permanent maintenance
whereas the option to build the marina on
the side of the rocky Rt Djeran would
require a high breakwater structure . The
feasibility study concludes that a marina at
the Rt Djeran would be the preference
location from the choice investigated.
With view on the anticipated impacts of the
different locations, from environmental
perspective no alternative is free of conflicts.
Also a siting at the Rt Djeran would most
likely have unwanted adverse
environmental impacts with regard to
scenery (visual intrusion by high breakwater
structure) and birdlife (disturbance of
colony of the rare Shag on the cliffs).
For the case of persuing the plan of
establishing a marina, clear preference
should be given to a location at the Port
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62
Milena inlet.
A Coastal Area Spatial Plan (CASP) of
Montenegro presently exists as a draft
version and should be consulted for any
marina planning.
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
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9
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
PHASE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL
STUDY
In Phase 2 of the environmental study, a
detailed EIA will be prepared for a sub-area
based on the planning details to be provided
by the technical planner. The area presently
envisaged by the technical planner is located
in the western part of the investigation area
and by this fits with the general
recommendations given above.
The study will focus on the actual area
selected for development. Beside
identification of impacts and losses resulting
from the development also impacts from
construction phase will be investigated.
In Phase 2 the environmental components
will be investigated in more detail. It is
intended to add insects on the investigation
list in the Fauna section. It will be checked
whether this is applicable for bats as well.
The location of tall and old trees or groups
of trees, will be mapped. The actual status of
the halophyte vegetation including existing
impairments will be investigated. Both
results will provide planning guide for
placements of buildings and structures,
roads etc.
Also groundwater and drainage conditions
in the detailed area will be investigated in
more detail.
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10
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bentoskim biocenozama Južnog Jadrana.
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in the Montenegrin costal sea. Studia Marina
(in print).
Regner, D., Vuksanović, N., Stjepčević, B., i
Dutina, M. (2001): Ekološka istraživanja
priobalnog mora Crnogorskog primorja kroz
ljeto 2000. Zaštita Voda 2001.
Regner, S., Joksimović, A. (2002): Estimate of
demersal biomass of the Montenegrin shelf
(South Adriatic). Studia Marina 2002 (in
print).
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PHASEIREPORT_QUER
Sokač, A. (1975): Mikrofauna sedimenta
morskog dna iz Crnogorskog primorja.
Studia Marina 8.
Stjepčević, B., Ivanović, A. (2001): Neki
pokazatelji zagađenja priobalnog mora u
opštini Ulcinj. Zaštita Voda 2001
RIVER FLORA AND FAUNA
Dhora, D., Bequiraj, S (2001): Report on
Biodiversity of River Buna. Publication of
the project “Restoration of regional
fauna/forming role of transbaundery river
Buna. Compiled nad Published by
Association for Protection of Aquatic
Wildlife of Albania and Ecological
Association “Kalimera”, Montenegro.
Financed by REC, Hungary.
Shoqata, M. (2002): Buna Bojana; Tirana
Tekke, R.M.H. (1996): Management of
Coastal Lagoons in Albania EUCC, Leiden,
NL.
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
Djurovic, and Djurdjic (eds) (1999): Zastita i
Unapredjenje Zivotne sredine.
(Environmental Protection and
Improvement). Basic study CO3 for the
Coastal Zone Spatial Plan. RZUP,
Podogorica and MonteCEP, Kotor.
Coastal Zone Managanemt Agency (2001):
Annual Report. Unpublished document
Hydrometeorological Institute. 2001. Annual
Report of Wate Quality Monitoring in
Montenegro. Unpublished document
FINAL REPORT
66
Institute for Marine Biolgy (2001-2002):
Reports on bathing water analysis in
Montnengro. Unpublished documents
JU Center for Ecotoxicological Research
(2001): Annual Report of Water Quality
Monitoring in Montenegro. Unpublished
document.
JU Center for Ecotoxicological Research
(2001a): Annual Report of Air Quality
Monitoring in Montenegro. Unpublished
document.
JU Center for Ecotoxicological Research
(2001b): Annual Report of Soil Quality
Monitoring in Montenegro. Unpublished
document.
