erasmus infrastructure planning 2013 – group 6 sustainability

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erasmus infrastructure planning 2013 – group 6 sustainability
ERASMUS INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING 2013 – GROUP 6
SUSTAINABILITY & TRANSPORTATION IN ORADEA
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Grant Agreement Reference Number: 8/31.08.2012
Acknowledgements:
We would like to take the opportunity to thank all the people who have contributed in some
way to this project in Oradea, Romania entitled “Spatial Planning and Sustainable Urban Transport
Systems” and particularly Mr Ciprian Barna, the president of the board of directors of OMA who
initiated the project.
Our thanks also go to Mr Baptiste, Mr Serrano, Mrs Brynhld Drain, Mrs Luminita Filimon, Mr
Paul Olau, Mr Frank Scholles, Mrs Kirsten Aleth, Mrs Giorgia Rambaldi, Mrs Stefania Proli, Mr Adam
Sheppard, Mr Michael Short, Mr Jasper Beekmans, Mrs Stefanie Duhr, Mr Valentin Nemes, Mr Paul
Emil Olau, Mrs Luminita Filimon who have supervised and mentored our work, for their attention,
and for all the time they awarded to us, their advice was really useful and appreciated.
We sincerely thank all the members of the Romanian staff who have organized and made
this experience interesting, useful and rewarding and all the participants for taking part in the
programme.
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Contents
Page No.
1.
Introduction
4
Policy Context
a) Local Agenda 21
b) Land-use
5
S.W.O.T. Analysis
a) Environmental/ Physical
b) Social
c) Economic
d) Policitical/ Legislative/ Institutional
7
2.
3.
4.
Criteria for Sustainable Development
10
5.
Existing Transport Network
11
6.
Proposals
12
7.
Conclusions
14
8.
References
15
9.
Appendices
16
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1.
Introduction
In this report we develop a strategy for realizing a sustainable urban transport system for the
Oradea Metropolitan Area. The O.M.A. was founded on the 9th of May 2005 and consists of 12
municipality members since 2010. The common goal of the associates is to stimulate economic
growth and prosperity throughout the city-region and to raise the overall quality of life. Our focus
is centred upon a local level and in this case that applies for the region Veterani Balcescu which is
located to the South-East of Oradea's core urban area. Furthermore, we will also analyze the three
municipalities of Toboliu, Girisu and Sintandrei.
Municipality Map of Oradea (Primaria Oradea, 2010)
Before presenting our proposals and ideas for improving quality of the transport system in these
areas, we will analyze the current policy on transport planning. Furthermore, we make a S.W.O.T.
analysis for the O.M.A. in general, the three regions and the case study itself. After that we will
talk about which criteria are, according to us, crucial for a sustainable urban transport system.
Furthermore, we will take a look at the current transport system and we will try to visualize the
current infrastructure in maps. When these stages are passed we can try to find an answer on our
central question:
 'What are the sustainable options for the Oradea Metropolitan Area to improve the urban
transport system through the development of the Veterani-Balcescu area?'
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2. Policy Context
In order to develop Oradea and its 11 neighbouring municipalities in an integrated and
sustainable way, a set of strategies and projects articulate future urban growth covering the whole
city-region. The Local Agenda 21 is broad and overarching in both scope and content; Local
Development Strategies and land-use plans are more refined and focus down within each
constituent authority. The central, shared aim between the policies is to strike a balance between
economic, social and environmental objectives taking a long-term approach with respect to future
generations. Another objective in line with this is to create and foster a polycentric territorial
system to attract, facilitate and support investment for the city-region (this can have major
impacts for the sustainable development of the O.M.A. and for wider scales such as at national and
international levels).
•
Local Agenda 21 Analysis
In Local Agenda 21 we have drawn out several objectives, both general and specific. We
counted seven general objectives:
1. A mix of land use and functions needs to be implemented;
2. With regard to residential areas, a diversity of buildings should be proposed to fit to
population’s needs;
3. Residential areas will have to contain open public space and green areas in order to be
more attractive to residents;
4. Residential areas should favour and encourage as much space for group activities as
possible to support community cohesion;
5. The development of municipal infrastructures (water, energy, transportation and,
communications for example); the implementation of safe public access for residents
and industry to these infrastructures need to be provided;
6. The protection of the environment is a key priority and;
7. Last but by no means least, pedestrian and cycling routes will have to be integrated
into residential districts.
