Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue: The Route to Standardisation

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Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue: The Route to Standardisation
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue:
The Route to Standardisation
Peter Hähner
JRC Institute for Energy, European Commission, Petten, The Netherlands
Ernst Affeldt, MTU Aero Engines, München (D)
Henrik Andersson, KIMAB, Stockholm (S)
Tilmann Beck, University of Karlsruhe (D)
Valerio Bicego, CESI, Milan (I)
Hellmuth Klingelhöffer, BAM, Berlin (D)
Alain Köster, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris (F)
Malcolm Loveday, NPL, Teddington (UK)
Massimo Marchionni, CNR-IENI, Milan (I)
Catherine Rae, University of Cambridge (UK)
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Scope of this workshop:
• dissemination of results of European TMF-Standard project
• promotion of strain-controlled TMF as close-to-service test
• exchange of scientific results relating to TMF applications
Outline of this presentation:
• Introduction
• Review of TMF-Standard project
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue (TMF):
Design & residual life analysis of safety critical components
exposed simultaneously to thermal & mechanical loads
(gas turbines, aero engines, automotive & process industries):
Internal thermal constraints of representative volume element
simulated by uniform temperature and mechanical strain fields
imposed on laboratory specimen with uniform gauge section
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
TMF cycles with dwell:
F(x) = F(x + 2S) ,
x
o
out-of-phase: I =180
RH = 1
RH = Hm,min/Hm,max
time
temperature [arb. units]
time
Hm = Hm,0 + GH F(Zt M)
mech. strain
mech. strain
o
in-phase: I =0
RH = 1
temperature [arb. units]
T = T0 + GT F(Zt)
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Triangular TWF waveforms:
0, RH = 0
850
0.8
750
M
650
0.4
550
0.2
450
0.0
0
50
100
Time [sec]
150
350
200
950
0.0
-0.1
Mechanical Strain [%]
0.6
180o, RH = f
850
-0.2
750
-0.3
o
1.0
Temperature [ C]
950
o
1.2
Temperature [ C]
Mechanical Strain [%]
M
RH = Hm,min/Hm,max
-0.4
650
-0.5
550
-0.6
450
-0.7
-0.8
0
50
100
Time [sec]
150
350
200
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Hysteresis loops:
800
400°C
Out-of-phase
600
400
Stress MPa
900°C
In-phase
200
650°C
0
-0,4 -0,3 -0,2 -0,1 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4
-200 650°C
900°C
-400
-600
OP cycle
IP cycle
400°C
-800
Mechanical strain %
Hm = Hel + Hin
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
• Load train alignment
• Precision extensometry
LCF
Thermal
fatigue
Load-contr.
TMF
Strain-contr.
TMF
Dynamic temperature measurement & control
Therm. – mech. load phasing
• Pre-cycling, start-up procedures
• Thermal strain compensation
Htot = Hm + Hth
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
TMF-Standard GRD2-2000-30014
Thermo-mechanical fatigue – the route to standardisation
(funded within the GROWTH Programme of the Europ. Comm.)
Objectives:
to establish a TMF testing platform in Europe
to issue a validated code-of-practice
to disseminate and exploit the results
Starting date:
Duration:
Budget:
Consortium:
1. October 2001
48 months
~ 1.800.000 Euro (~ 1.080.000 EC contribution)
10 principal contractors
9 assistant contractors, 1 external participant
~ 400 incl. 120 validation tests
No. of tests:
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Partners:
JRC Institute for Energy, Petten (NL)
MTU Aero Engines, München (D)
University of Karlsruhe (D)
BAM, Berlin (D)
NPL, Teddington (UK)
University of Cambridge (UK)
Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris (F)
CNR-IENI, Milan (I)
CESI, Milan (I)
KIMAB (ex-SIMR), Stockholm (S)
Forschungszentrum Jülich (D)
Tech. University of Darmstadt (D)
University of Siegen (D)
CEAT, Toulouse (F)
Imperial College, London (UK)
Silesian University of Technology, Katowice (PL)
ONERA, Chatillon (F)
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (D)
SNECMA Villaroche (F)
ALSTOM Baden (CH)
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Three distinct phases:
1. Preparatory phase:
• Inventory of TMF testing procedures in Europe (WP1)
• Material procurement, characterization & distribution (WP2)
2.