Stjepcevic, B., Ivanovic A. (2001): Some
characteristics of the coastal water pollution
of the Bay of Ulcinj. "Water pollution
control 2001" Conference Proceedings. The
30th Annual conference of Yugoslav Water
Pollution Control Society
HUMAN ENVIRONMENT AND
INFRASTRUCTURE
Karajovic, S. (eds) (1999): Stvorene
vrijednosti (Menmade resources). Basic
study CO2 for the Coastal Area Spatial Plan.
RZUP, Podgorica and MonteCEP, Kotor.
2001. Prostorni plan podrucja posebne
namjene za Morsko dobro – nacrt plana
(Coastal area spatial plan – draft version).
RZUP, Podgorica and MonteCEP, Kotor.
Feasibilty Study Dealing with Establishing a
Marina in Ulcinj; Prof. Dr. Sava Petkovic &
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Ljubomir Vujosevic, 2000. Study
commissioned by AS&P
P1452, DEG
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FINAL REPORT
67
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT'L, AUGUST 2002
Annex
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ANNEX
B-68
Phase 1, IEE
ERM Lahmeyer Int.'l, August 2002
Annex
A: Maps
B: Photo Documentation
C: Environmental Policy
D: Sampling Locations and Species Lists Marine Fauna and Flora
E: Montenegrin and EU Limit Values for Water and Ambient Air Quality
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ANNEX
B-69
Phase 1, IEE
ERM Lahmeyer Int.'l, August 2002
A: Maps
Map 1:
Seismic Units
Map 2:
Soils
Map 3:
Flora
Map 4:
Biotope Assessment
Map 5:
Fauna
Map 6:
Technical Infrastructure
Land Property
Present Landuse
Map 7:
Ecological Importance
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ANNEX
B-70
Phase 1, IEE
ERM Lahmeyer Int.'l, August 2002
B: Photo Documentation
Photo 1
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Sandy Beach at Velika Plaza
Photo 2
ANNEX
B-1
Touristic infrastructure on Ada island at the Bojana River
mouth
PHASE 1, IEE
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Photo 3
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Bojana River with house boats (close to the river mouth)
Photo 4
ANNEX
B-2
Bojana River mouth with reed vegetation
PHASE 1, IEE
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Photo 5
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Wetlands with reed vegetation
Photo 6
ANNEX
B-3
Bojana River
PHASE 1, IEE
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Photo 7
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Aerial view over project area from West to East – Port Milena in
foreground leading to the saltpans (left background) – Close to the
beach on the right side the existing hotel complex is located
ANNEX
B-4
PHASE 1, IEE
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Photo 8
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Pond near Stoj
ANNEX
B-5
PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT.'L, AUGUST 2002
C: Environmental Policy
LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN
THE REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO
The government of Montenegro promoted
a development that is based on
environmental principles and declared to
become an environmentally conscious state.
This Declaration of the Parliament from
September 21, 1991 was later incorporated
into the Constitution of Montenegro.
The general framework for environmental
protection in Montenegro is given in the
Law on Environment that was adopted in
1996. Based on this Law, numerous legal
acts have been adopted and are still being
made concerning particular aspects of
environmental protection and regulation.
The first two articles represent the
Declaration from 1991 stating that
Montenegro will adapt its economic and
social development to environmental
protection principles, and based on that, the
Republic of Montenegro “takes the name
Montenegro - The Ecological State” as its
identity (Sluzbeni List RCG 12, 19921).
The basic principles of environmental
protection are stated in article 7 and they
are: protection of natural values, protection
of biodiversity, risk minimization,
environmental impact assessment,
alternative solutions, substitution of
chemicals, reuse and recycling, polluter
pays, user pays, obligatory insurance, and
public access to data. The Montenegrin
Environmental Law (Sluzbeni List, 12,
1996) specifies one program for the
protection of environment (Ecological
program- NEAP). This is a long-term
program for development of the ecological
state of Montenegro through which the
total social and economic development is
directed toward the goals and principles of
environmental protection. A special note in
Montenegrin Environmental Law has been
given to the areas of protection of natural
heritage, standards, environmental impact
assessment, state of the environment
monitoring and stimulation measures.