All of these measures will have to respect land zoning policy and practice.
Local Agenda 21 also contained five specific objectives. Firstly, according to the bad condition and
inadequate material of many of the roads, there is a focus in the documentation on street
improvements and road safety. Secondly, another aim deals with the ring road construction to
encapsulate and support the city of Oradea. Parking has to be extended to permit population
growth. The electrification of the railway represents the fourth objective and a significant step
forward towards a sustainable transport network. The last specific objective is to build the Drum
Expressway to improve interconnectivity both on local and inter-regional scales, connecting the
O.M.A. to places further afield throughout Romania and Eastern Europe.
In Local Agenda 21, we had also selected several themes detailing more specific issues in the
O.M.A.:
• Transport :
Traffic capacity at present is very limited; distances between various functions are generally
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lengthy and, road crossings tend to be far from adequate. Five national roads pass through Oradea.
Three of them have European importance. Heavy traffic along these roads forces the transit traffic
through the town, generating extensive pollution, lack of fluency, additional fuel consumption.
Thus leading to deficiencies in both time and financial resources.
• Referring to statistical data, there is one car per five inhabitants. This number gives some
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
indication of significant local traffic problems.
Proposals consist of a set of movement improvements:
Easing traffic such as through building a belt highway;
Widening of roadways;
Asphalting the roads;
Better traffic lights at the crossroads;
Creating a special route for bicycles;
Updating and expanding tram-ways.
• Agriculture :
• Oradea doesn't contain much internal, agricultural land so the peripheral rural areas
surrounding the city provide the majority of local food for the inhabitants. The problem is
that there is a lack of good quality food products and the O.M.A. should enhance the
communities’ production.
• Industry :
• A minimal degree of industry in our neighborhood means that the area is essentially centred
upon agriculture. There is great potential to cooperate with Hungary but currently the
connections are poor.
• Tourism :
• Oradea has not been sufficiently exploited, considering its relations to major national and
international links via highways, train lines and Oradea Airport (which is soon to increase its
capacity). Tourism can be increased but the advertising is lacking proficiency. Many key
assets are underused. For example, existing features such as the Baile Felix and Baile 1 Mai
neighbourhoods or the Apuseni mountains are viewed as underutilised.
• Private Sector & Trade :
It is important to develop the interrelations and partnerships with companies based in Hungary and
Western Europe. The service industry is good at the moment but the main problem in this sense is
the lack of managerial training, drawing up business plans and, financing investment projects.
•
Land-use Analysis
The three municipalities have some advantages for investment such as low taxes, greenfield land,
existing utilities and an eolian park that should provide affordable electric energy. According to
land use plans for the O.M.A. the Veterani – Balcescu neighbourhood is not recognised by the local
authorities and it is external to their land use proposals for the future. The land within the site is
undeveloped and underused and is not suitable for agricultural activities in its present state. The
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Balcescu section of the site is currently privately owned. A vision has been created by private
developers for 25 hectares of the site which includes residential and commercial space. Currently,
only one house is for sale on the market and, the remaining land is ready for construction
supported by all the necessary utilities. Much of the surrounding area consists of underused
greenfield. However there are some disjointed and dispersed commercial and industrial units
around the site and a significant amount of suburban residential developments to the North and
Oradea Airport to the East.
3.
S.W.O.T. Analysis
In this section we present three levels of S.W.O.T. analysis based upon the Oradea Metropolitan
Area, the municipalities and the case study. S.W.O.T. analysis is an established method for assisting
the formulation of spatial strategies. We have discovered an application of this at the University of
Warwick. It links S.W.O.T. analysis to resource-based planning, illustrating it as an iterative rather
than a linear process and, embedding it within the overall planning process (Dyson, 2004). The
S.W.O.T. studies we developed can be found in the appendix section. The details are divided into
chapters: environmental/ physical, social, economic and political/ legislative/ institutional.