•
•
•
R&D phase:
Pre-normative testing (WP3, Task 1 – 5)
Validation testing (WP4)
Statistical sensitivity analysis (WP5)
3. Exploitation and dissemination phase:
• Drafting of Code-of-Practice (WP6)
• Dissemination of CoP, workshop (WP7)
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
WP 3: Pre-normative research on TMF procedures & tolerances
Task 1:
Pre-cycling, start, interrupt, restart procedures
Task 2:
Dynamic T measurement and control
Task 3:
Thermal strain comp., deviations from nominal T
Task 4:
T gradient effects in 3 sample geometries
(solid cylindrical, hollow cyl., solid rectangular)
Task 5:
Deviations from nominal phase angle
Reference testing as preparation for WP4
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
WP 4: Validation testing
Period:
June 2004 – March 2005
Partner(s):
“inner circle” – centrally machined samples of
three common geometries (solid cyl., hollow cyl., flat):
MTU, JRC-IE, IWK, BAM, ENSMP,
UCAM, CNR, CESI, SIMR
“outer circle” – individually machined samples of various
geometries:
NPL, FZJ, TUD, Uni Siegen, CEAT, ICON, SUT,
ONERA, FZK, SNECMA, ALSTOM
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Validation TMF cycles:
0.4
RH = - 1, M = 180°
Tmin = 400°C, Tmax = 850°C
tcycle = 180s Ù dT/dt = r 5K/s
'Hm = 0.8% Ù Nf # 1000
2.) symmetrical triangular IP
mech. strain [%]
1.) symmetrical triangular OOP
0.2
0.0
-0.2
-0.4
400
RH = - 1, M = 0°
Tmin = 400°C, Tmax = 850°C
500
600
700
800
temperature [°C]
tcycle = 180s Ù dT/dt = r 5K/s
'Hm = 0.7% Ù Nf # 1000
=> 120 validation tests
900
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
WP 5: Sensitivity analysis of validation test results
Cycles to 10% Load Drop
O-P TMF Test Results : Nimonic 90 - All Data
0.8% Mechanical Strain range, 400°C - 850°C, 5°C/s
2000
Solid Bars
Hollow
1500
Flat
1000
500
0
0
5
10
Laboratory
15
20
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Web-enabled Mat-DB - TMF-Standard data sets
To get access to TMF Standard data and documentation please register on the JRC Petten ODIN
website (https://odin.jrc.nl), register for Mat-DB and DoMa and mention under comments that you
request access to the TMF-Standard project results.
Selection of TMF-Standard data within the web-enabled Mat-DB data retrieval part
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Selection of TMF Standard data within the web-enabled Mat-DB data retrieval part
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Graphical output of TMF Standard data within the web-enabled Mat-DB data retrieval part
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue:
The Route to Standardisation
Peter Hähner
JRC Institute for Energy, European Commission, Petten, The Netherlands
Ernst Affeldt, MTU Aero Engines, München (D)
Henrik Andersson, KIMAB, Stockholm (S)
Tilmann Beck, University of Karlsruhe (D)
Valerio Bicego, CESI, Milan (I)
Hellmuth Klingelhöffer, BAM, Berlin (D)
Alain Köster, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris (F)
Malcolm Loveday, NPL, Teddington (UK)
Massimo Marchionni, CNR-IENI, Milan (I)
Catherine Rae, University of Cambridge (UK)
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Acknowledgements:
Johan Bressers, JRC Institute for Energy, Petten (NL)
Rainer Marquardt & Roland Schmier, MTU Aero Engines, München (D)
Anja Archie & Birgit Skrotzki, BAM, Berlin (D)
Frits de Haan, Stefan Ripplinger, Helmut Over, JRC-IE, Petten (NL)
Thomas Brendel, MTU Aero Engines, München (D)
Joachim Hammer, FH Regensburg (D)
Hans-Joachim Kühn, BAM, Berlin (D)
Luc Remy, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris (F)
Bryan Roebuck, NPL, Teddington (UK)
Giovanni Onofrio, CNR-IENI, Milan (I)