Article 16 deals with environmental
protection standards and states that the
“republic takes the obligation to enforce
environmental standards and principles
that, where possible, are higher than
international environmental standards”.
Based on the principles and measures of the
Environmental Law, numerous legal acts
are adopted that further implement the
environmental policy into a specific
segment or media. This is the starting point
from where the sectoral form of
environmental protection can be observed.
The execution of the laws concerning the
environmental protection is done through
numerous institutions, which apply the
environmental laws in the sectors of their
jurisdiction.
Many legal acts have not been changed and
some old acts are still in force. Such acts
are: the Regulation on Control of Utilisation
and Trade of Wild Plants and Animal
Species, the Criteria for Categorisation of
Protected Objects of Nature, the Regulation
on Economic Instruments in the
Environment, the Waste Management
Regulation and others.
1
Sluzbeni list SFRJ / SRJ / RCG means: Official Gazette of
SFRY / FRY / RMN
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ANNEX
C-1
PHASE 1, IEE
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The Law on Water (Sluzbeni List RCG 16,
1995) define that water resources are
natural resources for general consumption
and that consumption should be in a
rational way in order to conserve it. Article
3 of this law states that water resources are
of public interest, therefore everyone has to
preserve and protect them. The jurisdiction
over water resources according to this Law
is that of the Ministry of Agriculture,
Forestry and Water Resources, along with
the Ministry of Health and Ministry of
Environmental Protection.
Based on this Law, numerous legal
documents were adopted among which are:
the Water Classification and
Categorisation Act (Sluzbeni List RCG 14,
1996), which regulates classification and
categorisation of all surface waters,
groundwaters and waters of the
Montenegrin territorial sea (article 1); the
Regulation for the quality of waste waters
that are discharged into a natural area
(Sluzbeni List RCG 10, 1997); Program for
the systematic control of water Quality in
Springs and Public Beaches (Sluzbeni List
22, 1996); and Regulations for the
measuring and monitoring of bathing and
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recreational sea water quality (Sluzbeni
List SRCG 9, 1991).
there is a possibility of environmental
hazard or damage (article 61).
The Physical Planning Law (Sluzbeni List
RCG 16, 1995) defines the models for
regional and urban planning, procedures of
their co-ordination, the authorities in terms
of enactment of plans and their realisation.
Physical plans prescribe the basis for spatial
organisation of the territory. This Law
prescribes the obligations for revision and
review by experts for all plans, while the
public discussion of an assembly of
competent citizens, which is obligatory and
prescribed by this Law as well, plays a role
in the adoption of the plan suggested. In
terms of environmental protection, article 7
of this law states that every physical plan
needs to incorporate measures and
guidelines for the environmental protection
or, where applicable measures for the
environmental restoration. Article 26 states
that before the changes for the regional
plan of Montenegro are given for the
adoption by Parliament, those changes
must be given to, among others, the
Ministry of Environment for the expert
opinion and amendment. The Ministry of
Environment also has the jurisdiction over
granting permissions for construction when
The Law on Protection of Nature (Sluzbeni
List SRCG 78, 89) regulates the protection
of nature and the areas of special natural
value. According to this law, the Republic
Institute for the Protection of Nature
implements the regulations that come from
this Law and grants the status of protected
area to certain objects of nature. This Law
also prescribes activities regarding the
natural protection. By adoption of the Law
on Environmental Protection in 1996 and
the National Parks Law (Sluzbeni List RCG
22, 1991), and taking over some areas
regulated by the Law on Protection of
Nature, this Law was basically put out of
function. National Parks Law defines the
boundaries of resources in national parks as
well as it is providing a basis for public
enterprises to regulate and protect the 4
national parks in Montenegro.
ANNEX
C-2
According to the FR Yugoslavian
Constitution (article 77., item 8), jurisdiction
with regards to the production, trade and
transport of harmful substances is vested in
the federal state while the Ministry of
Environmental protection of Montenegro
PHASE 1, IEE
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has the jurisdiction over production from
harmful and hazardous substances in terms
of their production, trade and disposal. In
Montenegro, there is the Law on the
Production and Trade of Poisons (Sluzbeni
List RCG 31, 77).