Chapter 1: S.W.O.T. Environmental/ Physical
• O.M.A.:
Strong environmental/ physical points consist of an inter-regional road link to Hungary via the
Transylvanian highway which is currently incomplete. This will be supported by the planned
rehabilitation of and, expansion to the ring road. Together, these will help cross-border and interterritorial integration. However the O.M.A. also experiences weaknesses which need to addressed
and resolved. For instance, an inefficient use of human and financial resources have been noted.
The O.M.A. like many other cities suffers from urban sprawl and single use land zoning practices.
The O.M.A. is restrained by congestion and a lack of route-way options for traffic. Finally, cycling
infrastructure is sparse and limited lacking safe and inviting facilities. The analysis of the
shortcomings draws out some opportunities for enhancement. For example, building upon the
public transport network and strengthening the local road network are opportunities to raise
accessibility on different scales, reducing car-dependency and traffic congestion. A key
opportunity is to modernise Oradea Airport; the Primaria Oradea (2010) state that the “County
Council have finalised technical documentation for the airport track extension and air-station
modernisation”. Taking better advantage of the relative location is also an opportunity to improve
access to Hungary and other Romanian counties via the Autostrada A1, the proposed Drum Express
and the ring road. Further explanation about these opportunities will be discussed in section 6.
• Regional/ Municipal:
The intimate location to the railway line which passes through the central areas of Oradea is a key
strength of the area but the line is not currently used. The airport is limited; offering infrequent
domestic and private flights to Bucharest (Primaria Oradea, 2010). The three municipalities
displayed weaknesses such as inadequate road patterns and conditions and cycling infrastructure
that appears to be virtually inexistent. Similarly to O.M.A. level, the lack of routes results in
undesirable levels of traffic. Further worsening the situation is the low spatial and population
density. Prevailing opportunities arise for the region. Both the railway line and the airport present
great opportunities to support growth in conjuction with road improvements. This will allow for
the re-direction of HGV vehicles to ease pressures within the city. Logistic and distribution firms
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may favour the location near to the Airport, potential railway link and close to the proposed
improvements of the road network.
• Site:
In terms of the neighbourhood itself, the extensive amount and availability of flat, greenfield land
allows for flexibility, especially considering the minimal resident population. Another prominent
point concerning the location of the neighborhood is its relative ease of access to Hungary and
areas across Romania. A series of underlying utilities such as water, sewerage and electricity
required to support urban growth are set in place, meaning that the site is prepared for immediate
development (Cartierul Balcescu, N.D.). Weaknesses include a complete void of paved road
provision. Transport infrastructure is thoroughly insufficient in its current state. Opportunities
include improving the road infrastructure and providing a persuasive public transport system. Also,
the exploitation of green energy is an opportunity to reduce emissions as it's supported by
relatively prevalent geothermal, wind and solar resources.
Chapter 2: SWOT Social
• O.M.A.:
In a broad perspective, analysing social trends at the O.M.A. level we have drawn out some
important information relating to attracting new residents and businesses to the city-region:
The wage levels from O.M.A. are among the lowest in the country, being situated on the last places
after the North-East Development Region (NUTS II). From 2006-2009 O.M.A. has registered the
smallest rhythm of wages growth, but had a productivity growth similar to the national average
(Primaria Oradea, 2010). Therefore, it can argued that people may prefer to live and work in
alternative areas of the country where income levels are greater and the standard of life may be
better, such as in Bucharest. This is a weakness of the O.M.A and may be a threat to future
viability of the development.
• Regional/ Municipal:
In a social perspective, there weren't outstanding strengths for the region we analysed. However,
there were some weaknesses, such like the lack of a public transport system and sustainable
infrastructure. Sustainable development in the region is an opportunity to re-populate the area
and/ or, to attract investment to create an agglomeration of green industry. A threat for the region
is the changing demographic profile where an aging society and a leakage of economically active
residents can be observed. Poor road safety can be viewed as a physical weakness and also as a
threat to attract investment and re-population.
• Site:
There were no particular social strengths for the site. It's a weakness that the area is currently
dormant. There is minimal population meaning the lack of human resources undermines the
viability of business and employment growth. In a social sense, it's an opportunity to develop some
roads in the area which are safe for the inhabitants to use. A barrier to both modernising Oradea
airport and re-populating the area is the potential increase in noise and air pollution derived from
developing air transportation activities, which may lead to local opposition.