Gemma Drew, Andrew Rayment & Siavash Pahlavanyali, University of Cambridge (UK)
Claudia Rinaldi, CESI, Milan (I)
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Acknowledgements cont’d:
Roland Herzog, Forschungszentrum Jülich (D)
Andreas Schmidt & Alfred Scholz, TU Darmstadt (D)
Valerij Bauer & Hans-Jürgen Christ, University of Siegen (D)
Christian Marfaing, CEAT, Toulouse (F)
Peter Skelton, Imperial College, London (UK)
Jerzy Okrajni, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice (PL)
Franck Gallerneau & Didier Pacou, ONERA, Chatillon (F)
Claus Petersen, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (D)
Jean-Marc Rongvaux, SNECMA Villaroche (F)
Arnd Jung, ALSTOM Baden (CH)
Mauro Facchini, Thomas Fairley, DG-RTD, Brussels (B)
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
WP 1: Inventory of labs and test procedures in TMF testing
Detailed questionnaire: >80 questions organized in various sections:
• Generalities
• Setup used for TMF
• Calibration
• Test preparation & pre-cycling
• TMF test execution
• Data recording, evaluation & reporting
• Comments
Evaluation completed in Dec 02:
• responses from 17 partners received
• WP1 report: “Survey of strain-controlled TMF testing practices”
• excerpts used for “Recommendations for strain-controlled TMF testing”
(~25 issues on Setup, Dyn. T measurem. & control, Definitions,
Precycling, Reporting)
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
WP 2: Procurement and distribution of test material
350
Material:
Acceptance tests:
grain size, HV, chem. comp.
Aging heat treatment:
Hardness, HV30
Nimonic90
300
250
5hrs @ 850o
200
0
2
4
6
8
10
Hours at 850°C
12
14
16
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Task 1: Pre-cycling, start, interrupt, restart procedures
220000
E pseudodynamic
210000
E, MPa
200000
190000
180000
Et up
170000
Et down
Ec up
Ec down
160000
Et T cost
Ec T cost
150000
300
400
500
600
T, °C
700
800
900
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Task 2: Dynamic T measurement and control
Ribbon-type TC (T control in the centre of GL)
900
Desired T-path in
the gage section
800
dT/dt = 10°C/s
T [°C]
700
600
500
400
ribbon type TC in the gage section
Controller: spot welded TC on the
specimen shoulder
300
200
0
20
40
60
80
100 120 140 160 180 200
t [s]
Spot-welded TC (T control outside GL)
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Task 3: Thermal strain compensation, deviations from nominal T
900
750
T=420-830oC T=400-850oC T=380-870oC
Tmax nominal= 850oC
stress - MPa
650
800
temperature
stress
-200
450
400
-250
Tmin nominal= 400oC
-300
500
510
520
C:\TMF-PNR\VERSUCHE\X1-5\X1-5 SIGMA MAX MIN VS ZYKLUS-02.WTP | 1.3.2004
530
350
550
540
cycles
Maximum- / minimum- stress changes as a result of temperature errors
temperature - oC
850
700
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Temperature difference [K]
Task 4: T gradient effects in 3 different testpiece geometries
(solid cylindrical, hollow cylindrical, solid rectangular)
60
T3
40
20
T1
0
-20
-40
RTC
T5 shank centre
-60
400
850
Set temperature [°C]
400
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
Task 5: Deviations from nominal phase angle
Mechanical strain
+D
Temperature
-D
Time
T- no phase
shift
T- positive
phase shift
T- negative
phase shift
Mechanical
strain
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
“Inner circle” specimen geometries:
GROWTH Project n° GRD2-2000-30014
TMF-Standard
Final Meeting/Workshop, 20-23/09/05, Berlin
WP 6: Drafting of TMF Code-of-Practice
survey
WP1
1st draft
prel. CoP
val.CoP
WP7
WP2
Material
2002
WP3
WP4
Pre-normative R&D Validation tests
2003
2004
WP5
Dissemination,
TMF Workshop
Statist. analysis
2005

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