The Law on International Waters and
Maritime Navigation (Sluzbeni List SRCG
19, 78) regulates navigation in the territorial
sea and internal waterways of Yugoslavia
that are under the jurisdiction of Republic
of Montenegro. The Federal Law on the
International Maritime Transportation
(Sluzbeni List SRJ 34, 1992) regulates this
area as provided by the Constitution.
However, these Laws are not concerned
with the protection of marine environment.
Yugoslavia has ratified the Convention on
the protection of Mediterranean from the
pollution and all its protocols (Sluzbeni
List SFRJ 12, 77, 1, 86), the obligations that
come from of these international
agreements are not fully incorporated in
either federal nor the republics' legal
frameworks.
The Law on Marine Fisheries (Sluzbeni
List RCG 26, 1992) regulates the fishing in
the territorial sea and internal waters of
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Montenegro. This Law states that fishing is
allowed in the part of the territorial waters
and the epicontinental area of Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia that is within the
borders of Republic of Montenegro. It is a
curiosity of this Law (article 23), that
dolphins are considered to be pests in terms
of fishing, and furthermore article 37 that
deals with the protection states that “fish
and other marine animals, except pests, and
marine flora are protected from carnage
and over exploitation”. The draft version of
the new Law on fisheries is in the
Parliament procedure for adoption. The
new fisheries Law gives more attention to
the environmental protection.
Coastal Zone Law (Sluzbeni List RCG 14,
1992) has been adopted to manage and
protect the marine and coastal resources
which are defined as “public goods”. The
second article of this law defines the marine
resources as the coastal zone (including
ports), the geomorphologic elements of the
coast, estuaries, channels, sea bottom,
internal waters, territorial sea and all live
and non-living resources of the epicontinental belt. As stated in article 4, the
marine resources are owned by the state
and it has public access unless the law
ANNEX
C-3
states otherwise. Finally, in article 5, it is
stated that a public enterprise (government
agency) will conduct the management of
the marine resources and that the Republic
of Montenegro will bring a special decision
about setting up of this enterprise. On the
basis of this Law the Public Enterprise for
the Management of Coastal and Marine
Resources was set up under the Ministry of
Maritime Affairs and Transport to
implement this law.
THE INSTITUTIONAL ORGANISATION
IN THE REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO
The governmental authorities that deal
with environmental protection can be
divided into four levels based on the levels
of authority in the areas of their
jurisdiction. They are:
government
administration, government institutions,
public enterprises and scientific institutions
and other organisations.
GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION
Republic Ministries are governmental
agencies of the highest level of authority in
Montenegro. The environmental policy that
those Ministries enforce in the areas of their
PHASE 1, IEE
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jurisdiction is sectoral and considers only
environmental aspects related to that
specific sector.
The Ministry of Environmental Protection
and Urban Development has the
jurisdiction in the area of general policy of
environmental protection and also drafting
and implementation of planning
documents, granting permits for
construction, and utilisation of construction
sites and solid waste management.
The main activities of the Department of
Environmental Protection is the drafting
and passing laws and other legal
documents, administrative supervision of
subordinate institutions and public
enterprises, conducting inspection
performance, providing funds for
developmental scientific projects as well as
the planning and co-coordinating the
international co-operation in the area of
environmental protection.
Departments for Planning in their activities
are also related to environmental protection
and is focused on the drafting and
implementation of planning documents,
granting permits for construction, and
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utilisation of construction sites and solid
waste management. It was introduced the
obligatory implementation of
environmental impact assessment into all
procedures of construction planning that
they are responsible for administering.
Jurisdiction of The Ministry of
Agriculture, Forestry and Water Resources
in the area of implementation of
environmental laws conflicts and duplicates
the work of the Ministry of Environmental
Protection, primarily in the terms of the
implementation of mechanisms for the
management of protected areas of nature
(forest management, fishing and hunting),
and protection of water and soil from
pollution.