Chapter 3: S.W.O.T. Economic
• O.M.A.:
A key strength of the O.M.A. is its “strategic position” for the movement of freight throughout
Romania (Primaria Oradea, 2010). On the contrary however, Primaria Oradea (2010) have also
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noted that the economic crisis has affected the O.M.A. more severely than Romania as a whole
with a 10% fall in employees compared to a “4% of the national economy” in 2009. Having said
this, the internationalisation of the Oradea Airport will be extremely beneficial for O.M.A. in terms
of business and tourism growth (Primaria Oradea, 2010). It will be key for employment growth and
prosperity in the region. The continuing economic crisis however, is a threat to both market
demand and future growth which may delay the development process; Oradea may gain less tax
revenue leading to less autonomy and subsequent falls in public investment as a result.
• Regional/ Municipal:
Strong points for the region are the prominent agriculture industry and the assosiated employment
which this contains. Green energy industries may be attracted to the area for natural resources
and for logistical reasons. Primaria Oradea (2010) suggests that Sintandrei contains prominent
geothermal water resources and mention that areas to the South West of the city have fertile soils.
Also developing the region for distribution activities may well be a suitable option. The threats
might be labour shortage due to an aging society and increased congestion resulting from workers
commuting to the out-of-town location.
• Site:
In an economic perspective, strong points about the site are the location and the availability of
free open space translating into relatively low land values and flexibility for change respectively.
Weaknesses are shortfalls in quantity and diversity of local employment. Again, the green energy
industry represents an opportunity. This is partly due to the availability of natural resources.
Primaria Oradea (2010) promote the city's “valuable natural resources” as a key asset for economic
development. Additionally, developing the area for distribution is a prominent opportunity. Threats
would include the economic crisis which is likely to restrain investment, this is a threat affecting
all the three scales we have analysed.
Chapter 4: S.W.O.T. Political/ Legislative/ Institutional
• OMA:
From a political viewpoint, we have noticed a lack of financial and human resources in the O.M.A.;
it can be argued that the current planning system is not adequate and that much peripheral
growth is speculative. It's a fundamental opportunity to make best use of E.U. funding programs to
implement better development with respect to sustainability. Threats for the O.M.A. are the overly
centralized government and the low capacity of the local government to co-finance regional
projects.
• Regional/ Municipal:
In the region, we have also seen a lack of human and financial resources, this has to be improved.
An opportunity to improve this are the use of EU-funds to create a sustainable region. More about
how we would like to do this can be found further in this report.
• Site:
For the site, a major drawback is that Oradea's local government does not fully recognize the
study area of Veterani-Balcescu and that it is excluded from their land-use plans. Thus a lack of
clarity and direction about how to develop the area prevails. Unsuitable planning submissions may
be accepted by local government with little attention given to the necessary infrastructural
requirements which.
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4.
Criteria for Sustainable Development
In this paragraph we have developed a set of criteria to which development must satisfy in order
to achieve sustainability. Again, we have divided these according to the categories which
structured our S.W.O.T. analysis to permit compatibility and correlation.
• Environmental/ Physical
Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can co-exist in
harmony. To achieve sustainable development means fulfilling social, economic and other
requirements for both present and future generations (EPA, N.D.). When we apply this to urban
transport, a sustainable urban transport system should make sure energy consumption is reduced;
this could be measured by a comparing the level of energy consumption between various transport
modes and, whether energy derives from renewable or finite resources. Options to reduce energy
consumption include fostering a shift towards the use of renewable resources. A primary objective
is to cut car-dependency and encourage a modal shift to the use of public transport. The key is to
combine suitable physical measures such like inter-modal hubs and higher densities by public
transport routes with attitudinal measures such as raising awareness and environmental
stewardship. Furthermore, the urban transit system should be balanced with sufficient green
infrastructure to counteract noise and air pollution and to foster biodiversity. This rule can be
measured by green space per square kilometer. Besides that, it's fundamental that land uses are
mixed to help reduce the need to travel. Mono-functional development tends to raise transport
needs and create dormant areas at certain times, especially in developments which are found on
the outskirts of an urban area.