In the context of environmental protection
the jurisdiction of The Ministry of
Industry, Energetic and Mining is in the
areas of exploitation of mineral resources as
well as in the selection of facilities and raw
material for production of electrical power.
Plans for the exploration and exploitation
of mineral resources, which are made by
this Ministry, should contain an
environmental protection component
ANNEX
C-4
The Ministry of Health has the jurisdiction
concerning environmental protection in the
areas of quality of food, drinking water and
other consumer goods and furthermore, the
protection from noise and vibrations, and
from ionising radiation that come from
medical sources. Although the areas of
environmental protection of this Ministry
overlaps the similar areas in the jurisdiction
of the Ministry of Environmental
Protection, the Ministry of Health has the
effectiveness only in the part of the
detrimental activities that have direct effect
on humans.
Some other ministries have minor
jurisdiction in the environmental protection
in Montenegro. For example, The Ministry
of Internal Affairs deal with the protection
of fire and explosives, control of transport
and the trade of volatile liquids and gas.
The Ministry of Work and Social Welfare
deals with protection at work. The
Ministry of Maritime Affairs and
Transport deal with the safety of marine
routes and land roads as well as marine
resources, while The Ministry of Tourism
and The Secretariat for Information deal
with ecological and tourism promotion and
rising of public awareness
PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT.'L, AUGUST 2002
GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS
The Government of Montenegro appoints
institutions that deal with a specific area
that are of the special importance to
Montenegro. The jurisdiction of these
institutions is regulated by the Resolution
about the governmental institutions in the
areas of cultural heritage with special
interests for Montenegro (Sluzbeni List 29,
1991). The following are governmental
institutions that fully or partially deal with
the environmental protection in
Montenegro.
The Institute for the Protection of Nature
performs activities in the areas of keeping
inventories of protected natural features,
research focused on the protection of
natural heritage, and drawing up further
research projects.
The Republic Institute for Hydrology and
Meteorology performs a wide range of
operations prescribed by law, which are
related to monitoring of environmental
parameters in water, precipitation, air and
soil, and well as the keeping the register of
water and air pollutants, and monitoring of
climate changes.
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PUBLIC ENTERPRISES
Public Enterprises are formed by the
Governmental Authorities to manage areas
of special interests for Montenegro. Public
Enterprises that have an environmental
protection component as a part of their
activities are:
•
Public enterprise for National
Parks, which manages, and coordinates individual organisations
for National Parks that are their
functional units. This enterprise is
self-financed and supported from
state grants designated for the
protection services.
•
Public Enterprise for Marine
Resources Management (Coastal
Zone Management Agency) which
is formed to manage coastal and
marine resources and performs
operations for its protection and
use. This Public Enterprise is under
the Ministry of Maritime affairs and
Transportation and it is selffinancing.
ANNEX
C-5
SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS AND NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS
Scientific Institutions work together as a
part of the University of Montenegro
network, and those that deal with the
environmental protection are the Faculty
for Natural and Mathematical Sciences, the
Department of Biology; the Institute for
Marine Biology, the Agricultural Institute,
the Montenegrin Academy of Arts and
Sciences and the Faculty of Physics Laboratory of Radiology. All of these
institutions have on going projects in the
areas of environmental protection, they also
co-operates with other governmental
organisations, and are funded by the
Ministry for Science and Education.
There are over thirty registered nongovernmental organisations that work fully
or partially in the area of environmental
protection. Although the Environmental
Protection Law of Montenegro supports
forming of such organisations, the activities
of non-governmental organisations is not as
effective due to the poor organisation and
lack of financial support. The government
occasionally provides certain funds for their
work.
PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT.'L, AUGUST 2002
D: Sampling Locations and Species Lists Marine Fauna and Flora
Table 1:
Polychaeta Species List
Figure 1:
Sampling Locations of Echinodermates
Table 2:
Echinodermate Species List
Table 3:
Cephalopoda Species List
Figure 2:
Sampling Area of Ichtiobenthic Fish
Table 4:
Ichtiobenthic Species List
Table 1
Polychaeta Species List
Scientific name
Common Name
Aphrodita aculeate
Sea-mous
Present at
Location
2
4
*
Euchone rubrocincta
*
Euclymene palermitana
*
Glicera tesselata
*
Glycinde nordmani
*
Harmothoe spinifera
*
Leanira yhleni
*
Maldane glebifex
*
Notomastus profundus
*
Paraonis lyra
*
Prionospio malmgreni
*
Protula tubularia
*
Banded feather duster
Scalibregma inflatum
Present at
Location
4
Exogone verrugera
*
Langerhansia cornuta
*
Laeneris glauca
*
Goniada maculata
*
Tharyx multibranchis
*
Amphiglena mediterranea
*
Euratella salmacidis
*
*
*
Serpula vermicularis
Red tube worm
Sthenelais boa
Burrowing scale worm
*
*
Eupantalis kinbergi
*
Genetyllis rubiginosa
*
Autolytus prolifera
*
Brania clavata
*
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Common Name
2
*
Brada villosa
Sabella crassicornis
Scientific name
ANNEX
D-1
PHASE 1, IEE
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Figure 1
P1452, DEG
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Sampling Locations of Echinodermates (Milojević, 1986)
ANNEX
D-2
PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT.'L, AUGUST 2002
Table 2
Echinodermate Species List (Milojević, 1986)
Scientific Name
Common Name
1
Astropecten irregularis
pentacanthus D. Ch.
Present at Location
2
3
4
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Astropecten bispinosus Otto
*
*
Astropecten platyacanthus Phil.
*
*
*
*
Astropecten spinulosus Phil.
*
*
Astropecten aranciacus L.
Luidia ciliaris Phil.
Red comb-star
Seven-armed starfish
*
*
Luidia sarsi Dub. Cor.
*
Chaetaster longipes Retz
*
Sphaeriodiscus piacenta Mull.
Troch.
P1452, DEG
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5
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Anseropoda placenta Penn.
Goose-foot star
*
*
*
*
*
Echinaster sepositus Retz.
Red starfish
*
*
*
*
*
Marthasterias glacialis L.
Spiny-starfish
*
*
*
*
*
ANNEX
D-3
PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT.'L, AUGUST 2002
Table 3
Cephalopoda Species List (Mandić, 1984)
Scientific Name
Common Name
Present at Localition
1
2
3
4
Loligo vulgaris L.
Long-finned squid
*
*
*
*
Alloteuthis media L.
Short-finned squid
*
*
*
*
Sepia officinalis L.
Common cuttlefish
*
*
*
*
Sepia elegans Orbigny
Little cuttlefish
*
*
*
*
*
Sepia orbgnyana Ferussac
Sepiola rondeleti Steenstrup
Little cuttle
*
*
*
*
Eledone moschata Lamk.
Musky octopus
*
*
*
*
Eledone cirrosa Lamk.
Curled octopus
*
*
*
Octopus vulgaris Lamk.
Common octopus
*
*
Sepietta oweniana Orbigny
Illex coindetii Verany
P1452, DEG
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*
*
Flying squid
ANNEX
D-4
*
*
PHASE 1, IEE
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Figure 2
P1452, DEG
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Sampling Area for Ichtiobenthic Fish
ANNEX
D-5
PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT.'L, AUGUST 2002
Table 4
Ichtiobenthic Species List (Jovanović & Stjepčević, 1982)
Scientific Name
Common Name
Argentinia sphyraena L.
Argentine
Boops boops L.
Bogue
Eucitharus linguatula Gill
Spotted flounder
Gobius quadrimaculatus C.V.
Four-blotted goby
Smaris vulgaris B.P.
P1452, DEG
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Merluccius merluccius L
Hake
Mullus barbatus L
Red mullet
Mustelus vulgaris M. Hle.
Stellate smooth-hound
Myliobatis aquila Dum.
Eagle ray
Pagellus erythrinus C.V.
Pandora
Phycis blennioides Brunn
Greater fork-beard
Raja asterias Delar.
Starry ray
Raja circularis Couch.
Eagle ray
Sardina pilchardus Risso.
Pilchard
Sardinella aurita Val
Gilt sardine
Sargus annularis Geoffr.
Sargus annularis Geoffr.