• Social
An essential standard for successful sustainability is thorough public support for the sustainable
transport system. Public policy is, of course targeted at the public at large, therefore the system
has to be socially inclusive. Everybody should be able to access public transport regardless of age,
gender, income level or, physical ability for example. Social adaptation is also an important
criterion; public transport should be affordable and tailored to suit variable needs, such as for the
elderly or for students. Finally, the transport system should be of a high quality. To measure this,
desirable systems can be used as a benchmark or alternatively, customer satisfaction can be
assessed via surveys with regard to factors such as the frequency, reliability and comfortability of
the service for instance.
• Economic
The provider of public transport has to ensure their transport service is viable (cost-efficient and
profitable) and affordable for the user and, the public at large. Additionally, it's critical that
existing infrastructure is used in an optimal manner as upgrades and expansion to the network
usually depends on a multitude of actors and decison-making processes, leading to the complex
and prolonged implementation of projects. Finally it's an important criterion that there is
competition in the market to ensure affordability and, quality for the user.
• Political/ Legislative/ Institutional
In order to gain a broad public support, it's crucial that the process of reforming the
transportation system is a multi-actor process. It should not be only facilitated by the
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municipality nor only by private companies. Interactions and consultations between the
public sector, private sector and, local communities is a prerequisite for long-term success.
Furthermore, O.M.A. needs to cooperate on city-regional, national and, international scales
to help integrate wider regions in light of sustainable transport objectives.
The Existing Transport Network
5.
• Existing Infrastructure in the Municipalities of Sintandrei, Girisu and Toboliu:
The three municipalities are located in the south west of the O.M.A. Toboliu and Girisu share a
border with Hungary while Sintandrei is located next to the City of Oradea. The three
municipalities are linked with the City Oradea by the county road DJ 797. Apart from the DJ 797,
the road network of the municipalities is largely in a poor state.
•
Oradea Airport
It situates adjacent to the site to the South East and has aspiartions to upgrade from offering
private, domestic and infrequent flights to international travel. This of course, is extremely
beneficial to support growth in the study area although the extension plans are likely to take a
considerable amount of time to come to fruition.
-Interrelations Between Municipalities and Hungary:
As previously mentioned, Toboliu and Girisu are located within close proximity to Hungary.
However there's no direct road or train connection as yet. Having said this, a road link from Toboliu
to Hungary is currently under construction, which means that there won't be a connection for the
foreseeable future. Connections to the neighbouring municipalities of Bors and Nojorid are
underdeveloped.
• Existing Public Transport
Given the sparse and low density population and limited transport infrastructure in the local area,
existing public transport is very limited at present.
• Bus:
The inhabitants of the three municipalities in question have two bus route options:
1.
2.
Oradea – Sintandrei – Girisiu – Toboliu
Oradea – Sintandrei – Girisiu
The first bus route travels four times a day and, the second one six times. This means the
inhabitants of Toboliu have four connections to Oradea everyday, whereas the inhabitants of the
other municipalities have the choice of ten. However, the existing public transport services seem
unattractive to inhabitants; It is used just by a small number of passengers as these figures
suggest.
•
Rail:
A railway line (CF 322 Oradea – Cheresig) connects the three municipalities with Oradea, but it's
currently disused for both freight and passenger travel. The railway line (CF 310 from Oradea –
Arad) connecting Sintandrei with Oradea is currently active however, although there is no station
to support Sintandrei or the proposed site for development; this represents a key asset for
assimilating the area.
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6.
Proposals
Proposals; A Master-plan for Veterani-Balcescu
In this section a visualisation and explanation of plans and proposals for the study area is
presented based upon previous findings. It comprises maps to clarify the land use and movement
strategies. It will also contain details for the integration of the urban extension with Toboliu,
Girisu, Santandrei and the rest of the urban area via a range of transport modes. Low density and
single use urban sprawl is considered undesirable and unsustainable. There hasn't been
overwhelming demand for residential development in the Veterani-Balcescu district, thus proposals
are primarily centred upon different land functions and facilities. Due to it's strategic geographical
location and the various opportunities to exploit underused transport features it will be a viable
procedure to develop a logistical and distribution hub in this area. This will also help to overcome
many mobility issues which are present in the O.M.A. such as high carbon modal dependencies,
congestion and a lack of accessibility for various outlying suburbs to the O.M.A.
Figure 1: Current Transport Situation in the O.M.A.
Source: Personally Developed Map
As you can see in figure 1, the Veterani-Balcescu is located very close to Oradea airport. Our
development will take advantage of the planned modernisation and expansion of Oradea Airport.
Adjacent to Oradea Airport, the Veterani-Balcescu distribution hub is highlighted in the red zone in
figure 1. A railway track passes directly through this area which we aim to activate, take
advantage of and, further extend to support a series of distribution centres for freight to support
business growth around the site. Veterani-Balcescu will contain an inter-modal hub based around a
train terminal which can serve the whole O.M.A. as distribution resource. Cargo flights from across
the globe can be delivered from the airport into the rail and road network. When transit traffic by
truck is directed to the distribution hub Veterani-Balcescu, it can be transferred by rail over there
and after that it can be directed to Oradea, Debrecen and Cluj Napoca. This means that HGVs will
not have to drive through the city centre and this will ease congestion and pollution and, raise
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safety and sustainability.
These proposals will redistribute the movement of goods between the airport, the distribution hub
and bypass roads to avoid the centre of Oradea. Existing infrastructure can also be used such as
the N79 (E671) and the construction of a new link between the airport and Veterani-Balcescu can
be strenghtened. However, green space would have to be sacrificed.
Besides realizing connections between airport and distribution hub, we also want to connect the
municipalities which are around the distribution hub. For example, there were some ideas to
realize a road connection between Bors and Nojorid (?) However, we want to change this plan. The
new road should be laid to the east in order to serve the distribution hub. The 'Drum Expressway'
penetrates Sintandrei and approaches the Veterani-Balcescu distribution hub and then proceeds to
the south towards Nojorid.
7.
Conclusions
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In this report we had a closer look to the O.M.A. and the municipalities of Toboliu, Girisu and
Sintandrei as well as the Veterani-Balcescu neighborhood. Based on our analysis we developed
proposals to strengthen these regions.
The most important strength of the O.M.A is the "strategic position" near the Hungarian border for
the freight-transport throughout Romania and in a European context. With a distribution hub
between Oradea and Hungary served by high quality infrastructure, the area can become a
sustainable economic generator for the area: Therefore we developed a proposal to make this
possible: the Oradea Metropolitan Area will strengthen it's economic position regarding freight
transport. Due to largely shifting freight transport from road to railway it will gain a benefit for
the environment as well.
Also the people of Oradea and the surrounding municipalities will gain benefits: due to our
proposals new connections between the municipalities as well as cross-border connection will
create new opportunities for the inhabitants. Besides that, a decrease of transit traffic through
Oradea will make the existing roads more accessible.
The proposed distribution and logistics hub in Veterani-Balcescu will create new local employment
opportunities. Because of the integration with the public transport network of Oradea, employees
won’t have to use a car. Further the area can exploit a handful of commercial opportunities which
will be accessible via public transport.
Therefore we can conclude that the main option for the O.M.A. to improve the urban transport
system in a sustainable way will be to create a distributional hub in the Veterani-Balcescu region.
The hub will serve public transportation needs and will make sure transit traffic transfers on a
more sustainable way.
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8.
References
• Bond, W.R.; Smith, J.T.; Brown, K.L. & George, M. (1996) Management of small firms.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
Călin, G. (2002) Technical expertise provided by the National Centre for Sustainable
Development Romania and the International Institute for Sustainable DevelopmentCanada, Local Agenda 21 – Local Plan For Sustainable Development Of Oradea Municipality
Oradea.
Cartierul Balsescu (N.D.) Cartierul Balsescu. Available from: http://cartierulbalcescu.ro/
[Accessed 13 March 2013].
Community Planning (2013) Brief summaries of methods for helping people get involved in
planning. Available from: http://www.communityplanning.net/methods/methods_a-z.php
Dyson, R.G. (2004) Strategic Development and SWOT Analysis at the University of Warwick.