Scorpaena ustulata Lowe
Annular bream
Annular bream
Small red scorpion-fish
Sczliorhinus canicula L.
Dogfish
Paracentropristishepatus Klunz.
Brown comber
Solea vulgaris Quensel
Common sole
Sparus auratus L.
Gilt-head bream
ANNEX
D-6
PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT.'L, AUGUST 2002
Scientific Name
Common Name
Torpedo marmorata Risso
Morbled electric ray
Trachurus trachurus L
Horse mackerel
Lepidotrigla aspera Gthr.
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Trigla lzra L.
Piper
Trigla obscura L. Bl.
Shining gurnard
Uranoscopus scaber L.
Stargazer
ANNEX
D-7
PHASE 1, IEE
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E: Montenegrin and EU Limit Values for Water and Ambient Air Quality
Annex E-1: Limit Values of Bathing and Recreational Waters (according to Article 8, 1997 Water Act, Montenegro)
I Class
Parameter
Total Coliform Bacteria
Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Fecal Streptococi
Salmonela
in 100 ml
Enterovirus
PH
PFU/ 10 l
Color
Mineral Oils
Surface Active Matter
Phenols
Transparency
Oxygen
Floating Matter
NH4
P1452, DEG
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Unit
in 100 ml
in 100 ml
II Class
Corresponds to I
Corresponds to G
Class of EU Bathing
Class of EU Bathing
Water Directive
Water Directive
76/160/EEC
76/160/EEC
500
10,000
100
2,000
mg/l
mg/l LAS
µg/l
M
100
100
0
0
0
7-9
0
6-9
natural color
0
natural color
0,3
0
5
0,3
50
2
1
%O2
80-120
80-120
mg/l
no floating matter
0,04
no floating matter
0,2
ANNEX
E-1
PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT.'L, AUGUST 2002
Annex E-2: Montenegrin and EU Limit Values of Protection of Fresh Water in Order to Support Fish Life
Montenegrin Protection
of Fish Life according to
Protection of Fresh Water
Article 5, 1996 Water
in Order to Support Fish
Classification and
Life 78/659/EEC*
Categorization Act
Montenegro
Parameter
Temperature
Unit
°C
PH
Salmonid
Waters
Cyprinid
Waters
Salmonid
Cyprinid
Waters
Waters
Difference to Difference to
Difference to Difference to not affected not affected
not affected not affected water < 1.5; water < 3.0;
water < 1.5 water < 3.0
In general
In general
< 28
< 21.5
6.8-8.5
6.5-9
6-9
6-9
10
0.001
0.02
20
0.03
0.05
25
0.01
0.04
25
0.03
0.04
Cu
mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
Zn
mg/l
0.3
1
0.3
1
P
mg/l
0.08
0.15
0.2
0.4
Phenols
mg/l
Suspended Matter
NO2
O2
BOD5
mg/l
NH4
mg/l
µg/l
Residual Cl
0.002
0.002
2
2
50%>8 mg/l
50%>9 mg/l 50%>8 mg/l
50%>9 mg/l
50%>7 mg/l
100%>7 mg/l 100%>5 mg/l
3
5
3
6
0.04
5
1
5
0.04/1
5
0.2/1
5
* Single values are Guide values. Two given values correspond to Guide/Imperative value.