European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 152, Issue 3, 1 February 2004, Pages
631-640
Planuri de mobilitate urbana pentru poli de crestere , Cezar Grozav, MDRAP, Bucuresti,
January 23th 2013
Primaria Oradea (2010) Site-ul municipiului Oradea. Available from:
http://www.oradea.ro/
Sustainable urban mobility plans – Actors’ Involvment, Tom Rye, Teacher of Transport and
Mobility management policies, Lund University , Sweden, February 27th 2013
Trans-border Cooperation Program Romania – Hungaria 2007- 2013 (2013) Oradea
Metropolitan Area Strategies http://www.infra-strat.eu/ro/RezultateleProiectului/Studii-de-Prefezabilitate-ZMO.html
United States Environmental Protection Agency (2013) What is sustainability? Available
from: http://www.epa.gov/sustainability/basicinfo.htm
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9. Appendices
Appendix 1: S.W.O.T. Analysis on O.M.A. level
Environment
al/
physical
Strengths
Weaknesse Opportuniti Threats
Signed
contract
for interregional
road link
s
Inefficient use
of human
and
financial
resources
Nearby to
Transylvani
an highway
(currently
incomplete
)
Rehabilitation
and
extension
of ring road
(currently
incomplete
)
Urban sprawl lack of
mixed land
use
High levels of
traffic and
lack of
alternative
routes
Insufficient
cycle
routes +
infrastruct
ure
Social
Strengthen
local road
infrastruct
ure
Modernizing
Oradea
Airport
Good access to
Hungary
and other
Romanian
cities via
ring road,
expresswa
y+
Transylvani
an
highway
Improve road
safety
Modernizing
Oradea
airport
(generatin
g
employme
nt)
Economic
Political/
legislative/
es
Improve public
transport
network
Inefficient use
of human
+ financial
E.U. funding +
support
High levels of
emigratio
n and
depopulat
ion
Economic
crisis reduced
tax
revenue +
subseque
nt
investmen
t
Overcentralize
d
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Grant Agreement Reference Number: 8/31.08.2012
institution
al
resources
Inadequate
planning
system
governme
nt
Low capacity
of local
governme
nt to cofinance
developm
ent
projects
Figure 1: SWOT analysis on OMA level. Source: Own creation
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Grant Agreement Reference Number: 8/31.08.2012
Appendix 2: S.W.O.T. analysis on regional/municipal level
Environme
ntal/
physical
Strengths
Weaknesses
Opportunities
Nearby to
railway
track
Low spatial +
population
density
Create public
transport
network
Nearby to
Oradea
Airport
Inadequate road
infrastructure
Strengthen local
road
infrastructure
High levels of
traffic - lack of
alternative
route-ways
Insufficient cycle
routes/
infrastructure
Social
Economic
Political/
legislative/
institutiona
l
Lack of public
services +
facilities
Prominent
agricultur
e
industry
+
employm
ent
No public transport
system
Lack of local
employment
Inefficient use of
human +
financial
resources
Threats
Good access to
Hungary +
other
Romanian
counties via
highways
Inter-modal hub
(pedestrian/
cycle/ bus/
train)
Sustainable
development
can lead to repopulation
Green energy
industry
(solar, wind +
geothermal)
Ensure
road
safety
Ageing
society
Labour
proble
ms
due to
ageing
society
E.U. funding +
support
Figure 2: S.W.O.T. analysis on regional/municipal level. Source: Own creation.
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Grant Agreement Reference Number: 8/31.08.2012
Appendix 3: S.W.O.T. analysis on site/case study level
Strengt Weaknesses
Environmenta
l/ physical
hs
Large
open
area
of
gree
nfield
land
Opportunities
Threats
Minimal population
Create public
transport
network
Insufficient cycle
routes +
infrastructure
Strengthening
local road
infrastructure
Potentially
low
market
deman
d (?)