P1452, DEG
PHASEIREPORT.DOC
ANNEX
E-2
PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT.'L, AUGUST 2002
Annex E-3: Montenegrin and EU Limit Values for Surface Water
Classification according to
Article 3, 1997 Water Act
Montenegro
Parameter
PH
A1
6.8-8.5
A2
6.5-9
A3
5.5-9
A1
6.5-8.5
A2
5.5-9
5
10
20
10
50
10
20
50
25
400
20
600
25
1000
50
1000
25
1000
50 (I)
1000
50 (I)
mg/l
NO2
mg/l
Fluorides
Dissolved Fe mg/l
mg/l
Mn
0.03
1
0.1
0.1
1.5
0.3
0.2
1.7
1
0.7-1/1.5
0.1/0.3
0.7-1.7
1/2
0.7-1.7
1
0.05
0.1
1
0.05
0.1
1
Cu
Zn
mg/l
mg/l
0.02
0.3
0.05
1
1
5
0.02
0.5/3
0.05
1/5
1
1/5
B
mg/l
1
1
1
1
1
1
As
Cd
mg/l
µg/l
0.01
1
0.05
5
0.05
5
0.01/0.05
1/5
0.05 (I)
1/5
0.05/0.1
1/5
Cr
Pb
Se
mg/l
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05 (I)
0.05 (I)
0.05 (I)
mg/l
mg/l
0.02
0.01
0.05
0.01
0.05
0.01
0.05 (I)
0.01 (I)
0.05 (I)
0.01 (I)
0.05 (I)
0.01 (I)
Hg
µg/l
0.5
0.5
1
0.5/1
0.5/1
0.5/1
Ba
Cn
SO4
mg/l
0.1
0.7
1
0.1 (I)
1 (I)
1 (I)
mg/l
mg/l
0.005
50
0.005
150
0.005
250
0.05 (I)
150/250
0.05 (I)
150/250
0.05 (I)
150/250
Color
Suspended
Matter
unit
mg/L
PT scale
mg/l
S/cm at
Conductivity 20 °C
mg/l
NO3
P1452, DEG
PHASEIREPORT.DOC
EU Classification of Surface
Water Intented for the
Abstraction of Drinking Water
according to 75/440/EC *
A3
5.5-9
Cl
P
mg/l
20
40
200
200
200
200
mg/l
Phenols
µg/l
0.08
1
0.15
5
0.15
10
0.04**
1 (I)
0.7
1/5
0.7
10/100
ANNEX
E-3
PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT.'L, AUGUST 2002
Dissolved
HC
mg/l
0.01
0.05
0.5
0.05 (I)
0.2 (I)
0.5/1
PAH
O2
µg/l
%O2
0.2
>80
0.2
>70
1
>50
0.2 (I)
>70
0.2 (I)
>50
1 (I)
>30
BOD5
NH4
Total
Coliforms
Fecal
coliforms
Fecal
Streptococi
mg/l
mg/l
in 100
ml
in 100
ml
in 100
ml
<3
0.05
<5
0.5
<7
1
<3
0.05
<5
1/1.5
<7
2
50
5,000
50,000
50
5,000
50,000
20
2,000
20,000
20
2,000
20,000
20
1,000
10,000
20
1,000
10,000
* Single values are Guide values. If only Imperative values are given they are marked with following (I). Two given values
correspond to Guide/Imperative value.
** Values are given for P2O5.
P1452, DEG
PHASEIREPORT.DOC
ANNEX
E-4
PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT.'L, AUGUST 2002
Annex E-4: Sampling Results and Montenegrin and EU values for ambient air quality
Parameter
Highest Permissible
EU Directive
Concentration (HPC)
1999/30/EG
according to Sl. List RCG 4/82 [µg/m³] (sampling
Sampling Result
[µg/m³] (sampling time)
time)
sulphur dioxide
Below HPC
110 (24 h)
125 (24 h)
20 ( 1 year)
nitrogen
dioxide
Below HPC
80 (0.5 h)
200 (1 h)
40 (1 year)
smoke
Below HPC
60 (24 h) 1)
50 (24 h)
40 (1 year) 2)
suspended
particles
Below HPC
110 (24 h) 3)
4)
Pb in
suspended
particles
Below HPC
2 (24 h)
0.5 (1 year)
(total lead)
ozone
1.5 times above
HPC (April)
125 (24 h)
120 (8 h) 5)
1)
Fine particulate matter such as soot incl. particles < 5 µm
Fine particulate matter such as soot incl. particles < 10 µm
3) Dust deposition incl. particles > 10 µm
4) No deposition values are determined in the EU. Particles > 10 µm are not relevant for human health, therefore no EU limit values are expected to be
determined in the near future.
5) According to EU Directive 2002/3/EG
2)
P1452, DEG
PHASEIREPORT.DOC
ANNEX
E-5
PHASE 1, IEE
ERM LAHMEYER INT.'L, AUGUST 2002