No paved roads on site
Green energy
industry
(solar, wind +
geothermal)
Inter-modal hub
(Pedestrian/cy
cle/
bus/ train)
Social
Minimal population
Economic
Shortfalls in quantity +
diversity of local
employment
Political/
legislative/
institutional
Inefficient use of
human + financial
resources
Good road access
to Hungary +
other
Romanian
areas
Ensuring road
safety
Green energy
industry
(solar, wind +
geothermal)
E.U. funding +
support
Social mix
Economic
crisis –
invest
ment
unlikel
y
Inadequat
e
planni
ng
propos
als
Figure 3: S.W.O.T. analysis on site/case study level. Source: Own creation
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Grant Agreement Reference Number: 8/31.08.2012
Appendix 4: Presentation of the three communities of our
study area
Sintandreifactsheet
Land use
2801 ha (3, 7% of OMA surface)
75 % of agricultural lands
53 ha by means of communication 453 ha by buildings and yard
Localisation
8 km to Oradea
73 ha by wetlands
18 km to Oradea International Airport
at Hungarian border
Population
4300 inhabitants in july 2010 (1,7% of the population of OMA)
0-14 years : 15.1%
14-64 years : 74,1%
65 and over : 10,9%
154,6 inhabitants/km² ( average in OMA : 334 inhbts/km²)
Settlement
1654 homes
Main characteristics
Food production represents an important economy.
Well equipped water and gas network.
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Grant Agreement Reference Number: 8/31.08.2012
The closest municipality to the city downtown.
Proximity to the commercial centers and to the Oradea Airport.
There are a lot of private health care centers and a renowned private medical emergency center
Transport features
No public transport.
Technical condition of road infrastructure is good, ensuring accessibility for the community.
Girisu Factsheet
Land use
4 262 ha (6% of OMA surface)
80 ha means of communication
77.8 % of agricultural lands
184 ha. buildings and yard
138 ha. wetlands
Localisation
12 km to Oradea; 15,5km to Oradea International Airport; 3 km to Hungarian border
Population
3596 inhabitants in july 2010 ( 1,43 % of the population of OMA)
0-14 years : 17 %
14-64 years : 70%
65 and over : 13%
78,8 inhabitants/km² ( average in OMA : 334 inhbts/km²)
Settlement
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Grant Agreement Reference Number: 8/31.08.2012
1121 homes divided into two residential areas; Tărian and Girişu de Criş
Main characteristics
A high agricultural potential of the area but a low density of companies in the locality.
Transport features
80% of the communal roads are in a bad and very bad state
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Grant Agreement Reference Number: 8/31.08.2012
Toboliufactsheet
Land use
4 233ha (5,7% of OMA surface)
12 ha means of communication
Localisation
20 km to Oradea
94 % of agricultural lands
125 ha buildings and yards
18 km to Oradea International Airport
87 ha wetlands
at Hungarian border
Population
2 283 inhabitants in July 2010 (0.9% of the population of OMA)
0-14 years : 14,5 %
14-64 years : 70,2%
65 and over : 15,4%
53,9 inhabitants/km² ( average in OMA : 334 inhabitants/km²)
Settlement
784 homes divided into two residential areas; Tobolin and Cheresig
Main characteristics
A high agricultural potential of the area but a weak economic diversity
Transport features
No public transport
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Grant Agreement Reference Number: 8/31.08.2012
The road infrastructure is good
Appendix 5: Presentation of the region Veterani – Balcescu
VeteraniBalcescu sheet
Our neighbourhood is composed by Veterani and Balescu, and its surface is 225 ha. 25000 m² may be
developed by a private real estate company. Veterani localized on the left side of the railway and
we got no information about this area. We just know it is owned by private.
Characteristics of Balcescu:
The size of the plots is around 500m² ( in the real estate area)
It is closed to seven malls
It is located at 7 minutes from the center of Oradea by car
It is served by railway
Advantages for Balcescu neighbourhood :
Every plot it is connected with electric system
Sewer and a water system are installed
There is some main neighbourhood roads paved with flat little rocks
The entire area ready to be built has 25000 m²
The land use plan has no limitation (e.g. height limitation). It shows that the inner streets of the
neighbourhood are projected to be wide ( so a bus line can be developed )
Property values will increase over time ( good thing for investment)
All urban services can be accessible by a very short amount of time
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Grant Agreement Reference Number: 8/31.08.2012
Balcescu neighbourhood land use plan
Source : Arhinvest Concept S.R.L.
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